rmwdum

ed'gef; ........................................................................................................... 3
1/ t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkcsuftajccHodrSwfzG,f........................................................ 5
2/ 0dyóemusifhpOftp a&G;cs,fpdppfyHk tajccHodrSwfzG,f .......................... 19
3/ 'd|dESifhwPSm pGJjcif;ESifhjzKwfjcif; tajccHodrSwfzG,f ................................ 26
4/ t½IcHt½IÓPf tajccHodrSwfzG,f .......................................................... 36
5/ tmemyge½SL½IdufrI trSm;trSef odrSwfzG,f ............................................ 53
6/ q&maumif;q&mrSef a&G;cs,fenf; tajccHodrSwfzG,f ........................... 57
7/ w&m;usihfaom a,m*DwdkY vdkufem&rnfh tajccHodrSwfzG,f .................. 76
8/ vufawGUusifhpOf tajccHodrSwfzG,f ...................................................... 91
9/ wPSmESifhcE¨moabm tajccHodrSwfzG,f .............................................. 121
10/ taxGaxGodrSwfzG,f ......................................................................... 137
atmifvHq&mawmf\ arwåmpm ................................................................ 162
pma&;ol\ 0efcHcsuf ................................................................................ 163

d
earm wó b*0awm t&[awm or®morÁK'¨ó
ed'gef;
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jzpf ojzifh w&m;tm;xk wf a om a,m*Dw dkY rsm;jym;vmum
w&m;&d y f o mrsm;
Nrd K Uwd k i f ; vd k v d k ü yif
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jzpf o nf / w&m;usifhaom a,m*Dtrsm;pkrSm y&d,wåd
rwwfuRrf;Muolrsm; jzpfM uojzif h t&d,mjzpfa Mumif;
w&m;
( t&d ,"r® ) ü
odjrif
ESHUpyfjcif;
r&SdMuyg/
t&d,mjzpfaMumif;w&m;udk trSefwu,f vdkcsif awmifhw
Muaomfvnf; bk&m;&Sif rnfodkU a[mxm;rSef; rod&SdMuyg/
t&d,m olawmfaumif;wdkY\ tusifhonf rnfodkU &SdrSef;
rodMuojzifh w&m;usifhonfh tcgwGif q&m cdkif;íom
usif h& onf b,fv dk ac:vdkU bmcdki f; rS e f; rod ?
bmvk y fv dkU bmusifh&rSef;rodyJ jzpfaeMuonf/ xdkYtjyif
0dyóemusifhonf qdk&mwGif b,fu pí b,fvdk
usifh&rSef;rod? rdrd tm;udk;rnfh q&mudkvnf; tm;udk;xdkufrI
&Sdr&Sd rodyJ jzpfaeMuonfu rsm;onf/
tcsdKUaom
a,m*DwdkUwGif
enf;vrf;rusaom
NydKifqdkifrIrsm; jzpfaeMuojzifh w&m; usifhjcif;xuf r*f?

4

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

zdkvf? ÓPfpOf rsm;udk OD;pGm vdkcsifaeMuonf/ rdrdtm;
t&d,m wpfa,muf[k todt rSwf jyKcHc sifa eMuonf/
tcsdK Uaom w&m;jyq&mwd kY tMum;? &dyfomrsm;tMum;
tNydKiftqdkifpnf;½Hk;rI? qGJaqmifrIrsm;
jzpf a eMuonf /
þuJ h o d k Y jzpf & jcif ; \ taMumif ; &if ; rS m ]]t&d,mwdkYudk
zl;jrifavh r&SdaomaMumifh? t&d,mw&m;ü ruRrf;usif aomaMumifh?
t&d,mw&m;ü
r,Ofaus;aomaMumihf?
olawmfaumif;wdkYudk
zl;jrifavhr&SdaomaMumifh? olawmfaumif;w&m;ü ruRrf;usifaomaMumifh?
olawmfaumif;w&m;ü r,Ofaus;aomaMumifh? tMum;tjrifr &Sdaom
aMumifh}}1 jzpfonf/

,ckusrf;pmtkyfi,fonf
t&d,mw&m;
olawmfaumif;
w&m;
trSefwu,f
vdkvm;aom
a,m*DwdkUtwGuf t&d,m olawmfaumif; jzpfapaMumif;w&m;
(t&d,"r®) rsm;rS odoifh odxdkufaom tcsufrsm;udk
vdk&if;tESpfcsKyfum a&;om; wifjy xm;jcif; jzpfonf/
aomwmywådr*ful;onftxd
tus,fw0ifh
odvdkygu
pma&;ol
a&;om;xm;aom
aomwmywådr*f½IzG,f
usrf;pmtkyfudk 0,f,l zwf½IEdkifygonf/ vufawGU
usifhBuH tm;xkwfvdkyguvnf; tajccH (9)&ufpcef;
usifhpOftwGuf
&nf&G,f
a&;om;xm;aom
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usifhpOf
pmtkyfESifh
vufawGUusifhpOf ½IuGuf "mwfjym;udk 0,f,lí rdrdtdrfü
usifhBuHtm;xkwfEdkifygonf/
1

Oy&dyPÖmoygVdawmf jrefrmjyef? 0db*F0*f? ba'´u&wåokwf-275
ESm-230

a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

5

1/ t"dyÜm,fzGifhqdkcsuftajccHodrSwfzG,f
oDv
w&m;tm;xkwfaoma,m*Donf
w&m;usifh&mü
tajccH oDvudk od&rnf/ oDv [lonf um,uH
tukodkvf?
0pDuH
tukodkvf?
raemuHtukodkvfwdkY
rjzpfatmif apmifhxdef;jcif;yif jzpfonf/
&[ef;a,m*D onf
pmwkyg&dok'¨doDv
pifMu,f&rnf/ ,if;rSm--(1) ygwdarmu©oH0 &oDv
(tusOf; tm;jzifh
227
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(2) ypö , oEéd ó d w oD v (qG r f ; ? ouF e f ; ? ausmif ; ?
aq; ypönf;av;yg; qifjcifoHk;pGJjcif;)
(3) tmZD0yg&dok'¨doDv (pifMu,faom toufarG;rI&Sdjcif;)
(4) £`E´d,oH0&oDv
('Gg&ajcmufyg;wdkYrS
udavom
r0ifatmif apmifhxdef;jcif;)
paom oDvav;rsdK;wdkYESifh jynfhpHkjcif;jzpfonf/
vla,m*DwdkUonf tmZD0|ruoDv (toufowfjcif;?
ypönf;cdk;,ljcif;?
umrydkifvGefusL;jcif;?
vdrfvnf
ajymqdkjcif;?
acsmypf
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qJa&;jcif;? odrfzsif;aom pum; ajymqdkjcif;? rSm;aom
toufarG;jcif;wdkYrS a&SmifMuOfjcif;) ESifh £`E´d,oH0&oDvwdkY
jynfhpHk&rnf/
0dyóemusifhpOf\ tajccH y"metcsufonf jyqdk
cJhaom oDvaqmufwnfjcif;yifjzpfonf/
a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

6

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

xdkUaMumifh w&m;&vdkaom a,m*Donf qdkif&moDv
jynfhpHk
pifMu,fap&rnf
jzpfonf/
oDv
pifMu,fjcif;onf
oDv0dok' ¨d
rnf\/
xdkYtwl
w&m;usifhqJü
raemuHoDvudk
xdef;odrf;jcif;onf
w&m;usihfonfrnf\ (oDvr*¾ifoHk;yg;)/ t½I Ó Pf ü
tuk o d k v f apwod u f (14)vH k ; (0g) (1500)
udavomwdkY
y,fcGmrI\
oefY&Sif;jcif;onf
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ygwdarmu©oH0&oDv \ pifMu,fjcif;rQjzifh 0dyóemÓPf
ESifh
r*fÓPfudk
wdkuf½dkuf
tusKd;ray;Edkif/
taxmuftyHhom jzpfaponf/
orm"d
pd w f
(o[d w f r aem0d n mPf ) onf
qd k i f & m
tm½Hk ü ajzmif h r S e f p G m wnf a erI u d k orm"d [ k ac:onf /
orx tm;xkwfrnfhpdwfonf ¤if;\ rSD&m uodkPf;tm½Hkü
ajzmifhrSefpGm
tquf r jywf
wnf a ejcif ; ud k
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t½IÓPfonf
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jzpfwdkif;
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0dyóemorm"d[kac:onf/
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psmef [lo nf tm½Hkü pl; pl ; pdk u fp d ku f ½Ia ejcif;
(0g) qefUusifbuf w&m;rsm;tm; avmif NrdKufaejcif;udk
a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

7

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pl;pl;pdkufpdkuf ½Ivsuf ud a vomwd k Y ud k w'*F ç 0d u© rÇ e
tm;jzif h avmif N rd K uf y,fowfjcif;onf vu©PlyedZÑmef
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tm&r®PlyedZÑmefjzpf\/ psmeft*Fgü {u*¾wm [laom
orm"dapwoduf
yg0ifaeonf/
xdkUaMumifh
psmefudk
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r*¾ifxdkufaom tusifh[k ac:qdkEdkifonf/ pwkw¬psmef
orm"dudk or®morm"d[kac:onf/
orx
orx[lonf
pdwf(o[dwfraem0dnmPf)udk
udavom wdkY\ ESdyfpufavmifNrdKufrIrS Nidrf;at;apjcif;
jzpfonf/* uodkPf; ynwftm½Hkudk rSDí wnfaomorxESifh
y&rwf½kyfemrf tm½Hkudk rSD í wnfa om orx[l í ESp fr sKd;
&Sdo nf/
uodk Pf; ynwf
tm½Hkonf
pdw fud k
Nidr f; at;apouJho dkY
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t&Sd y&rwf ½kyfemrf (um,ç a0'emç pdwåç "r® ) wdkY\
*

tm½Hk\tpGrf;jzifh udavomtylNidrf;aeí at;csrf;aeaom pdwf[lvdk

a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

8

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

oabm oufoufudk tedpçö 'ku©ç tewåvu©Pma&;
oHk;csufwifum ÓPftjrifjzifh ½Ijcif;udk ac:onf/
bm0em
bm0em
[lonf
Budrfzefrsm;pGm
yGm;rsm;jcif;
jzpfonf/ xdkbm0emonf orxbm0em? 0dyóembm0em
[lí ESpfrsKd; &Sdonf/ orxbm0em[lonf uodkPf; paom
ynwftm½Hkudk tajccHí psmef tqifhqifh NrJatmif
yGm;rsm;jcif; jzpfonf/ wenf; tm;jzif hq dka omf pd wf udk
uod k P f; tm½Hkü NrJa tmif yGm;aejcif; jzpfonf/ 0dyóem
bm0em [lonf r*¾if&Spfyg;jzifh y&rwf½kyfemrfwdkY\
oabmtay:ü tedpö 0dyóemÓPfudk yGm;rsm;í edpö
(NrJjcif;) tpGJudk pGefYaejcif;? 'ku©0dyóemÓPf yGm ;rsm;í
ok c (csrf; omjcif; ) tpGJ ud k pG e fY a ejcif ; ? tewå
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vu©Pmudk
yGm;í
okb(om,mzG,f&m)
tpGJudk
pGefYaejcif;onf bm0emrnf\/
ur®|mef;
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[lonf
pdwfpkpnf;&m
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(½I&mtm½Hk) jzpfonf/ psmef &aMumif ; usif h & rnf h
t&mXme
wd k Y onf
ur® | mef ; (40)yif
jzpfonf/

a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

9

r*fzdkvf&aMumif; usifh&rnfh t&mXmewdkYonf um,ç a0'emç
pdwåç "r® [lí (4)Xme &Sdonf/
i,fxdyfü
pdwfwnf&mxm;jcif;?
avESifh
ESmoD;0xdcsufü
pdwfwnf&m
xm;jcif; ?
Adkuf\
azmif;&mydef&mü
pdwfwnf&m
xm;jcif;?
a&SUpdwfudkaemufpdwfjzifh
½Ivsuf
pdwfwnf&mxm;jcif;?
(32)aum|moedr d wf ü
pdwf w nf& mxm;jcif; ?
"mwfa v;yg;ü
pdwfwnf&mxm;jcif;
ponfjzifh
rdrdESpfouf&mae&m(ur®|mef;)ü
pdwfpkpnf;í
orm"dxlaxmifEdkifonf/
Adkvfig;yg; (0g) tm;ig;yg;
o'¨gAdkvf=,HkMunfrItm;BuD;jcif;
bk&m;? w&m;? oHCm? tusifhodu©m? uH uH\
tusdK; ay:ü ,HkMunfrItm;BuD;jcif;/
jrwfpGmbk&m;vufxufawmfu "eÍÆmeDykaPÖ;rBuD;onf
ajcacsmfvufacsmf wpfckck jzpfwdkif; vuftkyfcsDvsuf
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bmomjcm;
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rjyK&ef
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r&onfht qHk; oHv suf" m;udk udki fv suf xdkA k' ¨ jrwfpGmudk
a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

10

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

toHxGufí &Sdcdk;vQif "m;jzifh tydkif;ydkif; ckwfrnf[k
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aemuf w pf a eY
yk P Ö m ;BuD ; \
q&mrsm;
vmonfhtcg ykaPÖ;rBuD;onf ajcacsmfí
emusifoGm;aomtcg
vuftkyfcsDvsuf
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jrwfpGmbk&m;udk
tm½HkjyKí
&Sdcdk;vdkufonf/
þuJhodkY
bk&m;&Sifü rwkefrvIyf toufpGefYí MunfndKaom o'¨grsdK ;
&Sd& rnf/ w&m;ay:üvnf; þuJhodkY toufESifh vJEdkifaom
o'¨gAdkvfrsdK;&SdolwdkYtwGuf w&m;xdkifvQif jzpfay:vmaom
'ku©a0'emonf pmrzGJUavmufyg/
0D&d,Adkvf=vHkYvjyKrItm;BuD;jcif;/
oDvt&m?
orx
0dyóem
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riJh u G u f y J
tm;xkwfaom
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tm;BuD;rIjzifh
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a'oemwGif awGUjrifEdkifonf/
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a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)
tcsKyf t zm
r&S d a om
yk q d k ; opf u J h o d k Y
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t½dk;om<uif;í udk,fü tom; taoG; ukefcef;
ajcmufaoGUapOD;awmh?
a,musfm;wdkYtm;tpGrf;
a,musfm;wdkY\vHkYv a,musfm; wdkY\ tm;xkwfrIjzifh
a&muftyfaom
t&[wåzdkvfodkY
ra&muf r l í
vHk Y v\ &yf w H h j cif ; rjzpf t H h [ k tm;xkwfjcif;iSm
oifhvQifomwnf;/2

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&[ef ; wd k Y
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2

ed'ge0*¾oH,kwfygVdawmf jrefrmjyef? ed'geoH,kwf? 'oAv0*f?
'kwd,'oAvokwf-22 ESm-267

a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

11

12

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)
a,musfm;onf
vm&m\
xdkoltm;
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wdkif;BuD;r,f\
tMum;odkY
aqmif,loGm;tyf\?
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OD;acgif;udk jzwftHh}} [k (ajymum) oefvQuf
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tpOf
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tb,f o d k Y
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xd k q D c G u f u d k
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jyif y tm ½Hk
aMumif h
arhavsmhum
aqmif,l&moavm?
toQifbk&m; þodkY rjzpfEdkifyg/
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þodkYvQif oifwdkY usifh&rnf[k (rdefYawmfrl\)/3

3

r[m0*¾oH,kwfygVdawmf jrefrmjyef? owdy|meoH,kwf? emvE´0*f?
Zey'uvsmPDokwf-386 ESm-153

a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

13

txufyg a'oemawmfwGif ]]tem;ESifhtnD jynfhaeaom
qDcGuf}}udk
o,faom
a,musfm;onf
owdwpfcsuf
vGwfonfESifh qDzdwfpifoGm;um toufqHk;yg;oGm;Edkifonf/
xdkuJhodkY owdudk wpf c suf r Q rvpf & atmif touf E S i f h
&if ; í
xm;&aom
owd xm;jcif; rsdK ;onf
w&m;
tm;xk wf& mü
tvdk &Sdt yfa om
tm;BuD;aom
owd(owdAdkvf)jzpfonf/
orm"dAdkvf=orx? 0dyóemtm½Hkü wnfNidrfaompdwf
w&m;awGUvdkaom
a,m*Donf
qdkif&m
ur®|mef;tm½Hkü cdkifNrJaom orm"d \ tm;BuD;rI &Sd&rnf/
w&m; usifhaepOf £&d,mykxfudk wvIyfvIyf w&G&GESifh
rwnfrNidrf
jzpfaejcif;onf
pdwfrwnfNidrfojzifh
½kyfrwnfNidrfaejcif; jzpfonf/ yXrpsmef orm"dqdkufaom
a,m*Donf (10)em&DMumrQ usifhaepOf rSuf jcif ,if
udkufaeaomfvnf;
wqHcsnfrQifpmrQyif
rvIyfawmhyg/
0dy óemÓPf
qd ku f NyD
qd kv Qif
onfh xuf y d kí
wnf Nidr fr nf
jzpfo nf/
um,da `E´
ysufa eaom
a,m*Do nf
yXrpsmef
t&mvnf;rqdkuf?
0dyóemÓPfESifhvnf; rudkufnDay/
ynmAdkvf=tjym;tm;jzifh oabmobm0trSefudk odjcif;
w&m;usifhaom a,m*Donf w&m;usifh&mü bk&m;&Sif
tvdkawmfus
enf;rSefvrf;rSefjzifh
usifhBuHxm;aom
q&morm; xHü vdktyfonfh t&d,mjzpfaMumif;w&m;ESifh
a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

14

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

ywfoufaom
ynmA[kokwrsm;
em,lrSwfom;jcif;
jynfhpHk&rnf/
ESHjynfpkwfiSufi,fonf EG,fESifh csnfaESmifcHxm;&vQif
vGwfajrmufatmif ½kef;rxGufEdkif/ xdkEG,fjzifh qifajymifBuD;udk
wkyfaESmifxm;vQif
qifajymifBuD;onf
wkyfaESmif
xm;onf[kyif rrS w f , l / xd k Y twl o'¨ g ? 0D & d ,
paom
tm;ig;yg;
enf;vGef;aomyk*¾dKvfrsm;twGuf
rvIyfrjyifyJ wpfem&Dxdkifjcif;\ 'ku©onf rcHpm;EdkifzG,f&m
jzpfonf/ qifajymifBuD;ozG,f o'¨g? 0D&d, paom
tm;ig;yg;
BuD;rm;aomolwdkYtwGuf
wpfem&Dru
(10)em&DM umrQ
rvIy f r jyify J
xdki f& jcif; onf
qif; &J ' k u©[ k rSwf,lp&m r&Sdyg/
w&m;usifhaom
a,m*Donf
b0rsm;pGm
aojcif;qif;&J? &Snfvsm;pGm cHpm;&aom tyg,fab;qif;&Judk
trSefwu,fom aMumufrnf qdkvQif tm;xm;&mjzpfaom
bk&m;\ tqHk;trudk cE¨ m ES i f h touf riJh u G u f y J
vk d u f e monf /
w&m;awmf ü
w&m;usifhonfhtcg
onfw&m;rS r&vQif ig\ tm;udk;&mrJhNyD jzpfojzifh o'¨g?
0D&d,? owd paom tm;ig;yg; vufudkif xm;vsuf
w&m;r&rcsif;
rxawmhbl;[lí
cdkifrmjywfom;aom
qHk;jzwfcsufrsm; arG;jrLvmrnfjzpfonf/
w&m;usif h a om a,m*D w d k Y tm; wpf e m&D r QtwG i f ;
cE¨mtdrfudk vIyfvdku vIyf? jyifvdku jyif? idkufvdku
idkufEdkif&ef
cGifhjyKxm;Mujcif;onf
tm;ig;yg;
,kwfavsmhaeaom q&mwdkYu wynfh w d k Y tm; tm;ig;yg;
a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

15

,k w f a vsmh a eaom
tusif h r sm;?
tm;ig;yg;
,kwfavsmhaeaom ñTefMum;csufrsm; ay;aejcif; jzpfonf/
onfxufqdk;onfrSm
aomwmyefjzpfzdkYta&;?
w&m;
xdkifusifhp&mrvdk?
w&m;em½HkESifh
NyD;onf
[lí
enf;ay;ñTefMum; aeMujcif; jzpfonf/
orx,meduusihfpOf\t"dyÜm,f
orx,medu[lonf pdwfudk edrdwfü trSDjyKvsuf
psmef t *F gwd kY jzifh wPSm ESi f h eD 0 &Pw&m;rsm;udk w'*F
0du© r Çe tm;jzifh oG,f 0 dk uf y,f c Gm NyD; Oayu© m {u*¾ wm
orm"dodkY a&mufNyD;rS t½IcH y&rwf ½kyfemrfw&m;rsm;udk
½Iaomenf; jzpfonf/
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a&S ; OD ; pG m
yXrpsmef
&&Sd a tmif
tm;xk w f N yD ;
,if ; yXrpsmef
orm"d u d k
cd k i f c H h a tmif
0oD a bmf
ig;wef j zif h
quf v uf í
yGm;rsm;&rnf
jzpfonf/
yGm;rsm;&onfh
taMumif;rSm
pdwfonf
txufyg
eD0&PtnpftaMu;wdkYrSvGwfrI
cdkifNrJap&efjzpfonf/
xdktajccH
orm"d
cdkifNrJrSomvQif
usefaeao;aom
psmeftm½Hkü ESp f ouf uyfN ida om eE´D& m*udk tqifh qif h
y,fc Gm Ed k i f r nf
jzpfonf/
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usifh&jcif; \
taMumif;&if;onf cE¨m\ "mwfav;yg;azmufjyefrIaMumifh
cHpm;aom'ku©a0'emrS wEHkUEHkU qif ; &J a om a'greó ES i f h
ouf o mvd k í cE¨ m ud k , f u d k jyKjyifvdkaom tbdZÑmrS
a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

16

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

vGwfajrmufatmif
qdkif&m
uodkPf;
tm½Hkü
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yXrpsmeform"d
cdkifcHhoGm;NyD
jzpfojzifh
pdwfukd
uodkPf;edrdwfü wif a y;aom 0d w uf ES i f h xd k e d r d w f r S
uG m roG m ;atmif
oHk;oyfaom
0dpm&[laom
psmeft*FgESpfyg;udk pGefYvTwfNyD;om; jzpfoGm;onf/ xdkYa Mumifh
0dwuf? 0dpm& ESi fh ,SO faompdwf csKyfj yefonf/
xdk' kwd,psmefudkvnf; cdkifNrJatmif 0oDabmf ig;wefjzifh
qufvufí
yGm;rsm;&rnf
jzpfonf/
'kwd,psmefrS
yDwdonfvnf;
eE´D&m*ESifh
,SOfaeojzifh
pdwfrpifMu,fao;yg/ xdkYaMumifh 'kwd,psmef\ t*Fgjzpfaom
yDwdudk pGefYvTwf&onf/ xdk t cg yD wdE Si f h ,SO fa ompdw f
csKyf jyefonf/ wwd, psmef orm"dodkY a&muf&SdNyD jzpfonf/
¤if;psmefudkvnf;
cdkifNrJatmif
0oDabmfig;wefjzifh
qufvufyGm;rsm;&rnfjzpfonf/
xdkwwd,
psmeform"d
cdkifcHhoGm;aomtcg wwd,psmefrS okcpsmeft*Fg onfvnf;
eE´D&m*ESifh ruif;ojzifh xyfrH pGefYvTwfvdkuf&rnf/ xdktcg
okcESifh ,SOfaompdwf csKyfonf/ pwkw¬psmefwnf;
[laom
orm"da`E´ odkY
a&muf &SdNyDjzpfonf/
xdkpsmefpdwfonf ok c a0'emES i f h 'k u © a 0'emrS cG m NyD ;
jzpf o G m ;onf ( a0'eH 0du©arÇwGm)/ tbdZÑm ESifh a'greó
pdwfü
(0du©rÇe y[mef
tm;jzif h )
r,S O f o jzif h
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wnfaeonf/
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csKyf N yD
jzpf í
Oayu© d a `E´ ü
a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

17

pdwfwnfaeNyD
jzpfonf/
pwkw¬psmef
ra&mufrD
txufazmfjyyg y,fcGmcJhrIwdkYonf 0dyóemÓPfudk ydwfqdkY
wm;qD;wwfaom w&m;rsm;jzpfonf/
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{u*¾ wmorm"d odkY a&mufN yD; rS t½Ic Hy &rwf ½ky fe mrf
w&m;rsm;udk ½Iaomenf; jzpfonf/
0dyóemusifhpOf\ tajccHoabmw&m;onf Oayu©m
{u*¾ wmorm"d
(or®m orm"d)
a&mufa tmif
edr d wfc sKyf & m
(tedrdwåapawmorm"d)
tm½HkjyKvsuf
tbdZÑmESifh a'greóudk w'*F 0du©rÇe y,fcGmí
usifhaomenf; jzpfonf/ tajccHü um,du'ku©a0'emrS
a'goudk jzpfaponfh wPSmudk ydkif;jcm; jrif N yD; w'*F
0du© r Çe orka pä' tm;jzifh y,f owf vsuf (32)aum|mo?
"mwfa v;yg; paom avmuD c E¨m wd kY ud k ½Iaomenf;
jzpfonf/
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azmufjyefrI
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pdwfü a'gorD; awmufavmifojzifh 0dyóem r½IyGm;Edkifyg/
a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

18

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

,if;tusdK;w&m;
a'goudk
csKyfNidrf;ap&ef
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wdkuf½dkufy,fowfvsuf
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t½IcH
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www

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umrç ½lyç t½ly
tukodkvf^ukodkvf um,uHç 0pDuHç raemuH

20

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

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ydkYaqmifjcif;ESifh wlonf/
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ES d y f p uf r I r S
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qd k i f & mur® | mef ; ü wnf a eaom orm"dudkac:onf/
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,medu usifhpOfudk qdkvdkonf/
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w&m;usifhpOftponf
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a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

21

'ku©a0'emrS ausmfvGefaMumif; tusifhyif jzpfonf/
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þ trnfonf rodrI]t0dZÆm}\ trnfwnf;/
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,l í
tqif h q if h w l ; avmh
[l a om
þ0gusonf y if
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teuf
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,l í
tqif h q if h w l ; avmh
[l a om þ0gusonf y if þjyóem\ teuf
t"dyÜm,fwnf;/ (10)

þokwåeft&
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awmifydkUESifh wlaom "mwfav;yg; azmufjyefrIaMumifhjzpfaom
'ku©a0'emrS tm;BuD; aom trsufxG uf jcif; (a'go) udk
a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

22

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

y,fo wf onfh
jzpfonf/

tvkyfonf

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aMumifh ESvHk;rom,mjcif;[laom a'greóudk/
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5
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tpjzpfonf/
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t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

23

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csrf;omjcif;
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t<uif;rJhc sKyf \/
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odNyD;ol
xdk'ku©da`E´csKyf&m (yXrpsmef ) tusKd ; iS m pd w f u d k
uyf í aqmif o l [ k qdktyf\/7

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usifhpOf jzpfaom yXrpsmef aqmufwnf&jcif; udpöonf
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ausmfvTm;jcif;wdkYonf
vdk&if;tm;jzifh
wpfoabmwnf;jzpfonf/ xdkYaMumifh rnfonfh £&d,mykxf?
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r[m0*¾oH,kwfygVdawmf jrefrmjyef? £`Ed´,oH,kwf? okcd`Ed´,0*f?
OyÜ#dyg#duokwf ESm-194

a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

24

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

rnfonfh ae&mwGif jzpfap? rnfonfhenf; rnfonfhrljzifh
jzpfap usifhapumrl 0dyóem ,medujzifh w&m;usifhrnf
qdkvQif tyg,fav;yg;odkY ydkYrnfh a'goESifh wPSmudk w'*F
0du©rÇe orkapä' y[meftm;jzifh yxrqHk; y,faMumif;
tusihfonf w&m;pusifhol wdkY\ yxr usif h p Of o mvQif
jzpf o nf /
w&m;usif h a om
a,m*D o nf
rnfonfhenf;jzifhusifhusifh
rnfonfhq&mESifhusifhusifh
um,du 'ku©a0'ema'go vGwfajrmufatmif pdwfudk
rdrdur®|mef;
tm½HkodkU
ydkUaqmifaom
tusifhonf
w&m;usifhpOftp (odkU) w&m;pwif usifha om tvk y fy if
jzpf onf [k rS wf, l& rnf/ orx,medu usifh p Ofr S m vnf;
þuJ ho dkY omvQif jzpf onf/ xdkYaMumifh 0dyóemw&m;
usifhonfqdkonfrSm OD;wnfrd&m pdwful;rSef;&m? BuHqrd&m
usifhcsifovdk usifhí r&aMumif;? tajym0dyóemESifh
tusifh0dyóem
uGmjcm;rI
&SdaMumif;
a,m*DwdkY
txl;owdjyKyg/
w&m;usifhaom a,m*DwdkYonf w&m;usifhpOf\
tpü
"mwfa v;yg;azmufjyefr I
um,d u'ku ©u dk
rausmf vTm ;Edki fu ppfrSefaom t½IcH ½kyfemrfw&m;rsm;udk
½IjrifEdkifrnf r[kwfyg/ xd k Y aMumif h
'k u © a 0'emud k
a&S m if v T J í w&m;jyaomq&m? 'ku©a0'emudk t&if;wnfí
w&m;usifhjcif;udk tjypfwifaom q&m? 'ku©a0'emudk
ausmfvTm;atmif
rjyEdkifaom
q&mwdkYonf
w&m;ppfw&m;rSefudk
jyoEdkifonfh
q&mr[kwfyg/
a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

25

xdkq&mwdkYxH
wynfhcHí
w&m;usifhBuHu
w&m;r&EdkifaMumif; a,m*DwdkY txl;owdjyKyg/

www

a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

3/ 'd|dESifhwPSm pGJjcif;ESifhjzKwfjcif; tajccHodrSwfzG,f
'd|dwPSm jzpfyHk
'd| d[ la om tjrif r Sm ; t,lr Sm ;ES i fh tm½Hk udk
pGJv rf; wyf ES p f o uf a om wPS m wd k U onf arm[
OD ; aqmif a om
tukodkvfemrfw&m;rsm;
jzpfonf/
arm[OD;aqmifonfESifhtrQ
twå'd|d
(ig)
ygNyD;om;
jzpfaeonf/
igwnf;[laom
twåonf
tm½Hk udk
wyfE Sp f ouf onf/
qefU usif bufjzpfv Qif
a'go
jzpfonf/ jynfhpHkvQifrmejzpfonf/
'd | d o nf
vl
wd & d p ä m ef
opf y if
a&ajr
awmawmif
paom
tm½Hkwd kU tay:ü
tjrifr Sm ;
t,lr Sm ;jcif; jzpfonf / vlt &Sdxif p GJ ojzifh a,muf sm;
rde f; r [la om tjrif t &Sdp G J jzpfay:vmonf/ a,mufsm;
rdef;rrS taz tar tudk tr om;orD; ta': OD; av;
tzdk; tzGm ; rd wfa qG oli ,fc sif; paom xyfqif h
tjrif r Sm ;vmonf/ xd k odkU yk* ¾ dK vf owå0 g t&SdpGJrIaMumifh
cspfjcif;ESifhwuG
oHa,mZOfrsm;
rkef;jcif;ESifhwuG
a'gow&m;rsm; NydKifqdkifaerI remvdkrIrsm; paom udavom
rsm; jzpfay:vmonf/ xdkenf;wlpGm wd&dpämefrsdK;pHk opfyifrsdK;pHk
ypön f; 0w¬K rsd K ;pH k wd kU tay:üvnf; uda vomrsm; jzpfa y:
vmonf/ ¤if;udavomrsm;onf tqif; toH teHU t&om
tawG U paom tm½Hk i g;yg; ½k y f w &m;rsm;ü tjrif r S m ;
t,lrSm;jcif;aMumifh xdktm½Hkay:ü wyfrufrIwPSm &,lrI uH?

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

27

xdkt m½Hkr sm;&Sd& m bHkX meudk awmifh wjcif; ESi h f xd kbH kX meodkU
a&mufaMumif;
jyKvkyfrI
yknmbdocFg&rsm;
jzpfay:vmonf/
xd k u mrtm½Hk r sm;
vd k c sif r I a Mumif h
avmb
a'go
paom
tukodkvfw&m;rsm;vnf;
jyKvkyfusL;vGefMuonf/ txufyg taMumif;w&m;rsm;tm;
w&m;udk,faumufaomf
trSefrodrI
arm[?
wyf r uf r I w PS m ?
igwnf ; [l a om
'd | d w d k U aMumif h
jzpfonf/ þonfum; ½kyfudk taMumif;cHí 'd|dwPSm
jzpfyHk tusOf;rQomjzpfonf/
um,mEkyóemowdy|mefjzifh'd|djyKwfyHk
0d y óem qd k o nf r S m ÓPf \ t&m jzpf o nf /
'd | d jyKwfvdkvQif 'd|dp GJ&m tm½Hkü tjrifrSm;jcif;udk
tjrifrSe f ( 0g) 0dZÆmÓPfjzpfatmif jyef½Ijcif;yif jzpfonf/
rlvtajccHjzpfaom vl [ k pG J , l x m;rI ynwf t rS m ;pG J u d k
(32)aum|mo
cG J j cm;
½I j rif v suf
tpm;xd k ;
ajymif ; od u m
y,f c G m vd k u f o nf /
(32)aum|mo
(Oyrm-t½dk ; pk ) ynwf tm½Hk j yKEd k i f o jzih f a,musfm; rdef;r
ajc vuf udk,f acgif; ynwfcsKyfNidrf;onf/ ,SOfbuf'd|dpGJ
wPSmpGJrsm;
tMurf;pm;
uGmoGm;rnf/
t½dk;pk[k
oda eao;vQif
orxtm½Hk
jzpf onf/
xdk orx
bm0emudk
pGJ NrJ a tmif
r&yfr em;
yGm ;&rnf/
t½dk; pke dr dw fü pdw fw nf oGm;ojzifh vlpGJ yk*¾dKvfpGJtrsdK;rsdK;
jyefrpGJawmhyg/ xdkt½dk;pk\ oabmudk 0d y óemÓPf jzih f
oHk; oyfa omtcg 0dy óem bm0em jzpfonf/ t½dk;pk[k
a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

28

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

odjrifaevQif umrwPSmvnf; rjzpfy g? a'govnf;
rjzpf y g? NydK ifq dki fvd kr I vnf; r&Sdy g? oHa,mZOfvnf;
rwG,fawmhyg? jrif&mtqif;ay:ü cHpm;aom a0'emrS
'd| dE Si f h wPSm rul; awmhy g/ xdk U aMumifh Oyg'gef
rpGJa wmhy g/
Oyg'gef
rpG Ja wmh vQif
b0csKyfí
edA Ám ef0 ifr nf
jzpf onf/
wenf; tm;jzifh qdka omf
jrif jrif u mrQ &yf vsuf uda vomESi fh ,SO fa om pdwfr sm;
½I q Jü
jzpf y suf qHk; onf/
a&SUudavomESifh
,SOfaompdwfudk
aemufpdwfjzifh
jzpfysuf[k
½I v Qif
rqH k ; yg/ tusd K ;owf jzpf a omaMumif h jzpf o nf /
xdkoabmudk Oyrmaqmifjy&vQif--uwåDygxkyf Oyrm
c&D;oGm;ol wpfa,mufonf c&D;oGm;aepOf a&SUrvSrf;
rurf ; ü
uwå D y gxk y f w pf x k y f u d k
awG U vd k u f o nf
qd k y gpd k Y / 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;om jzpfvsuf þodkY qifjcifrd\/
uwåDygESifh xk y f x m;ojzif h a&T aiG ausmuf o H y wå j rm;
&Sd v d r f h r nf [ k aocsmayguf wG ufq um wyfr ufa om
wPSm jzpf vm\/
xdkYaMumifh cyfoGufoGuf avQmufí
uwåDygxkyfudk ajzMunfh&m puú L pk w f r sm;ud k awG U &ojzif h
rvd k c sif rMunf h c sif a wmh y J vTifhypfvdkufonf/ xdkOyrmudk
qef;ppfMunfhvQif --1/ uwåDygxkyf\jyifytm½Hkwnf;[laomtqif; oabmudkom
jrifí twGif;oabmudk trSefrjrifjcif; (t0dZÆm)
a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

29

2/ xkdt xky fxJwGi f
a&T
aiG
&Sdrnf[k
ESvHk;oGi f; rSm ;aompdwf ('d|d0dyv’moç pdwå0dyv’moç
onm0dyv’mo)
3/ uwåDygESihfxkyfojzihf
a&TaiG&Sdrnf[k
pGJ,laompdwf
(Oyg'gef)
4/ zGifhMunfhvdkaom pdwfapwem (uHç ocFg&)
5/ txkyf&Sd&modkY oGm;vdkaompdwfESifh oGm;jcif;(ur®0#f)
6/ a&TaiGudkvdkcsifaompdwf (wPSm)
txuf y g
ocFg&?
wPSm ?
Oyg'gef ?
uHE S i fh ,SO fa om
udavompdwfwdkY
jzpf&jcif;onf
tusKd;w&m;
jzpfí
uwåDygxkyf\
twGif;oabmudk
trSefrodjcif; (t0dZÆm)onf taMumif;w&m; jzpfonf/
pdwfüyif t0dZÆmç ocFg&ç wPSmç Oyg'gefç uHjzpfonf/
,if; uda vomwd kY
csKyfvd kv Qif
xdk p dw f \
rS D& mtm½Hkjzpf a om uwåDy gxky f \ t&Sdoabmudk zG i fhí
Munfh& rnf/ puúL pk wf wnf;[laom t&Sdypönf;rsm;udk
ydkif;jcm;odvdkufonf (ynmac: 0dZÆmESifh ,SOfaom pdwf
jzpfonf) ESifh wNydKifeuf rlvu &Sdaom txkyf\
twGif;oabmudk trSefrodonfhpdwf (t0dZÆm)? xdk txkyfudk
vdkcsifaompdwf(wPSm)?
xdktxkyftwGif;ü
a&TaiGrsm;
&Sdrnf[laompdwf(umrkyg'gef)rsm;
tvdkvdk
csKyfaysmuf
oGm;onf/
uwå Dy gxky fu dk
ajzírMunfhr D
a&T
aiG
&dSr nf[ la om a&SU pd wf udk aemufp d wf jzif h jyef ½Iv Qif ½Iq Jü
a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

30

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

a&SU pdwf w'*F csKyfrnf/ xdkuJhodkYcsKyfrIonf edAÁmefr[kwfyg/
½IpdwfvGwfonfESifh a&S U uda vompd wfr sm;
jyefa y:rnf
jzpf onf/ a&SU uda vom pdw fr sm; jzpfc G i fhr &atmif
taMumif; jyK ydw fq dkU aejcif; ES i fh wlaeonf (Oapä'tpGef;)/
xdkodkU
jzpfysuf½IrIonf
edAÁmefr0ifyg/
txuf y g
&S i f ; jycJ h o nf h t wd k i f ;
ud a vom
jzpf a Mumif ;
uwå Dy gxky fu dk trSe f &Sdonf ht wdki f; trSe f oda tmif cGJj cm;
½IMunfhrIonfom udavomcsKyfaMumif; enf;aumif;jzpfonf/
txufyg
OyrmuJhodkY
y&rwf½kyfemrftpkudk
ajzrMunfh Edkifoa&GU 'd|dpdwf? wPSmpdwf? Oyg'gefpdwf?
tusKd;w&m;pdwfudk aemuft½IÓPfpdwfu vdkufowfvQif
rcsKyfNidrf;yg/ pdwfonf r*f a pwod u f r sm;ES i f h aygif ; í
t&Sd y &rwf t xk y f
jzpf a om
uwåDy gxky fE S i fh w lo nfh
vl[ l í xif xm;aom cE¨m xky ft m; trSef&Sdonfhtwdkif;
ajzMunfhaomtcg puúLpk wfESifhwlonfh
qH y if ç
arG ; nif ;
paom
(32)aum|mo
t&Sd y pö n f ; rsm;
jrif & avonf /
xd k t cg
vl r &Sd a Mumif ; ?
wPS m wG , f p &m?
wPSmuyfp&m
r&SdaMumif;?
oHa,mZOfwG,fp&m r&SdaMumif;udk odoGm;onf/ xdkodkU
jrifatmif Munfhjcif;onf or®m'd|dpdwf? 0dZÆmpdwfjzpfNyD;
a,musfm;?
rdef;r?
taz?
taz
(yk*¾vynwf?
emrynwfrsm;) paom t0dZÆm? wPSm? 'd|d wdkYESifh
,SOfaom rlvtusdK;w&m; jzpfaom pdwfrsm; tvdkvdk
csKyfNidrf;oGm;onf/ xdktukodkvfpdwfrsm;udk jzpfysufqHk;atmif
vdkuf½Ijcif;r[kwfyg/ ,if ; t0d Z Æ m ? (1500)ud a vomwd k Y
a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

31

pd w f ü csKyf N id r f ; jcif ; onfyifvQif oOyg'daooedAÁmef
jzpfonf/ um,mEkyóem owdy|mef yxrtqifh (0g)
½kyfay:ü 'd|djyKwfyHk yxrtqifh jzpfonf/
qH y if ç
arG ; nif ;
paom
(32)aum|mo
tpk t a0; wdkYonf trSef&Sdygvm;[k ÓPfjzifhydkif;jcm;í
pdppf½IrSwfNyD;aom tcg? xd k ½k y f w &m;wd k Y \ t&Sdo abmud k
xyf q if h ½I r S w f oHk;oyfjyefonf/ xdktcg wif;rI
awmifhrI ylrI at;rI wGef ;rI uefrI ,dkpD;rI zGJUpnf;rIrsm;om
&Sdonfh "mwfav;yg;oabmom trS e f &Sda Mumif; xyf qif h
ydki f; jcm;í
½Ij rif& jyefonf/
xd kod kY
jrif o jzif h
(32)aum|mo
[l a om
r&Sd y nwf
pG J , l x m;rI
(oP² m ef y nwf ? orl [ ynwf ) csKyf N id r f ; í t&Sd y &rwf
"mwfav;yg;udkom
ÓPfrSm
odjrifaeawmhonf/
"mwfav;yg; [k od a eao;vQif orxtm½Hk jzpf o nf /
"mwf a v;yg;\
oabmudk
vu©Pma&;oHk;yg;jzihf
oHk;oyfaomtcg 0dyóem jzpfonf/ (32)aum|mo paom
ynwft&SdpGJ 'd|djyKwfonf/ umrç &m*ç a'gowdkY t½IÓPf
w'*Fü csKyfonf/ &m*a'go tMurf;pm; t½IÓPf w'*Fü
y,fonf/ um,mEkyóem owdy|mef 'kwd,tqifh(0g)
½kyfay:ü'd|djyKwfyHk 'kwd,tqifh jzpfonf/
"mwfav;yg;
tpka0;om
&Sdonf
[laom
ÓPftjrif
aygufNyD;aomtcg
xdk"mwfav;yg;ay:ü
rmonf? aysmhonf ? at;onf ? yl o nf ? wif ; onf ?
awmif h o nf ? w&G &G wrG r G w&Sd w f &Sd w f &Sd o nf [l a om
ynwf
usef a eao;onf /
xdk"mwfav;yg;wdkU
a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

32

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

ay:vmaomtcg xdkazmfjyrI ½kyfw&m;wdkU tay:ü ½k y f \
t&S d b uf r S ÓPf j zif h axmuf ½I a omtcg azmufjyefr I
oabmom
&Sd o nf ud k
ÓPfjzifh
jrifvmonf/
azmfjyaom½kyfw&m;ü ylw,f? wif;w,f? awmifhw,f?
xHkw,f? at;w,f ponfh tajymrygaMumif; t&Sdy&rwfESifh
r&Sdynwf uGJjym;pGm odjrifjcif;aMumifh jzpfonf/ xdktcg
t½IÓPfü yx0D ynwf? awaZmynwf ? tmaygynwf?
0ga,mynwf?
w&G&G
wrGrG
w&dyf&dyf
paom
ynwftpGJ rsm;
qdwfokOf;oGm;onf/
½kyfay:ü
'd|dtMurf;pm;ESifhwPSmtMurf;pm;
acgif;yg;oGm;onf/
um,mEky óemowdy |mef wwd ,tqifh (0g) ½ky fa y:ü
'd|djyKwfyHk wwd,tqifh jzpfonf/
txufy g
t½IÓ Pfp dwf onf
twGi f; tjyifa vmu
tm;vH k ; tm;
uvmyf r I e f
"mwf r I e f r Qom
od a eawmh o jzif h
A[d'¨odkU
tm½Hkr,dkpD;awmhyg/ xdkUaMumifh pdwfonf csKyfNidrf;rI ESifhom
wnfaeawmhonf/
azmufjyefrI
oabmoufoufrQom
od a evQif
ynwf t &Sd x if
pG J x m;aom
ynwf w &m;rsm;ES i f h
uda vomtjrif r sm;
csKyf Nid r f; oGm ;onf/
xdkp dw fo nf
tm½Hk
ajcmufyg;?
½kyfw&m;wdkYtay:ü pdwfrñTwfawmhyg/ pdwfrñTwf ojzifh
edrdwfcsKyfonf/ xdkedrdwfwdkYtay:ü awGUxdrI csKyfonf/
cHpm;rIcsKyfonf/ xdka,m*D\pdwfonf edrdwfcsKyfrI (odkY)
edrdwfESifh ,SO fa om pd wf \ csKyf r Iü wnfa eawmho nf/
tESp f r &S d& mrS m
pdwfrwnfcsifawmhyg/
tm½HkwdkUonf
a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

33

ylavmifrSef; odvmonf/ rNrJr Se f; vnf; od vmojzif h
pdwf onf twdwf ? tem*wf? ypöKyÜeftm½HkedrdwfwdkYESifh
rqufqHawmhojzifh
ynwfESifh,SOfaom
pdwfrsm;
csKyfaeonf/
xdkedrdwfwdkY \csKyf&m
tedrdwåapawm
orm"d usifhp Ofu dk
pma&;ol \
aomwmywådr *f ½Iz G ,f usrf; ü
a&;om;azmfjyxm;onf/
¤if;usifhpOftwdkif;
orm"d
xlaxmif
aomtcg
or® m orm"d (tbd Z Ñm a'greóES i f h arm[rS vG wfí
aeaompdw f) od kU a&muf &Sdo Gm ;onf/ xd k orm"d jzifh
'Gg&ajcmuf p Hk t m;
½Ij rifa omtcg
tqif; ESi f h
rsuf p d t Munf wd k u f q d k i f v Qif pu© K yom'ü wnf a om
½l y g½Hk \ oabm?
em;tMunf E S i f h t oH
wd k u f q d k i f o nfht cg
aomwyom'ü
wnfaom
o'´g½Hk\oabm? ESmtMunfESifhteHU wdkufqdkifonfh tcg
ESmtMunfüay:aom
*E¨m½Hk\oabm?
vQmtMunfESifh
t&om wdkufqdkifonfhtcg vQmtMunfüay:aom &om½Hk\
oabm?
udk ,f t MunfE S i fh
tawGU tm½Hk
wdk uf qdk i fo nf ht cg
tawGUtm½Hk\oabm?
awG;awmBuHpnf& m
tm½HktrsdK;rsdK;ESifh
raemtMunf
wdkufqdki f onfhtcg
raemtMunfü
ay:aom
"r®m½HktrsdK;rsdK;wdkU \oabm
paom
y&rwf
½kyfw&m;rsm;udk
ydki f; jcm;jrifN yD;
tm½Hka jcmufy g;ESi fh
xdkt m½Hkwd kU rS D& m tMunf ajcmufpHkwdkUtay:ü trSefjrifvsuf
'd|djyKwfonf/ ½kyfur®|mef; ouf o uf ½I p &m qH k ; NyD (0g)
um,mEk y óemowd y |mef 'óeudpö qHk; NyD jzpfo nf/
a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

34

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

½ky fa y:ü
'd| d jyKwfNyD
jzpfo nf/
um,mEky óemowdy |mef pwkw¬ t qifh (0g) ½ky fa y:ü
'd|djyKwfyHk pwkw¬tqifh jzpfonf/ wPSmtMurf;pm;vnf;
ydkí ydkí acgif;yg;vmonf/
txufyg t½IcHw&m;rsm;rS (32)aum|mo? ylç
wif;ç xHkç usif paom "mwfav;yg; w&G&G wrGrG paom
½kyfur®|mef; wd k U ud k ½I j rif E d k i f j cif ; onf w½k P 0d y óem
(tm;enf ; aom 0d y óem) tqif h r S m om &Sd a o;onf /
tMunf a jcmuf p H k
tm½Hkajcmufyg;
tp&Sad om
tm,wew&m;wdkUudk ½IjrifEdkif rS omvQif Av00dyóem
(tm;BuD;aom0dyóem) tqifhodkU a&muf&Sdrnf (0g)
t&d,mr*fqdkufrnfjzpfonf/
pu© K tMunf r S ½l y g½H k u d k ½I j rif o nf qd k o nf r S m
oifa,m*D\
rsufeuf0ef;tv,f&Sd
oef;OD;acgif;
yrmPrQom
&Sdaom
tMunf"mwfESifh
¤if;tMunfü
wnfaeaom ½kyfw&m; wdkUudk ydkif;jcm;jrif&jcif;rsdK;udk
qdkvdkonf/
"r®m½Hk½kyfw&m;rsm;udk
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t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

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38

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

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t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

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t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

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42

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

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t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

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emMum;odç
pmzwf odr sdK ;
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46

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)
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a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

47

48

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)
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a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

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a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

50

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

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t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

51

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a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

52

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

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xGufjcif;jzpfonf/

www

a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

53

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54

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

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Murf; wrf; aomtoH wk dY \
tm½k He dr d w f uk d
aumif ; pG m ,l j cif ; aMumif h
aumif ; pG m
ES v k H ; oG i f ; jcif ;
aMumifh
aumif;pGmpdwfüxm;jcif;aMumifh
Murf;wrf;aom

a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

55

toH o nf
csKyf a omf v nf ;
xYk d a emuf
od r f a rG U aom toHwkdYonf jzpfukef\/
od r f a rG U aom toH w k d Y \ tm½Hk e d r d w f u k d
aumif ; pG m ,l j cif ; aMumif h
aumif ; pG m
ES v k H ; oG i f ; jcif ;
aMumifh
aumif;pGmpdwfüxm;jcif;aMumifh
odrfarGUaom
toHcsKyfaomfvnf;
xkdYaemuf
odrfarGUaom
toHtm½kH
edrdwfvQif
tm½kH&Sdaompdwfonf
jzpfouJhokdY
þtwl
omvQif
a&S ; OD ; pG m
Murf ; wrf ; aom 0if o uf xG u f o uf w k d Y onf
jzpf u k e f \ /
Murf ; wrf ; aom
0if o uf x G u f o uf w k d Y \ tm½k H e d r d w f u d k aumif ; pG m
,l j cif ; aMumif h
aumif ; pG m
ES v k H ; oG i f ; jcif ; aMumif h
aumif;pGm
pdwfü
xm;jcif;aMumifh
Murf;wrf;aom
0ifoufxGufoufwkdYonf csKyfaomfvnf; xkdYaemuf
odrfarGUaom 0ifoufxGufoufwkdYonf jzpfukef\/
odrfarGUaom 0ifoufxGufoufwkdY\ tm½kHedrdwfukd
aumif;pGm,ljcif;aMumifh aumif;pGmESvkH;oGif;jcif;aMumifh
aumif ; pG m pd w f ü xm;aomaMumif h od r f a rG U aom
0ifoufxGufoufwkdY onf
csKyfaomfvnf;
xkdYaemuf od r f a rG U aom 0if o uf xG u f o uf
tm½k H e d r d w f v Qif
tm½kH&Sdaompdwfonf
ysHUvGifhjcif;okdYra&muf/14

14

y#dorÇd'gr*fygVdawmf jrefrmjyef? r[m0*f? tmemyge owduxm?
oawmum&d ÓPftus,fjyjcif;-171 ESm-232

a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

56

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

txufyga'oemawmfrS aMu;cGufwD;oHjzpfay:vmykHudk
owdjyKyg/ rlvMurf;wrf;aomtoH jzpfay:NyD;rS wjznf;jznf;
tpOfvkduf Nidrf;oGm;onf[k yg&Sdonf/ ]]a&S;OD;pGm Murf;wrf;aom
0if o uf x G u f o uf w k d Y onf jzpf u k e f \ /}} xd k o abmtwd k i f ;
tmemygeur®|mef;usifhpOf
tajccHüvnf;
tpü
tenf;i,f
jyif;jyif;
½SL½Idufí
um,du'ku©rS
ausmfvGefapNyD;
ur®|mef;
tm½k H ü
pd w f w nf N id r f o G m ;aomtcg
½SL ½Id u f r I o nf v nf ;
tpOfv kd uf Nidr f; oGm ;ygonf/ w&m;pusifhí tmemyge
pusifhu wnf; u jznf; jznf; Nidr fNidr f El; El; nHh nHh ½SL ½Id u f
&rnf[k rqkdyg/ El;nHhpGm ½SL½IdufrIonf w&m;pusifhaom
a,m*D w k d Y twG u f
owd x if E k d i f c J j cif ; ?
ik d u f j rnf ; vG , f j cif ; ?
pdwfysHUvGifhvG,fjcif;?
ysHUvGifhaompdwfrsm;
xdef;odrf;&efcufjcif;
paom
tcuftcJrsm; jzpfaponf/ xdkYtjyif "mwfav;yg;
azmufjyefr I
yd kí
xif &S m ;vmaomtcg
El; nHha om
xdc sufü pdwfrwnfawmhyJ 'ku©tm½HkodkY vG,fvG,fESifh
pdwfa&mufoGm; awmh o nf / xd k Y aMumif h xd c suf t m½Hk ü
pd w f r wnf a wmh y J
orm"d y suf v G , f N yD ;
'k u © t m½Hk r S
rcG m Ed k i f a wmh y g/ w&m; pusifhaom a,m*DwdkY\ pdwfMurf;?
p½dkufMurf;rsm;udk xdcsufü tenf;i,fMurf;Murf; ½SL½dIufrIjzifh
pdwfudk
odrf;qnf;,l&onf/
pdwfMurf;rsm;
csKyfNidrf;vmonfESifhtrQ
½SL½IdufrIvnf;
tvdkvdk
El;nHhoGm;ygonf/ xdkYaMumifh tmemygeur®|mef;jzifh pwif
usifhaoma,m*Donf e*dk½SLavxuf ESpfqrQ ½SLoifhonf/
a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

57

6/ q&maumif;q&mrSef a&G;cs,fenf; tajccHodrSwfzG,f
jrwfpGmbk&m;&Sif udk,fawmfwdkif q&maumif; q&mrSef
&S m &ef
oG , f 0 d k u f a omenf ; jzih f
1792Bud r f ?
wd k u f½dku fa [m 44Bud r f wd k i f a tmif wd k u f w G e f ; cJ h o nf / 15
jrwf p G m bk & m;&Si f
ud k , f a wmf w d k i f
yd # uwf o H k ; yH k
xm;cJ h y gvsuf
þuJ h o d k Y
tBudrfaygif;rsm;pGm
wdkufwGef;&jcif;rSm ayghayghwefwef r[kwfyJ taMumif ; xl ;
&Sd í om
rS m jcif ;
jzpf o nf /
ud k , f w d k i f
aygufajrmufatmif tm;xkwf&mwGif usifhpOftpü trSefxuf
trSm;u
rsm;jcif;?
wdrfra,mifESifheuf
vG,fra,mifESifhcufjcif;?
wHvQyfudk
a&xifbdouJhodkY
rSm;jcif;?
wpfxGmavmufc&D;onf
wpf r d k i f a vmuf
a0;bd o uJ h o d k Y jzpf j cif ; ? wpf u syf o m; tav;0efonf
tcsdefwpfq,frQudk 0efxrf;&bdouJhodkY jzpfjcif; paom
MuefY Mum0efa v;rIr sm;
&Sdo jzif h
pd wf w nfNidr fa tmif
xde f; odr f; &ef y if
tvGe fc uf onf/
xdkY a Mumif h
q&maumif; q&mrSefESihf awGUzdkY&ef tvGef ta&;BuD;onf/
q&maumif; q&mrSef [lonf ydkif;jcm;odtyfaom Zmwdç
Z&mç r&Pç ur®b0ç Oyg'gefç wPSmç a0'emç zóç
oVm,weç emrf½kyfç 0d n mPf ç ocF g & paom "r® r sm;\
jzpf y H k j zpf a Mumif ; ?
csKyfyHkcsKyfaMumif;wdkYudk rdrdudk,fwdkif
0dyóemÓPfjzihf ydkif;jcm; ½IjrifEdkifonfh q&mjzpf&rnf/16
15
16

]]rkd;ukwfq&mawmfbk&m;BuD;\ wpfb0omoem}}? ESm-548-549
ed'ge0*¾oH,kwf? tEÅ&ay,smv0*f? ow¬Kokwf-73

a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

58

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

txuf y g Zmwd r S ocF g & paom w&m;wd k Y onf
pifMu,faom
pwkw¬psmeform"d
(odkY)
xdkorm"dESihf
wlrQonfh
tedrdwåapawmorm"djzifhom
jrifEdkifonf/
xdkYaMumifh
w&m;jy
q&monf
xd k o rm"d r sd K ;ud k
ud k , f w d k i f & &Sd N yD ; í ,xmbl w ÓPf j zif h (36)rsd K ;aom
y&rwf ½k y f e mrf w d k Y ud k
yd k i f ; jcm;
jrif N yD ; rS o mvQif
ur® | mef ; jyq&m
vk y f o if h o nf /
od k Y rS o m
rdrd\wynfhudkvnf; rdrduJhodkY ½IjrifEdkifatmif ñTefMum;Edkifrnf
jzpfonf/ tu,fí rdrdudk,fwdkif tm;xkwfrIr&SdyJ ur®|mef;
ay;aeygu w&m;usifhaoma,m*DwdkYrSm 0dyóemÓPf trSef
rqdkufyJ pdwfysuftm;avsmhum omoemrS qHk;½HI;&awmhonf/
&[ef;wdkY aemufwrsdK;um; tem*wfumvü
&[ef;wdkYonf udk,fudk ryGm;rsm;ol? oDvudk
ryGm;rsm;ol pd w f u d k ryG m ;rsm;ol * ynmud k
ryG m ;rsm;ol † wd k Y jzpfMuvdrfhrnf/
xdk&[ef;wdkYonf
(rdrdwdkYu)
udk,fudkryGm;rsm;?
oD v ud k r yG m ;rsm;?
pd w f u d k r yG m ;rsm;? ynmud k ryGm;rsm;Muukefonf
jzpfygvsuf
tjcm;olwdkYtm;
edó&nf;

ay;Muukefvdrfh OD;rnf/

*

udk,fwdkifw&m;tm;rxkwfjcif; (pma&;ol\tvdk)
0dyóembm0emudk ryGm;rsm;jcif; (pma&;ol\tvdk)
w&m;jyq&mvkyfjcif; (pma&;ol\tvdk)

a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

59

(ed ó &nf ; q&mjyKvk y f o l )
xd k q &mwd k Y onf
vnf ;
vG e f j rwf a omoD v §
**
vG e f j rwf a ompd w f
vGefjrwfaomynm††ü
qHk;rjcif;iSm pGrf;EdkifMuvdrfhrnf r[kwfukef/
(þod k Y aom q&mh x H ed ó &nf ; cH , l
Muuk e f a om) xd k w ynf h w d k Y onf v nf ; ud k , f u d k
ryGm;rsm;ol oDvudk ryGm;rsm;ol pdwfudkryGm;rsm;ol
ynmudk ryGm;rsm;olwdkY jzpfMuukefvdrfhOD;rnf/
xdk&[ef;wdkYonf
(rdrdwdkYu)udk,fudkryGm;rsm;ol oD v ud k ryG m ;rsm;ol
pd w f u d k r yG m ;rsm;ol ynmud k ryG m ;rsm;Muuk e f o nf
jzpf y gvsuf
tjcm;ol w d k Y ud k
edó&nf;udk
ay;MuukefvdrfhOD;rnf/
xdk& [ef;wdkY onfvnf; vGe fjrwfaomoDv
vGefjrwfaompdwf vGefjrwfaomynmü qHk;rjcif;iSm
pGrf;Edkifvdrfhrnf r[kwfukef/17

txuf y g jrwf p G m bk & m; a[mMum;xm;rI o nf
aemift em*wf j zpfa om
,ckt csde f ud k
BudK wif
a[mxm;jcif; jzpfonf/ ,cktcg tcsdKUaom w&m;a[m
w&m;jyq&mwdkYonf rdrdudk,fwdkif oDv orm"d ynm
odu©moHk;&yf? r*¾if &Spfyg; jynfhpHkatmif usifhBuHyGm;rsm;
§

£`Ed´,oH0&oDv (odkY) oDv0dok'¨d (pma&;ol\tvdk)
pdwå0dok'¨d (pma&;ol\tvdk)
††
ÓP'óe0dok'¨d (pma&;ol\tvdk)
17
t*kFwdåK&fygVdawmf jrefrmjyef 'kwd,wGJ? a,m"mZD00*f?
wwd, tem*wb,okwf-79 ESm-113
**

a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

60

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

tm;xkwfrI r&SdyJ w&m;jyoifwef; zGifhí edó&nf;q&m
vkyfaeMuonf/ oifwef;wufNyD;aom wynfhwdkYuvnf;
q&muJhokdY
oDv orm"d ynm odu©moHk;&yf?
r*¾if&Spfyg;jynfhpHkatmif
rusifhyJ
&dyfomzGifhí
w&m;jyedó&nf; q&m vky fa eMuonf/ jrwfp G m bk& m;&Si f
touf E Si fhc E¨m ajrmufrsm;pGm &if;í azmfxkwfcJhaom
r*¾if&Spfyg;
tusifhw&m;
wdkY o nf
,cku mv
y#dy wåd omoemü
tcsd K Uaom
w&m;jy
ur®|memp&d,wdkYu rzsufaomfvnf; zsufbdouJhodkY
jzpfae
MuNyD/
w&m;usifhaom
a,m*DwdkYrSm
a,mifvnfvnfESifh jzpfae Muonf/ wpf e m&D t wGi f; rSm
<uívnf; &?
oufomatmif
jyKjyifívnf;&?
idkufívnf;&?
awGa0rdef;arm
aecGifhatmif
cG i f h j yKaeMuonf /
od k Y twG u f a Mumif h
tm;ig;yg;?
£'¨ d y g'f w&m;rsm; ,kw fa vsmha eMuonf/ usif hBuHr I
edó&nf; ,lNyD; eifvm; igvm; t½kd;aMuaMu? ta&cef;cef;
w&m;tm;xkwfrI r&Sda wmh y J a[mMum;rI E S i f h em,l r I ü om
tcsd e f u k e f a pNyD ;
a,m*DwdkYudk
ESpfodrfhouJhodkY
jzpfaeMuonf/
]]&[ef;wdkY
þESpfrsdK;wdkYwnf;?
w&m;r[kwfonfü
trSwf&Sdaomolonf

olrdkufwdkYonf
tb,fESpfrsdK;wdkYenf;[lrl w&m;
[kwf\[k
vnf;aumif;?
w&m;

a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

61

[kwfonfü w&m;r[kwf[k trSwf&Sdaom olonf
vnf;aumif;wdkYwnf;/}}18

w&m;usifhaom a,m*Donf q&maumif; q&mrSefxHü
qnf;yl;&ef vdkonf/ q&maumif; q&mrSef [lonf usifhpOf
enf;vrf;rSefrrSef?
bk&m;tvdkawmfus
[kwfr[kwf?
cE¨mt&Sd"r®
jzpfrjzpf
bm0emr,ÓPfç
r*fÓPfjzifh
rdrdudk,fwdkif
ydkif;jcm;
odjrifum
cGJjcm;jyEdkif&rnf/
þodkYr[kwfyJ q&m udk,fwdkifvnf; ,xmblwÓPf
qdkufatmif
usifhBuHrxm;ygyJvsuf
trSefyif
,xmbl w ÓPf j zif h
y&rwf ½ k y f e mrf w Yd k u d k
yd k i f ; jcm;od N yD ;
aeouJhodkY
w&m;tay:üqkH;jzwfum
rnfolonf aomwmyef jzpfNyD? wpfr*fwpfzdkvf&NyD[k
qkH;jzwf
oHk;oyfaeaomolrsm;onf
olrdkufpm&if;0if
q&mrsm; jzpfMuonf/ tu,fí trSefudk trS m ;?
trS m ;ud k
trS e f [ k
rS m ;,G i f ; pG m
qH k ; jzwf a [majym
ñTefMum;rdvQif BuD;pGmaom tjypfa&mufí a,m*DwdkY
txifrSm;
tjrifrSm;jzpfum
tukodkvf
w&m;rsm;
wdk;yGm;vmvdrfhrnf/ a,m*DwdkY txl;owdjyK&efvdkonf/
&[ef ; wd kY
wOD; wa,mufa om
&[ef ; onf
awGU xdr I
]zó}\wnf& m
ajcmufr sd K;wd kY \ jzpfjcif; udk¤if; csKyfjcif;udk¤if;
om,mzG,fudk¤if; tjypfudk¤if; xG uf ajrmufr I ud k¤if;
18

t*kFwdåK&fygVdawmf jrefrmjyef yxrwGJ? 'kuedygwf? Amv0*f -105
ESm-98

a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

62

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)
[k w f wd ki f ;rSe fp G m rod ? xdk rod a om&[ef; onf
jrwfa omtusif h ud k
rusif h oHk ;
&ao;?
xd k& [ef ; onf
þ"r®0 de ,
]omoemawmf }rS
a0;\/19

txufyg
bk&m;&Sifa[mxm;aom
a'oemt&
w&m;jy
q&monf
awGUxdrI
zó\
wnf&m
ajcmufrsdK;wnf;[laom
tMunf a jcmuf p H k u d k
,xmbl w ÓPf j zif h
rd r d u d k , f w d k i f
ydkif;ydkif;jcm;jcm;
rod&ao;ygu xdkw&m;jyq&monf 0dyóem w&m;udk
aygufajrmufatmif tm;rxkwf&ao;aom q&m jzpf\/
xdkq&monf þ ]]"r®0de,}} wnf;[laom ]]omoemawmf}} rS
a0;ao;\/ rdrdudk,fwdkif w&m;rawGUao;yJESifh tjcm;olwyg;
udk w&m;jyaeaomq&mjzpfonf/ w&m;usifhaom a,m*DwdkY
onfvnf; rdrdw&m;awGUNyD? jzpfysufjrifNyD? ½kyfemrfuGJNyD?
r*f&NyD?
zdkvf&NyD[k
qHk;jzwfEdkifcJhvQif
txufyg
tMunfajcmufpHkudk ydkif;jcm;jrifrI &Sdr&Sdjzifh qef;ppfyg/
avm[dpö wzefxdkYtjyifvnf; þ(avmu)ü
tcsdKUaom q&monf tMuif&[ef; jzpfusdK;tvdkYiSm
vl U abmif r S &[ef ; abmif o d k Y 0if a &muf \?
xdk(q&m)onf xdk& [ef;jzpfusdK;udk r&ao;yJvsuf *
wynfhwdkYtm; ]]þum; oifwdkY\ tpD;tyGm;tvdkYiSm
19

oVm,we0*¾oH,kwfygVdawmf jrefrmjyef? oVm,weoH,kwf?
rd*Zmv0*f? yXr qzó,weokwf-71 ESm-262
*
&[ef;jzpfusdK;qdkonfrSm r*fcsrf;omzdkvfcsrf;omudk qdkvdkonf/
(pma&;ol\tvdk)

a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)
jzpf\? þum;oifwdkY\ csrf;omtvdkYiSmjzpf\}} [k
a[m\/
xd k ( q&m)\(w&m;)ud k
wynf h w d k Y onf em,lukef\? em;axmifukef\?
od&efpdwf0ifpm;ukef\?
q&m\
tqH k ; trrS
rzJ c G m rl v nf ;
usif h u k e f \ /
xdk(q&m)udk
þodkYtjypfwif ]apm'em} tyf\/-]]toQifonf
tMuif& [ef;jzpfusdK;
tvdkYiSm
vl U abmif r S
&[ef ; abmif o d k Y
0if a &muf \ ? (xd k o d k Y 0if a &muf a om) oif o nf
xd k & [ef ; jzpf u sd K ;ud k
r&ao;yJ v suf
wynf h w d k Y tm;
]]þum;
oif w d k Y \
tpD ; tyG m ;tvd k Y iS m jzpf \ ? þum; oif w d k Y \
csrf ; omtvd k Y iS m
jzpf \ }}[k
w&m;ud k
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em,l u k e f \ ?
em;axmif u k e f \ ?
od & ef
pd w f 0 if p m;uk e f \ ?
q&m\
tqHk;trrS
rzJcGmrlívnf; usifhukef\/ þ a[majym jcif;onf
rdrdv,fudkpGefYí
olwpfyg;v,fudk
aygif;oif
tyf o nf [ k
rS w f x if o nf E S i f h
wl \ /
(xd k Y aMumif h ) þa[majymjcif ; ud k ,k w f r maom
avmbw&m;[k
(ig)qdk\?
wyg;aomolonf
wyg;aomoltm;
tb,f
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tjypfwiftyf\/
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]apm'em}xdkufaom
'kwd,q&maywnf;?
,if;q&mudk
wpfpHkwpfa,mufu
tjypfwif
]apm'em}onf
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a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

63

64

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)
]apm'em}csufonf [kwfrSefí w&m;ESifh avsmfay\?
tjypfvnf;r&Sday/20

tcsd K Uaom
w&m;jyq&mwd k Y onf
rl v u
r*f z d k v f tusdK;pD;yGm; &vdkí &[ef;abmif odkU wufNyD;
r*fzdkvfw&m; r&ao;ygyJESifh wynfhwdkUtm; r*fzdkvfpD;yGm;
r*fzdkvfcsrf;om[k
a[majymMuonf/
tajymaumif;
ta[maumif; jzpfojzifh wynfhwdkUuvnf; xdkq&mwdkY\
w&m;udk em,lMu\ emMum; Mu\/ q&ma[maomw&m;udk
pdwf0ifpm;Mu\/
xdkq&mwdkYtm;
oabmusvsuf
q&mtem;rS rz,fc Gm bJ 0dki f; tH ka eMu\/ ,ckt cg
w&m;ppf
w&m;rS e f
&zdkU xuf
yk * ¾d K vf p GJv rf; rIr sm;
jzpfaeMu\/ yk*¾dKvfpGJvrf;rIrS uyfNidrIrsm; jzpfvmMuonf/
xd k w ynfhw d k U onf
bk & m;rBud K uf
t&d , m
ol a wmf a umif ; rBudK uf onf h rdr dwd kU \tjypf ud k rodM uyJ
ykxk ZOf y Dy D rd r dw dkU BudKufaeonfh twdkif; usifhoHk;ae
Muonf/
jrwfpGmbk&m;&Sifonf
xdkuJhodkYaom
q&mudk
udk,fhv,f
udk
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a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

65

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rlvyPÖmoygVdawmf jrefrmjyef? plV,ru0*f? 0DrHouokwf-488
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a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

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t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

67

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22

rlvyPÖmoygVdawmf jrefrmjyef? rlvy&d,m,0*f? oav’cokwf-87
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a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

68

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t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

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t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

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72

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t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

73

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t*kFwdåK&fygVdawmf jrefrmjyef yxrwGJ 'kuedygwf? tm,mpe0*f136 ESm-102

a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

74

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a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

75

(5) q&mud k, fwd ki f tqif; tm½Hk ESi fh awGU qHkq J rd r d \
pu©K yom' ESi fh xdkp u©K yom'ü wnfa om ½ly g½Hk ç
pu©K 0dnmPf wdkY ud k ydki f; ydki f; jcm;jcm; jrif NyD vm; [k
tm;emp&mrvdkyJ ar;jref;pHkprf;yg/
txuf y g(5)csuf E S i f h
jynfh p H k a om
yk *¾d K vf t m;omvQif
0dyóemt&mü
q&maumif;
q&mrSeftjzpf rSwf,lyg/
www

a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

7/ w&m;usihfaom a,m*DwdkY vdkufem&rnfh
tajccHodrSwfzG,f
1/ oauúm - (usifhpGrf;Edkifjcif;) w&m;usihfaom a,m*Donf
w&m;usihf&mü rdrd\toufESihf cE¨mudk,fudk xdyg;jcif;rS
riJ h u G u f y J usih f E d k i f o l jzpf & rnf / t½dk ; aMuaMu?
ta& cef;cef; ravQmhaom ZGJvHkYv? 0D&d, pdkufxkwfí
usihfBuH EdkifpGrf;&Sdoljzpf&rnf/
,cktcg tcsdKU w&m;jyq&mwdkUonf rdrd touf
xdyg;&ef rqdkxm;ESifh?
wpfem&DrQ cE¨m'ku©udkyif
onf;rcHEdkifMuay/
w&m;usifholwdkUuvnf;
w&m;&Sm&mrSm
tcktcH
arGU,m
awGe JU
ouf om&m&Sm Mu?
td r fr Sm aeawmhv nf;
Zd r fus?
w&m;xdki fa wmh vnf; Zd r fc H NyD; w&m;usifha eMuonf/
tb,frSm w&m;&Edkifawmhrnfenf;/
2/ OZk - (ajzmifhrwfjcif;) w&m;usihfaom a,m*Donf w&m;
usihf&mü
q&mñTefMum;aom
enf;vrf;twdkif;
aoGznfjcif; r&Sd? wajzmifhwnf; usihf&rnf/
3/ ok[kZk - (txl;ajzmifhrwfjcif;) w&m;usihfaom a,m*Donf
w&m;usih f & mü
q&mñT e f M um;aom
enf ; vrf ; twd k i f ; tenf ; i,f r Q aoG z ,f j cif ; r&Sd
txl ; ajzmih f r wf p G m wajzmifhwnf; usihf&rnf/
4/ ok 0 apm pó - (qd k qH k ; rvG ,f j cif ; (od k Y ) q&morm;\
ñTefMum;rIudk

em;vnfvG,fjcif;?

q&mpum;

em;axmifjcif;)

w&m;usih f a om a,m*D o nf w&m;usih f & mü q&m

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

77

ñT e f M um;aom enf ; vrf ; tay:ü em;vnf oabm
aygufatmif emcH,ljcif;? q&mowfrSwfaom pnf;urf;
rsm;udk
vdkufemjcif;?
q&mrvdkvm;onfrsm;udk
rjyKvkyfjcif; paom*kPfrsm;ESihf jynfh&rnf/
5/ rk'k - (El;nHhjcif;) w&m;usihfrnfh a,m*Donf udk,frI?
EIwfrI? pdwfrIwdkYü cufxefMurf;wrf;jcif; r&Sd&/
6/ tewdrmed - (rmefr&S&d jcif;) w&m;usihfaom a,m*Donf
avmuDtm½Hk0w¬Kç ynmç *kPfwdkYESihf rdrd \oDvç
orm"d tusihfwdkYü igrSpGrf;Edkifonf[laom rmefr&Sd&/
7/ oEÅKóaum - (a&mifh&JvG,fjcif;) w&m;usihfaoma,m*Donf
w&m;tm;xkwfrI wavQmufü rdrdESihf oifhawmfrnfh tpm
tm[m&udk rQw½Hkavmufom oHk;aqmifEdkif&rnf/ tqD
tqdrfhpm;jcif;ESihf
Adkufjynfhatmifw0BuD;pm;vQif
udk,fvuf av;vH jcif; ? idk uf jrnf; jcif; ? tpmraMu
jzpf wwf jcif; ? a&m*g&vG,fjcif;jzpfum w&m;usihf&mü
taESmifht,Suf jzpfwwfonf/
8/ ok ba&m
(arG ; jrLvG , f j cif ; )
rdr d w&m;usih fE d ki f z dkY twG uf pdwfudk tm½Hkajcmufyg;
umr*kPfw&m;wdkYü
repfarsmapyJ
edAÁmefodkY
a&S;½IEkdifaompdwfjzihf arG;jrLwwf&rnf/
9/ tyÜudapöm - (trIudpöenf;jcif;) w&m;usihfaoma,m*Donf
w&m;tm;xkw fr I
wavQmufü
jyKzG ,fu dp ö
rsm;aevQif w&m;usihfrIü ysufjym;aponf/
10/ ov’[ku0kwåd - (ayghyg;rI&Sdjcif;) w&m;usihfaoma,m*Donf
w&m;tm;xk w f r I
wavQmuf ü
a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

78

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

toH k ; taqmif y pö n f ;
enf ; &rnf /
toH k ; taqmif y pö n f ;
rsm;cJ h a omf
w&m;
tm;xk wfa epOf aMumihfM updw fr sm; jzpfa y:í orm"d
taESmifht,Suf jzpfwwfonf/ iSufuJhodkY ayghyg;aom0ef
&Sd&rnf/
11/ oEÅd`E´da,m - (Nidrfoufaom £a`E´&Sdjcif;) w&m;usihfaom
a,m*Donf
udk,frI?
EIwfrI?
pdwfrIwdkYü
NidrfoufrI&Sdae&rnf/
12/ edyaum - (&ifhusufaom ynm&Sdjcif;) w&m;tm;xkwf&mü
vdktyfaom tbd"r®mynmESihf jynfhpHkjcif;? t&m&mudk
[kwf\?
rSef\?
oifhawmf\?
roifhawmf\?
cGJjcrf;pdwfjzm oHk;oyfwwfaom ynm&Sd&rnf/
13/ tyÜ*aAÇm - (Murf;wrf;½dkif;jyrI r&Sdjcif;) olawmfaumif;wdkYESihf
ravsmfnDaom tjyKtrltajymtqdkpaom udk,ftrlt&m?
EIwftrlt&m? pdwftrlt&mwdkY cufxefMurf;wrf;rI r&SdyJ
El;nHhaysmhajymif; odrfarGUrI &Sdae&rnf/
14/ ukavoGeEk*da'¨g - (aqGrsKd; rdwfaqGwdkYESihf rqufqHjcif;)
r*fzdkvfvdkvm;aoma,m*Donf
A[d'¨tm½Hkjzpfaom
aqGrsKd; rdwfo*F[? 'g,um? 'g,dumrwdkYESihf
qufqHrIrsm;u
tusihfvnf;ysuf?
orm"dvnf;
ysufvG,fonf/
15/ e p ck'´rmpa& udÍöd? a,e 0dnL ya& Oy0a',sKH–
r*fzdkvfvdkvm;aom
a,m*DwdkYonf
r*fzdkvfESifhqefYusifaom
jrLrIefrQao;i,faom
a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

79

tukodkvfudkyif rjyKvkyf&/ ynm&SdwdkY uJh&JUukef\/
jrLrIefrQ
tukodkvfyif
ry,fEdkifu
BuD;rm;aom
25
tukodkvfqdkvQif y,fEdkifawmhrnfr[kwfay/
y"med,*Fgw&m; (5) yg;
w&m;tm;xkwfaom
a,m*Donf
y"med,*Fgig;yg;ESihf jynfhpHk&rnf/
1/o'¨ gw&m;&Sd jcif ; - &wemoHk; yg;ay:ü ,H kM unfr Io'¨g
&Sd & rnf /
q&m\
ñT e f M um;rI e nf ; vrf ;
tay:üvnf ;
,HkMunfrI
&Sd&rnf/
o'¨gAdkvfESihf
jynfhpHk&rnf/
2/usef;rma&;ESihfjynfhpHkjcif;- tema&m*g uif;a0;jcif;aMumihf
Owk o H k ; yg;'Pf ?
tm[m&'Pf ?
w&m;usih f r I
'Pf w d k Y rS cHEdkif&nf&Sdojzihf w&m;usihf&mü taESmifhr,Suf
r&Sdawmhay/
3/pdwfxm;ajzmifhrwfjcif; - raumif;aom pdwfrsm; jzpfonfh
yifu dk, fo bm0 vS nf hp m;wwf jcif; ? y&d ,m,f r sm;jcif; ?
aumufuspfpOf;vJjcif; paom raumif;aom tusihfp½dkuf
wdkYonf w&m;usifhaomtcg ADZoabmtjzpf ygvmaom
tusifhwdkYaMumihf udk,fhw&m;udk,fzsufovdk jzpfwwfonf/
rl& if; pdw fxm;
ajzmifh r Se fol wd kY onf
25

ck'´uygXygVd? arwåokwåH

a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

80

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

w&m;usih f& müvnf;
ajzmif h a jzmif h r wf r wf
usih f o H k ; wwf o jzih f w&m;&rI vG,fulonf/
4/ZGJvHkYvxufoefjcif;- vHkYvBuD;rm;rI&Sdjcif;aMumihf tcuftcJ
rsm;udk ausmfvTm;EdkifNyD; usifhpOfwavQmuf aygufajrmuf
vG,fulonf/
5/ÓPf&nfxufjrufjcif; - 0dyóem[lonf ÓPft&m
jzpfonf/ yifudk,fobm0tm;jzihf ydkif;jcm; pdwfjzm
oHk;oyf
wwfaom
ÓPfudk
tm;jyKwwfaom
tavh&Sdaomolonf
trSm;enf;NyD;
tcuftcJudk
ausmfvTm;Edkifojzihf w&m; &vG,fonf/
w&m;usifholwdkY\ pdwfxm;ESifhcH,lcsuf
&[ef ; wd k Y
rD ; avmif a om
t0wf y k q d k ; ud k
aomf¤if;
OD;acgif;udkaomf¤if;
vspfvsL½Ií ESvHk;roGif; rlí xdk;xGif;rod&ao;aom
t&d,mwdkY\
trSefw&m;
av;yg;wdkYudk
[kwfwdkif;rSefpGm
xdk;xGif;odjcif;tusdK;iSm
tvdk]qE´}vHkYvtm;xkwfrI
tjyif;txeftm;xkwfrI
rqkwfrepfatmufarhrI qifjcifÓPfudk jyKvkyf&rnf/
tb,fav;yg;wdkYenf;? qif;&Jjzpfaom t&d,mwdkY\
trSefw&m;/y/26

26

r[m0*¾oH,kwfygVdawmf jrefrmjyef? opöoH,kwf? oDoyg0e0*f?
apvokwf ESm-391

a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

81

w&m;usifhaom a,m*Donf tdkjcif;? emjcif;? aojcif;
qif;&J?
tyg,fab;qif;&JwdkYudk
txl;
aMumuf&GHU
pdk;&drfae&NyD; igonf'Db0'DomoemrSmrS vGwfajrmufatmif
rusifhbl;qdkvQif igha vmufr d ku fo nfh yk* ¾dK vf r&S dbl; [lí
jyif; jyif; xef xef tm;xkwfvdkaom pdwfxm; &Sd&rnf/
w&m;usifhrIonf
b0ü
tvGe f
ta&;BuD; NyD;
taqmwvsif jyK&rnfh tvky f [lí od x m;&rnf u d k
jrwf p G m bk& m;&S i f o nf
txuf y gtwd k i f ;
a[mMum;xm;onf/
]]"eH paZ t*F0&ó a[wk? t*ø paZ ZD0dwH &u©rmaem/
t*ø "eH ZD0dwÍömyd oAÁH? paZ ea&m "r®rEkó&aEÅm/}}27

txufyg
0dok'd¨r*fvm
a&S;q&mwdkY
tqdktrdefYESifhtnD
a,m*Donf
ypönf;OpömESifh
rdrd\
t*FgajcvufwdkYwGif wpfckck pGefY&rnf qdkvQif rdrd\
t*Fgajcvufudk
rpGefYç
ypönf;Opömudkom
tqHk;½HI;cH
pGefYvdrfhrnf/ rdrd\ t*FgajcvufESifh rdrd\ touf wdkYwGif
wpfckck pGefY&rnf qdkvQif rdrd\toufudk rpGefY? rdrd\
t*Fgajcvufudkom tqHk;½HI;cH pGefYvdrfhrnf/ rdrd\toufudk
rnfonfhowå0grS
pGefYvTwfvdrfhrnfr[kwf/
w&m;tm;xkwfaom a,m*Donf rdrdtvdk&Sdaom r*fzdkvfudk
&rnfqdkvQif udk,ft*Fg tpdwf t yd ki f; taoG; ? tom;?
27

0dok'¨dr*¾t|uxm y-wGJ? ESm-43

a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

82

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

taMum? t½dk; wdkY ysufp D; qHk; ½HI; cH ½Hkwifr u rd r d \
touf ud ky g pGe fY í usifhE dki fa om cH,lcsuf o'¨g? qE´ESifh
jynfhpHkrI &Sd&rnf/
,ckt cg tcsdK Uaom w&m;jyq&mwdkU onf rdr d wdkU
udk ,f wdk i f
ouf ouf omom
tacsmif a eNyD;
0dy óemÓPf
qdkufatmif
rusifhvmbJ
a[mwwff
ajymwwf&efavmufom oifwef;wufvmojzifh rdrdtoufudk
riJhuGuf&ef rqdkxm;ESifh? jcifudkufonfudkyif onf;rcHEdkifyg/
aumovtdyfruftwdkif;
wpf o d e f ; wef o nfh
pE´ u l ; tES p f E S i f h wl a om opö m av;yg; w&m;awmfudk
qif;&Jom;wdkU\
yHk;&nfESifh
wlonfh
tojymESifh
vJp m;aeMuNyD/
xdk U aMumif h
wynfhw dk U udk vnf;
tacsmifa e
oufoufomom
usifhpOfrsm;ay;vsuf
usifhcdkif;aeMuonf/
q&mhtay:ü twk,lzG,f ,HkMunfrI
oD [ d k V f E d k i f i H ü omoem xG e f ; vif ; awmuf y pOf u
pl V yd @ ygwd u wd ó rax&f x H
w&m;usih f v d k o nf h
a,m*D
&[ef;i,foHk;yg;
a&muf&Sdvmaomtcg
xdk& [ef;oHk ;yg;tm;
rax&fBuD;u
q&morm;ESihf
ur®|mef;w&m;tay: rnfrQavmuf ,HkMunf udk;pm;
tm;xm;aMumif; ar;prf;awmfrl \/ yxr &[ef;i,fu
t&Sifbk&m;twGuf
tusKd; &SdrnfqdkvQif
bk&m;
wynfhawmfonf
tvGefw&m
eufonfh
tolw&macsmufxJ
ckefcsay;0Hhygonf
bk&m;[k
a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

83

jyefavQmufxm;ygonf/
'kwd,
&[ef ; i,f u
t&S i f b k & m;twG u f tusKd ; &Sd r nf qd k v Qif zaemihfup
acgif;odkYusatmif
ausmufjyifay:ü
aoG;vSLí
&rnfqdkvQifvnf; vSL0Hhygonfbk&m;/ wwd, &[ef;i,fu
t&Sifbk&m;twGuf aq;0g;tjzpf toHk;jyKvdku tusKd;&Sdrnf
qdkvQif bk&m;wynhfawmf \ 0ifouf xGufoufudk
ydwfqdkYNyD; ao0Hhygonf bk&m;[k avQmufxm;Muonf/28
þuJ ho dkY w&m;usihfa oma,m*Do nf q&maumif;
q&mrSefE Si fh awGUvQifaomfrS q&mtay:ü toufudk
pGe fYí tm;ud k; aom ,Hk Munfc suf ? rdr d w&m;usih f& mü
touf ud k pGefYEdkifaom o'¨g qE´wdkYjzifh jynfh0rSomvQif
r*fzdkvf &Edkifrnf jzpfonf/ q&mESifh w&m;tay:
aps;qpfaeaom yk*d¾Kvfrsm;ESifh touf E S i f h cE¨ m ud k , f u k d
iJ h u G u f a om yk * d ¾ K vf r sm; twG u f r*fw&m;zdkvfw&m;
jzpfvmrnfr[kwfay/
twk,lzG,f cH,lcsuf
uóyjrwfpGmbk&m;
omoemaemufydkif;umvü
&[ef;
(5)yg;wdkY onf
awmif uvyfa y:
wufí
w&m;usif h& mwGi f jyefvrf;&SdvQif toufü iJhuGufrI&Sdí
&oifhaom r*fzdkvfw&m;rS qH k ; ½IH ; rnf u d k pd k ; &d r f & um;
&J & J a wmuf
pd w f x m;&Sd M uum
tjyefvrf;
awmifwufavSum;udk pGefYypfvdkufNyD; toufü iJhuGufrI
28

0dok'¨dr*ft|uxm? yxrwGJ-49 ESm-112

a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

84

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

r&SdyJ ]]vlaovQif ao? raovQif w&m;&}} &rnf
[laom
o'¨g
qE´
ponfh
cH,lcsufjzifh
w&m;usifhMuonf/ xdkuJhodkY w&m;usihf&mwGif qGrf;rpm;
a&raomuf oufpGefY BudK;yrf; tm;xkwfMujcif;onf
r*fzdkvfedAÁmef vdkcsifaomaMumifh jzpfonf/ toufpGefY
usifh&usKd;eyfygonf/
tBuD;qHk;
rax&f
onf
(3)&uf a jrmuf ü
touf r aoyJ
t&[wå r *f u l ; um
&[EÅ m jzpf a vonf / 'k w d , ajrmuf tEk a x&f v nf ;
(5)&ufajrmufü
oufpGefYBudK;yrf;
tm;xkwfrI\
qkvmbftjzpf tem*grdr*fodkY ul;ajrmufcJhavonf/
usefrax&f(3)yg;wdkYrSmrl &[EÅmESifh tem*grfrax&fwdkY
qGr f; cHa uR;onfh qG r f ; udky if vufr cHy J touf p Ge fY
w&m;
usifhc Jhavonf/
xdkodkY usifhaomfvnf;
xdkb0r*fz dkvfr&MuyJ
toufcE¨m
0efcscJhMu&onf/
udk,fESifhtouf
riJhuGufrlí
w&m;usif h c J h a om
xd k & [ef ; (3)yg;wd k Y \ w&m;usih f r I o nf yg&rDajrmuf
usifhrIjzpfojzifh ¤if;yg&rDOyedó, t&dSefaMumifh ,ck
a*gwr jrwf p G m bk & m; omoemwG i f vG , f u l p G m
t&[wåzdkvfayguf a&muf&Sd&jcif; jzpfonf/29
w&m;usif hr nfh
a,m*Do nf
xdk& [ef; (5)yg;wd kY u Jho dkY
touf u d k
pG e f Y í
w&m;tm;xk w f v d k o nfh o'¨ g qE´ \ cH,lcsufrsm;
tjynfht0xm;NyD; w&m;usihfrS r*fzdkvf edAÁmef w&m;&rnf
29

rlvyPÖmot|uxm 'kwd,wGJ? 0r®duokwåeftzGifh? ESm-34

a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

85

jzpfonf/ odkYr[kwfvQif omoemESifh BuHKomBuHKí edAÁmefESifh
vGJum oHo&m0JMoC twGif;rS rvGwfajrmufEdkifyJ
rdrdESajrmvSonfh
touf
rnfrQ
aoqHk;&rnfudk
rodEdkifawmhNyD/ ,ck omoemrSm wpfb0 wpfcE¨m
taocH (odkY) temcH &if;ESD;pdkufxkwfí q&maumif;
enf;aumif;jzifh usifhEdkifygu tyg,f ' k * ¾ w d c E¨ m &í
'k u © c H p m;&rI ? xd k ' k u © c E¨ m awG U &NyD ; cPcP ao&rI ?
ol w yg; towf c H & rI r S aocsmayguf vGw fa jrmufr nf/
vuf &Sd
ypöK yÜe f c E¨m ESi f h
tyg,f' k* ¾wd c E¨m
ajrmuf r sm;pG m ud k tvJ t vS , f jyKvk y f & rnf / xd k Y aMumif h
w&m;usifhrnfha,m*Donf q&maumif;enf;aumif; awGU&SdvQif
toufESifh cE¨mudk,fudk riJhuGufyJ usifhBuHtm;xkwfEdkif&rnf/
owåd,m0d, Mora|m?
',Srmaem0 rwåau/
ouúm,'d|ð y[mem,?
oawm bdu©K y&dAÁaZ/30
owå d , m?
toG m ;xuf v S
oH v H S r BuD ; jzif h / Mora|m0d, ? &ifudk pl;pdkuf
txdk;cHvdkufbd ouJhodkY vnf;aumif;? rwåau?
OD;acgif;xufü/ ',Srmaem0? [l ; [l ; ajymif a jymif
rD ; avmif o nf h
ab;rS
vG w f & ef
tvG e f
ta&;BuD ; bd o uJ h o d k Y vnf ; aumif ; ? oawm bdu©K ?
owd ynm xifpGm jyKwwf a,m*Djrwfonf
30

o*gxm0*¾ygVd? a'0wmoH,kwåH? owåd0a*¾g? owådokwåH-21

a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

86

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)
ouú m ,'d | ð ? b0rsm;pG m oH o &mrS m pl ; 0if z d o wf
tyg,f a v;&yf o d k Y
uswwf a ponfh
'd | d a b;BuD ; ud k
y[mem,?
jrwf a omwmyef " mwf
r*¾ i f j rwf j zif h
tjrpf y ,f E k w f j cif ; iS m y&d A Á a Z? tysif ; tzsif ;
a&Smifwdr f;jcif;wdkY udk
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a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

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a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

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a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

142

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t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

143

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a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

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t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

145

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a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

146

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)
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a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

147

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a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

148

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

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a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

149

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a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

150

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a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

151

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a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

152

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t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

153

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a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

154

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a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

155

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a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

156

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a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

t&Sipf E´rd m(atmifvH)

157

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a,m*DtajccHodrSwfzG,f

158

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