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Electrostatic Precipitators

For nearly a century, since Dr. Frederick Cottrell's invention, electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) have been the primary air pollution control technology for particulate control on power generation and industrial processes throughout the world.
ESPs can be designed to meet stringent particulate emission standards with minimal pressure loss and high equipment reliability for extended plant operation. Hamon Research-Cottrell has an installed base of over 5,100 ESPs in numerous industries including:

     

Power generation  Petrochemical and oil refineries Sinter plants  Cement plants  Heating plants  Metallurgical 

Paper mills Waste incineration Sludge incineration Flue gas desulfurization Industrial and waste heat boilers Coke production

Hamon Research-Cottrell provides a full range of equipment for dry electrostatic precipitators, including preassembled and panel type collecting plates, durable rigid discharge electrodes, mechanical or electromagnetic rapping devices and a full range of microprocessor controls.

ESP Fundamentals

General Description

Precipitator Operating Principle

medium. Electrostatic Precipitator Sizing Electrostatic precipitators have been used in many industries. Particles in the medium resistivity range are the most acceptable for electrostatic precipitators. which has units of ohm-cm. Resistivity levels are generally broken down into three categories:    low. refinery and petrochemical. The electrodes. Particles in the low range are easily charged. Although the physical operation of a precipitator is simple and essentially the same for each industry. Factors that influence precipitator sizing are:       gas volume precipitator inlet loading precipitator outlet loading outlet opacity particulate resistivity particle size Resistivity is a term used to describe the resistance of a medium to the flow of an electrical current. emit negatively charged ions into the gas and to the grounded collecting plates. is the electrical resistance of a dust sample 1 cm2 in cross sectional area and 1 cm thick. V is the gas volume and w is the precipitation rate. resistivity. collection. 1x108 to 2x1011 ohm-cm and high. The exponent y is a variable based on test data for each specific application.Particles suspended in a gas enter the precipitator and pass through ionized zones around the high voltage discharge electrodes. they rapidly lose their negative charge . By definition. The typical equation used in precipitator sizing is the modified Deutsch equation: Where A is the collecting electrode surface area. several examples are cement. above 2x1011 ohm-cm. dislodging and disposal. the sizing of a precipitator is more complex combining both art and science. under 1x108 ohm-cm. through a corona effect. however upon contact with the collecting electrodes. involving particle charging. pulp and paper and power generation.

Particle size of the incoming particulate has a dramatic impact on the sizing of an electrostatic precipitator.0 watts per square foot of collecting electrode area for a precipitator. Conductive chemical species. The fabric filter dust layer acts as a fixed bed where high acid gas removal efficiency can take place.c. This pressure drop penalty for a fabric filter will be somewhat offset by its lower power consumption which can run as high as 2. such as flue gas moisture and ash chemistry. For low sulfur utility applications. Resistivity is influenced by flue gas temperature and conditioning agents. allowing collected materials to be dislodged without excessive force. the larger the ash particle size. In those cases where high resistivity is encountered. acid gas removal capability is much reduced. such as sulfur and sodium will tend to reduce resistivity levels while insulating species. other technologies become more cost effective. In the power industry. The "G" Opzel collecting electrodes are sheet steel roll-formed into panel plates that are shop welded together into assemblies which reduces field installation time. When operating downstream of a spray dryer absorber. The design characteristics of the collecting plate are important for efficiency and long-term reliable operation. AL2O3 and Ca will tend to increase resistivity. Typically. known as a collecting plate. Collected materials accumulate on the collecting plate surface and are periodically removed by Rappers. Particles in the high resistivity category may cause back corona which is a localized discharge at the collecting electrode due to the surface being coated by a layer of non-conductive material. When are Electrostatic Precipitators not a suitable solution? As the size of the required precipitator increases. operating costs need to be included. Applications such as Fluid Catalytic Cracking Units and Recovery Boilers. The structural integrity of the collecting plate assembly is assured by rolled tube stiffened plate girder section at the top and bottom. removal efficiencies of 90% or greater can be attained for some species when operating in conjunction with a fabric filter. This assembly has also been found to be very dynamically responsive during rapping. fabric filters are an attractive alternative. As part of the overall precipitator/fabric filter cost evaluation. exhibit very fine particulate.and are re-entrained back into the gas stream to either escape or to be recharged by the corona field. which have particle resistivity in the medium range. generally the higher the fuel ash content. Hamon Research-Cottrell's "G" Opzel™ collecting electrode incorporates our traditional Optimum Precipitation Zone Electrode design that provides quiescent zones to aid in particulate collection and to reduce re-entrainment during rapping. pressure drop. The size of the precipitator must be increased in these cases because the fine particulate is easily re-entrained into the gas stream. range whereas an electrostatic precipitator will have approximately a 1" w. flue gas conditioning with SO3 can reduce resistivity to a more optimum value thus reducing the size of the precipitator needed.c. such as the utility industry when low sulfur coal is being fired. SO2. such as SiO 2. the pressure drop across a flange to flange fabric filter will be in the 6 to 8" w. Another benefit of a fabric filter is high acid gas. Precipitator Collecting Electrodes The basic principle of electrostatic precipitation involves the movement of charged particles from the gas stream to a grounded surface. fluorides and Hg removal capability. . Since most of the particulate is removed from the collecting electrodes of a precipitator during normal operation. chlorides.

The discharge electrode design. To this end."G" Opzel™ Rapping forces are distributed into the panel sections through the top stiffener and end plates. provide the source of electrical charge by creating a corona discharge. influence the amount of corona discharge that can be applied without excessive sparking. Precipitator Discharge Electrodes Electrostatic precipitators apply an electrical charge to the particulate which causes them to move to the grounded collector plate. today's design has evolved in order to enhance reliability. While many electrostatic precipitators still operate with traditional weighted wire discharge electrodes. which operate at high voltage. This new design incorporates rigid pipe and spike electrodes which can be tailored to the specific requirements for different applications. its relation to the collecting plate. . discharge electrodes are offered in a variety of configurations which typically adjust the number and orientation of the emitting spikes depending on the expected level of corona suppression as may be encountered from higher concentrations of fine particulate. and the nature of the particulate and gas flow. The hyperbolic top end plates transition section distributes the impact stress in the top plate girder section and efficiently transfers the rapping energy into the panel sections of the collector plates. The discharge electrodes.

And. Unlike a tumbling hammer (European) design. the plunger drops by gravity and impacts on a stationary rapper rod that transmits the forces to the ESP collecting plates and discharge electrodes. The roof mounted MIGI® design permits on-line inspection and servicing. Hamon Research-Cottrell utilizes magnetic impulse gravity impact MIGI® rappers on collecting plates and discharge electrodes. The MIGI® rapper is a simple electromagnetic coil that provides a controlled and adjustable lift for its one moving part. low voltage (110 V d.) pulse. After the coil is de-energized. the MIGI® rapper has no moving parts in the gas stream and is not exposed to the erosive effects of the flue gas and particulate. both the frequency and the intensity of the rapping force can be easily changed from the rapper control panel. as service conditions change. a 20 pound plunger. This pulse energizes the coil.c.Rappers Particulate which accumulates on collecting electrode surfaces and on discharge electrodes must periodically be dislodged by rapping the collecting plates and discharge electrodes. ESP Parts ESP Controls     Microprocessor Rapper/Vibrator Control (MRC) Microprocessor Transformer-Rectifier Control (MTC) Central Precipitator Control PrecipCommander™ ESP Power Supplies   Transformer-Rectifier Accessories Transformer-Rectifier Ground Switches ESP Insulator    High Voltage Support Insulators Discharge Electrode Rapper Shaft Insulators Lower Alignment (Anti-Sway) Insulators . generating a magnetic field that lifts the plunger into the phenolic guide tube. Rapping removes particulate to the hoppers for disposal and maintains both the discharge and collecting electrodes in an "operationally" clean condition for proper operation. short duration. Individual rapper operation is initiated by a controlled.

The data is stored in the Transceiver memory so that the DCS can read specific data in an organized fashion. Microprocessor Rapper/Vibrator Control (MRC) The Hamon Research-Cottrell Microprocessor Rapper/Vibrator Control (MRC) is an advanced system designed by precipitator professionals specifically to provide the control required for this performance. As you would expect. repetitive raps. which provides quiescent zones to aide particulate collection and reduce re-entrainment.  Wall Bushings / Feed Through Bushings Insulators Post/Stand Off Insulators ESP Rapping    MIGI Flange Mounted Rapper Electromagnetic Vibrator Pneumatic Rapper ESP Collecting Plates The "G" Opzel™ collecting plate incorporates Hamon Research-Cottrell's traditional OptimumPrecipitation Zone ELectrode design. Plates are sheet steel roll-formed into panel plates that are shop welded together into assemblies. The Transceiver continuously scans all of the controls to gather readings and setpoints. . Its function is to continually maintain a pressure in the Penthouse (or Insulator compartments) that is higher than the operating pressure of the precipitator. ESP Discharge Electrode In addition to standard replacement discharge electrodes for all earlier Research-Cottrell and Buell/GEESI precipitators. vibrator on time and a host of other operating parameters. intensity. ESP Accessories     Access Door Locks Key Transfer Blocks Transformer Rectifier and Circuit Breaker Locks Key Interlock System Design ESP Seal Air System The penthouse or insulator compartment pressurization system (commonly called a Seal Air System) is a vital operating link in your electrostatic precipitator. the performance of the controls are essential for optimum precipitator performance. Hamon Research-Cottrell can supply custom Discharge Electrodes to me your exact specifications. Microprocessor Transformer-Rectifier Control (MTC) Effective energization of a precipitator is essential if the removal efficiencies required today are to be achieved. Precipitator professionals developed the Hamon Research-Cottrell transformer-rectifier controls with experience on virtually every application and set of operating conditions. The controller is easily programmed for rapper cycle time. Central Precipitator Control The Hamon Research-Cottrell Transceiver is used as a bridge between the plants interface Distributed Control System (DCS) and the Hamon Research-Cottrell Microprocessor TR Control (MTC-G3 or MTC-G2) and Microprocessor Rapper Control (MRC) through an RS485 port.

rapper controllers and external digital and analog signals such as opacity. a PT (for primary voltage). The MTC-G3 uses the phase relationship between current and voltage to detect true arcs. When put into service the numerous features will enable the unit to deliver exceptional performance. As you would expect. These features include:    Patented arc detection circuit. The controller reacts to each spark as dictated by the selected phase ramp and ramp rate parameters. a CT (for primary current). signal conditioning board. A backfit package includes the interface panel. When back corona is detected. Proportional spark rate control automatically selects the optimum spark rate. Precipitator professionals developed the Hamon Research-Cottrell transformerrectifier controls with experience on virtually every application and set of operating conditions. microprocessor module. Dual back corona operating modes. Microprocessor Transformer-Rectifier Control (MTC) Effective energization of a precipitator is essential if the removal efficiencies required today are to be achieved. hopper accessory data. dust removal system operating parameters and gas oxygen content. Users are guided through seventeen (17) standard screens that provide detailed information on all TR controllers. MTC-G3 backfit packages can be installed in existing control cabinets in a few hours. . one mode reduces the operating power amplitude while the other activates intermittent energization (IE).PrecipCommander™ Hamon Research-Cottrell can provide a custom designed microcomputer (PC) for control and interface of the ESP. the performance of the controls are essential for optimum precipitator performance. the spark rate will automatically adjust based on changing operating conditions. and an interface cable. Being able to select the best site-specific mode insures top performance. Once these parameters are optimized. Precipcommander™ software will be installed in the PC providing the most advanced precipitator control system available.

The built in peak secondary voltage and peak secondary current limit parameters clamp these inrushes that normally occur when power is reapplied following IE "offtime". contactors.The MTC-G3 proportional spark rate control automatically adjusts programmable parameters such as Phase Back. The display continuously shows: Transformer primary voltage Transformer primary current Instantaneous power Precipitator secondary voltages Precipitator secondary current Alarm/status Spark occurrence Spark rate Arc occurrence Arc rate Messages Electrical limit status Selectable display of SCR firing angle Only one keypad and display unit is necessary to operate up to 32 TR controls. Hamon Research-Cottrell can supply the controls in complete cabinets complete with breakers. Operators are kept aware of the control's normal operation. . alarm conditions and activated operating modes. The MRC rapper keypad and display module can be located next to the MTC-G3 for simplified operation. Ramp.               Peak secondary voltage and current limit protection during IE mode. SCRs and analog gauges (if requested). The MTC-G3 keypad and display module can show more than 40 operating and alarm messages. Hamon Research-Cottrell stocks these components as replacement parts as well as voltage dividers and other accessories to completely upgrade your control system. and Pedestal to optimize usable power levels based on actual precipitator operating conditions.

The DAV-Plus conversion kit includes the control board. slope and endpoint Two stage slow ramp to sparking threshold Targeted spark rate Back Corona Detection and Control A schedule of voltage-current characteristic curves can be set up for Back Corona detection. mounting panel. Adjustability of all spark response parameters during setup allows the full potential of control optimization to be realized. relay and mounting socket and all components such as resisters. These parameters include:      Low energy spark power decrement and recovery ramp High energy spark off-time Fast ramp and conduction angle start.No Action. one of three responses can be selected by the operator . Spark Response An adjustable high-low energy spark discriminator allows selection of the threshold at which the spark response is initiated and the mode of response for the type of spark detected. Once Back Corona is detected. Power Savings Energization. terminal block. The Hamon Research-Cottrell DAVC Plus TR controller offers many of the features of the MTC-G3 but at a lower cost. ground bar and cable for a complete conversion. front panel controller with LCD display and key pad. or limitation of secondary current below onset of Back Corona.Voltage dividers enable older systems to have secondary voltage and current information required by Title V. Other features include:     Self diagnostic software with LED indication Diagnostic routines executed during each power-up Password protection Adjustable limits on both primary and secondary voltage and current Microprocessor Rapper/Vibrator Control . Replacement SCR modules with integral heat sink save installation time and provide a grounded system or added safety.

MRC Features include:         variations. Virtually infinite adjustment of the cycle clock and wait cycle clock times. It is. however. the interval between raps and the duration of vibrator on-time will have a profound effect on energization and minimize the effects of dust re-entrainment. The Transceiver continuously scans all of the controls to gather readings and setpoints.(MRC) MRC Rapper Control. Security code is required to make program changes. group or complete system intensity adjustment capabilities. The controller is easily programmed for rapper cycle time. equipped with an RS485 data communication port. This allows for simple program changes to accommodate process or operating condition Power Off Rapping. Six distinct programs can be saved in memory for use at any time. Individual. Multiple program storage. The intensity of the rapping impact. Malfunctioning rappers are automatically removed from service and an alarm code is displayed. All rapper control parameters can be programmed from the face mounted microprocessor unit. The MRC can be provided in its own freestanding cabinet with output cards mounted in a card cage. intensity. . With the information fed from the transceiver to the central control or DSC. vibrator on time and a host of other operating parameters. Power interruptions of any duration will not affect MRC operation. This feature automatically reduces TR power in the cell to be rapped and returns power when rapping is complete. Significant electrical energy savings may also be realized through the Energy Management features of the Transceiver. Central Precipitator Control The Hamon Research-Cottrell Transceiver is used as a bridge between the plants interface Distributed Control System (DCS) and the Hamon Research-Cottrell Microprocessor TR Control (MTC-G3 or MTC-G2) and Microprocessor Rapper Control (MRC) through an RS485 port. Existing rapper cabinets can be provided with an MRC backfit package that can eliminate the need to disturb exiting precipitator wiring. The data is stored in the Transceiver memory so that the DCS can read specific data in an organized fashion. The microprocessor module is mounted on the cabinet door for ease of programming. repetitive raps. Face mounted programming module. The port can link the MRC to computer or DCS systems for external monitoring and control. All operating values and programmed parameters are displayed on demand on a seven segment LED display. the operator is able to read all information available in each of the TR and rapper controllers and to make adjustments to the operating parameters from the DCS. Proper control of the rapping system will greatly enhance precipitator performance. The Hamon Research-Cottrell Microprocessor Rapper/Vibrator Control (MRC) is an advanced system designed by precipitator professionals specifically to provide the control required for this performance. Non-volatile EEPROM memory.

The HRC precipitator specialist will assist in setting up the most appropriate method for the specific application and site-specific operating conditions. hopper accessory data. intermittent energization mode or SCR firing angle mode. Typical Precipcommander™ screens: Microprocessor Transformer Rectifier Control Electrical Readings Status of analog devices monitored by the Precipcommander™ Normal clock data from the Microprocessor Rapper Controller Layout and identification of equipment being monitored Primary and secondary voltage and current for all of the TR controls ESP Power Supplies Transformer-Rectifier Accessories    Current Limiting Reactors Diode Stacks Transformer-Rectifier High Voltage Bushing Insulator Transformer-Rectifier Ground Switches     Isolation/Ground Switch Enclosure Groundhog Full Wave/Half Wave Switches Deck Switches . dust removal system operating parameters and gas oxygen content.primary voltage limit mode. Precipcommander™ software will be installed in the PC providing the most advanced precipitator control system available. Provide screen layouts. rapper controllers and external digital and analog signals such as opacity. The software can be customized to:          Provide multiple levels of password protection. colors. alarms and other parameters to comply with control room standards Design reports and graphics to match your site-specific operation. Add custom features such as specific start-up and shutdown routines. PrecipCommander™ Hamon Research-Cottrell can provide a custom designed microcomputer (PC) for control and interface of the ESP. Users are guided through seventeen (17) standard screens that provide detailed information on all TR controllers.Three Energy Management control methods are available .

Hamon Research-Cottrell also stocks many replacement TR components. . The switch is contained in its own enclosure for simple retrofit into the high voltage bus duct system. sine wave and sends one pulse to one discharge electrode grid. This creates a rectifier capable of operating at the high voltage potentials that are present across the rectifier "stack".Transformer-Rectifier Accessories Current Limiting Reactors Current Limiting Reactors (CLRs) protect both the TR set and the Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) Controls.C. Transformer-Rectifier High Voltage Bushing Insulator Transformer-Rectifier Ground Switches High voltage switching enables the precipitator to be grounded for safe entry and also for isolation of a troublesome electrical bus section so that the opposite electrical bus section can remain in service. Groundhog In today's safety-conscience environment insuring that the transformer/rectifier is properly grounded before entry and that the grounding can be performed in a safe manner has become a requirement. side of the transformer output at the rectifier center junction. also commonly called rectifiers.C. Diode Stacks Diodes. sine wave.C. one connected to each A. The negative ends are commonly connected together to create the negative voltage to the discharge electrode system. These include "under oil" switches which are integral to the transformer/rectifier and "visible blade air" switches. The two positive ends of the rectifier are joined together and connect to the precipitator "ground" through a resistor (control signal feedback) circuit to provide the positive voltage to the collecting electrodes. Isolation/Ground Switch Enclosure The Hamon Research-Cottrell Isolation/Ground switch enables the operator to safely isolate a precipitator bus section from the transformer/rectifier and insure the safe grounding of its internal high voltage system. The rectifier in the precipitator TR set is made up of many small. The Groundhog enables the operator to do just that. Hamon Research-Cottrell stocks several sizes of CLRs for either internal or external mounting. Hamon Research-Cottrell stocks diode stacks for many common sized TR sets. the negative end remains separated and is fed through separate high voltage insulators to 2 different discharge electrode grids. In some applications. as it takes the rectified negative pulses of the A. then 180 degrees later sends the other pulse to the other discharge electrode gris. are used to provide one-way electrical current flow in an electrical circuit. It can be installed directly into an existing switch box or be installed in its own enclosure to replace older designs that require hand contact with energized internal devices. This is known as "halfwave" energization. Hamon Research-Cottrell offers a wide range of versatile high voltage switching devices. This provides for rectification of each side of the A. Two identical stacks are used in a TR set. low voltage diodes connected in series.

provide mechanism by which to accomplish this feat. the clearance between the discharge electrodes and the grounded collecting electrodes will diminish. T/R HV Bushing A B Switching Position 1 Ground Full Wave 2 Half Wave Half Wave 3 Full Wave Full Wave 4 Full Wave Ground 5 Ground Ground Deck Switches Many older precipitator designs power two or more bus sections from one transformer rectifier set. The switches available are compatible with safety interlock systems currently on the market. Lower Alignment (Anti-Sway) Insulators When deemed appropriate. The switch also provides isolation capabilities for troubleshooting or continued operation of the rest of the unit. ESP Insulator High Voltage Support Insulators High voltage support insulators mechanically support and electrically isolate the discharge electrodes from the grounded ESP casing and collecting curtains. In these instances a mechanism is needed to allow high voltage to pass between the two differing environments while isolating the differing environments from one another and the high voltage bus from grounded surfaces. Rappers are used to clean of the discharge electrodes to maintain clearances. Similarly. Ceramic insulators are used throughout. Support insulators are designed for high compressive strength to support the loads imposed by the high voltage electrodes and associated high voltage frames. Spare components are available for all switches and interlock systems provided on Research-Cottrell or Buell/GEESI precipitators. Wall bushings or feed through bushings. Switch enclosures can be manufactured from mild or stainless steel. as they are oftentimes referred.Full Wave/Half Wave Switches The Hamon Research-Cottrell 5-position switch enables the precipitator operator to choose the way a dual bushing output transformer rectifier operates. Safety interlock additions or modifications can be provided at the time of switch installation or modification. Wall Bushings / Feed Through Bushings Insulators It is inevitable that a high voltage bus (pipe or cable) must at some point pass from the clean environment of a bus duct to the dirty environment of the precipitator interior. . The switch enclosure is a fraction of the size of the traditional full wave/half wave air switch.or "anti-sway" or "stabilizer" insulators as they are more commonly known are provided on each high voltage guide frame to maintain the stability and the alignment of the lower extremity of each high voltage section. Discharge Electrode Rapper Shaft Insulators As dust accumulates on the discharge electrodes of an electrostatic precipitator. The Hamon Research-Cottrell Deck Switches enable the operator to isolate and ground the bus sections individually from the cold roof of the penthouse. a high voltage bus may be required to transit between a low-pressure environment to a high-pressure environment or vice versa. lower alignment insulators . All switches contacts are heavy-duty beryllium copper.

or non-glazed. Insulators can also be furnished with the surfaces glazed. wide collector plate spacing. Hamon Research-Cottrell can supply your requirements for standard cylindrical support insulators. based on application requirements. Insulators can also be furnished with the surfaces glazed. wide collector plate spacing. Support insulators are designed for high compressive strength to support the loads imposed by the high voltage electrodes and associated high voltage frames. based on application requirements. These process design changes may adversely affect precipitator subsystems such as the insulator compartment pressurization system. applications). double post insulators and "bigfoot" support insulators (i. In addition to our standard line of support insulators. conically shaped insulator with a wide base for use with extremely high voltage. Insulators are available in porcelain and various grades of alumina.e.Post/Stand Off Insulators One of the most overlooked insulators on a precipitator is the stand off insulator. Stand off insulators provide points of support in long bus runs to maintain adequate clearances between the high voltage bus and grounded precipitator components. These process design changes may adversely affect precipitator subsystems such as the insulator compartment pressurization system. or non-glazed. The split insulator is an ideal solution when positive sealing is needed. applications). High Voltage Support Insulators High voltage support insulators mechanically support and electrically isolate the discharge electrodes from the grounded ESP casing and collecting curtains. High Voltage Support Insulators High voltage support insulators mechanically support and electrically isolate the discharge electrodes from the grounded ESP casing and collecting curtains.e. depending on the application or customer preference. typically following process design changes that result in changes of operating pressures. conically shaped insulator with a wide base for use with extremely high voltage. Hamon ResearchCottrell can also supply split cylindrical insulators to positively seal penetrations associated with older double post support designs. typically following process design changes that result in changes of operating pressures. Support insulators are designed for high compressive strength to support the loads imposed by the high voltage electrodes and associated high voltage frames. Insulators are available in porcelain and various grades of alumina. Hamon Research-Cottrell can also supply split cylindrical insulators to positively seal penetrations associated with older double post support designs. In addition to our standard line of support insulators. depending on the application or customer preference. Hamon Research-Cottrell can supply your requirements for standard cylindrical support insulators. The split insulator is an ideal solution when positive sealing is needed. Discharge Electrode Rapper Shaft Insulators . double post insulators and "bigfoot" support insulators (i. Stand off insulators are found in bus ducts to center the HV pipe or cable within the duct and also within precipitator penthouses to suspend exposed HV pipe or cable from the penthouse roof.

As dust accumulates on the discharge electrodes of an electrostatic precipitator. design requirements and/or customer preference. The insulator shaft section penetrates to the precipitator exterior and isolates the high voltage system for protection of personnel around or on the precipitator as well as for the protection of the rapper itself. Hamon ResearchCottrell provides discharge electrode rapper shaft insulators constructed of porcelain. Currently. Discharge electrode rapper shaft insulators must provide superior electrical isolation at the casing penetrations as well as possess superior mechanical characteristics for the reliable transmission of rapping energy to the discharge electrodes. Lower alignment insulators are constructed of porcelain or alumina and are shaped in either a flat bar (for horizontal placement) or in a solid round bar (for either horizontal or vertical placement). or the hopper wall). lower alignment insulators . and their connections.are provided on each high voltage guide frame to maintain the stability and the alignment of the lower extremity of each high voltage section. the upper-most section is the rapper shaft insulator. equipment clearances and type of rapper. The rapping energy is transmitted to the discharge electrodes through vertical multi-sectioned shafts (i..e. Rappers are used to clean of the discharge electrodes to maintain clearances. In two-piece shafts. Lower alignment insulators are designed to resist any lateral forces that might be generated in the lower guide frame of the high voltage section(s). high voltage rapper shafts are comprised of a minimum of two sections. Shafts are available in a variety of lengths with shaft connections dependent upon the type of insulator shaft material. Rapper shaft insulators. in three-piece shafts. Lower alignment insulators are affixed on one end to the lower high voltage frame with the opposite end affixed to a grounded portion of the precipitator (either the collecting plates. Lower Alignment (Anti-Sway) Insulators When deemed appropriate. Hamon Research-Cottrell predominantly uses an industry standard 3 1/2° tapered connection for new and retrofit installations. the casing. alumina and fiberglass reinforced plastics. The lower alignment insulators prevent "swinging" of the lower high voltage framing. are selected with consideration given to the process and operating environment. the center section is the insulator). Lower alignment insulators are supplied with or without an outer surface glaze as dedicated customer or application requirements. the clearance between the discharge electrodes and the grounded collecting electrodes will diminish. Wall Bushings / Feed Through Bushings Insulators .or "anti-sway" or "stabilizer" insulators as they are more commonly known . which otherwise would degrade precipitator performance as a result of reduced electrical clearances and lower power levels.

Wall bushings or feed through bushings. a high voltage bus may be required to transit between a low-pressure environment to a high-pressure environment or vice versa. Post/Stand Off Insulators One of the most overlooked insulators on a precipitator is the stand off insulator. as they are oftentimes referred. Stand off insulators provide points of support in long bus runs to maintain adequate clearances between the high voltage bus and grounded precipitator components. Similarly. but few have duplicated the features incorporated and improved from the original design. as they are oftentimes referred. a roof or other plane. to provide appropriate electrical clearances and seals. usually located at the mid point of the insulator. stand off insulators are selected for the environment in which they are being used and for the voltages with which they will be used. provide mechanism by which to accomplish this feat. In these instances a mechanism is needed to allow high voltage to pass between the two differing environments while isolating the differing environments from one another and the high voltage bus from grounded surfaces. It is inevitable that a high voltage bus (pipe or cable) must at some point pass from the clean environment of a bus duct to the dirty environment of the precipitator interior. it may not be the . Many have copied the MIGI rapper. Such insulators are provided with the appropriate mounting flange. Nor have others demonstrated the durability of a similar product via in situ operation such as Hamon Research-Cottrell has done with the MIGI rapper. Electromagnetic Vibrator While the MIGI rapper can deliver a one-two punch to clean your collecting plates and discharge electrodes.It is inevitable that a high voltage bus (pipe or cable) must at some point pass from the clean environment of a bus duct to the dirty environment of the precipitator interior. ESP Rapping MIGI Flange Mounted Rapper The Magnetic Impulse Gravity Impact rapper. As with other insulators. Similarly. a high voltage bus may be required to transit between a low-pressure environment to a high-pressure environment or vice versa. provide mechanism by which to accomplish this feat. Wall bushings and feed through insulators are provided where conductors penetrate a wall. In these instances a mechanism is needed to allow high voltage to pass between the two differing environments while isolating the differing environments from one another and the high voltage bus from grounded surfaces. has become the most widely used rapper for cleaning the collecting plates and discharge electrodes of electrostatic precipitators. Wall bushings or feed through bushings. Stand off insulators are found in bus ducts to center the HV pipe or cable within the duct and also within precipitator penthouses to suspend exposed HV pipe or cable from the penthouse roof. developed and patented in the 1950's by Research-Cottrell. Stand off insulators are available in both porcelain and alumina.

developed and patented in the 1950's by Research-Cottrell. The lower cost Model LV-4 MIGI is also available. The MIGI is capable of delivering strong shearing forces to remove even the most tenacious of dusts from collecting plates and discharge electrodes.appropriate choice for all discharge electrode systems. has become the most widely used rapper for cleaning the collecting plates and discharge electrodes of electrostatic precipitators. These factors remain the focus of our MIGI design. Many have copied the MIGI rapper. The flange mount design allows the Hamon Research-Cottrell MIGI to be retrofitted to most top-rap designed precipitators with relative ease. The coil assembly is mounted on a cast iron junction box and protected by an all steel housing. Pneumatic Rapper Pneumatic rappers are good general-purpose rappers that can deliver strong shearing forces to collecting plates. Electromagnetic Vibrator . but few have duplicated the features incorporated and improved from the original design. The original Hamon Research-Cottrell MIGI rapper can deliver a whopping 24 ft. The MIGI has also been fitted to precipitators originally designed with mechanical rapping. Rapping force is easily adjusted via control input and/or physical adjustments to rapper height. developed and patented in the 1950's by Research-Cottrell. The MIGI rapper is a general use rapper that is ideal for most applications. a 20-lb. The Hamon ResearchCottrell MIGI is still ruggedly built with a coil assembly of 13 AWG copper wire wound on a 1/8" wall phenolic tube. stainless steel faced plunger. but few have duplicated the features incorporated and improved from the original design. The Magnetic Impulse Gravity Impact rapper. Nor have others demonstrated the durability of a similar product via in situ operation such as Hamon Research-Cottrell has done with the MIGI rapper. low maintenance and long life in mind. Hamon Research-Cottrell's original Model LV-1 MIGI rapper was developed with simplicity. Many have copied the MIGI rapper. MIGI Flange Mounted Rapper The Magnetic Impulse Gravity Impact rapper. Nor have others demonstrated the durability of a similar product via in situ operation such as Hamon Research-Cottrell has done with the MIGI rapper.-lbs of force using its only moving part. has become the most widely used rapper for cleaning the collecting plates and discharge electrodes of electrostatic precipitators.

Ceramic insulators support the discharge electrode systems of all electrostatic precipitators and some precipitator discharge electrode systems can be comprised of electrodes that are swagged and/or assembled with "fragile" connections. ESP Collecting Plates The "G" Opzel™ collecting plate incorporates Hamon Research-Cottrell's traditional Optimum PrecipitationZone ELectrode design. Plates are sheet steel roll-formed into panel plates that are shop welded together into assemblies. climate and the availability of plant air. Hamon Research-Cottrell can provide Electromagnetic Vibratoc based on the application and customer preference. . with excess force. Pneumatic Rapper Pneumatic rappers are good general-purpose rappers that can deliver strong shearing forces to collecting plates. Additionally. may result in premature failure of discharge electrode system components. Pneumatic rapper intensity can also be easily regulated through adjustments in the air pressure to provide the delicate force need to clean the most fragile of discharge electrode systems. Pneumatic rapper usage is generally limited only by preference. Shearing forces on wire electrodes is not recommended for some dusts as wires will pull free of their mounting shrouds when excessive force is applied. it may not be the appropriate choice for all discharge electrode systems.While the MIGI rapper can deliver a one-two punch to clean your collecting plates and discharge electrodes. all collected dusts are not created equal. Rapping such systems. Hamon Research-Cottrell can provide Pneumatic Rappers based on the application and customer preference. In such circumstances electromagnetic vibrators become more appropriate for delivering effective rapping force. which provides quiescent zones to aide particulate collection and reduce re-entrainment.

This eccentric assembly causes the transfer of rapping energy from one panel to another to be perpendicular to the collecting plate surface. which serves to gradually and efficiently introduce the rapping energy from the mounting pad into the collecting surface. our "G" Opzel™ collector plates will prove to be the collector plate best suited to your system requirements. This also contributes to a longer life. Innovations developed for various Pipe and Spike electrodes may provide improved performance and reli if the electrodes need replacement. rather than havin g one continuous center sheet. In addition. Whether you are refurbishing your ESP to improve efficiency in the short-term or would like to increase its long-term performance. Rigid Discharge Electrodes have replaced wire discharge electrodes in modern precipitators. Studies have shown that approximately one half as much rapping energy is required t o obtain a specific acceleration level with the "G" Opzel™. . scalloped spacer bars are supplied at the leading and trailing edge of the collecting plates at the bottom and also in the middle of the plate at the top and bottom. The "G" Opzel™ has both top and bottom stiffeners to provide straightness from leading to trailing edges. vertical straightness is provided by vertical stiffening baffles with overall section width of 4" (Note that these baffles provide electrical and gas flow quiescence functions as well). All panels of the plate are welded together to prevent manufacturing or operational twisting of panels off of the collecting plate centerline. The mounting pad design is a hyperbolic transition section. The stiffener serves both to support the plate. To maintain proper clearances. The "G" Opzel™ is constructed from panels which are attached eccentrically to each other. ESP Discharge Electrode In addition to standard replacement discharge electrodes for all earlier Research-Cottrell and Buell/GEESI precipitators.The plate's structural integrity is fortified by the addition of rolled tube stiffeners at the top and bottom to make the plate more dynamically responsive to rapping. Thus the rapping intensities that the plates are subjected to in order to obtain adequate cleaning. than is required with the continuous sheet designs (Typically called the "E" Opzel design in the ESP industry). is greatly reduced. The g-level accelerations normal to the collecting plate surface are greatly enhanced by this construction. The "G" Opzel™ has only heavy gauge to heavy gauge welded plate at its support connection virtually eliminating failure/crack ing that occurred in earlier designs and the designs of others. and to provide a reliable connection to the top end plate. The "G" Opzel™ is constructed with a heavy gauge rolled top stiffener. Another key element contributing to the successful operational record of the "G" Opzel™ collecting plate is the responsiveness of the plate to rapping. Hamon Research-Cottrell can supply custom Discharge Electrodes to me your exact specifications.

The electrode is virtually maintenance free and is resilient to operational upsets. Key Transfer Blocks Key transfer blocks provide the mechanism by which access authority is moved from one point in a key interlock system to another. Access door locks are the most plentiful locks in a precipitator key interlock system. Access Door Locks The most common device requiring a lock is a door. Key transfer blocks generally require that one or several keys must be present before one or more keys can be released. This is also true for the doors installed on electrostatic precipitators. the larger the quantity of transformerrectifiers and precipitator chambers. Pipe & spike discharge electrodes are formed from 2" diameter. Access door locks are the most plentiful locks in a precipitator key interlock system. the more complex the interlock system can be. This is also true for the doors installed on electrostatic precipitators.Pipe and Spike. . 16 gauge tubing. The entire assembly is supported from the roof of the precipitator through a welded high voltage structure. The addition of a transformer-rectifier or a precipitator chamber can result in significant changes to a precipitator interlock system. such changes may save the life of someone important. The individual discharge electrodes are bolted at the bottom through a lower steadying frame. Access door locks are designed to retain their associated keys when unlocked and release the associated keys when locked. However. Transformer Rectifier and Circuit Breaker Locks Key Interlock System Design The complexity of interlock systems varies from installation to installation. ESP Accessories Access Door Locks The most common device requiring a lock is a door. As a rule of thumb. Each discharge electrode is attached to the high voltage support frame by a single high strength bolted connection. Access door locks are also the locks that will prevent or allow access to the areas of the precipitator containing high voltage components. To facilitate ease of construction. each electrode is allowed to hang freely from its support channel and the entire assembly is then aligned to the collecting surfaces prior to tightening the bolted connection.

on a double-chambered precipitator. via welding. A deadbolt type lock may also be used for access doors. Deadbolt type access door lock. Access door keys common to each isolatable gas path are keyed alike. For example. when the transformer-rectifier set is properly grounded. This type of lock. the ground keys from one . Likewise all the access door keys would be required to be present before the ground keys were released from the transfer block and used in the transformer-rectifiers. all the keys for Chamber "A" of a twochambered precipitator would be identical. the opposite end of the chain is affixed. However. This type of lock is especially useful in areas where no movement of the door is permitted until the interlock system is satisfied. Key Transfer Blocks Key transfer blocks provide the mechanism by which access authority is moved from one point in a key interlock system to another. Chamber "A" keys would not work in Chamber "B" however because each chamber can be separately isolated and accessed. This allows some flexibility for door misalignment. requires the accurate alignment of doors. For example. however. Access door locks come in many different shapes and styles. For example. which in an industrial environment is sometimes difficult to attain. Generally. the lock is fixed permanently to the door frame and the bolt eye is attached to one end of a chain. but maintains interlock system integrity.Access door lock with bolt eye and chain. to the door. the presence of all transformer-rectifier ground keys might be required to be present in a transfer block before access door keys are released. This transfer mechanism is extremely useful on multi-chambered precipitators where chambers can be energized separately. the most common access door interlock utilizes a bolt eye and chain to secure the door. Key transfer blocks generally require that one or several keys must be present before one or more keys can be released.

A multi-position ground switch on a transformer-rectifier. thus assuring that power was turned off. This key would be released from the circuit breaker only when the lock bolt was extended. From one standpoint. On the other hand. such as when maintenance is required on the controls or transformer-rectifier. Moving the ground switch to another position would reverse the sequence described. however. the key released is used in the control panel switch lock which when turned to the proper position allows the controls to be switched on. a single. In such a situation. the released ground keys would be used in a key transfer block to release the access door keys to the grounded chamber. For example. The transformer-rectifier ground switch could then be "unlocked" and moved to the appropriate ground position. At least one tumbler will be keyed the same as a lock on the corresponding transformer-rectifier ground switch. The locks used for this purpose are generally the end-mounted or side mounted variety with the equipment design dictating the mounting type used. The position of the dead bolt determines when the key in each tumbler can be released. Dead bolt type locks are generally used to secure transformer-rectifier ground switches or circuit breakers in the proper position. for example. . In either the single or double tumbler arrangement.or multi-tumbler lock might be utilized. placing a transformer-rectifier ground switch in the ground position might allow the bolt of one lock to be extended to release the ground key whose presence is necessary in a transfer block to release access door keys. the retained ground keys for the other chamber would not be available and access door keys for that chamber would be retained in the associated transfer block. the lock is mounted so that the breaker is locked in the OFF position when the bolt is extended. Circuit breaker locks work similarly to those used on transformer-rectifiers. The lock is usually either a single onetumbler lock or a single two-tumbler lock. may require only the use of multiple single tumbler locks. The two-tumbler lock is used when a panel switch lock is used on the transformer-rectifier control panel. The same switch position would disallow the extension of the bolt on a lock containing the circuit breaker key. The design of the switch allows or prevents the extension of the lock bolt and the extension or nonextension of the lock bolt allows or prevents key release. The extra key is released when the lock bolt is retracted. depending upon the design of the actual switch mechanism.chamber might be released while ground keys for the other chamber are retained. Further. From another standpoint. thus providing a situation where one half of the precipitator could be safely energized while service is performed on the other half. thus preventing the energization of the transformer-rectifier. it is also necessary that no power is available to the transformer-rectifier or its associated controls when maintenance is performed on the precipitator. Transformer Rectifier and Circuit Breaker Locks It is apparent when considering the design of an electrostatic precipitator interlock system that the point of energization must be addressed. access must be allowed to the high voltage sections of the precipitator only when the Transformer-Rectifier has been placed in a ground position.

Hamon Research-Cottrell strongly recommends that the pressurization fans. At Hamon Research-Cottrell.V. an evaluation of the seal air system may be in order. The addition of a transformer-rectifier or a precipitator chamber can result in significant changes to a precipitator interlock system. support bushings. Our work does not stop there. support bushings and rapper insulators. Hamon Research-Cottrell can therefore provide new and upgraded interlock systems for both our own precipitator designs and for those of others. This prevents the accumulation of dust and moisture on the H. However. If an accumulation of dust and moisture does occur on the H. dampers. they will lose their insulating quality and short out the bus section. we document all changes to the interlock system and maintain those records. We therefore have vast experience in the design of precipitator key interlock systems and we work in close communication with several interlock manufacturers. Hamon Research-Cottrell has been designing key interlock systems for many years. ESP Seal Air System The penthouse or insulator compartment pressurization system (commonly called a Seal Air System) is a vital operating link in your electrostatic precipitator.Key Interlock System Design The complexity of interlock systems varies from installation to installation. In fact Research-Cottrell pioneered the use of interlocks on electrostatic precipitators. filters and controls be inspected regularly to prevent unnecessary down time. . heaters. the more complex the interlock system can be. the larger the quantity of transformer-rectifiers and precipitator chambers. such changes may save the life of someone important. Its function is to continually maintain a pressure in the Penthouse (or Insulator compartments) that is higher than the operating pressure of the precipitator. As a rule of thumb. Lose a key to a Hamon Research-Cottrell interlock system? Need a replacement lock? Simply contact us and we will determine via our extensive records the exact key match or lock requirements for your interlock system.V. If routine inspections identify accumulation on the insulators.

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