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NPD Interventions Unit

Annual Report
for Accredited Programmes 2005-2006
Intervenitons Report_v18.qxp 11/12/06 22:22 Page 4

Contents
Summary 1
1. Managing the delivery of programmes 2
2. Retention and Attrition 6
3. Targeting 10
4. Analysing the results of the evaluations measures 12
5. Programmes update 14

List of Figures
Figure 1: Actual number of completions by year 2
Figure 2: Proportion of completions by programme 3
Figure 3: Actual Completions (Cumulative) 2005-06 3
Figure 4: Number of referrals made by year 3
Figure 5: Number of orders made compared to completions by year 4
Figure 6: Percentage of starters completing the programmes by year 4
Figure 7: Completion rate by programme commencement for 2005-06 5
Figure 8: Retention rate from referral through to completion 6
Figure 9: Retention rate by year for General Offending Behaviour Programmes
and Drink Impaired Drivers Programme 6
Figure 10: Retention rates by year for Violence Programmes 7
Figure 11: Retention rates by year for Substance Misuse programmes 7
Figure 12: Retention rates for SOTPs 7
Figure 13: Retention from referrals to licenses and orders 8
Figure 14: Retention from orders and licenses to commencements 8
Figure 15: Retention from commencements to completions 8
Figure 16: Comparison of retention rates by programme, prior to commencement
and during the programme 9
Figure 17: Reasons given by staff for offenders failing to complete programmes 9
Figure 18: OGRS scores for General Offending Behaviour Programmes 10
Figure 19: OGRS scores for Substance Misuse Programmes 10
Figure 20: ETS and Think First psychometric pre and post means 12
Figure 21: DID psychometric pre and post means 13
Figure 22: Substance Misuse psychometric pre and post means 13

Appendices
Appendix 1: Profile of programmes by area for 2005-06 16
Appendix 2: Programme Details 18

Table of Abbreviaitons and Acronyms 25


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Summary violence perpetrators were still undertaking the first


tranche of programmes at the end of the year. It is
also accounted for by a large increase in
This is the fourth annual report for NPS Accredited programmes started during the year, of which
Offending Behaviour Programmes. The report those starting in the later part of the year will not
provides statistics on the delivery of Offending complete the programme until the following year, in
Behaviour Programmes and, where available, particular, the domestic violence programmes.
provides comparative performance data with other
years. Offending Behaviour Programmes continue to The overall retention rate of offenders attending the
show year on year increased completions and overall majority of programmes continues to rise, but
effectiveness. The retention of offenders on retention appears to be falling amongst offenders
programmes has also improved. This year, more at the stage between order and commencement of
detailed retention data has been compiled regarding the programme. Actions taken to improve retention
referral to order/licence, to commencement, and then rates over the last few years, especially after
from commencement to completion. programme commencements, are proving
effective.
Key points
Monitoring of targeting to programmes in terms of
risk of reconviction shows a pattern similar to last
The target of 15,000 programme completions was
year. Approximately 20% of offenders directed to
substantially exceeded. The total number of
general offending programmes are low risk of
completions for all accredited programmes in
reconviction (OGRS less than 41). This means
2005-06 was 16,824, an increase of 8% compared
that in one case in every five, assessors are
with performance in the previous year.
exercising their discretion and recommending
offenders who would not normally meet the
General offending programmes accounted for half
targeting criteria to programmes.
of all completions. Completions of sex offender and
violent offender programmes were proportionate to
The results from the intermediate evaluation
the representation of these groups in the probation
measures for general offending programmes,
caseload.
substance misuse programmes and drink impaired
driver programmes are very positive, showing that
64% of orders and licences made requiring
on average offenders improve in terms of these
attendance at an accredited programme resulted in
measures when they complete programmes.
a programme start in 2005-06. This resulted in
24,475 programme starts in total; an increase in
The offending behaviour programmes team in
the number of commencements from previous
NPD, in consultation with the Prison Service,
years.
continues to review the provision of Accredited
Offending Behaviour Programmes in the light of
Two thirds of offenders who started a programme
evaluation research and identification of need
completed them. This figure is slightly down on the
within the offender population. The final section of
previous year. It is accounted for by the
the report describes future developments.
implementation of domestic violence programmes
late in the financial year. These are lengthy
programmes and, therefore, many domestic

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1. Managing the delivery 1.3 Accredited programmes vary in length and


complexity. It is important that programme
completions reflect the needs profile of the
of programmes probation population. Figure 2 shows the
percentage of each type of programme which
contributed to the total figure of 16,826
1.1 Effective programme management
completions. It shows general offender
encompasses a number of processes, from
programme completions accounted for
identifying appropriate referrals correctly
almost half of the total. Such results would be
through to reducing rates of attrition. This
expected given that ‘generic acquisitive‘
section details year on year progress made
offenders account for the bulk of the
nationally in this area.
probation caseload and that over half of this
group meets the selection criteria for general
1.2 The national target for all accredited
offending programmes. Domestic violence
programme completions in 2005-06 was
completions account for only 5% of
15,000; this figure was met and substantially
completions because they were not
exceeded. Figure 1 shows that the total
implemented by most areas until well into the
number of programme completions has
financial year. It is expected that the
increased each year, with this year’s total
percentage of domestic violence
standing at 16,826; an increase of 8% on last
programmes in relation to other programmes
year’s figure.
will increase significantly over the coming
year, building towards the target of 1,200 for
Figure 1: Actual number of 2006-7. The level of sex offender
completions by year programmes and other violence programmes
is representative of numbers serving a
community sentence. The fact that the DID
programme accounts for such a large
Completions by Year percentage of programme completions is
18000 unsatisfactory; this group has the highest
16000
14000 retention rates and the need does exist, but
12000 they represent a relatively small proportion of
10000
8000 the probation caseload.
6000
4000
2000
0
2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06

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Figure 2: Proportion of suitable cases is being reached;


completions by programme extrapolations based on OASys data suggest
there is still a large unmet need.

Proportion completion by programme type Figure 3: Actual Completions


Domestic
WAC
(Cumulative) 2005-06
Violence
0%
5%
Anger Number of Referrals by Year
Programmes
50,000
5%
45,000
SOTP 40,000
35,000
6% 30,000
25,000
GOBPs 20,000
Substance 43% 15,000
Misuse 10,000
5,000
14% 0
2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06
Year

DID
27%
Figure 4: Number of referrals
made by year

1.4 Figure 3 shows that the cumulative number of Actual Completions (Cumulative) 2005-06
completions each month rose steadily, 18000
confirming that areas are generally delivering 16000

programmes at a consistent rate throughout 14000


12000
the year. The increase at the end of the year
10000
is probably due to the fact that longer 8000
programmes, such as domestic violence and 6000
sex offenders programmes, can take most of 4000

the year to complete. 2000


0
r

ay

ct

ov

ec

ar
Ju
Ap

Ju

Au

Se

Ja

Fe
O

1.5 Programme referrals for 2005-06 numbered


M

47,189, showing an increase of 8% from the


previous year’s 43,843 referrals. Referrals
have now more than doubled since
monitoring began (there were only 22,091
referrals made in 2001-2002), although the
rate of increase has subsided in recent years.
This does not mean that the upper limit of

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1.6 Of these 47,189 referrals, 3,827 were Figure 6: Percentage of starters


converted into licences and 36,035 into a completing the programmes by
community sentence with a requirement to
attend an accredited programme. This year
represents a concordance rate of 84.5%
compared to a rate of 72% achieved in the
The Percentage of Starters Completing the Programme
previous year.

Completions (%)
Figure 5: Number of orders made
80
60
compared to completions by year 40
20
0
Orders and Completions 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-05
Year
50000
40000
1.8 The percentage of programme starters
30000 remaining in the programme and completing
20000 has, however, fallen slightly from 68.2% in
2004-05 to 66% in 2005-06 as shown in
10000
figure 6. This dip in performance can be
0 attributed to two factors. Firstly, the
2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 implementation of domestic violence
Year programmes in many probation areas
Orders occurred during the second half of the year.
Completions Domestic violence programmes are lengthy
and so many areas would not get completions
within this financial year. Secondly, the
continued expansion of substance misuse
1.7 Figure 5 shows that as the number of orders programmes (in particular OSAP) essential to
has increased each year, so have the number meet the needs profile of offenders means
of completions. The figure also demonstrates that a greater number of offenders with
the gap between orders made and prolific offending histories and chaotic
completions, which was closing in previous lifestyles have been referred to programmes
years, widened slightly in 2005-06. This is and this may have impacted on drop out
mainly related to offenders not starting rates.
programmes rather than offenders failing to
complete them.

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Figure 7: Completion rate by 1.10 Completion rates differ by type of programme


programme commencement for reflecting the different needs of the offenders
who typically attend them. The DID
2005-06 programme is designed for a specific group of
offenders who tend to have less criminal
involvement and a more stable lifestyle,
Accredited Programmes Completion Rates 2005-06
therefore completion rates are very good
90% (85%). The CSB is a short reinforcement
Percentage Of Completions

80% programme for those who have already


70% completed ETS or Think First, and therefore
60% the participants tend to be better motivated
50% and more likely to complete. In 2005-06,
40%
completion rates were lowest for the domestic
30%
violence programmes and the Women’s
20%
10%
Programme (WAC) which are new
0% programmes still being implemented.
S rs
t ne SB V
SU
T M s
AC ID
ET Fi O C D
AR AL TP W D
k to C SO
Th
in
O
ne
Programme
1.11 The completion rate for OSAP has increased
significantly during the first year of full
implementation. The 2005-06 completion
figures for OSAP grew from 37% in the
1.9 Figure 7 represents the percentage previous year to 42% and ASRO also showed
completion rate for each programme. It is a small increase.
important to note that the percentages are
throughput figures and do not reflect 1.12 The SOTPs also had a high completion rate.
completion rates for a cohort or specific group Sex offenders tend to be older and more
of offenders. This means that programmes compliant. A greater level of case
which have been recently implemented may management involvement and more
appear to have lower completion rates resources allocated to sex offenders,
because some of those who have because of the perceived risk of serious
commenced the programme will not have harm, may also be relevant.
sufficient time to complete during the year
and they cannot be offset against
commencement from the previous year.

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Figure 9: Retention rate by year


2. Retention and Attrition for General Offending Behaviour
Programmes and Drink Impaired
2.1 Managing attrition and increasing retention
has continued to be a priority for NPD and
Drivers Programme
those who run the offending behaviour
programmes.
Retention Rates: GOBPs & DID

Figure 8: Retention rate from 80%


referral through to completion % age Retention
70%
60%
50%
Retention rate from referral through to 40%
completion 2005-2006 30%
20%
50000
10%
40000
0%
30000 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06
20000 Year
10000

0 Commencements as
Referral Licences and Starters Completions % of Orders
Orders Issued Completions as %
of Commencements

2.2 Figure 8 compares retention at various points


in the process. The number of referrals for 2.3 Figure 9 shows progress in managing
OBPs for 2005-06 was 47,189. Of these, retention over the last four years for general
3,827 were given OBPs on licence and offending behaviour programmes. From
36,035 on order. The retention rate of 2002-04 the retention rate was lower after
offenders at this stage was 85%. The number starting programmes than between order and
of offenders who then went on to start the commencement. This reversed in 2004-05
OBP was 25,475, showing a retention rate of reflecting the effective strategies introduced
64%. The number of offenders who went on by treatment managers and tutors to support
to complete their programme was 16,826, offenders attending programmes. The figure
showing a retention rate of 66%. for 2005-06 shows a slight fall in retention
rates both before and after commencement.
However, retention after commencement
remains higher.

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Figure 10: Retention rates by year retention of participants in violence


for Violence Programmes programmes over time.

2.5 Figure 11 illustrates the year on year


Retention Rates: Violence Programmes improvement in retention on substance
90%
misuse programmes as compared with the
80% retention rate pre programme.
%age Retention

70%
60%
50%
Figure 12: Retention rates for
40% SOTPs
30%
20%
10% Retention rates - SOTP programmes
0%
140.0%
2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06
Year 120.0%

Commencements as % of Completions as % of 100.0%


%age Retention

Orders Commencements
80.0%

60.0%

Figure 11: Retention rates by year 40.0%

for Substance Misuse 20.0%

Programmes 0.0%
Referral to order & licence Order & licence to commencement Commencement to completion

i-SOTP C-SOGP N-SOGP TV-SOGP


Retention Rates: Substance Misuse Programmes

80%
2.6 This is the first year that the SOTPs have
70%
%age Retention

60% been included in the annual report.


50% Retentions rates are generally high for all
40% three established programmes. The Internet
30%
20%
Sex Offender Treatment Programme is still
10% being implemented which explains the lower
0% rates of retention. The anomaly in figure 12 is
2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06
that C-SOGP shows a retention rate of over
Year
100% which means more offenders
Commencements as % of Orders commencing the treatment programme than
Completions as % of Commencements were given an order or licence that year.
The reason for this is due to the time elapsing
from order to commencement being greater
2.4 The results for the year 2005-06 represented for some SOTPs because of the need for
in figure 10 show for the first time that further assessments. A number of the
retention is higher during violence referrals who commenced C-SOGP in 2005-
programmes than pre programme. There has 06 would be from the previous year.
been a steady improvement in offender

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Figure 13:
2.7 Figures 13 to 15 present the retention rates in
Retention Rate: Referral to licence and orders a format that allows easier comparison
100.0%
across programmes.
90.0% Average overall retention rate

80.0%
2.8 In terms of retention between referral and
licence or order (figure 13), 85% of all
70.0%

60.0%
referrals lead to an order or licence. The
50.0%

40.0%
highest retention rates are for ASRO and DID.
30.0%
ETS, OSAP and CALM are below average,
20.0% and the lowest rate is for WAC. It is difficult to
10.0% pinpoint why these differences occur.
0.0%
ETS TF OTO CSB DID OSAP ASRO IDAP CDVP ART CALM WAC
However, there does appear to be a
difference in the way the courts respond to
recommendations for WAC and for the other
Figure 14: accredited programmes.

Retention Rate: Order and Licence to Commencements 2.9 Figure 14 presents the level of retention by
100.0%
programme at the stage between
order/licence to starting the offending
90.0%

80.0%

70.0% Average overall retention rate


behaviour programme. The overall level of
60.0%
retention is 63%, with over half of the
50.0%
programmes being above average. The
40.0% lowest retention levels are found in the
30.0% domestic violence programmes, the
20.0% substance misuse programmes, One to One,
10.0% ART and CSB. At this stage, offenders about
0.0%
ETS TF OTO CSB DID OSAP ASRO IDAP CDVP ART CALM WAC to join WAC show good retention, compared
with the previous stage.

Figure 15: 2.10 Figure 15 presents the level of retention by


programme following commencement of the
Retention Rate: Commencement to Completions offending behaviour programme. By this
stage retention has risen from the previous
100.0%

stage to around 66%. Nearly all DID and


90.0%

80.0%

70.0% Average overall retention rate


CSB programmes are completed. The lowest
60.0%
retention levels are found in WAC, IDAP and
50.0%
OSAP.
40.0%

30.0%

20.0%

10.0%

0.0%
ETS TF OTO CSB DID OSAP ASRO IDAP CDVP ART CALM WAC

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Figure 16: Comparison of the cases that fail to complete a programme


retention rates by programme, are accounted for by expiration of the order is
a cause for concern. It suggests areas are not
prior to commencement and succeeding in starting offenders on
during the programme programmes soon enough or re-starting them
quickly enough if they are unable to continue
Retention: prior to programme compared to during programme in the original group through no fault of their
own. No differences were noted regarding
90.0%
the reason for non-completion by type of
Prior to programme
80.0%
During Programme programme.
70.0%

Figure 17: Reasons given by staff


60.0%

50.0%

40.0% for offenders failing to complete


30.0%

20.0%
programmes
10.0%

0.0%
ETS TF OTO CSB DID OSAP ASRO IDAP CDVP ART CALM WAC Reasons for drop out 2005-2006
2%

2.11 Figure 16 shows that for the majority of 0%

programmes the retention rate is greater in 1%

the period that the offender is undertaking the 0% 9%

programme than prior to programme 2%

commencement. This suggests that greater 1%

focus should be placed on offender 2%

supervision and maintaining offender


motivation before programmes begin.
14% 51%
2.12 Figure 17 presents the reasons given by staff
for offenders failing to complete programmes.
These data are collected via the IAPS
database and must conform to a limited 1%

number of categories. Just over half the


failures to complete are put down to breach 17%

proceedings being brought against the


offender. These might be for failing to attend Breached Transferred Custody Employment/Education
the programme but could equally be for Excluded/Rejected Physical/Mental Health Revoked
failure to comply with some other element of Order Expired Re-assessment of suitability Domestic

the order. Revocation is the second most Sickness or ill health Other

common reason which in some instances will


be because the offender was found to be
unsuitable for the intervention at some point
after sentencing, possibly after a more
detailed assessment. The fact that 14% of

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3. Targeting 3.2 Figure 18 shows that 21.3% of all offenders


with an order/licence for a general offending
behaviour programme had OGRS scores
3.1 Programmes’ effectiveness can be improved which were less than 40. 33.8% had OGRS
if they are targeted appropriately. Targeting scores between 41 and 70 (medium risk of re-
criteria for programmes are linked to risk and offending) and 44.9% had OGRS over 71
need. Targeting, in terms of risk of (high risk of re-offending). Thus for this group
reconviction, can be monitored using the 79% were correctly targeted in terms of risk.
OGRS (Offender Group Reconviction Score), This means that in around one in five cases
which provides a measure of the likelihood of assessors have exercised their discretion and
reconviction within the next two years. The recommended offenders for programmes
largest group of offenders participating in who are below the normal criteria. Assessors
programmes are medium to high risk. have exercised even greater discretion in
Overall, around a third of participants are high allowing lower risk offenders to participate in
risk of reconviction (OGRS over 70); these the Women’s Programme. It could be argued
are an appropriate group provided that that such large numbers of discretionary
additional structured work is undertaken. For cases are unacceptable, but it may also
programmes which use risk of reconviction as indicate that offender managers are
a criterion, just over 20% of participants are responding to individual offender needs. This
lower risk; this is a very similar result to last is the first full year of data since the targeting
year. criteria were changed from 30 to 40 plus,
which might account for some of this
discrepancy, as assessors adjust their
Figure 18: OGRS scores for
practice.
General Offending Behaviour
Programmes Figure 19: OGRS scores for
Substance Misuse Programmes
OGRS scores for General Offending Behaviour Programmes

OGRS score for Substance Misuse Programmes


3000
Number of offenders

2500 1500
Number of offenders

2000 1250
1500 1000
1000 750
500 500
0 250
ETS TF OTO WOMENS CSB
0
0-40 41-70 71+ ASRO OSAP

0-50 51-70 71+

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3.3 Figure 19 provides details of risk


classification for substance misuse
programmes. Correctly targeted offenders
will have an OGRS greater than 50, but there
is no upper limit as many substance misusers
are at high risk of reconviction. 26.7% of all
offenders attending substance misuse
programmes had OGRS below 50. 21.2%
had OGRS scores between 51 and 70
(medium risk of re-offending). 52.1% had
OGRS scores over 71 (high risk of re-
offending). This shows again that the
majority of offenders are appropriately
targeted but with a substantial minority being
below the risk of reconviction criteria.

3.4 Offenders can be allocated to violence and


sex offender programmes either on ‘Risk of
Reconviction’ or ‘Risk of Harm’ criteria.
Therefore, a greater spread of OGRS is to be
expected. For the violence programmes
(ART and CALM) most offenders are in the
high or medium high risk bands. For the
domestic violence programme and the sex
offender programmes, over half those
attending programmes are in the low risk
band. This reflects the fact that many
domestic abusers and sex offenders do not
have significant recorded criminal histories.

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4. Analysing the results of programme because there is no randomised


control group to demonstrate what would
happen if the programme were not present.
the evaluations
Figure 20: ETS and Think First
measures psychometric pre and post means
Psychometric data for offenders
4.1 The measure of a programme’s effectiveness on ETS and Think First
rests heavily on a reduction in the type and 60

severity of reconviction. However,


reconviction studies take a minimum of two to 50

three years to complete and do not provide


any information on the offender’s short-term 40

change in attitudes and behaviour.


Psychometric assessments provide an
30

intermediate measure of the impact of


20
programmes, reporting on changes in
attitudes and self–reported behaviour during 10
and immediately after attending a
programme. Psychometrics also provide 0
feedback regarding quality control issues and 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

programme development. Currently, there Pre-Test Mean


Post-Test Mean
are a number of measures which assess
various aspects related to offending Key

behaviour for each group of programmes.


1. Eysenck Impulsivity Scale
2. Gough Socialisation Scale
3. Crime PICS:General Attitudes to Offending
Tests are selected from those available, 4. Crime PICS: Anticipation of Reoffending
5. Crime PICS: Victim Hurt Denial
based on whether they address the treatment 6. PICTS: Current Scale
7. PICTS: Cognitive Indolence Scale

targets of the programme. 8. Social Problem Solving Questionnaire: Aggressive Solution


9. Social Problem Solving Questionnaire: Assertive Solution
10. Passive Solutions

4.2 Psychometrics can provide a proxy measure


of an individual’s change in attitudes and
behaviour but they are not without limitations. 4.3 Figure 20 shows that on average ETS and
For example, some individuals have difficulty Think First participants who completed the
comprehending the language used within the pre and post programme assessments
tests and others may answer in a way they change in the desired direction on all but one
feel is most socially acceptable. In either of the intermediate measures linked to
case the test results are not a true general offending behaviour programmes.
representation of their actual attitudes and They are less impulsive, show less pro-
behaviour. When dealing with large numbers criminal attitudes and thinking, and identify
it can be assumed that such problems will not assertive rather than aggressive solutions to
overly influence the aggregated results. Any problems as most appropriate. The only
changes shown on psychometric tests cannot measure on which offenders do not improve
be attributed directly to attendance of the is the socialisation scale.

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Figure 21: DID psychometric pre better problem solving strategies. Offenders
and post means reported that they were more likely to be in
the contemplation stage of the Stages of
Psychometric Data
Change model prior to the programme and
for Offenders on DID more likely to be in the action stage
80 afterwards, indicating that motivation to
70 change had strengthened while attending the
60
programme. One measure of substance
dependence moved in an unexpected
50
direction. Offenders self reported higher
40
levels of dependence after the programme.
30 Although unexpected, this may not be a
20 negative result. It could be that having
10
completed the programme offenders are
more aware of their level of dependence and
0
1 2 3 4 5 6
more willing to acknowledge it.
Pre-Test Mean
Post-Test Mean
Figure 22: Substance Misuse
Key psychometric pre and post means
1. Alcohol Knowledge Quiz
2. Safe Driving Questionnaire
3. Attitude to Drinking & Driving Psychometric Data for Offenders
4. SPSI: Positive Problem Orientation on ASRO and OSAP
5. SPSI: Rational Problem Solving
35
6. BIS: Total Impulsivity

30

25
4.4 Figure 21 demonstrates that offenders who
20
complete the pre and post programme
assessments improve on all of the 15

intermediate measures linked to treatment 10


targets for the Drink Impaired Drivers
programme. Offenders demonstrate greater 5

knowledge of the effect of alcohol and safe 0


2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
driving requirements. They show more
responsible problem solving, less impulsivity Pre-Test Mean
Post-Test Mean
and more pro-social attitudes in relation to
Key
drink driving. 1. DAST
2. Severity of Dependence Scale
3. Short Alcohol Dependence Data Questionnaire
4.5 Regarding the substance misuse measures, 4. CAGE
the results represented in Figure 22 show that 5. Stages of Change: Pre-contemplation
6. Stages of Change: Contemplation
the majority of measures moved in the 7. Stages of Change: Action
8. Stages of Change: Maintenance
desired direction. Again, offenders who 9. BIS (10s)
completed pre and post measures show less 10.Locus of Control
11. SPSI: Positive Problem Orientation
impulsivity, less external locus of control and 12.SPSI: Rational Problem Solving Subscale

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5. Programmes update LIAM and RP


Two new modules have been designed and piloted
during the year. They are the low intensity alcohol
No major new programmes were developed or module, LIAM, and the relapse prevention module,
launched in 2005-06. Analysis of offenders’ risk and RP. The former is being piloted in 4 areas and the
need using OASys data indicated that there were no latter in 3 areas.
major gaps in programme provision. The main focus
of the Offending Behaviour Programmes team has OASys data was analysed regarding offenders'
been improving performance and creating substance misuse need and gaps in provision were
efficiencies in the delivery and support of identified for particular groups of offenders, in
programmes whilst maintaining quality. particular relating to alcohol misuse (with drug
misuse provision being available via the local DATs).
Work, where possible, has been taken forward jointly Alcohol misusing offenders with OGRS scores below
with H. M. Prison Service. Good progress was made that required to access a substance misuse and
on the training strategy. The generic core training offending accredited programme formed one such
module was written, piloted and quality assured, and group. Those offenders attending other accredited
accepted by the CSAP. It will be implemented programmes such as CALM, IDAP, GOBP, etc. but in
nationally in 2006-07. The core training module will need of some structured intervention to address
become the initial training provided for all prison and alcohol related offending needs were identified as the
probation staff before they become tutors. It will other group.
equip them with basic groupwork competencies and
an understanding of the theory and techniques of LIAM is a 12 session module based upon three
under-pinning cognitive behavioural programmes. existing substance misuse accredited programmes:
This means that programme specific training will be DID; OSAP and ASRO. It is being piloted in groups
shortened, tutors will be able to move much more and with individuals and the initial delivery stage is
easily from delivering one programme to another or due to be reviewed in December 2006. Thereafter
between prison and probation locations, and there the module will be amended and piloted again in
will be efficiencies for probation areas, because 2007. It is hoped to increase the number of pilot
duplication in training content will be reduced. areas to expedite throughput, hence the evaluation
and national launch. This is anticipated to occur later
Progress has also been made in developing a joint in 2007.
HMP/Probation audit. It is intended to develop an
audit which focuses more clearly on factors which are RP has been designed as a follow on module
important in delivering quality programmes while consolidating learning from ASRO and OSAP. It is 10
placing less unnecessary requirements on delivery sessions duration and is planned to be delivered to
teams. groups and individuals as part of the pilot. Delivery is
dependent upon programme completions; therefore
The quality support strategy has been published. timeframes are less clear cut.
This strategy endorses the role of the treatment
manager as pivotal in maintaining quality of delivery. Both pilots will continue into the 2007-08 business
The first joint treatment manager event was held in year.
March 2006, when the theme was improving quality
of delivery.

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Future Developments Future plans for SOTPs

Cognitive Skills - Think First / ETS By the end of the financial year, the Internet Sex
Refresh Offending Treatment Programme (i-SOTP) will be in
The ETS and Think First programmes have been in place across probation areas in England and Wales.
use for some time and require updating to reflect All 42 probation areas wish to take the programme
current practice. A joint project with HMPS has been and have submitted Implementation Plans to this
launched to develop a new national programme that effect within the year and many areas predict first
will replace both programmes and can be used in programme completions for within the first year. The
both services. Stakeholders will be consulted and internet programme enables us to address better this
recent advances in cognitive behavioural techniques particular type of offending and target the more
incorporated. The new draft programme will be ready general sex offending treatment programme better on
for piloting in July 2007 until December 2007, when it other types of sexual offending. During this financial
will be taken for approval to CSAP. year the Adapted Sex Offender Treatment
Programme is being piloted across six probation
areas: this programme is designed to cater for
Instrumental Violence Module developmentally disabled sex offenders and is
The Offending Behaviour Programmes team are catering fro previously unmet risk and need.
investigating the need for a programme or module for
offenders who use violence instrumentally. The
existing violence programmes cater primarily for Evaluation
offenders whose violence is associated with a
heightened emotional state, such as anger, or is Research and evaluation will focus on offender
reactive to a stressful situation. There are some feedback over the forthcoming year. As part of this
offenders who use violence or the threat of violence work programme there will be an examination of the
mainly in order to achieve their aims in a more factors which impact upon the level of offender
calculating manner. The domestic violence retention. NPD will work closely with areas and
programmes and the Cognitive Self-Change compile data through offender focus groups in the
programmes run by HMP cater for some of these field, structured interviews and questionnaires.
offenders. OBPT are examining if this group is large
enough in the community sentenced population to
justify developing a specialist intervention. A
systematic review of the literature has been
commissioned to investigate what type of intervention
might be best suited to this group.

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Appendix 1: Profile of programmes by area for 2005-06


Think First ETS OTO Cog Booster ASRO OSAP ART CALM C-SOGP
Region/Area
West Midlands
Staffordshire x x x x
Warwickshire x x x x x
West Mercia x x x x x
West Midlands x x x x x

North East
County Durham x x x
Northumbria x x x x
Teesside x x x

East of England
Bedfordshire x x x
Cambridgeshire x x x x
Essex x x x x
Hertfordshire x x
Norfolk x x x x x
Suffolk x x x x

North West
Cheshire x x x
Cumbria x x x
Lancashire x x x x
Greater Manchester x x x x
Merseyside x x x

East Midlands
Derbyshire x x x x x x
Leicestershire & Rutland x x x x x x
Lincolnshire x x x x
Northamptonshire x x x x x
Nottinghamshire x x x

Yorks & Humberside


Humberside x x x x x
North Yorkshire x x x x
South Yorkshire x x x x
West Yorkshire x x x

South East
Hampshire x x x
Kent x x x x x
Surrey x x x x
Sussex x x x
Thames Valley x x x

South West
Avon & Somerset x x x
Devon/Cornwall x x x
Dorset x x x
Gloucestershire x x x
Wiltshire x x

London x x x x x x

Wales
Dyfed/Powys x x x
Gwent x x x x x
North Wales x x x x x
South Wales x x x x

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N-SOGP TV-SOGP IDAP CDVP DID WAC


Region/Area
West Midlands
Staffordshire x x
Warwickshire x x
West Mercia x x
West Midlands x x x

North East
County Durham x x x
Northumbria x x x
Teesside x x

East of England
Bedfordshire x x x
Cambridgeshire x x x
Essex x x x
Hertfordshire x x x x
Norfolk x x x
Suffolk x x x

North West
Cheshire x x x
Cumbria x x x
Lancashire x x x
Greater Manchester x x x
Merseyside x x x

East Midlands
Derbyshire x x
Leicestershire & Rutland x x
Lincolnshire x x
Northamptonshire x x
Nottinghamshire x x

Yorks & Humberside


Humberside x x
North Yorkshire x x x
South Yorkshire x x x
West Yorkshire x x x

South East
Hampshire x x
Kent x x x
Surrey x x x
Sussex x x x
Thames Valley x x x

South West
Avon & Somerset x x x
Devon/Cornwall x x x
Dorset x x
Gloucestershire x x x
Wiltshire x x

London x x

Wales
Dyfed/Powys x x
Gwent x x
North Wales x x
South Wales x x x

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Appendix 2: Programme Details


Probation Offending Behaviour Programmes
General Offending Programmes

PROGRAMME Enhanced Think First One to One Cognitive Women’s


Thinking Skills Skills Acquisitive
Booster Crime
Description of Addresses thinking An offence-focused Teaches a range of problem Designed to Based on MI
Programme and behaviour programme that solving skills in order to reinforce techniques – works
associated with addresses thinking change behaviour and the learning from with women in each
offending. Employs and behaviour. underpinning thoughts. general stage.
a sequenced series Phase 1 teaches Attitudes and values related offending Emphasis on emotional
of structured problem solving to offending. programmes, management and
exercises designed skills, phase 2 through skills building healthy
to teach inter- applies to offending, rehearsal and relationships
personal problem phase 3 rehearses relapse
solving skills self management prevention
and social skills
Status Accredited Accredited Accredited Accredited Accredited
Target Group Male & female Male & female Male & female. Medium to Male and female Female. OGRS 31 plus
medium to medium medium to high risk medium high risk of offenders who (or OASys 40 plus)
high risk (OGRS 41 (OGRS 41–100), but reconviction (OGRS 41 to have already over-ride
–100), but where an where an individual is 100), but where an completed a Women who have a
individual is scoring scoring 75 and over individual is scoring 75 and general offender current conviction of an
75 and over the the sentence plan over the sentence plan programme. acquisitive nature or
sentence plan should should identify should identify additional there is a pattern of
identify additional additional work to work to reflect the higher previous offending or
work to reflect the reflect the higher risk risk (the equivalent OASys the current offence has
higher risk (the (the equivalent range would be 50-160 with an underlying
equivalent OASys OASys range would offenders over 100 requiring motivation of an
range would be 50- be 50-160 with additional work) acquisitive nature
160 with offenders offenders over 100
over 100 requiring requiring additional
additional work) work)
Selection Criteria Level and range of Level and range of Level and range of cognitive Previous Level and range of
cognitive skills cognitive skills skills deficits assessed completion of cognitive skills deficits
deficits assessed deficits assessed through General offender general offender assessed through
through OASys through General matrix programme and OASys
scores offender matrix Complex pattern of personal evidence that
problems, personal they have
characteristics that make benefited from
group learning difficult. the original
GOBP.
Exclusion Criteria Lacks the offending Lacks the offending Lacks the offending related Has failed to Serious mental health
related needs, related needs, needs, serious mental benefit issues, inability to meet
serious mental health serious mental health health problems, inability to sufficiently from the learning outcomes
problems, inability to problems, inability to meet the learning outcomes the original e.g. sever drug
learn in a group learn in a group e.g./severe drug programme. dependency
setting setting dependency
Programme 20 sessions of 2-2.5 22 sessions of 2-2.5 21 sessions of 1 to 1.5 10-12 x2-2.5 31 sessions of 2 hours
Sessions hours hours hours hour sessions each. Additional work
depending on will be needed for the
group size – higher risk women or
normally10 those with greater need
Pre-programme None specified 4 pre programme 1 pre programme 1 pre 1 preparation session
sessions motivational session programme held by tutors
session.
Post programme None specified 4 sessions + 2 None specified Relapse Non-specified
optional sessions) prevention work
with manager
Core Programme 4 –10 weeks (40 – 50 6 – 22 weeks (44 to Up to 11 weeks @ 2 4 – 10 weeks Twice a week for 16
Duration hours total) 55 hours excluding sessions per week (21 to 32 (20 to 25 hours weeks. 3 times a week
(excl. pre and post pre and post hours total) in total) for 11 weeks
sessions) sessions) Suspension of up to 6
weeks – restart after
individual assessment at
appropriate point.
Suspension 6 weeks or
longer – restart at beginning
Group size Minimum 4, Minimum 4, Individual delivery Minimum 4, Optimum 8-10
Maximum 12, Maximum 12, Maximum 12, Min 3
Optimum 10 Optimum 10 Optimum 8
Implementation Complete Complete Complete From March Sept 03
2003

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Violence Programmes

PROGRAMME Aggression CALM Cognitive Self


Replacement Change Block 6
Training
Description of Aims to reduce Aims to reduce An integral part of a
Programme aggressive behaviour aggressive and programme which starts
through teaching social offending behaviour in prisons and continues
skills, anger management which is related to poor in the community.
techniques and improved emotional management Reinforces learning from
moral reasoning through teaching social the prison-based blocks,
skills, emotional applies it to the
management community setting and
techniques and REBT maintains an up to date
relapse prevention plan.
Status Accredited Accredited Accredited
Target Group Male & female offenders, Males only, OGRS 41 High-risk seriously violent
OGRS 41 to 100 but to 100 but where an male offenders
where an individual is individual is scoring 75
scoring 75 and over the and over the sentence
sentence plan should plan should identify
identify additional work to additional work to
reflect the higher risk. reflect the higher risk.
(the equivalent OASys (the equivalent OASys
range would be 50-160 range would be 50-160
with offenders over 100 with offenders over 100
requiring additional work) requiring additional
AND/OR work)
Medium or above risk of AND/OR
harm in the community Medium or above risk
(OASys). High or very of harm in the
high risk requires further community (OASys).
structured work or a High or very high risk
sequenced programme to requires further
be provided. structured work or a
sequenced programme
to be provided.
Selection Criteria Current aggressive Current offence of Release from prison
offence and/or aggression or loss of having started the
established pattern of emotional control programme
aggressive behaviour. and/or previous pattern
Deficits measured in of aggression or loss of
OASys in 2 of the emotional control.
following areas; social Deficits, measured by
skills, emotional OASys, in 2 of the
management, perspective following areas: social
taking and moral skills, emotional
development management,
perspective taking and
pro-criminal attitudes.
Exclusion criteria Offenders who are Primarily instrumentally Not applicable
primarily instrumentally violent & domestic
violent & domestic violence offenders.
violence offenders.
Programme Sessions 18 sessions of 2 hours. 24 sessions of 2 –2.5 One-to-one sessions in
hours. the context of licence
appointments
Pre-programme 5 sessions None specified. N/a
Post programme 5 sessions None specified. N/a
Core Programme 6 to 12 weeks (36 hours 8 to 24 weeks Maximum until the end of
Duration total) the licence or until ended
(excl. pre and post by risk management
sessions) decision
Group Size Minimum 3 maximum10 Minimum 3 N/a
maximum10
Implementation Complete Nov 2002 In progress – 17 out of In progress.
25 areas

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Sex Offender Programmes

PROGRAMME C-SOGP (West TV-SOGP (Thames N-SOGP (Northumbria I-SOTP


Midlands) Valley Programme)
Programme)
Description of Aims to reduce offending by Aims to reduce offending Rolling programme which aims Aims to reduce offending by
Programme adult male sex offenders by adult male sex to reduce offending by adult non-contact internet sex
offenders and to provide male sex offenders offenders
support to partners of
perpetrators
Status Accredited Accredited Accredited Partially Accredited
Target Group Adult males within normal IQ Adult males within normal Adult males within normal IQ Adult males with normal IQ who
range who commit any type of IQ range who commit any range who commit any type of commit non-contact internet
sexual offence. Also accept type of sexual offence. sexual offence. Also accept related sex offences
voluntary referrals e.g. from Also accept voluntary voluntary referrals e.g. from
Social Services referrals e.g. from Social Social Services range
Services

Selection Criteria Sexual offence Sexual offence Sexual offence Internet sexual offence
Exclusion criteria General exclusion criteria General exclusion criteria General exclusion criteria apply High deviancy or contact offence
apply some discretion to take apply plus total denial of plus total denial of any incident
total denial of any incident any incident
Programme Sessions 50 hour induction module. 10 consecutive day Offenders assessed as High 70 hours focusing on internet
Low risk/low deviancy men Foundation Block Risk/Deviance attend Core related offending.
then go directly to 50 hour Victim Empathy block Programme (144 hrs min.)
Relapse Prevention twice weekly sessions of followed by Relapse Prevention
Programme. High risk/high 2 hours (60 hours) (36hrs), giving total programme
deviancy men undertake full Life Skills block twice length of 180 hours. Low
programme (250 hours) weekly sessions of 2 risk/deviance offenders will
consisting of 6 modules. Men hours (40 hours) normally complete individual
can join at the beginning of Relapse prevention work with Offender Manger
each module. weekly sessions of 2 followed by relapse prevention
Men who have successfully hours (44 hours) module. Offenders released from
completed Prison SOTP can Partners programme prison will follow similar route
go directly to the Relapse weekly sessions of 2 depending on assessment.
Prevention Programme. hours (36 hours) Sessions are normally run for
High risk/high deviancy 3.5 hours during the day, but can
men do whole be run as two evening sessions
programme, low risk, low a week. The Core Programme is
deviancy men can miss a rolling group and the RP
out Life Skills block. module is closed.
Men who have
successfully completed
Prison SOTP can go
directly to the Relapse
prevention programme
Pre-programme Flexible sessions included in Flexible sessions Offender Manager’s pack Flexible sessions included in
Offender Manager’s pack included in Offender Offender Manager’s pack
Manager’s pack

Post programme Monitoring risk factors and Monitoring risk factors Monitoring risk factors and Monitoring risk factors and
reinforcement included in and reinforcement reinforcement included in reinforcement included in
Offender Manager’s pack included in Offender Offender Manager’s pack Offender Manager’s pack
Manager’s pack

Core Programme Either 100 hours or 260 hours Either 196 hours for high Either 180 hours for High 70 hours
Duration depending on risk/deviancy risk/high deviancy men or risk/deviance or 36 hours plus
(excl.pre and post profile 156 hours for low risk/low individual work for low
sessions) deviancy men risk/deviance
Group Size 8 optimum. Max 10 8 optimum. Max 10 8 optimum. Max 10 1-2-1 or group up to 10 and 8
optimum
Implementation Completed Completed Completed Implementation across NPD
2006-07

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Substance Misuse Programmes

PROGRAMME ASRO Drink Impaired Drivers OSAP PRISM


Description of Modular group work Programme combines cognitive Modular group work programme. Programme for One to One
Programme programme. Aims to behavioural work and education. Aims to teach offenders the skills delivery. Aims to teach offenders
teach offenders the Aims to reduce the risk of future required to reduce or stop the skills required to reduce or
skills required to reduce drink related driving offences substance misuse stop substance misuse
or stop substance
misuse
Status Accredited Accredited Partially Accredited Accredited
Target Group Male and female Male Male and female offenders who Male and female medium to high Male and female medium to high
& female medium to commit a drink drive related risk of offending (OGRS 50–100 risk of offending (OGRS 50–100
high risk (OGRS offence. Priority to be given to or OASys scores above 64), but or OASys score above 64), but
50–100 or OASys those whose offence has an where an individual is scoring 75 where an individual is scoring 75
scores above 64, but aggravating factor e.g. high (OASys 100) and over the (OASys 100) and over the
where an individual is reading, accident or repeat sentence plan should identify sentence plan should identify
scoring 75 (OASys offence additional work to reflect the additional work to reflect the
100) and over the higher risk higher risk
sentence plan should
identify additional work
to reflect the higher
risk)

Selection Criteria Offending is related to Drink drive related offence and Offending is related to substance Offending is related to substance
substance misuse, relevant skills or knowledge misuse misuse.
offender sufficiently deficits Offender sufficiently stable and Offender sufficiently stable &
stable & motivated. motivated. motivated.
Exclusion criteria As for general As for other GOBPs. Not As for general offending As for general behaviour
offending behaviour suitable for problem drinkers programmes programmes
programmes until they are stabilised. The
programme is unlikely to be
suitable for offenders with more
than four previous convictions
who are likely to have a wider
range of criminogenic needs
which cannot be met by this
programme.
Programme Sessions 20 sessions of 2.5 14 sessions of 2.5 hours to be 26 sessions of 2.5 hours. Twenty sessions from between
hours. Programme has delivered weekly Programme has modular 45 and 120 minutes. Sessions
modular structure. structure. Can be delivered from recommended
Sessions can be one to three times per week. twice weekly for sessions 1
delivered from one to – 4,
three times per week. weekly for sessions 5-12
and
2 x weekly or weekly for
sess. 13 - 20
Pre-programme Written guidance re 4 pre programme sessions 3 pre programme sessions Written guidance re preparatory
preparatory work for work for offender managers
offender managers
Core Programme 10 - 20 weeks (50 14 weeks ( 35 hours in total) 12- 24 weeks 10 - 20 sessions (50 hours in
Duration hours in total) total)
(excl.pre and post
sessions)
Post programme None specified, other Written guidance offender Minimum 4 maintenance None specified, other than action
than action post managers which details further sessions with case worker post programme report
programme report optional work in 6 areas
depending upon the progress
which the offender made in the
core programme
Group Size 8-12 Minimum 4, Maximum 12, 8-12 Not applicable
optimum 10
Implementation Completed Completed Pilot commenced June 2003 Under review

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Domestic Violence

PROGRAMME CDVP IDAP


Description of Programme CBT Domestic Violence CBT Offender focussed,
Sequential programme for challenging attitudes and
male perpetrators of beliefs Teaches non
medium to high risk of controlling behaviour
harm. Based on CSC and strategies, and enhanced
similar to prison dv victim empathy. Includes
programme. Includes interagency risk
interagency risk assessment/info exchange
assessment/info exchange management;
management; victim victim contact;
contact; proactive offender proactive offender
management and core management and core
groupwork. groupwork.
Status Accredited Accredited
Target Group Male offenders who were Male offenders, in/were in
or are in heterosexual heterosexual relationships,
relationships with who are of medium to high
medium & medium/high risk of harm
risk of harm offenders
Selection Criteria Use of SARA , male, Spousal Abuse Risk
offence committed in Assessment tool (SARA)
context of dv male, offence committed in
context of dv
Exclusion Criteria In denial; Severe mental In denial; Serious mental
health issues, inability to health problems, inability
meet learning outcomes to meet the learning
e.g. severe drug outcomes e.g./ severe
dependency drug dependency
Programme Sessions 25 groupwork sessions of 27 group sessions of 2
2 hrs Sequential but hours, delivered weekly,
flexible. Can be delivered modular rolling
2/3 times per week. programme; 13 individual
9 individual sessions sessions including pre and
including pre and post post
Pre-programme 3 pre programme 4 individual sessions plus
individual sessions plus one group orientation
one pre group
Post programme 4 relapse prevention At least four relapse
sessions prevention session with
offender manager
Core Programme Duration 9-13 weeks Probably not less than 27
(excl. pre and post weeks in total plus pre and
sessions) post sessions
Group size 8-12 8- 12
Likely Implementation Date completed completed

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Research Portfolio

PROGRAMME Black and Asian Low Intensity Alcohol


Research Misuse
Description of Test out the added value Programme for individuals
of supporting modules with alcohol related offending
Programme attached to a GOBP who are not dependent and
Self Development do not meet the criteria for
module with a ASRO or OSAP
GOBP delivered to
a black and Asian
only group and to
mixed groups
Status Research Research
Target Group Male & female medium to Male or female below OGR 50
high risk (ORGS 41–100)
Selection Criteria Meets GOBP criteria, Alcohol related offending not
motivated. suitable for ASRO or OSAP
Exclusion Criteria As for GOBP. Excused
SD not motivated after MI
Programme SD Module 4 sessions
Sessions
Pre-programme
Post programme
Core programme SD 8-10 hrs. 10 2 hour sessions
Duration
(excl. pre and post
sessions)
Group size SD 4-12 1-2-1 0r up to 12 Group
Review of Pilot 2005
stage

Last Updated November 2006

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Table of Abbreviaitons and Acronyms


ASRO Addressing Substance Related Offending
ART Aggression Replacement Training
BIS Barrett Impulsivity Scale
CALM Controlling Anger and Learning to Manage it
CDVP Community Domestic Violence Programme
CSAP Correctional Services Accreditation Panel
C-SOGP Community Sex Offender Group Programme
CSB Cognitive Skills Booster
DATs Drug Action Teams
DID Drink Impaired Driver Programme
DV Domestic Violence
EPTM Effective Practice Training Manager
E-OASYS Electronic Offender Assessment System
ETS Enhanced Thinking Skills
GOBP General Offending Behaviour Programme
IAPS Interim Accredited Programmes Software
IDAP Integrated Domestic Abuse Programme
i-SOGP Internet Sex Offending Group Programme
LCB Locus of Control
N-SOGP Northumbria Sex Offender Group Programme
NPD National Probation Directorate
NPS National Probation Service
NPSISS National Probation Service Information System Strategy
OASys Offender Assessment System
OBPT / OBPU Offending Behaviour Programmes Team / Unit
OGRS Offender Group Reconviction Score
OSAP Offender Substance Abuse Programme
OTO One to One programme
PICTS Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles
PIM Programme Implementation Manager
RP Relapse Prevention
SOTPs Sex Offender Treatment Programmes
SPSI Social Problem Solving Inventory
SU Substance Use
TV-SOGP Thames Valley Sex Offender Group Programme
WAC Women’s Acquisitive Crime / Women’s Programme
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