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Material Specification

Chapter II Codes and Standards


Learning Objectives Reading this chapter would enable you to understand:

Codes, standards and recommended practices for the design of piping systems. Organisational standards for design. Various dimensional standards. Selection of Design Codes.

Contents 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 Introduction Code Standards Recommended Practices Design Aids American Standards Selection of Design Code Factors to be Considered 2.8.1 ASTM Standards 2.8.2 Unified Numbering System (UNS) 2.8.3 AWS Standards 2.8.4 AWWA Standards 2.8.5 MSS-SP Standards 2.8.6 British Standards 2.8.7 Indian Standards Summing Up

2.1 Introduction For the scientific design of piping systems, selection of the proper materials of construction, detail material specifications and knowledge of codes and standards is essential. Standardisation can and does reduce cost, inconvenience, and confusion that result from unnecessary and undesirable differences in systems, components and procedures. Industry standards are published by professional societies, committees and trade organisations. A code is basically a standard that has been generally accepted by the government. The objective of each code is to ensure public and industrial safety in a particular activity or equipment. Codes are often developed by the same organisations that develop standards. These organisations also develop good engineering practices and publish them as Recommended Practices. The intent of these documents is misunderstood since the definition of Codes, Standards and Recommended Practices are not always correctly understood. The following definitions are generally accepted. 2.2 Code A group of general rules or systematic procedures for the design, fabrication, installation and inspection are prepared in such a manner that these can be adopted by legal jurisdiction and made into laws.
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Codes and Standards

2.3 Standards Documents prepared by a professional group or committee who are believed to be good at proper engineering practices and which contain the mandatory requirements. Users are responsible for the correct application of the same. Compliance with a standard does not itself confer immunity from legal obligation. 2.4 Recommended Practices Documents prepared by professional groups or committees indicating good engineering practices which are optional. Companies also develop guides in order to have consistency in the documentation. These cover various engineering methods which are considered good practices, without specific recommendations or requirements. 2.5 Design Aids Codes and Standards as well as being regulations, might be considered as design aids since they provide guidance from experts. Each country has its own Codes and Standards. On a global basis, the American National standards are undoubtedly the most widely used and compliance with these requirements are accepted the world over. In India, other than the American standards, British standards and Indian standards are also used for the design and selection of equipment and piping systems. The major organisations for standards are tabulated below:
S.No. Country Organisation Abbreviation

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

United States Canada France Europe Germany Japan India Worldwide

American National Standards Institute Standard Council of Canada Association Francaise Committee of European Normalisation Deutsches Institute FurNormnung Japanese Industrial Standards Committee Bureau of Indian Standards International Organisation for Standards

ANSI SCC AFNOR BSI CEN DIN JISC BIS *ISO

United Kingdom British StandardsInstitute

Table 2.1 Major organisations for standards *ISO is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies from some 100 countries, one from each country.

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Material Specification 2.6 American Standards Not all American standards are issued directly by the American National Standards Institute. The material standards are covered under ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) and dimensional standards under ANSI (American National Standards Institute). Most of these standards are adapted by ASME(American Society of Mechanical Engineers). The American Standards referred to by Piping Engineers are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. The American Petroleum Institute (API). The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI). The American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The American Welding Society (AWS). The American Water Works Association (AWWA). The Manufacturers Standardisation Society of Valves and Fitting Industry Standard Practices (MSS-SP). The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME).

API Standards The API standards generally referred to by Piping Engineers are: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) API 5L API 6D API 6F API 593 API 598 API 600 API 6OI API 602 API 603 Specification for Line Pipe Pipeline Valves, End closures, Connectors and Swivels Recommended Practice for Fire Test for Valves Ductile Iron Plug Valves Flanged Ends Valve Inspection and Test Steel Gate Valves Metallic Gasket for Refinery Piping Compact Design Carbon Steel Gate Corrosion Resistant Gate Valves Ductile Iron Gate Valves Flanged Ends Fire Test for Soft-Seated Ball Valves Butterfly Valves Standard for Welding Pipeline and Facilities.

10) API6O4 11) A.PI 607 12) API 609

13) API 11O4 AISI Standards

The American Iron and Steel Institute Standards specify the material by its chemical and physical properties. When the specific mode of manufacture of the element is not the concern, then the material can be identified by the AISI standards. Most commonly used AISI specifications are: 1) 2) 3)
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AISI 410 AISI 304 AISI 316

13%Chromium Alloy Steel 18/8 Austenitic Stainless Steel 18/8/3 Austenitic Stainless Steel

Codes and Standards

ANSI Standards The American National Standards Institutes standards used in the design of Piping Systems are as listed. In 1978, the ANSI B31 committee was reorganised as the ASME Code for Pressure Piping B31 committee. Subsequently, the code designation was changed. The ASME B31 Code for pressure piping is at present a non-mandatory code in the USA, though they are adopted as legal requirement. 1) ASME B 31.1 Power Piping 2) ASME B 31.2 Fuel Gas Piping 3) ASME B 31.3 Process Piping 4) ASME B 31.4 Pipeline Transportation System for Liquid Hydrocarbons and other Liquids 5) ASME B 31.5 Refrigeration Piping 6) ASME B 31.8 Gas Transmission and Distributor Piping Systems 7) ASME B 31.9 Building Services Piping 8) ASME B 31.11 Slurry Transportation Piping Systems 9) ASME B 31 .G Manual for Determining the Remaining Strength of Corroded Piping - A Supplement to ASME B3 1 Of the above, the most commonly used code is ASME B 31.3. Refineries and chemical plants are designed based on the same. All power plants are designed as per ASME 31 .1. 2.7 Selection of Design Code Unless an agreement is specifically made between the contracting parties to use another issue or the regulatory body having jurisdiction imposes the use of another issue, the latest edition and addenda issued 6 months prior to the original contract date will hold good for the first phase of the completion of work and initial operation. It is the responsibility of the user to select the Code Section, which most nearly applies to a proposed piping installation. 2.8 Factors to be Considered Technical limitations of the code section, jurisdictional requirements and the applicability of other codes and standards. All applicable requirements of the selected Code shall be met. For some installations, more than one code section may apply to different parts of the installation. The user is responsible for imposing requirements supplementary to those of the code if necessary to assure safe piping for the proposed installation. When no section of the Code specifically covers the proposed installation, the user has the discretion to select any section determined to be generally applicable. However, it is cautioned that supplementary requirements to the section chosen may be necessary to provide for a safe piping system for the intended application. The Code sets forth engineering requirements deemed necessary for the safe design and constr uction of pressure piping. While safety is the basic consideration, this factor alone will not necessarily govern the final specification for any piping installation.
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Material Specification The Code prohibits designs and practices known to be unsafe and contains warnings where caution but not prohibition, is warranted. The designer is cautioned that the Code is not a design handbook; it does not do away with the need for the engineer or competent engineering judgment. Other major ANSI / ASME dimensional standards referred are: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) ASME B 1.1 ASME B 1.20.1 ASME B 16.1 ASME B 16.3 ASME B 16.5 ASME B 16.9 ASME B 16.10 ASME B 16.11 ASME B 16.4 Pipe Threads General Purpose (Ex ANSI B2.1) Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings Cast Iron Threaded Fittings Unified Inch Screw Threads

Steel Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings Steel Butt Welding Fittings Face to Face and End to End Dimensions of Valves

10) ASME B 16.20 11) ASME B 16.21 12) ASME B 16.25 13) ASME B 16.28

Metallic Gaskets for Pipe Flanges - ring joint, spiral wound and jacketed flanges Non-metallic Gasket for Pipe Flanges Butt Welding Ends

Forged Steel Socket Welding and Threaded Fittings

14) ASME B 16.34 15) ASME B 16.42 16) ASME B 16.47

Short Radius Elbows and Returns

Steel Valves, Flanged and Butt Welding Ends

17) ASME B 16.49 18) ASME B 18.2 1&2

Large Diameter Steel Flanges - NPS 26-60

Ductile Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings - Class 150 and 300

Buttwelding Induction Bends for Transportation and Distribution System Square and Hexagonal Head Bolts and Nuts (in. and mm.)

19) ASME B 36.10 20) ASME B 36.19

Welded and Seamless Wrought Steel Pipes

Welded and Seamless Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipes

2.8.1 ASTM Standards ASTM standards consist of 16 sections on definitions and classifications of materials of construction and test methods. Most of the ASTM standards are adapted by ASME and are specified in ASME Section II. Section II has four parts. Part-A Ferrous materials specifications Part-B Non-ferrous metals specifications Part-C Specifications for welding materials Part-D Properties of materials. The materials are listed in the Index based on the available forms such as plates, castings, tubes, etc. and also on the numerical index. The selection of ASTM specification depends upon the type of manufacture, form of material, its mechanical strength and corrosion properties. 10/MITSDE

Codes and Standards

The specification number is given on alphabetical prefix, A for ferrous materials and B for non-ferrous materials. ASTM also specifies standard practice for numbering metals and alloys - Unified Numbering System. 2.8.2 Unified Numbering System (UNS) The UNS number itself is not a specification, since it establishes no requirements of form, condition, quality, etc. It is a unified identification of metals and alloys for which controlling limits have been established in specifications elsewhere. UNS provides means of correlating many naturally used numbering systems currently administered by societies, trade associations, individual users and producers of metals and alloys, thereby avoiding confusion caused by the use of more than one identification number for the same material and by the opposite situation of having the same number assigned to two different materials. UNS establishes 18 series of numbers for metals and alloys. Each UNS number consists of a single letter prefix followed by five digits. In most cases the alphabet is suggestive of the family of the metal identified. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. A00001 C00001 E00001 L00001 M00001 N00001 P00001 R00001 Z0000l D00001 F00001 G00001 H0000l J00001 K00001 S0000l T00001 W00001 A 99999 C 99999 E 99999 L 99999 M99999 N 99999 P 99999 R99999 Z 99999 D 99999 F 99999 G99999 H 99999 J99999 K 99999 S 99999 T 99999 W99999 Aluminum and Aluminum alloys Copper and Copper alloys Rare Earth and Rare Earth like metals and alloys Low Melting Metals and Alloys Miscellaneous Non-ferrous Metals and Alloys Nickel and Nickel Alloys Precious Metals and Alloys Reactive and Refractory Metals and Alloys Zinc and Zinc Alloys Specified Mechanical Properties of Steels Cast Iron and Cast Steels AISI and SAE Carbon and Alloy Steels AISI H Steels Cast Steels Miscellaneous Steels and Ferrous Alloys Stainless Steels Tool Steels Welding Filler Metals and Electrodes

2.8.3 AWS Standards The American Welding Society (AWS) standards provides information on welding fundamentals, weld design, welders training qualification, testing and inspection of welds and guidance on the application and use of welds. Individual electrode manufacturers have given their own brand names for the various electrodes that are sold under these names.
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Material Specification 2.8.4 AWWA Standards The American Water Works Association (AWWA) standards refer to piping elements required for low-pressure water services. These are less stringent than other standards. Valves, flanges, etc. required for large diameter water pipelines are covered under this standard and are referred rarely by CPI Piping Engineers. 1) C-500 Gate Valves for Water and Sewage System 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) C-510 C-504 C-507 C-508 C-509 Cast Iron Sluice Gates Rubber Seated Butterfly Valves Ball valves 6" 48" Swing Check Valves 2" 24" Resilient Seated Gate Valves for Water and Sewage

2.8.5 MSS-SP Standards In addition to the above standards and material codes, there are standard practices followed by manufacturers. These are published as advisory standards and are widely followed. A large number of MSS Practices have been approved by the ANSI and ANSI standards. In order to maintain a single source of authoritative information, the MSS withdraws those Standard Practices. The most common MSS-SP standards referred for piping are: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) MSS-SP-6 MSS-SP-25 MSS-SP-42 MSS-SP-43 MSS-SP-44 MSS-SP-56 MSS-SP-6 I MSS-SP-67 MSS-SP-68 MSS-SP-69 MSS-SP-70 MSS-SP-71 MSS-SP-72 MSS-SP-78 MSS-SP-80 MSS-SP-81 MSS-SP-83 MSS-SP-85 MSS-SP-88 MSS-SP-89 Standard Finishes for Contact Surface for Flanges Standard Marking System for Valves, Fittings and Flanges Class 150 Corrosion Resistant Gate, Globe and Check Valves Wrought Stainless Steel Buttweld Fittings Steel Pipeline Flanges Pipe Hanger Supports: Materials, Design and Manufacture Pressure Testing of Steel Valves Butterfly Valves High Pressure Off-seat Design Butterfly Valves Pipe Hangers and Supports: Selection and Application Cast Iron Gate Valves Cast Iron Check Valves Ball Valves Cast Iron Plug Valves Bronze Gate, Globe and Check Valves Stainless Steel Bonnetless Knife Gate Valves Pipe Unions Cast Iron Globe Valves Diaphragm Type Valves Pipe Hangers and Supports: Fabrication and Installation Practices.

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Codes and Standards

21) 22) 23) 24) 25)

MSS-SP-90 MSS-SP-92 MSS-SP-108 MSS-SP-122

Pipe Hangers and Supports: Guidelines on Terminology MSS Valve User Guide Resilient Seated Eccentric CI Plug Valves Plastic Industrial Ball Valves

MSS-SP-1 15 Excess Flow Valves for Natural Gas Service

2.8.6 British Standards In many instances, it is possible to find a British Standard, which may be substituted for the American Standard. Now the Community for European Normalisation is issuing standards replacing different standards in force in the European countries. Accordingly, a lot of BS and DIN standards are being replaced by CEN standards. There are certain British Standards referred to by Indian Manufacturers for the construction of piping elements such as valves. The most commonly referred British standards in the Piping Industry are: Table S.No. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) Code BS 10 BS 806 BS 916 BS 970 BS 1212 BS 1306 BS 1414 BS 1560 BS 1600 BS 1640 BS 1868 BS 1873 Industry BS 1965 BS 2080 BS 2598 BS 3059 BS 3063 Description Flanges Pipes and Fittings for Boilers Black Bolts, Nuts and Screws (obsolescent) Steel for Forging, Bars, Rods, Valve steel, etc. Specification for Float Operated Valves Copper and Copper Alloy Pressure Piping System Gate Valves for Petroleum Industry Steel Pipe Flanges (class designated) Dimensions of Steel Pipes Butt Welding Fittings Steel Check Valves for Petroleum Industry Steel Globe and Check Valves for Petroleum Butt Welding Pipe Fittings Face to Face / End to End dimensions of Valves (obsolescent) Glass Pipelines and Fittings Boiler and Super Heater Tubes Dimensions of Gaskets for Pipe Flanges (obsolescent)
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Material Specification 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) BS 3293 BS 3381 BS 3600 BS 3601 BS 3602 BS 3603 BS 3604 BS 3605 BS 3799 BS 3974 BS 4346 BS 4504 BS 5150 BS 5151 BS 5152 BS 5153 BS 5154 BS 5156 BS 5158 BS 5159 BS 5160 BS 5163 BS 5351 BS 5352 BS 5353 BS 5391 BS 5392 BS 5433 BS 5480 BS 6364 BS 6755 C.S. Flanges 26"-48" NB Metallic Spiral Wound Gaskets Dimensions of Welded, Seamless Pipes and Tubes C.S. Pipes and Tubes for Pressure Purposes at Room Temperature C.S. Pipes and Tubes for Pressure Purposes at High Temperature C.S. and Alloy Steel Pipes & Tubes for Pressure Purposes at Low Temperature Alloy Steel Pipes and Tubes for High Temperature S.S. Pipes and Tubes for Pressure Purposes SW/Screwed Fittings Pipe Hangers, Slides & Roller type Supports. PVC Pressure Pipe Joints and Fittings Steel, CI and Copper alloy Flanges (PN designated). CI Wedge and Double Disc Gate Valves for General Purposes CI Gate (parallel slide) Valves for General Purposes CI Globe & Check Valves for General Purposes CI Check Valves for General Purposes Copper Alloy Gate, Globe, Check valves Diaphragm1 & 2 Valves for General Purposes CI and CS Plug Valves for General Purposes CI and CS Ball valves for general purposes Flanged Steel Globe and Check Valves for General Purposes. Double Flanged Cast Iron Wedge Gate Valves for Water Works Steel Ball Valves for Petroleum Industries Steel Gate, Globe, Check Valves <2" NB Specification for Plug Valves Specification for ABS Pressure Pipes Specification for ABS Fittings Specification for Underground Stop Valves for Water Services Specification for GRP Pipes and Fittings Specification for Valves for Cryogenic Services Testing of Valves

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Codes and Standards

2.8.7 Indian Standards Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) has so far not developed an Indian standard for the design of Piping Systems. Hence, ANSI standards ASME B 31.1/31.3 are widely referred to for the design. These standards also accept materials covered in other standards. Unlike American Standards, Indian Standards cover dimensions and material specifications under the same standard. There are also no groupings done based on the series/branch of engineering as well. Some of the most commonly referred to Indian Standards by engineers are: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) IS 210 IS 226 IS - 554 IS 778 IS 1239 Part I & Part II IS 1363 IS 1364 IS 1367 IS 1536 IS 1537 IS 1538 IS 1870 IS 1879 IS 1978 Grey Iron Castings Structural Steel (superseded by IS 2062) Dimensions of Pipe Threads Specification for Copper Alloy Gate, Globe and Check Valves. Specification for Mild Steel Tubes and Fittings.

6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14)

Hexagonal Bolts, Screws and Nuts Grade C Hexagonal Bolts, Screws and Nuts Grade A & B Technical Supply Conditions for Threaded Steel Fasteners Centrifugally Cast Iron Pipes Vertically Cast Iron Pipes Cast Iron Fittings Comparison of Indian and Overseas Standards Malleable Iron pipe fittings Line Pipe

15)
16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28)

IS 1979
IS 2002 IS 2016 IS 2041 IS 2062 IS 2379 IS 2712 IS 2825 IS 3076 IS 3114 IS 3516 IS 3589 IS 4038 IS 4179

High Test Line Pipe


Steel Plates Boiler Quality Plain Washers Steel Plates for Pressure Vessels used at moderate and low temperature Steel for general structural purposes Colour code for identification of pipelines Compressed Asbestos fibre jointing Code for unfired Pressure Vessels Specification for LDPE pipes Code of practice for laying CI Pipes CI Flanges and flanged fittings for Petroleum Industry Seamless or ERW pipes (150 NB to 2540 NB) Specification for foot valves Sizes for pressure vessels and leading dimensions
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Material Specification 29) 30) 31) 32) 33) 34) 35) 36) 37) 38) 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 50) 51) 52) 53) 54) 55) 56) 57) 58) 59) 60) IS 4853 IS4864 to IS 4870 IS 4984 IS 4985 IS 5312 IS 5572 IS 5822 IS 6157 IS 6286 IS 6392 IS 6630 IS6913 IS 7181 IS 7719 IS 7806 IS 7899 IS 8008 IS 8360 IS 9890 IS 10221 IS 10592 IS 10605 IS 10611 IS 10711 IS 10805 IS 10989 IS 10990 IS 11790 IS 11791 IS 11792 IS 13049 IS 13095 Radiographic examination of butt-weld joints in pipes Shell flanges for vessels and equipment Specification for HDPE pipes for water supply Specification for PVC pipes Specification for swing check valves Classification of hazardous area for electrical installation Code of practice for laying welded steel pipes Valve inspection and test Seamless and welded pipe for sub-zero temperature Steel pipe flanges Seamless alloy steel pipes for high temperature services Stainless steel tubes for food and beverage industry Horizontal Cast Iron pipes Metallic spiral wound gaskets SS Castings Alloy steel castings for pressure services Specification for moulded HDPE fittings Specification for fabricated HDPE fittings Ball valves for general purposes Code of practice for coating and wrapping of underground MS pipelines Eye wash and safety showers Steel globe valves for Petroleum Industries Steel gate valves for Petroleum Industries Size of drawing sheets Foot valves, reflux valves for agricultural pumping system Cast/Forged steel check valves for petroleum industries Technical drawings-simplified representation of pipelines Code of practice for preparation of butt welding ends for valves, flanges and fittings Diaphragm valves for general purposes Steel ball valves for Petroleum Industries Specification for diaphragm type float operated valves Butterfly valves

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Codes and Standards

61) 62) 63)

IS 14164 IS 14333 IS 14846

Code of practice for insulation HDPE pipes for sewerage purposes Sluice valves for water works 50-1200 mm

There are certain other international standards also referred to in the piping industry. They are DIN standards of Germany and the JISC standards of Japan. DIN standards are more popular. Equivalent British and Indian standards are also available for certain piping elements. Periodic review of standards by the committee is held and these are revised to incorporate the modified features based on the results of research and feedback from the industry. Although some technological lags are unavoidable, these are kept to a minimum by these updates. Hence, it is necessary that the latest editions of the codes and standards are referred to for design and also year of publication be indicated. Summing Up In this chapter you have learnt the reasons for standardisation, codes and recommended practices; been introduced to major organisations which decide standards, factors for selection of code section, different standards referred to and the unified numbering system.

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