DFM Design for Manufacturing—incorporating design features that make the manufacturing easier, cheaper and/or faster.

Proiectarea pentru fabricaţie este arta de inginerie generala de proiectare a produselor. Într-un limbaj simplu înseamnă o relativă uşurinţă pentru fabricarea unui produs, reper sau ansamblu. Etapa de proiectare este foarte importanta în realizarea produsului. Cele mai multe din costurile ciclului de viaţă ale produsului sunt comise la faza de proiectare. De obicei, un inginer de design va crea un model sau desen şi-l va trimite la fabricaţie pentru reexaminare şi feedback. Acest proces este numit ca revizuirea proiectarii. Dacă acest proces nu este urmat cu sârguinţă, produsul poate eşua în faza de fabricaţie, va conduce la proiectarea iterativă, pierdere de timp de fabricaţie. Initial sniff test - testarea initiala Evaluating the product to see if it makes sense. May have internal or external evaluations. Benchmarking Comparing one product or service to another product or service, which is the standard in its industry TRIZ Theory of Inventive Problem Solving―a methodology for generating ideas for new systems or refining old systems Pugh analysis A decision-making method of comparing multiple options against multiple criteria Focus group A group of people gathered by marketing departments to seek opinions about a product or service design, ad, packaging, etc. Scorecard - fisa de punctaj O colectie de măsurători despre un produs sau serviciu care urmaresc comportamentul său, performanţa sau alte caracteristici importante. VOC Voice of the Customer—process of determining the customer’s desires and needs by asking them VOC analysis,ad-hoc VOC analysis Voice of the Customer—process of determining the customer’s desires and needs by asking them QFD Quality Function Deployment—a group decision-making process that converts the VOC to product features and engineering characteristics with priorities and targets

Risk analysis Identification of those areas of the product and its development.Product architecture The overall design of the product. sales. Frequently results in creation of modules and submodules. which could have a negative impact on cost or schedule. finance. including interfaces with other products or systems. marketing. DOE Design of Experiments —a method of gathering information about a product or process that has variation DFMA Design for Manufacturing and Assembly Incorporarea caracteristicilor de design care pot face fabricaţia şi montajul simplu. DFMEA. Team colocation Locating members of the cross-functional team in the same physical room to improve the interactions. low-risk items prior to completion of design 3 Phase in / Phase out The planning of the new product introduction and old product obsolescence Cross-functional team Using internal or external people from different disciplines within a company. mai ieftin şi / sau mai rapid. incorporation of planned and future options and future extensions of the product line. BOM Bill of Materials—the list of subassemblies. See also Risk Analysis. service and quality. May use different techniques in the design and manufacturing phases. parts and raw materials that are part of an assembly. FMEA (Design) Failure Mode and Effects Analysis —a method of identifying potential failures in a product or process during the design phase and assessing their effects on the overall product or process. Typically includes engineering. manufacturing. which improves a product’s long-term reliability . Change management The techniques for tracking and controlling changes to the product. DFR Design for Reliability —incorporating design features. including the quantity required of each―Risk buys‖ Early purchase of long-lead. See DFMEA and PFMEA.

throughout manufacturing. scule. Frecvent facut cu un client-cheie care va oferi un feedback important pentru echipa de produs. Beta test Primul test al produsului în afara companiei. după care are loc evenimentul. MRP Manufacturing Resource Planning—a method of planning the needs of all of the resources of a company Process MAPS A description. ne-funcționare. . and even into the field “Chicken” test Un test critic folosit pentru a determina comportamentul unui produs sau proces în condițiile sale cele mai vulnerabile. ECRB Engineering Change Review Board —a formal meeting involving representatives from different departments to discuss a proposed change to a product or document. payroll. Also includes responsible people and measures of success.) into a single software package. lending a guiding hand that allows you to focus on creativity and ideas. Se poate face in avans sau. etc . Implică repetabilitatea şi reproductibilitatea de piese. serviciului şi a proceselor desfăşurate în în curs de dezvoltare a produsului sau serviciului după ce produsul sau serviciul este lansat. defining the steps taken for a given process or processes. Our expertise in electronics can provide crucial insights and solutions early in product design. metoda şi specificaţii. accounting. Post-mortem reviews O verificare formală a produsului. Gage R&R testing Testele de precizie a unui sistem de măsurare prin masurarea variabilitatii acestuia. frequently graphical.DFR Solutions works with companies and individuals throughout the life cycle of a product. Risk mitigation Reducerea riscurilor Măsurile luate pentru a minimiza efectele unor evenimente negative cum ar fi întârzieri în program. Numit după testulfolosit de NASA pentru a simula o pasăre lovind un motor de avion. etc. ERP Enterprise Resource Planning —a system that integrates all of a company’s data and processes (manufacturing.

Design Goals Design goals are a translation of the voice of the customer (VOC) into tentative and measurable design objectives. Product Assurance Plan The product assurance plan translates design goals into design requirements. but is not limited to. product positioning. Quality goals are targets based on continual improvement . research and development (R&D) resources) on the team that affect the direction taken. cost. investment. Reliability and Quality Goals Reliability goals are established based on customer wants and expectations. spre un alt produs al companiei Portfolio simplification A reduction of the many variants of a product to reduce the number of different products produced Preliminary obsolescence plan Plan preliminar de de uzură morală Planul preliminar de uzură morală a produsului sau serviciului prin declanșarea unor tranziţii cunoscute componente Business Plan / Marketing Strategy The customer business plan and marketing strategy will set the framework for the product quality plan. The marketing strategy will define the target customer. Preliminary Bill of Material The team should establish a preliminary bill of material based on product/process assumptions and include an early subcontractor list. Transition / Migration plan Un plan pentru deplasarea clienţilor de la produsul care se uzeaza moral. the following actions: . To identify the preliminary special product/process characteristics. (It) should include.Real-time monitoring The process of monitoring the performance of a product or service in real time after it is launched. the key sales points and key competitors. program objectives and reliability benchmarks…Overall reliability goals should be expressed in terms of probability and confidence limits. timing. it is necessary to have selected the appropriate design and manufacturing process. Preliminary Process Flow Chart The anticipated manufacturing process should be described using a process flow chart developed from the preliminary bill of material (BOM) and product/process assumptions. The business plan may place constraints (for example.

Management Support This is an APQP deliverable.• Outlining of program requirements • Identification of reliability. or any other factor that may place the program at risk • Development of failure mode analysis (FMA) • Development of preliminary engineering standards requirements The product assurance plan is an important part of the product quality plan [3]. Prototype Build – Control Plan Prototype control plans are a description of the dimensional measurements and material and functional tests that will occur during prototype build…All prototypes that are the product quality planning team’s responsibility should be reviewed to: • Assure that the product or service meets specification and report data as required • Ensure that particular attention has been given to special product and process characteristics • Use data and experience to establish preliminary process parameters and packaging requirements • Communicate any concerns. In general. Design for Manufacturability and Assembly Design for manufacturability and assembly is a simultaneous engineering process designed to optimize the relationship between design function. application. Almost always. complexity. concept. the prototype is not built using production tooling and equipment. and each company has a slightly different perspective on its meaning. the company should inform and renew management support at least at the conclusion of every phase of product quality planning . which emphasizes that internally. function and sensitivity to manufacturing variation • Manufacturing and/or assembly process • Dimensional tolerances • Performance requirements • Number of components • Process adjustments • Materials handling Design Reviews Design reviews are regularly scheduled meetings led by the supplier’s design engineering activity and must include other affected areas…A major function of design reviews is the tracking of design verification progress . so it serves limited (but still useful) . packaging. deviations and/or cost impact to the customer Prototype Build The term prototype does not have a standard definition. manufacturability and ease of assembly…At a minimum. service and manufacturing requirements. the items listed here should be considered by the product quality planning team : • Design. environment. durability and apportionment/allocation goals and/or requirements • Assessment of new technology. materials. the prototype is built to generate a physical property for engineering testing.

Some companies use other terms such as ECR (engineering change request). New Equipment. ECO (Engineering Change Order) This is a document that initiates engineering to change drawings or specifications for a part. Process Flow Charts The process flow chart is a schematic representation of the current or proposed process flow. (Activities must be in place to) assure that the new equipment and tooling is capable and delivered on time . Engineering Specifications Engineering specifications include the controlling specifications that identify the parameters for functionality. Packaging Standards The customer will usually have packaging standards that should be incorporated into any packaging specifications for the product. interim repair stations and storage areas to contain defective material. In the engineering test section of a specification. Engineering drawings may include special (governmental regulatory and safety) characteristics that must be shown on the control plan. it is very important that the prototype meets specification and is in compliance with the prototype build – control plan.manufacturing learning. . materials. math data or other means. methods and manpower from the beginning to end of a manufacturing or assembly process. applicability of visual aids. It is a disciplined review and analysis of a new/revised process and is conducted to anticipate. durability and appearance of the subject product. there will be included acceptance criteria of these parameters of the product. It can be used to analyze sources of variations of machines. product assurance plan and/or design reviews may identify new equipment and facilities requirements. Companies often have to maintain a rigorous tracking of their changes through a configuration management activity. If none are provided. If the prototype is being built for use by a customer who is validating their own product. Process FMEA A PFMEA should be conducted during product quality planning and before beginning production. All material flow should be keyed to the process flow chart and control plan . A PFMEA is a living document and needs to be reviewed and updated as new failure modes are discovered . resolve or monitor potential process problems for a new/ revised product program. It is used to emphasize the impact of sources of variation on the process . Tooling and Facilities Requirements The DFMEA. Engineering Drawings (including Math Data) Engineering drawings are representation of the product and processes as drawings. Floor-Plan Layout The floor plan should be developed and reviewed to determine the acceptability of inspection points. control chart location. the packaging design should ensure product integrity at point of use .

the packaging design must assure that the product performance and characteristics will remain unchanged during packing. The packaging should have compatibility with all material handling equipment.Design Verification Design verification verifies that the product design meets the customer requirements derived from the activities (plan and define program) . In all cases. transit and unpacking. performance specifications. Preliminary Process Capability Study The characteristics identified in the control plan will serve as the basis for the preliminary process capability study plan . visual standards and industry standards • Process flowchart • Floor-plan layout • Characteristics matrix • Packaging standards • Process parameters • Producer expertise and knowledge of the processes and products • Handling requirements • Operators of the process Pre-Launch Control Plan: A description of the dimensional measurements and material and functional test that will occur after prototype and before full production. The pre-launch control plan should include additional product/process controls to be implemented until the production process is validated. material specifications. with production operators or at production rate. Because most companies do not build their pilot builds at production rate. they would not be acceptable for use as final production validation activity. Process Instructions …process instructions provide sufficient detail for all operating personnel who have direct responsibility for the operation of the processes. . the pilot is built to generate further physical properties for engineering testing. it can serve as a manufacturing validation activity where process capability is assessed. which happens during the production trial run. Packaging Evaluation Customer packaging standards or generic packaging requirements should be used when appropriate. including robots. If the pilot is built on production tooling. The purpose of the pre-launch control plan is to contain potential nonconformances during or prior to initial production runs Pilot Run The term pilot does not have a standard definition. In general. These instructions should be developed from the following sources : • FMEAs • Control plan(s) • Engineering drawings. and each company has a slightly different perspective on its meaning.

manufacturing tooling and equipment needs to be repaired or rebuilt.Comercialization / Sustaining Tooling and Equipment Repair/Rebuild Sometimes. Production Part Approval If the product customer is another manufacturer who requires the use of the production part approval process. When this happens. certain rigorous steps are required to revalidate the repair and assure that the parts made from the repaired tooling and equipment does not adversely affect downstream operations. a new production part approval must be sought once the manufacturing equipment or tooling is repaired. rebuilt or remanufactured .

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