You are on page 1of 9

Downloaded from UvA-DARE, the institutional repository of the University of Amsterdam (UvA) http://dare.uva.


File ID Filename


SOURCE (OR PART OF THE FOLLOWING SOURCE): Type Dissertation Title Task demands and test expectations. Theory and empirical research on students' preparation for a teacher-made test Author H. Broekkamp Faculty Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences Year 2003 Pages 152 ISBN 90-9016618-1


Copyright It is not permitted to download or to forward/distribute the text or part of it without the consent of the author(s) and/or copyright holder(s), other then for strictly personal, individual use.

UvA-DARE is a service provided by the library of the University of Amsterdam (

Airasian, P. W. (1996). Classroom assessment. In E. De Corte & F. E. Weinert (Eds.), International encyclopedia of developmental and instructional psychology (pp. 809-813). Elsevier Science: Oxford. Alexander, P. A., & Jetton. T. L. (1996). The role of importance and interest in processing of text. Educational Psychology Review. 8, 89-121. Alexander, P. A.. & Jetton. T. L. (2000). Learning from text: A multidimensional and developmental perspective. In R. Barr (Ed.), Handbook of reading research (Vol. 3, pp. 285-310). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Alexander, P. A., Jetton, T. L. & Kulikowich. J. M. (1995). Interrelationship of knowledge, interest, and recall: Assessing a model of domain learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 87. 559-575. Alexander. P. A.. Jetton, T. L Kulikowich, J. M.. & Woehler. C. A. (1994). Contrasting instructional and structural importance: The seductive effect of teacher questions. Journal of Reading Behavior, 26. 1947. Alvermann, D. E., & Moore. D. W. (1991). Secondary school reading. In R. Barr, M. L. Kamil, & P. Mosenthal, (Eds.) Handbook of reading research. (Vol. 2, pp. 951-983). New York: Longman. Anderman. L. H., & Anderman. E. M. (2000). Considering contexts in educational psychology: Introduction to the special issue. Educational Psychologist, 35, 67-68. Anderson. R. C. (1982). Allocation of attention during reading. In A. Flammer & W. Kintsch (Eds.). Discourse processing (pp. 292-305). New York: North Holland Publishing Company. Anderson, R. C , & Biddle. W. B. (1975). On asking people questions about what they are reading. Psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 9, pp. 89-132). New York: Academic Press. Anderson. T. H, & Armbruster. B. B. (1984). Studying. In P. D. Pearson (Ed.), Handbook of Reading Research (pp. 657-679). New York: Longman. Aulls, M. W. (1998). Contributions of classroom discourse to what content students learn during curriculum enactment. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 56-69. Ausubel. D. P. (1963). Educational psychology: A cognitive view. New York: Rinehart & Winston. Ball, D. W., Doss, A. R., & Dewalt, M. W. (1986). Level of teacher objectives and their classroom tests: Match or mismatch? Journal of Social Studies Research, 10, 27-31. Balzer, W. K., Doherty, M. E., & O'Connor. R. (1989). Effects of cognitive feedback on performance. Psychological Bulletin, 106. 410-433. Barr. R. (1987). Classroom interaction and curricular content. In D. Bloome (Ed.). Literacy and Schooling (pp.15-168). Norwood. NJ: Ablex. Bean, T. W. (1985). Classroom questioning strategies: Directions for applied research. In A.C. Graesser & J. B. Black (Eds.), The psychology of questions (pp. 335-358). Hillsdale. NJ: Erlbaum. Bean, T W. (2000). Reading in the content areas: Social constructivist dimensions. In R. Barr (Ed.). Handbook of reading research (Vol. 3.. pp. 629-644). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Bloom, B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives, Handbook I, Cognitive domain. New York: McKay. Bol. L.. & Strage. A. (1996). The contradiction between teachers' instructional goals and their assessment practices in high school biology courses. Science Education, 80, 145-164. Bol. L.. Stephenson, P. L.. Numery. J. A., & O'Conell, A. A. (1998). Influence of experience, grade level, and subject area on teachers' assessment practices. Journal of Educational Research, 91, 323-330. Bolhuis. S., & Voeten, M. J. M. (2001). Toward self-directed learning in secondary schools: What do teachers do? Teacher and Teacher Education, 17, 837-855. Braet, A., Moret, L., & Schoonen. R. & Sjoer. E. (1993). Zo haal je een hoog cijfer voor je examenopstel: Adviezen van en aan leerlingen. De perceptie van de doelstellingen van het opstelonderwijs in de bovenbouw van havo/vwo. [This is how you you get a high grade for your examination paper: Suggestions for and by students. The perception of attainment targets in the upper grades of Dutch writing education.] Tijdschrift voor Taalbeheersing, 15, 173-192. Broekkamp. H., & Van den Bergh. H. (1996). Attention strategies in revising a foreign language text. In G. Rijlaardam, H. Van den Bergh. M. Couzijn (Eds.). Theories, models and writing research (pp. 170 181). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

Broekkamp, H.. Schellings, G. L. M & Van Hout-Wolters, B. H. A. M. (1996. September). Influences of task demands on selecting relevant information in instructional texts: A process oriented study. Poster presented at the European Conference of Educational Research. Sevilla. Spain. Broekkamp. H.. Van den Bergh. H.. Van Hout-Wolters. B. H. A. M . & Rijlaarsdam. G. (2002). Will that be on the test? Perceived task demands and test performance in a classroom context. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 17, 75-92. Broekkamp, H.. Van Hout-Wolters, B. H. A. M.. Van den Bergh. H.. & Rijlaarsdam, G. (submitted). Attuning to the upcoming test: A comparison between students' test expectations, teachers' intended processing demands and the actual test questions. Broekkamp, H., Van Hout-Wolters. B. H. A. M.. Rijlaarsdam, G.. & Van den Berg, H. (2002). Importance in instructional text: Teachers' and students' perceptions of task demands. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 260-271. Broekkamp. H.. Van den Bergh. H.. Van Hout-Wolters. B. H. A. M.. & Rijlaarsdam. G. (submitted). Teachers' task demands, students' test expectations and actual test content. Brookhart. S. M. (1997). A theoretical framework for the role of classroom assessment in motivating student effort and achievement. Applied Measurement in Education, 10, 161-180. Brookhart, S. M. (1999). The art and science of classroom assessment: The missing part of pedagogy. Washington. DC: ASHE-ERIC Higher education reports. Brown, A. L., Bransford, J. D., Ferrara, R. A., & Campione, J. C. (1983). Learning, remembering and understanding. In P. H. Mussen (Ed.). Handbook of child psychology (Vol. 3, pp. 77-166). New York: Wiley. Brown, A. L., & Smiley, S. S. (1977). Rating the importance of structural units of prose passages: A problem of metacognitive development. Child Development, 48, 1-8. Bryk, S., & Raudenbush. S. W. (1992). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis method. Sage Publications: Newbury Park. Butler. D. L. (1998a). Metacognition and learning disabilities. In B. Y. L. Wong (Ed.). Learning about learning disabilities (2nd ed.). San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Butler. D. L. (1998b). The Strategic Content Learning approach to promoting self-regulated learning: A report of' three studies. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 4, 682-697. Butler. D. L. (1999. April). Identifying and remediating students' inefficient approaches to tasks. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association. Montreal. Butler. D. L.. & Winne, P. H. (1995). Feedback and self-regulated learning - A theoretical synthesis. Review of Educational Research, 65, 245-281. Calderhead. J. (1996). Teachers' beliefs and knowledge. In D. C. Berliner & R. C. Calfec (Eds.). Handbook of Educational psychology (pp. 622-670). MacMillan: New York. Canady. R. L.. & Hotchkiss. P. R. (1989). It's a good score! Just a bad grade. Phi Delta Kappan, 71, 68-71. Carrier. C. A.. & Fautsch-Partridge. T. (1981). Levels of questions: A framework for the exploration of processing activities. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 6, 365-382. Christopoulos. J. P.. Rohwer. W. D., & Thomas, J. W. (1987). Grade level differences in students' study activities as a function of course characteristics. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 12, 303-323. Clark, C. M.. & Peterson. P. C. (1986). Teachers' thought processes. In M. C.Wittrock (Ed.). Handbook of research on teaching (3rd ed.. pp.255-296). New York: MacMillan. Cohen. J. C. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. (2nd ed.). Hillsdale. NJ: Erlbaum. Crooks. T. J. (1988). The impact of classroom evaluation practices on students. Review of Educational Research, 58, 438-481. Cuban. L. (1992). Curriculum stability and change. In P. W. Jackson (Ed.). Handbook of research on curriculum (pp.212-247). New York: MacMillan. De Corte, E. (1996). Instructional psychology: Overview. In E. De Corte & F. E. Weinert (Eds.). International encyclopedia of developmental and instructional psychology (pp. 3343). Elsevier Science: Oxford. De Rooij. P. (2001). Verleden, heden en toekomst. Advies van de Commissie Historische en Maatschappelijke Vorming aan de staatssecretaris van Onderwijs, Cultuur en Wetenschappen. Enschede: SLO. [Past. Present. Future. Advice of the Commission on Historical and Societal Pedagogy to the minister of Education, Culture and Science.] Dochy. F. J. R. C . & Moerkerke. G. (1997). Assessment as a major influence on learning and instruction. International Journal of Educational Research, 5, 415-431.



Dolmans. D. H. J. M . Gijselaers. W. H.. & Schmidt, H. G. (1993). Course content coverage as a measure of instructional quality. Evaluation & The Health Professions, 16, 448-471. Doyle. W. (1983). Academic work. Review of Educational Research, 53, 159-199. Doyle. W. (1992). Curriculum and pedagogy. In P. W. Jackson (Ed.), Handbook of research on curriculum ' (pp. 486-515). New York: MacMfflan. Doyle, W. (1997). Heard any really good stories lately? A critique of the critics of narrative in educational research. Teaching and Teacher Education, 13, 93-99. Dreher, M. J., & Guthrie, J. T. (1990). Cognitive processes in textbook chapter search tasks. Reading Research Quarterly, 25, 323-339. Duckworth, K., Fielding. G & Shaughnessy, J. (1986). The relationship of high school teachers' class testing practices to students' feelings of efficacy and efforts to study. Eugene. OR: Center for Educational Policy and Management, Oregon University. Eley, M. G. (1992). Differential adoption of study approaches within individual students. Higher Education, 23, 231-254. Elshout-Mohr, M., & Van Hout-Wolters, B. H. A. M. & Broekkamp, H. (1999). Mapping situations in classroom and research: Eight types of instructional-learning episodes. Learning and Instruction, 9, 57-75. Entwistle, N. J. (1989). Approaches to studying and course perceptions: The case of the disappearing relationship. Studies in Higher Education, 14, 155-156. Entwistle, N. J. (1987). A model of the teaching and learning process. In J. T. E. Richardson, M. W. Eysenk, & D. Warren Piper (Eds.), Student learning: Research in education and cognitive psychology (pp. 13-28). London: Open University Press. Entwistle, N. J., & Entwistle. A. (1991). Contrasting forms of understanding for degree examinations: The student experience and its implications. Higher Education, 22, 205-227. Entwistle, N. J., & Kozeki, B. (1985). Relationships between school motivation, approaches to studying, and attainment, among British and Hungarian adolescents. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 55, 124-137. Entwistle, N. J.. & Ramsden. P. (1983). Understanding student learning. Nichols Publishing Company: New York. Entwistle, N., & Tait. H. (1990). Approaches to learning, evaluations of teaching and preferences for contrasting academic environments. Higher Education 19, 169-194. Erickson, F., & Shultz. J. (1992). Students' experience of the curriculum. In P. W. Jackson (Ed.), Handbook of research on curriculum (pp. 465^85). New York: MacMillan. Ericsson, K. A., & Simon, H. A. (1984). Protocol analysis: Verbal reports as data. Cambridge: The MIT Press. Feldt. R. C. (1990). Test expectancy and performance on factual and higher-level questions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 15, 212-223. Flavell, J. H. (1987). Speculations about the nature and development of metacognition. In F. E. Weinert & R. E. Kluwe (Eds.), Metacognition, motivation, and understanding (pp. 21-64). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Fleming, K., Ross, M., Tollefson. N.. & Green, S. B. (1998). Teachers' choices of test-item formats for classes with diverse achievement levels. Journal of Educational Research, 91, 222-228. Fleming, M. & Chambers, B. (1983). Teacher-made tests: Windows on the classroom. In W. E. Hathaway (Ed.), New directions for testing and measurement: Vol. 19. Testing in the schools (pp. 29-38). SanFransisco: Jossey-Bass. Fredricksen, N. (1984). The real test bias: Influences of testing on teaching and learning. American Psychologist, 39, 193-202. Gamer, R. (1990). When children and adults do not use learning strategies: Toward a theory of settings. Review of Educational Research, 60, 517-529. Gamer. R., Gillingham. M. G. & White. C. S. (1989). Effects of "seductive details" on macroprocessing and microprocessing in adults and children. Cognition and Instruction, 6, 41-57. Gehrke, N. J.. Knapp. M. S.. & Sirotnik. K. A. (1992). In search of the school curriculum. Review of Research in Education, 18, 51-110. Goldman, S. R. (1997). Learning from text: Reflections on the past and suggestions for the future. Discourse Processes, 23, 357-398. Goldstein, H. (1995). Multilevel statistical models (2nd ed.). London: Edward Arnold. Green, J. L.. & Weade. R. (1987). In search of meaning: A sociolinguistic perspective on lesson construction and reading. In D. Bloome (Ed.), Literacy and Schooling (pp. 3-34). Norwood. NJ: Ablex.

Greene, S. (1994). The problems of learning to think like a historian -Writing history in the culture of the classroom. Educational Psychologist, 29, 89-96. Grossman, P. L., & Stodolsky. S. S. (1994). Considerations of content and the circumstances of secondary school teaching. Review of Research in Education, 20, 179-222. Guthrie, J. T & Cox. K. E. (2001). Classroom conditions for motivation and engagement in reading. Educational Psychology Review, 13, 283-302. Hacker, D. J.. Bol. L.. Horgan, D. D., & Rakow, E. A. (2000). Test prediction and performance in a classroom context. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92, 160-170. Hadwin, A. R, Winne, P. H., Stockley, D. B.. Nesbit, J. C , & Woszczyna, C. (2001). Context moderates students' self-reports about how they study. Journal of Eductational Psychology, 93, 477^187. Hakstian. R. (1971). The effects of type of examination anticipated on test preparation and performance. Journal of Educational Research, 64, 319-324. Hamaker. C. (1986). The effects of adjunct questions on prose learning. Review of Educational Research, 56, 212-242. Harp, S. H.. & Mayer, R. E. (1998). How seductive details do their damage: A theory of cognitive interest in science learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 3, 414^134. Hayes, J. R., Flower, L.. Schriver, L., Stratman, J., & Carey, L. (1985). Cognitive processes in revision. (Technical report). ERIC document, ED 267 396. Hidi, S. E. (1995). A reexamination of the role of attention in learning from text. Educational Psychology Review, 7, 323-350. Hodgson, V. (1997). Lectures and the experience of relevance. In F. Marton, D. Hounsell, & N. Entwistle (Eds.), The experience of learning. Implications for teaching and studying in higher education (2nd ed., pp. 159-171). Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press. Holt, D., Scott, A., & Ewings. P. (1980). Chi-squared tests with survey data. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society ISeries A), 143,303-320. Jenkins, J. J. (1979). Four points to remember: A tetrahedral model of memory experiments. In L. S. Cermak & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), Levels ofprocessing in human memory (pp. 429-446). Hillsdale. NJ: Erlbaum. Jetton, T. L., & Alexander. P. A. (1997). Instructional importance: What teachers value and what students learn. Reading Research Quarterly, 32, 290-309. Kish, L. H. (1967). Survey sampling. New York: Willey & Sons. Knott, G. (1987). Literacy instruction in secondary school classroom contexts. In D. Bloome (Ed.), Literacy and Schooling (pp. 354-371). Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Lawless, C. J., & Richardson, J. T. E. (2002). Approaches to studying and perceptions of academic quality in distance education. Higher Education, 44, 257-282. Lemos, M. S. (1996). Students' and teachers' goals in the classroom. Learning and Instruction, 6, 151172. Lizzio. A.. Wilson, K., & Simons, R. (2002). University students' perceptions of the learning environment and academic outcomes: Implications for theory and practice. Studies in Higher Education. 27. 27-52. Lonka, K. & Lindblom-Ylanne, S. (1996). Epistemologies. conceptions of learning, and study practices in medicine and psychology. Higher Education, 31, 5-24. Lorch, R. R, Jr., Lorch, E. P.. & Klusewitz, M. A. (1993). College students' conditional knowledge about reading. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85, 239-252. Lundeberg. M. A.. & Fox, P. W. (1991). Do laboratory findings on test expectancy generalize to classroom outcomes? Review of Educational Research, 61, 94-106. Luyten L., Lowyck, J.. & Tuerlinckx, F. (2001). Task perception as a mediating variable: A contribution to the validation of instructional knowledge. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 71, 203223. Maki, R. H. (1998). Test predictions over text material. In D. J. Hacker, J. Dunlosky, & A. C. Graesser (Eds.). Metacognition in educational theory and practice (pp. 117-144). Mahwah. NJ: Erlbaum. Marker, G & Mehrlinger, H. (1992). Social Studies. In P. W. Jackson (Ed.). Handbook of research on curriculum (pp. 830-851). New York: MacMillan. Marton. F.. & Salj. R. (1976). On qualitative differences in learning II: Outcome as a function of the learner's conception of the task. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 46, 115-127. Mayer. R. E. (1987). Instructional variables that influence cognitive processing during reading. In B. K. Britton & S. M. Glynn (Eds.). Executive control processes in reading (pp. 201-216). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.



McConkie. G. W. (1977). Learning from text. In L. Shulman (Ed.). Review of research in education (Vol. 5, pp. 3-48). Itasca. IL: Peacock. Meyer, G. (1934). An experimental study of the old and new types of examinations: 1. The effect of the examinations set on memory. Journal of Educational Psychology, 25. 64-661. Meyer. J. H. F.. & Parsons. P. (1989). Approaches to studying and course perceptions using the Lancaster Inventory: A comparative study. Studies in Higher Education, 14, 137-153. Miller, C. M. L., & Parlett, M. (1974). Up to the mark: A study of the examination game. London: Society for Research into Higher Education. Morris. C. D Bransford, J. D.. & Franks. J. J. (1977). Levels of processing versus transfer appropriate processing. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour. 16.519-533. Multi Level Models Project (1999). ML-wiN, Beta version 1.10.0005. [Computer software]. Available from Natriello. G.. & Dornhusch. S. M. (1984). Teacher evaluative standards and student effort. New York: Longman. Newmann. F. M.. Marks. H. M., & Gamoran. A. (1996). Authentic pedagogy and student performance. American Journal of Education, 104, 280-312. Nist. S. L.. & Simpson. M. L. (2000). College studying. In R. Barr (Ed.). Handbook of reading research (Vol. 3. pp. 645-666). Hillsdale. NJ: Erlbaum. Nist, S. L., Simpson. M.L.. & Olejnik. S. (1991). The relation between self-selected study processes and test performance. American Educational Research Journal, 28. 849-874. Nolen, S. B.. & Haladyna. T. (1990). Personal and enviromental influences on students' beliefs about effective study strategies. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 15. 116-130. Nuy, H. J. P. (1991). Interactions of study orientation and students' appreciation of structure in their educational environment. Higher Education, 22, 267-274. Pressley. M.. Yokoi. L.. Van Meter. P., Van Etten. S., & Freebern, G. (1997). Some of the reasons why preparing for exams is so hard: What can be done to make it easier? Educational Psychology Review, 9, 1-38. Ramsden. P. (1988). Context and strategy - Situational influences on learning. R. R. Schmeck (Ed.). Learning strategies and learning styles. Perspectives on individual learning differences (pp. 159184). New York: Plenum Press. Ramsden. P. (1992). Learning to teach in higher education. London: Routledge. Reynolds. R. E. (1992). Selective attention and prose learning: Theoretical and empirical research. Educational Psychology Review, 4, 345-391. Rijlaarsdam, G. & Janssen. T. (1996). How do we evaluate the literature curriculum? About a social frame of reference. In E. Marum (Ed.). Children and books in the modern world: Contemporary perspectives on literacy (pp. 75-98). Washington. DC: The Falmer Press. Rijlaarsdam. G & Couzijn. M. (1996). Leren leren bij Nederlands in de basisvorming: De dubbele bodem van het onderwijs. [Learning to learn in Dutch mother tongue education in grades 7-9], Levende Talen, 510, 301-306. Rohwer. W. D. (1984). An invitation to a developmental psychology of studying. In F. J. Morrison. C. A. Lord. & D. P. Keating (Eds.). Advances in applied developmental psychology (Vol. 1. pp. 1-57). Academic Press: New York. Ruiz-Primo. M. A., & Shavelson. R. J. (1996). Rhetoric and reality in science performance assessment: An update. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 33, 1045-1063. Ryan, A. M. (2000). Peer groups as a context for the socialization of adolescents' motivation, engagement, and achievement in school. Educational Psychologist, 35, 101 1 i i. Ryan, A. M.. Gheen, M. H.. & Midgley, C. (1998). Why do some students avoid asking for help? An examination of the interplay among students" academic efficacy, teachers' social-emotional role, and the classroom goal structure. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 528-535. Schellings. G. L. M. (1995). An educational approach to selecting main points in texts: Motives, methods, tasks and individual differences. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Amsterdam. Schellings, G. L. M., & Van Hout-Wolters. B. H. A. M. (1994). Selection of main points in texts by students: Three methods compared. In F. P. C. M. De Jong & B. H. A. M. Van Hout-Wolters (Eds.), Processoriented instruction and learning from text (pp. 113-125). Amsterdam: Free University Press. Schellings. G. L. M.. & Van Hout-Wolters. B. H. A. M. (1995). Main points in an instructional text, as identified by students and by their teachers. Reading Research Quarterly, 30, 742-757.

Schellings, G. L. M , Van Hout-Wolters, B. H. A. M., & Vermunt, J. D. (1996a). Individual differences in adapting to three different tasks of selecting information from texts. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 21, 423^146. Schellings, G. L. M., Van Hout-Wolters. B. H. A. M . & Vermunt, J. D. (1996b). Selection of main points in instructional texts: Influences of task demands. Journal of Literacy Research, 28, 355-378. Schommer. M. (1994). An emerging concepualization of epistomological beliefs and their role in learning. In R. Garner & P. A. Alexander (Eds.). Beliefs about text and about instruction with text (pp. 2540). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Schraw, G. (1998). Processing and recall differences among seductive details. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 3-12. Schraw, G.. Flowerday. T.. & Lehman. S. (2001). Increasing situational interest in the classroom. Educational Psychology Review, 13, 211-224. Schraw. G.. Wade, S. E.. & Kardash. C. A. M. (1993). Interactive effects of text-based and task-based importance on learning from text. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85, 652-661. Shavelson, R. J., & Stem. P. (1981). Research on teacher's pedagogical thoughts, judgements, decisions, and behavior. Review of Educational Research, 51, 455-498. Shuell, T. J. (1988). The role of the student in learning from instruction. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 13, 276-295. Shuell, T. J. (1996). Teaching and learning in a classroom context. In D. C. Berliner & R. C. Calfee, (Eds.). Handbook of Educational psychology (pp. 726-766). MacMillan: New York. Simpson. M. L., & Nist. S. L. (1997). Perspectives on learning history: A case study. Journal of Literacy Research, 29, 363-395. Simpson. M. L... & Nist. S. L. (2000). An update on strategic learning: It's more than textbook reading strategies. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 43, 528-541. Smagorinsky, P. (1998). Thinking and speech and protocol analysis. Mind. Culture and Activity, 5, 157186. Smith. E. R.. & Feathers. K. M. (1983a). Teacher and student perceptions of content reading. Journal of Reading, 26, 348-354. Smith. E. R.. & Feathers, K. M. (1983b). The role of reading in context classrooms: Assumption vs. reality. Journal of Reading, 27, 262-267. Snyder. B. R. (1971). 77JI? hidden curriculum. Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press. Stark, J. S. (2000). Planning introductory college courses: Content, context and form. Instructional Science, 28, 413-438. Stiggins. R. J.. & Conklin. N. F.. & Bridgeford. N. J. (1986). Classroom assessment: A key to effective education. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 5, 5-17. Stodolsky. S. S. (1989). Is leaching really by the book? In P. W. Jackson & S. Haroutunian-Gordon (Eds.), From Socrates to software: The teacher as text and the text as teacher. Eighty-Ninth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. Part 1 (pp. 159-184). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Stodolsky. S. S., & Grossman, P. L. (1995). The impact of subject matter on curricular activity: An analysis of five academic subjects. American Educational Research Journal. 32, 227-249. Strage, A., Tyler, A. B., Rohwer. W. D.. & Thomas, J. W. (1987). An analytic framework for assessing distinctive course features within and across grade levels. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 12, 280-302. Thomas. J. W. (1988). Proficiency at academic studying. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 13, 265-275. Thomas. J. W.. & Rohwer. W. D. (1986). Academic studying: The role of study strategies. Educational Psychologist, 21, 19-41. Thomas. J. W.. & Rohwer. W. D. (1987). Grade-level and course-specific differences in academic studying: Summary. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 12. 381-385. Thomas. J. W.. & Rohwer, W. D. (1993a). Proficient autonomous learning: Problems and prospects. In M Rabinovitz (Ed.). Cognitive science foundations of instruction (pp. 1-32). Hillsdale. NJ: Erlbaum. Thomas, J. W.. & Rohwer. W. D. (1993b). Studying across the life span. In S. R. Yussen & M. C. Smith (Eds.). Reading across the life span (pp. 241-272). Springer Verlag: New York. Thomas, J. W., Bol, L., & Warkentin. R. W. (1991). Antecedents of college students" study deficiencies: The relationship between course features and students' study activities. Higher Education, 22, 275296.



Thomas, J. W Bol, L.. Warkentin, R. W.. Wilson, M , Strage, A & Rohwer. W. D. (1993). Interrelationships among students study activities, self-concept of academic ability, and achievement as a function of characteristics of high-school biology courses. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 7, 499532. Thomas. P. R.. & Bain. J. D. (1984). Contextual dependence of learning approaches: The effects of assessments. Human Learning, 3, 327-340. Tittle. C. K. (1994). Toward an educational psychology of assessment for teaching and learning - Theories, contexts, and validation arguments. Educational Psychologist, 29, 149-162. Trigwell. K.. & Prosser, M. (1991). Improving the quality of student learning: The influence of learning context and student approaches to learning on learning outcomes. Higher Education, 22. 251-266. Trigwell. K., Prosser, M , & Waterhouse, F. (1999). Relations between teachers' approaches to teaching and students' approaches to learning. Higher Education, 37, 57-70. Van Dijk. T. A. (1979). Relevance assignment in discourse comprehension. Discourse Processes, 2, 113126. Van Etten, S., Freebern. G., & Pressley, M. (1997). College students" beliefs about exam preparation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 22, 192-112. Van Hout-Wolters, B. H. A. M. (1986). Markeren van kerngedeelten in studieteksten: Een proces-product benadering |Cueing of key phrases in instructional texts: A process-product approach]. Doctoral dissertation. Lisse (the Netherlands): Swets & Zeitlinger. Van Hout-Wolters. B. H. A. M. (1990a). Selecting and cueing key phrases in instructional texts. In H. Mandl. E. De Corte, S. N. Bennet, & H. F. Friedrich (Eds.), Learning and Instruction - European research in an international context (Volume 2.2.. pp. 181-198). Oxford: Pergamon Press. Van Hout-Wolters, B. H. A. M. (1990b. November). Teachers' selection of key phrases in instructional texts. Paper presented at the 40th Annual Meeting of the National Reading Conference, Miami, USA. Van Hout-Wolters. B. H. A. M. (1992). Cognitieve strategien als onderwijsdoel [Cognitive strategies as instructional objective]. Inaugural address spoken at the University of Amsterdam. Groningen: WoltersNoordhof. Van Hout-Wolters, B. H. A. M. (1997). Teachers' selection of key phrases in instructional texts. The School Field, 6, 51-62. Van Hout-Wolters. B. H. A. M. (2000). Assessing active self-directed learning. In R. Simons. J. van der Linden. & T. Duffy (Eds.), New Learning (pp. 19-33). Dordrecht: Kluwer. Van Hout-Wolters, B. H. A. M., Simons, R.. & Volet, S. (2000). Active learning: Self-directed learning and independent work. In R. Simons. J. van der Linden. & T. Duffy (Eds.), New Learning (pp. 73-89). Dordrecht: Kluwer. Van Meter, P., Yokoi, L., & Pressley. M. (1994). College students' theory of note-taking derived from their perceptions of note-taking. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86, 323-338. VanderStoep. S. W Pintrich, P. R.. & Fagerlin. A. (1996). Disciplinary differences in self-regulated learning in college students. Contemporary Educational Psychology 21, 345-362. Veenman, M. V. J.. & Beishuizen. J. J. (submitted). Intellectual and metacognitive skills of novices while studying texts under conditions of text difficulty and time constraint. Veenman, M. V. J. (submitted). The assessment of metacognitive skills: What can be learned from multimethod designs'.' Venezky, R. L. (1992). Textbooks in school and society. In P. W. Jackson (Ed.), Handbook of research on curriculum (pp. 436-461). New York: MacMillan. Vermetten. Y. (1999). Consistency and variability of student learning in higher education. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Tilburg University, the Netherlands. Vermetten. Y. J.. Lodewijks. H. G.. & Vermunt. J. D. (2001). The role of personality traits and goal orientations in strategy use. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 26, 149-170. Vermetten. Y.. Lodewijks. H.. & Vermunt. J. (1997). A longitudinal perspective on learning strategies in higher education - Different viewpoints towards development. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 69, 221-242. Vermetten, Y.. Lodewijks. J.. & Vermunt, J. (1999). Consistency and variability of learning strategies in different university courses. Higher Education, 37, 121. Vermetten. Y.. Vermunt. J. D.. & Lodewijks. H. G. (2002). Powerful learning environments? How university students differ in their response to instructional measures. Learning and Instruction. 12, 263-284. Vermunt. J. D.. & Verloop. N. (1999). Congruence and friction between learning and teaching. Learning and Instruction, 9, 257-280.

Wade. S. E.. & Moje. E. B. (2000). The role of text in classroom learning. In R. Barr (Ed.). Handbook of reading research (Vol. 3. pp. 609-627). Hillsdale. NJ: Erlbaum. Weinstein. C. E.. & Mayer. R. E. (1986). The teaching of learning strategies. In M. C. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (3rd ed.. pp. 241-258). New York: MacMillan. Wilson. S. M.. & Wineburg S. S. (1993). Wrinkles in time and place - Using performance assessments to understand the knowledge of history teachers. American Educational Research Journal, 30, 729769. Wilson. S. M.. & Wineburg, S. S. (1988). Peering at history through different lenses: The role of disciplinary perspectives in teaching history. Teachers College Record, 89, 525-539. Wineburg. S. S. (1997). Beyond "breadth and depth": Subject matter knowledge and assessment. Theory into Practice, 36. 255-261. Wineburg. S. S. (1996). The Psychology of learning and teaching history. In D. C. Berliner & R. C. Calfee, (Eds.), Handbook of Educational psychology (pp. 423^138). New York: MacMillan. Winne. P. H., & Hadwin, A. F. (1998). Studying as self-regulated learning. In D. J. Hacker. J. Dunlosky. & A. C. Graesser (Eds.). Metacognition in educational theory and practice (pp. 277-304). Mahwah. NJ Erlbaum. Winne. P. H.. & Marx. R. W. (1977). Reconceptualizing research on teaching. Journal of Educational Psychology, 69, 668-678. Winne, P. H., & Marx. R. W. (1982). Students' and teachers' views of thinking processes for classroom learning. Elementary School Journal, 82, 493-518. Winne. P. H . & Perry, N. E. (2000). Measuring self-regulation. In M. Boekaerts. P. Pintrich. & M. Zeidner (Eds), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 531-566). Academic Press: London. Wong. B. Y. L., Wong, R.. & LeMare. L. (1982). The effects of knowledge on criterion task on comprehension and recall in normally achieving and disabled children. Journal of Educational Research, 76, 119-126. Wubbels, T., & Brekelmans, M. (1998). The teacher factor in the social climate of the classroom. In B. J. Fraser. & K. G. Tobin (Eds.), International Handbook of Science Education (pp. 565-580). Kluwer Academic Publishers. Zimmerman, B. J. (1998). Academic studying and the development of personal skill: A self-regulated perspective. Educational Psychologist, 33, 73-86. Zimmerman. B. J. (2000). Attaining self-regulation: A social cognitive perspective. In M. Boekaerts, P. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 13^10). Academic Press: London.