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Dynamics of MEMS

T. Bechtold

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**Contact Data & Adminidstrative
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Dr. T. Bechtold

Email: tamara.bechtold@imtek.uni-freiburg.de Tel: 0716 203-97784 Open-office heurs: Wednesday 16h-18h Time Schedule: Lectures Tuesdays 14h-16h, Exercises Wednesdays 10h-12h Literature: We will use the book by J. Williams, „Fundamentals of Applied Dynamics“ (available in the library). There is another book (for interested readers): Ostasevicius, Vytautas, Dauksevicius, Rolanas, „Microsystems Dynamics“ There will be two mandatory intermediate tests and the final (written) Exam

Dynamics of MEMS Chapter 1

05.13 Dynamics of electromechanical systems (I) 18.05.07.13 Linear lumped-parameter systems (I) 09. 10h-12h) by teaching assistent.13: Kinematics (I) 30. of particles (II) 11.06.06. 22. 14h-16h) by T.13 Variational formulation for sys. of particles (II) 28.06.13 Linear lumped-parameter systems (II) Intermediate tests (dates to be announced).06.06. Mr.13 electromechanical systems 19.13 electromechanical systems 03.05. Exam preparation 01.07.07. Mueed Azhar 17.04. of particles (I) 04.13 Kinematics 08. Exam preparation Excersises (Wedn.05 : hollidays .04.06. 21.07.04.05.13 Momentum formulation 29.05.05.13 Dynamics of electromechanical systems (II) 02. modeling & eq.13 Variational formulation 05.13 Variational formulation for sys.05. of particles (I) 14.13: Introduction 23.13: Kinematics (II) 07.13: Design.13 Linear lumped-parameter systems (I) 10.13: Momentum formulation for sys.13 Variational formulation 12.13: Momentum formulation for sys.Schedule SS 2012 (Subject to Changes) Lectures (Tues.04. of motion 24.04. Bechtold 16.13 Linear lumped-parameter systems (II) Intermediate tests (date to be announced).13 Momentum formulation 15.05.

html .de/tp/r4/artikel/19/19747/1.heise. T. Bechtold 4 Dynamics of MEMS Chapter 1 © http://www.Chapter 1: History of Dynamics or What Lord Vishnu has to do with MEMS? Dr.

subsequently followed by Mesopotamia (we speak abut period around 3000 B.The Beginings 5 Dynamics is the most important intellectual discipline in the history of humankind. Vedas and Hinduism may be assumed to exist at least since 5000 BC.indeed much more of western civilization-lay in Ancient Egypt. ethics. “Fundamentals of Applied Dynamics” . any views on motion and dynamics were only a part of a much larger philosphical system that included religion. Jr. and cosmology… From James H. C.). Dynamics is a scientific dicipline that encompases studies of systems undergoing changes of state. The origins of dynamics lay in the earliest quizzical musings of humankind-as people gazed skyward and wandered who or what caused the sun to rise. it is dynamics that has enabled humanity to find our niche in the cosmos. Rig-Veda describes a solar-eclipse in 3928 B. C. traverse the sky. and set the rivers to flow and the rain to fall? The historical roots of dynamics/mathematics/astronomy. Williams.! For the ancients.

Mesopotamian. ©Williams p. Geocentric scheme of the universe that emerged during the Hellenie period. and speculation.Evolution Through the Hellenic Era 6 The Hellenistic age (323-30 B.) is generally considered to be the period between the death of Alexander the Great and the conquest of Egypt by Rome. was based upon Ancient Egyptian. 33 fig.C.1.7 . philosophy. and Greek astronomy.

Renaissance Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1543) • Heliocentric system for planets • It required the heretical conclusion that we and our Earth were not at the center of the universe! • Copernicus withheld the publication of his ideas until he was near death in 1543 although he had completed his work about 1530. Greiner 7 Dynamics of MEMS Chapter 1 The with of the thumb held at arm‘s length subtends about 1° or 60 minules of arc. Dr. Dr. Today. Korvink. A. . Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) • First accurate measurements • He improved the precision from 1% or 10 minutes of arc to 2 minutes of arc Prof. radio astronomers are capable of angular precision of the order of 10-3 seconds of arc. Jan G.

1. Jan G. Greiner Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) • Laws of planetary motion I Law of Ellipses (1609) The orbit of each planet is an ellipse with the sun at one of its foci. 40 fig. Dr. ©Williams p. Although the motion of the planets was geometrically described. an understanding of underlying dynamic principles governing their behavior had to wait another 50 years for Isaac Newton.Modelling based on Measurements 8 Prof. A. Korvink. II Law of Equal Areas (1609) A directed line from the sun to a planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times III Harmonic Law (1619) The square of the period of orbit of each planet is proportional to the cube of its semimajor axis.13 Dynamics of MEMS Chapter 1 . Dr.

1. terrestrial and celestial. ©Williams p. intensity at 3r is 1/9 intensity at r since area at 3r is 9 times area at r. all the motion in the universe.Unification: Newtonian Laws 9 Isaac Newton (1643-1727) • The Principia. had been unified! llustration suggesting why intensity of many field variables is portional to 1/r² Intensity at 2r is 1/4 intensity at r since area at 2r is 4 times area at r. Book I Three laws that govern the motion of all objects in the universe… Law of universal Gravitation: Falling apples and planetary motion are due to the same phenomenon Thus.47 fig.16 .

Newton's laws are considered directly in order to derive the equations of motion for a system. In vectorial dynamics. which we shall informally call the "direct approach. the natural philosopher Leibniz. advocated an alternative approach to derive the equations of motion for a system." as we shall informally call it. is often denoted as variational dynamics. Vectorial dynamics takes as its primary parameters force and momentum. the discipline of dynamics has evolved along two primary lines. the "momentum" of Newton is replaced by a function simmilar to "kinetic energy" and the "forces" of Newton are replaced by the "work done by the forces." 10 . • Newton's contemporary. • One line." is often denoted as vectorial dynamics.Variational Principles in Dynamics Since the latter half of the seventeenth century. In variational dynamics of mechanical systems. The "indirect approach.

Maupertuis claimed that the principle of least action was the first scientific proof of the wisdom and therefore of the existence of God! The Newton 's first law.Action 11 Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis (1698-1785) expressed the hypothesis that in all dynamic processes there is a certain quantity. called the action. which states that an unforced object in motion follows a straight line. provided an example of the Creator's economy. . which is minimized. action = energy * time= momentum * displacement The idea was based on the cosmic and theological idea that a perfect nature would create only a perfect universe that would not tolerate waste. the shortest path.

both principles (by Lagrange and Hamilton) are equivalent to Newton's laws. For mechanical systems. Hamilton derived what is known as Hamilton's principle.Mathematics & Variational Principles Leonhard Euler (1707. By transforming Lagrange's form of d'Alembert's principle via an integration with respect to time. He strongly advocated the superiority of variational principles because of their power to characterize the position of a mechanical system by any set of geometrical variables that is suited to the character of the problem. Joseph-Louis Lagrange (1736-1813) created a new and very powerful tool for deriving the equations of motion. the so-called generalized coordinates… William Rowan Hamilton (1805-1865) extended the formulation of Lagrange by giving the first exact formulation of the principle of least action. Jean Le Rond d'Alembert (1717. the mathematics of variational dynamics.1783) effectively reduced the problem of dynamics to a problem in statics by the process of adding. 12 .1783) clarified the principle of least action and laid the groundwork for the calculus of variations. a new force--the force of inertia. to the given externally applied forces.

50 fig. between the point A at time t1 and the point B at time t2 . the action associated with the actual motion will be less than the action for any other motion imaginable! This is clearly an alternative articulation of Newton's laws.18 . If the action A is computed for all the different motions. ©Williams p. we define the action A as follows: where the kinetic coenergy function is similar to kinetic energy and the potential energy function is similar to potential energy.1.Principle of Least Action 13 In modern terminology. actual and imagined.

“Fundamentals of Applied Dynamics” . And by the time they had strutted across the historical stage. Although the ancients had committed us to death and destruction. the immense emptiness of interstellar space. the Earth. immutable. Newton. The cosmology of the Hellenes refined these tenets in which the crystal spheres of the heavens were serene. and share in his eternal bliss. and our own physical insignificance in the cosmos. now some of our greatest scientists have taken even that centrality from us. was nevertheless at the center of the universe. they had at least placed us at the center of it all. But that place. Kepler. from James H. Jr. only here on this lowly Earth were there disorder. Williams. in an ill-defined place in the universe. and decay. that they themselves lived in an immutable and eternal world. in one among hundreds of billions of galaxies. death. Then along came Copernicus. and that the faithful follower of Osiris could overcome human frailty and even death. and our modern astronomers and cosmologists. In this scheme. orbiting an ordinary star. all humanity lived on a speck of dust.Our Niche in the Cosmos 14 Ancient Egyptians believed that the gods had created the universe out of chaos. It is via dynamics that we have discovered the vastness of the universe. and eternal.

C. let's say in Cambridge. So. where is heaven? from James H. approximately the distance of New York City from Cambridge.C.000 kilometers.An Amazing Scale 15 If the Sun were the size of a dime (. D. would be 700 meters away. This knowledge has of necessity moved heaven and hell. Now. “Fundamentals of Applied Dynamics” . the Earth would be about two full walking steps away from the Sun. On that scale the nearest star. would be in another city. Massachusetts. performing a further reduction of the Milky Way to the size of a typical residential bedroom (thus. and the billions of galaxies in the known universe would be visible every 700 meters in all directions to a distance of Cambridge-to-Washington. Aristotle's soul had left his body traveling at the speed of light on its journey toward heaven. Williams. Consider that if at the time of his death in 322 B. Jr.1 centimeter). Our galaxy. would have a diameter that would extend more than twenty times the Earth-Moon distance of about 384. Andromeda. the nearest galaxy. and our solar system would fit within the boundaries of a football field. today it would not have escaped even our own galaxy. (800 kilometers). and affected all similar philosophical concepts.. Alpha Centauri. the Milky Way. making the diameter of the Sun an order of magnitude smaller than the hydrogen atom) .

Vishnu reluctantly agrees. First. Vishnu creates a dark cloud. They want a world where they can be the centre of attention. he takes the colossal form of Maha Vishnu. lying there in meditation. however. As he slowly exhales. They want to be happy in this way. insist on leaving his service. stars and moons. But this whole material creation is only a fragment of the total creation. this material world has been approximated as only one quarter of the creation. Finding this impossible. In this material segment there are millions and billions of universes with trillions of planets and suns. they exist for less time than one his breath! 16 from “Creation: a story from Ancient India”. countless universes pour out of his body. like streams of massive bubbles. Despite the joy of the spiritual world. Some souls. as if soundly asleep. from time to time some residents want to leave. retold by Rasamandala Das . however. For Maha Vishnu. in one comer of the spiritual sky. Then. and can be served and worshipped just like me. But now I shall create the material world to fulfill their selfish desires”. the material universes re-enter his gigantic body. they will eventually return to their happy home. “Even I. thinking.So Where is Haven? According to Vedas. powerful as I am. They last for trillions of years. The Vedas say that as Vishnu breathes in. The Lord begs them to stay. cannot interfere with their free choice.

The Fact is 17 We are insignificantly small and spiritual. It is for that reason that dynamics is the most important intellectual subject in the history of humankind. our niche in the cosmos. So we turn to the dynamics of MEMS… . and perhaps therefore precious. It is through dynamics that we have discovered. It is the intellectual discipline called dynamics that has enabled us to consider quantitatively the cosmological questions. at least physically.

Less than 10 years after the invention of the integrated circuit. 18 .History of MEMS In 1958. C. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics in 2000. In its most conventional sense MEMS refers to a class of batch-fabricated devices that utilize both mechanical and electrical components to simulate macroscopic devices on a microscopic scale. a first integrated circuit. H. Kilby from company Texas Instruments created the first electronic circuit in which all the components were fabricated in a 2 in single piece of semiconductor material 17 size. MEMS industry began as a successor of integrated circuit industry using often the same manufacturing and testing equipment adapted to its own needs. Over the past 30 years. there has been tremendous investment in the microelectronics infrastructure worldwide. J. Nathanson used 14 microelectronic fabrication techniques to make the world’s first micromechanical device. a gold resonating MOS gate structure.

Review of MEMS 19 .

could no longer afford them. if Pentium processors were 100 times as expensive. the potential of sending a fully integrated spacecraft weighting a few kilograms instead of the thousands of kilos offers significant monetary benefits. does not come from their size. and analogously MEMS. Dauksevicius. but from their cost. where they are presently used. all of the sudden. the overall impact of integrated circuits on the world would not be dramatically affected. NASA hopes to eventually phase out the large satellites that it employs to reach the farthest points in the solar system. Vytautas. With every kilogram sent to Mars costing upwards of one million dollars. g. many applications. E.The True Impact of MEMS The most obvious characteristic of MEMS is that they are small.. from “Microsystems Dynamics ”. with its other performance and price characteristics the same. Ostasevicius. Hence. If the Pentium chip itself occupied a volume of 100 times its present size. On the other hand. the real impact of integrated circuits. Rolanas 20 . But the most important characteristic of MEMS is that they can be made cheaply.

usually they exhibit high functional complexity due to sophisticated physical operating principles. beams. electrical. membranes. There are still many dynamics-related issues that need to be tackled during design of microsystems.Importance of Dynamics 21 Designing a commercially viable MEMS device with required dynamic performance is possible only by means of thorough understanding and accurate prediction of its dynamic characteristics via modeling and simulation that are considered to be one of the most demanding tasks during MEMS development. Therefore operation of microsystems involves complicated interaction of forces of different physical nature. . thermal.g. In some cases MEMS components are relatively simple from structural point of view (e. Majority of MEMS components are transducers by their nature and include many physical energy domains such as mechanical. plates) however. etc. fluidic.

Examples of Dynamics in MEMS 22 Analog Devices Accelerometer Measurement Principle Circuit Device measures its acceleration force. . For airbags. transport monitoring.

Examples of Dynamics in MEMS 23 Device harmonic response Ring Microgyroscope Device measures its rotational rate. Circuit . For automobiles.

8 displacement / a.0 mass truss 0. 0. wireless sensor networks The micropower module .Examples of Dynamics in MEMS 1st resonance 24 1.u.4 0.0 displacement 950 1000 1050 frequency / Hz 1100 Harmonic response Device generates electrical signal while banding (piezo-electrical effect).2 2nd resonance Multi-freqency energy harvester 0.6 0.

Our Goal 25 Derive equations of motion of general electro-mechanical system Solve the equations of motion for realistic parameters Learn powerful analytical methods as part of the design cycle for microsystems. .