NPD Interventions Unit

Annual Report
for Accredited Programmes 2005-2006

Contents
Summary 1. Managing the delivery of programmes 2. Retention and Attrition 3. Targeting 4. Analysing the results of the evaluations measures 5. Programmes update List of Figures Figure 1: Actual number of completions by year Figure 2: Proportion of completions by programme Figure 3: Actual Completions (Cumulative) 2005-06 Figure 4: Number of referrals made by year Figure 5: Number of orders made compared to completions by year Figure 6: Percentage of starters completing the programmes by year Figure 7: Completion rate by programme commencement for 2005-06 Figure 8: Retention rate from referral through to completion Figure 9: Retention rate by year for General Offending Behaviour Programmes and Drink Impaired Drivers Programme Figure 10: Retention rates by year for Violence Programmes Figure 11: Retention rates by year for Substance Misuse programmes Figure 12: Retention rates for SOTPs Figure 13: Retention from referrals to licenses and orders Figure 14: Retention from orders and licenses to commencements Figure 15: Retention from commencements to completions Figure 16: Comparison of retention rates by programme, prior to commencement and during the programme Figure 17: Reasons given by staff for offenders failing to complete programmes Figure 18: OGRS scores for General Offending Behaviour Programmes Figure 19: OGRS scores for Substance Misuse Programmes Figure 20: ETS and Think First psychometric pre and post means Figure 21: DID psychometric pre and post means Figure 22: Substance Misuse psychometric pre and post means Appendices Appendix 1: Profile of programmes by area for 2005-06 Appendix 2: Programme Details Table of Abbreviaitons and Acronyms 1 2 6 10 12 14 2 3 3 3 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 10 10 12 13 13 16 18 25

Summary
This is the fourth annual report for NPS Accredited Offending Behaviour Programmes. The report provides statistics on the delivery of Offending Behaviour Programmes and, where available, provides comparative performance data with other years. Offending Behaviour Programmes continue to show year on year increased completions and overall effectiveness. The retention of offenders on programmes has also improved. This year, more detailed retention data has been compiled regarding referral to order/licence, to commencement, and then from commencement to completion.

violence perpetrators were still undertaking the first tranche of programmes at the end of the year. It is also accounted for by a large increase in programmes started during the year, of which those starting in the later part of the year will not complete the programme until the following year, in particular, the domestic violence programmes. The overall retention rate of offenders attending the majority of programmes continues to rise, but retention appears to be falling amongst offenders at the stage between order and commencement of the programme. Actions taken to improve retention rates over the last few years, especially after programme commencements, are proving effective. Monitoring of targeting to programmes in terms of risk of reconviction shows a pattern similar to last year. Approximately 20% of offenders directed to general offending programmes are low risk of reconviction (OGRS less than 41). This means that in one case in every five, assessors are exercising their discretion and recommending offenders who would not normally meet the targeting criteria to programmes. The results from the intermediate evaluation measures for general offending programmes, substance misuse programmes and drink impaired driver programmes are very positive, showing that on average offenders improve in terms of these measures when they complete programmes. The offending behaviour programmes team in NPD, in consultation with the Prison Service, continues to review the provision of Accredited Offending Behaviour Programmes in the light of evaluation research and identification of need within the offender population. The final section of the report describes future developments.

Key points
The target of 15,000 programme completions was substantially exceeded. The total number of completions for all accredited programmes in 2005-06 was 16,824, an increase of 8% compared with performance in the previous year. General offending programmes accounted for half of all completions. Completions of sex offender and violent offender programmes were proportionate to the representation of these groups in the probation caseload. 64% of orders and licences made requiring attendance at an accredited programme resulted in a programme start in 2005-06. This resulted in 24,475 programme starts in total; an increase in the number of commencements from previous years. Two thirds of offenders who started a programme completed them. This figure is slightly down on the previous year. It is accounted for by the implementation of domestic violence programmes late in the financial year. These are lengthy programmes and, therefore, many domestic

Annual Report for Accredited Programmes 2005-2006 1

1. Managing the delivery of programmes
1.1 Effective programme management encompasses a number of processes, from identifying appropriate referrals correctly through to reducing rates of attrition. This section details year on year progress made nationally in this area. The national target for all accredited programme completions in 2005-06 was 15,000; this figure was met and substantially exceeded. Figure 1 shows that the total number of programme completions has increased each year, with this year’s total standing at 16,826; an increase of 8% on last year’s figure.

1.3

1.2

Figure 1: Actual number of completions by year

Completions by Year
18000 16000 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06

Accredited programmes vary in length and complexity. It is important that programme completions reflect the needs profile of the probation population. Figure 2 shows the percentage of each type of programme which contributed to the total figure of 16,826 completions. It shows general offender programme completions accounted for almost half of the total. Such results would be expected given that ‘generic acquisitive‘ offenders account for the bulk of the probation caseload and that over half of this group meets the selection criteria for general offending programmes. Domestic violence completions account for only 5% of completions because they were not implemented by most areas until well into the financial year. It is expected that the percentage of domestic violence programmes in relation to other programmes will increase significantly over the coming year, building towards the target of 1,200 for 2006-7. The level of sex offender programmes and other violence programmes is representative of numbers serving a community sentence. The fact that the DID programme accounts for such a large percentage of programme completions is unsatisfactory; this group has the highest retention rates and the need does exist, but they represent a relatively small proportion of the probation caseload.

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Figure 2: Proportion of completions by programme
Proportion completion by programme type
Domestic Violence 5% Anger Programmes 5% SOTP 6% GOBPs 43% WAC 0%

suitable cases is being reached; extrapolations based on OASys data suggest there is still a large unmet need.

Figure 3: Actual Completions (Cumulative) 2005-06
Number of Referrals by Year
50,000 45,000 40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0
2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06

Substance Misuse 14%

Year

DID 27%

Figure 4: Number of referrals made by year
Actual Completions (Cumulative) 2005-06
18000 16000 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0

1.4

Figure 3 shows that the cumulative number of completions each month rose steadily, confirming that areas are generally delivering programmes at a consistent rate throughout the year. The increase at the end of the year is probably due to the fact that longer programmes, such as domestic violence and sex offenders programmes, can take most of the year to complete. Programme referrals for 2005-06 numbered 47,189, showing an increase of 8% from the previous year’s 43,843 referrals. Referrals have now more than doubled since monitoring began (there were only 22,091 referrals made in 2001-2002), although the rate of increase has subsided in recent years. This does not mean that the upper limit of

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Of these 47,189 referrals, 3,827 were converted into licences and 36,035 into a community sentence with a requirement to attend an accredited programme. This represents a concordance rate of 84.5% compared to a rate of 72% achieved in the previous year.

Figure 6: Percentage of starters completing the programmes by year
The Percentage of Starters Completing the Programme
Completions (%)
80 60 40 20 0 2002-03 2003-04 Year 2004-05 2005-05

Figure 5: Number of orders made compared to completions by year
Orders and Completions
50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06

1.8

Year Orders Completions

1.7

Figure 5 shows that as the number of orders has increased each year, so have the number of completions. The figure also demonstrates the gap between orders made and completions, which was closing in previous years, widened slightly in 2005-06. This is mainly related to offenders not starting programmes rather than offenders failing to complete them.

The percentage of programme starters remaining in the programme and completing has, however, fallen slightly from 68.2% in 2004-05 to 66% in 2005-06 as shown in figure 6. This dip in performance can be attributed to two factors. Firstly, the implementation of domestic violence programmes in many probation areas occurred during the second half of the year. Domestic violence programmes are lengthy and so many areas would not get completions within this financial year. Secondly, the continued expansion of substance misuse programmes (in particular OSAP) essential to meet the needs profile of offenders means that a greater number of offenders with prolific offending histories and chaotic lifestyles have been referred to programmes and this may have impacted on drop out rates.

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Figure 7: Completion rate by programme commencement for 2005-06
Accredited Programmes Completion Rates 2005-06
Percentage Of Completions
90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

1.10

Completion rates differ by type of programme reflecting the different needs of the offenders who typically attend them. The DID programme is designed for a specific group of offenders who tend to have less criminal involvement and a more stable lifestyle, therefore completion rates are very good (85%). The CSB is a short reinforcement programme for those who have already completed ETS or Think First, and therefore the participants tend to be better motivated and more likely to complete. In 2005-06, completion rates were lowest for the domestic violence programmes and the Women’s Programme (WAC) which are new programmes still being implemented. The completion rate for OSAP has increased significantly during the first year of full implementation. The 2005-06 completion figures for OSAP grew from 37% in the previous year to 42% and ASRO also showed a small increase. The SOTPs also had a high completion rate. Sex offenders tend to be older and more compliant. A greater level of case management involvement and more resources allocated to sex offenders, because of the perceived risk of serious harm, may also be relevant.

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Figure 7 represents the percentage completion rate for each programme. It is important to note that the percentages are throughput figures and do not reflect completion rates for a cohort or specific group of offenders. This means that programmes which have been recently implemented may appear to have lower completion rates because some of those who have commenced the programme will not have sufficient time to complete during the year and they cannot be offset against commencement from the previous year.

1.12

Annual Report for Accredited Programmes 2005-2006 5

2. Retention and Attrition
2.1 Managing attrition and increasing retention has continued to be a priority for NPD and those who run the offending behaviour programmes.

Figure 9: Retention rate by year for General Offending Behaviour Programmes and Drink Impaired Drivers Programme
Retention Rates: GOBPs & DID 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06

Figure 8: Retention rate from referral through to completion
Retention rate from referral through to completion 2005-2006
50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 Referral Licences and Orders Issued Starters Completions

% age Retention

Year Commencements as % of Orders Completions as % of Commencements

2.2

Figure 8 compares retention at various points in the process. The number of referrals for OBPs for 2005-06 was 47,189. Of these, 3,827 were given OBPs on licence and 36,035 on order. The retention rate of offenders at this stage was 85%. The number of offenders who then went on to start the OBP was 25,475, showing a retention rate of 64%. The number of offenders who went on to complete their programme was 16,826, showing a retention rate of 66%.

2.3

Figure 9 shows progress in managing retention over the last four years for general offending behaviour programmes. From 2002-04 the retention rate was lower after starting programmes than between order and commencement. This reversed in 2004-05 reflecting the effective strategies introduced by treatment managers and tutors to support offenders attending programmes. The figure for 2005-06 shows a slight fall in retention rates both before and after commencement. However, retention after commencement remains higher.

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Figure 10: Retention rates by year for Violence Programmes
2.5
Retention Rates: Violence Programmes
90%
%age Retention

retention of participants programmes over time.

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violence

80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 2002-03 2003-04 Year 2004-05 2005-06

Figure 11 illustrates the year on year improvement in retention on substance misuse programmes as compared with the retention rate pre programme.

Figure 12: Retention rates for SOTPs
Retention rates - SOTP programmes
140.0%

120.0%

Commencements

%age Retention

Commencements as % of Orders

Completions as % of

100.0%

80.0%

60.0%

Figure 11: Retention rates by year for Substance Misuse Programmes
Retention Rates: Substance Misuse Programmes
80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 Year
Commencements as % of Orders Completions as % of Commencements

40.0%

20.0%

0.0% Referral to order & licence Order & licence to commencement Commencement to completion

i-SOTP

C-SOGP

N-SOGP

TV-SOGP

2.4

%age Retention

2.6

The results for the year 2005-06 represented in figure 10 show for the first time that retention is higher during violence programmes than pre programme. There has been a steady improvement in offender

This is the first year that the SOTPs have been included in the annual report. Retentions rates are generally high for all three established programmes. The Internet Sex Offender Treatment Programme is still being implemented which explains the lower rates of retention. The anomaly in figure 12 is that C-SOGP shows a retention rate of over 100% which means more offenders commencing the treatment programme than were given an order or licence that year. The reason for this is due to the time elapsing from order to commencement being greater for some SOTPs because of the need for further assessments. A number of the referrals who commenced C-SOGP in 200506 would be from the previous year.

Annual Report for Accredited Programmes 2005-2006 7

Figure 13:
Retention Rate: Referral to licence and orders
100.0% 90.0% 80.0% 70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% ETS TF OTO CSB DID OSAP ASRO IDAP CDVP ART CALM WAC
Average overall retention rate

2.7

Figures 13 to 15 present the retention rates in a format that allows easier comparison across programmes. In terms of retention between referral and licence or order (figure 13), 85% of all referrals lead to an order or licence. The highest retention rates are for ASRO and DID. ETS, OSAP and CALM are below average, and the lowest rate is for WAC. It is difficult to pinpoint why these differences occur. However, there does appear to be a difference in the way the courts respond to recommendations for WAC and for the other accredited programmes. Figure 14 presents the level of retention by programme at the stage between order/licence to starting the offending behaviour programme. The overall level of retention is 63%, with over half of the programmes being above average. The lowest retention levels are found in the domestic violence programmes, the substance misuse programmes, One to One, ART and CSB. At this stage, offenders about to join WAC show good retention, compared with the previous stage. Figure 15 presents the level of retention by programme following commencement of the offending behaviour programme. By this stage retention has risen from the previous stage to around 66%. Nearly all DID and CSB programmes are completed. The lowest retention levels are found in WAC, IDAP and OSAP.

2.8

Figure 14:
Retention Rate: Order and Licence to Commencements
100.0% 90.0% 80.0% 70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% ETS TF OTO CSB DID OSAP ASRO IDAP CDVP ART CALM WAC
Average overall retention rate

2.9

Figure 15:
Retention Rate: Commencement to Completions
100.0% 90.0% 80.0% 70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% ETS TF OTO CSB DID OSAP ASRO IDAP CDVP ART CALM WAC
Average overall retention rate

2.10

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Figure 16: Comparison of retention rates by programme, prior to commencement and during the programme
Retention: prior to programme compared to during programme
90.0% 80.0% 70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% ETS TF OTO CSB DID OSAP ASRO IDAP CDVP ART CALM WAC Prior to programme During Programme

the cases that fail to complete a programme are accounted for by expiration of the order is a cause for concern. It suggests areas are not succeeding in starting offenders on programmes soon enough or re-starting them quickly enough if they are unable to continue in the original group through no fault of their own. No differences were noted regarding the reason for non-completion by type of programme.

Figure 17: Reasons given by staff for offenders failing to complete programmes
Reasons for drop out 2005-2006
2%

2.11

Figure 16 shows that for the majority of programmes the retention rate is greater in the period that the offender is undertaking the programme than prior to programme commencement. This suggests that greater focus should be placed on offender supervision and maintaining offender motivation before programmes begin. Figure 17 presents the reasons given by staff for offenders failing to complete programmes. These data are collected via the IAPS database and must conform to a limited number of categories. Just over half the failures to complete are put down to breach proceedings being brought against the offender. These might be for failing to attend the programme but could equally be for failure to comply with some other element of the order. Revocation is the second most common reason which in some instances will be because the offender was found to be unsuitable for the intervention at some point after sentencing, possibly after a more detailed assessment. The fact that 14% of

0% 1% 0% 2% 1% 2% 9%

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Breached

Transferred

Custody

Employment/Education Revoked Domestic

Excluded/Rejected Order Expired Sickness or ill health

Physical/Mental Health Re-assessment of suitability Other

Annual Report for Accredited Programmes 2005-2006 9

3. Targeting
3.1 Programmes’ effectiveness can be improved if they are targeted appropriately. Targeting criteria for programmes are linked to risk and need. Targeting, in terms of risk of reconviction, can be monitored using the OGRS (Offender Group Reconviction Score), which provides a measure of the likelihood of reconviction within the next two years. The largest group of offenders participating in programmes are medium to high risk. Overall, around a third of participants are high risk of reconviction (OGRS over 70); these are an appropriate group provided that additional structured work is undertaken. For programmes which use risk of reconviction as a criterion, just over 20% of participants are lower risk; this is a very similar result to last year.

3.2

Figure 18: OGRS scores for General Offending Behaviour Programmes
OGRS scores for General Offending Behaviour Programmes

Figure 18 shows that 21.3% of all offenders with an order/licence for a general offending behaviour programme had OGRS scores which were less than 40. 33.8% had OGRS scores between 41 and 70 (medium risk of reoffending) and 44.9% had OGRS over 71 (high risk of re-offending). Thus for this group 79% were correctly targeted in terms of risk. This means that in around one in five cases assessors have exercised their discretion and recommended offenders for programmes who are below the normal criteria. Assessors have exercised even greater discretion in allowing lower risk offenders to participate in the Women’s Programme. It could be argued that such large numbers of discretionary cases are unacceptable, but it may also indicate that offender managers are responding to individual offender needs. This is the first full year of data since the targeting criteria were changed from 30 to 40 plus, which might account for some of this discrepancy, as assessors adjust their practice.

Figure 19: OGRS scores for Substance Misuse Programmes
OGRS score for Substance Misuse Programmes

Number of offenders

3000
Number of offenders

2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 ETS TF 71+ OTO WOMENS CSB

1500 1250 1000 750 500 250 0 ASRO 0-50 51-70 71+ OSAP

0-40

41-70

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3.3

Figure 19 provides details of risk classification for substance misuse programmes. Correctly targeted offenders will have an OGRS greater than 50, but there is no upper limit as many substance misusers are at high risk of reconviction. 26.7% of all offenders attending substance misuse programmes had OGRS below 50. 21.2% had OGRS scores between 51 and 70 (medium risk of re-offending). 52.1% had OGRS scores over 71 (high risk of reoffending). This shows again that the majority of offenders are appropriately targeted but with a substantial minority being below the risk of reconviction criteria. Offenders can be allocated to violence and sex offender programmes either on ‘Risk of Reconviction’ or ‘Risk of Harm’ criteria. Therefore, a greater spread of OGRS is to be expected. For the violence programmes (ART and CALM) most offenders are in the high or medium high risk bands. For the domestic violence programme and the sex offender programmes, over half those attending programmes are in the low risk band. This reflects the fact that many domestic abusers and sex offenders do not have significant recorded criminal histories.

3.4

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4. Analysing the results of the evaluations measures
4.1 The measure of a programme’s effectiveness rests heavily on a reduction in the type and severity of reconviction. However, reconviction studies take a minimum of two to three years to complete and do not provide any information on the offender’s short-term change in attitudes and behaviour. Psychometric assessments provide an intermediate measure of the impact of programmes, reporting on changes in attitudes and self–reported behaviour during and immediately after attending a programme. Psychometrics also provide feedback regarding quality control issues and programme development. Currently, there are a number of measures which assess various aspects related to offending behaviour for each group of programmes. Tests are selected from those available, based on whether they address the treatment targets of the programme. Psychometrics can provide a proxy measure of an individual’s change in attitudes and behaviour but they are not without limitations. For example, some individuals have difficulty comprehending the language used within the tests and others may answer in a way they feel is most socially acceptable. In either case the test results are not a true representation of their actual attitudes and behaviour. When dealing with large numbers it can be assumed that such problems will not overly influence the aggregated results. Any changes shown on psychometric tests cannot be attributed directly to attendance of the

programme because there is no randomised control group to demonstrate what would happen if the programme were not present.

Figure 20: ETS and Think First psychometric pre and post means
Psychometric data for offenders on ETS and Think First
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Pre-Test Mean Post-Test Mean

Key
1. Eysenck Impulsivity Scale 2. Gough Socialisation Scale 3. Crime PICS:General Attitudes to Offending 4. Crime PICS: Anticipation of Reoffending 5. Crime PICS: Victim Hurt Denial 6. PICTS: Current Scale 7. PICTS: Cognitive Indolence Scale 8. Social Problem Solving Questionnaire: Aggressive Solution 9. Social Problem Solving Questionnaire: Assertive Solution 10. Passive Solutions

4.2

4.3

Figure 20 shows that on average ETS and Think First participants who completed the pre and post programme assessments change in the desired direction on all but one of the intermediate measures linked to general offending behaviour programmes. They are less impulsive, show less procriminal attitudes and thinking, and identify assertive rather than aggressive solutions to problems as most appropriate. The only measure on which offenders do not improve is the socialisation scale.

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Figure 21: DID psychometric pre and post means
Psychometric Data for Offenders on DID
80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

better problem solving strategies. Offenders reported that they were more likely to be in the contemplation stage of the Stages of Change model prior to the programme and more likely to be in the action stage afterwards, indicating that motivation to change had strengthened while attending the programme. One measure of substance dependence moved in an unexpected direction. Offenders self reported higher levels of dependence after the programme. Although unexpected, this may not be a negative result. It could be that having completed the programme offenders are more aware of their level of dependence and more willing to acknowledge it.

Pre-Test Mean Post-Test Mean

Key
1. Alcohol Knowledge Quiz 2. Safe Driving Questionnaire 3. Attitude to Drinking & Driving 4. SPSI: Positive Problem Orientation 5. SPSI: Rational Problem Solving 6. BIS: Total Impulsivity

Figure 22: Substance Misuse psychometric pre and post means
Psychometric Data for Offenders on ASRO and OSAP
35 30 25

4.4

Figure 21 demonstrates that offenders who complete the pre and post programme assessments improve on all of the intermediate measures linked to treatment targets for the Drink Impaired Drivers programme. Offenders demonstrate greater knowledge of the effect of alcohol and safe driving requirements. They show more responsible problem solving, less impulsivity and more pro-social attitudes in relation to drink driving. Regarding the substance misuse measures, the results represented in Figure 22 show that the majority of measures moved in the desired direction. Again, offenders who completed pre and post measures show less impulsivity, less external locus of control and

20 15 10 5 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Pre-Test Mean Post-Test Mean

4.5

Key 1. DAST 2. Severity of Dependence Scale 3. Short Alcohol Dependence Data Questionnaire 4. CAGE 5. Stages of Change: Pre-contemplation 6. Stages of Change: Contemplation 7. Stages of Change: Action 8. Stages of Change: Maintenance 9. BIS (10s) 10.Locus of Control 11. SPSI: Positive Problem Orientation 12.SPSI: Rational Problem Solving Subscale

Annual Report for Accredited Programmes 2005-2006 13

5. Programmes update
No major new programmes were developed or launched in 2005-06. Analysis of offenders’ risk and need using OASys data indicated that there were no major gaps in programme provision. The main focus of the Offending Behaviour Programmes team has been improving performance and creating efficiencies in the delivery and support of programmes whilst maintaining quality. Work, where possible, has been taken forward jointly with H. M. Prison Service. Good progress was made on the training strategy. The generic core training module was written, piloted and quality assured, and accepted by the CSAP. It will be implemented nationally in 2006-07. The core training module will become the initial training provided for all prison and probation staff before they become tutors. It will equip them with basic groupwork competencies and an understanding of the theory and techniques of under-pinning cognitive behavioural programmes. This means that programme specific training will be shortened, tutors will be able to move much more easily from delivering one programme to another or between prison and probation locations, and there will be efficiencies for probation areas, because duplication in training content will be reduced. Progress has also been made in developing a joint HMP/Probation audit. It is intended to develop an audit which focuses more clearly on factors which are important in delivering quality programmes while placing less unnecessary requirements on delivery teams. The quality support strategy has been published. This strategy endorses the role of the treatment manager as pivotal in maintaining quality of delivery. The first joint treatment manager event was held in March 2006, when the theme was improving quality of delivery.

LIAM and RP Two new modules have been designed and piloted during the year. They are the low intensity alcohol module, LIAM, and the relapse prevention module, RP. The former is being piloted in 4 areas and the latter in 3 areas.
OASys data was analysed regarding offenders' substance misuse need and gaps in provision were identified for particular groups of offenders, in particular relating to alcohol misuse (with drug misuse provision being available via the local DATs). Alcohol misusing offenders with OGRS scores below that required to access a substance misuse and offending accredited programme formed one such group. Those offenders attending other accredited programmes such as CALM, IDAP, GOBP, etc. but in need of some structured intervention to address alcohol related offending needs were identified as the other group. LIAM is a 12 session module based upon three existing substance misuse accredited programmes: DID; OSAP and ASRO. It is being piloted in groups and with individuals and the initial delivery stage is due to be reviewed in December 2006. Thereafter the module will be amended and piloted again in 2007. It is hoped to increase the number of pilot areas to expedite throughput, hence the evaluation and national launch. This is anticipated to occur later in 2007. RP has been designed as a follow on module consolidating learning from ASRO and OSAP. It is 10 sessions duration and is planned to be delivered to groups and individuals as part of the pilot. Delivery is dependent upon programme completions; therefore timeframes are less clear cut. Both pilots will continue into the 2007-08 business year.

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Future Developments
Cognitive Skills - Think First / ETS Refresh The ETS and Think First programmes have been in use for some time and require updating to reflect current practice. A joint project with HMPS has been launched to develop a new national programme that will replace both programmes and can be used in both services. Stakeholders will be consulted and recent advances in cognitive behavioural techniques incorporated. The new draft programme will be ready for piloting in July 2007 until December 2007, when it will be taken for approval to CSAP. Instrumental Violence Module The Offending Behaviour Programmes team are investigating the need for a programme or module for offenders who use violence instrumentally. The existing violence programmes cater primarily for offenders whose violence is associated with a heightened emotional state, such as anger, or is reactive to a stressful situation. There are some offenders who use violence or the threat of violence mainly in order to achieve their aims in a more calculating manner. The domestic violence programmes and the Cognitive Self-Change programmes run by HMP cater for some of these offenders. OBPT are examining if this group is large enough in the community sentenced population to justify developing a specialist intervention. A systematic review of the literature has been commissioned to investigate what type of intervention might be best suited to this group.

Future plans for SOTPs
By the end of the financial year, the Internet Sex Offending Treatment Programme (i-SOTP) will be in place across probation areas in England and Wales. All 42 probation areas wish to take the programme and have submitted Implementation Plans to this effect within the year and many areas predict first programme completions for within the first year. The internet programme enables us to address better this particular type of offending and target the more general sex offending treatment programme better on other types of sexual offending. During this financial year the Adapted Sex Offender Treatment Programme is being piloted across six probation areas: this programme is designed to cater for developmentally disabled sex offenders and is catering fro previously unmet risk and need.

Evaluation
Research and evaluation will focus on offender feedback over the forthcoming year. As part of this work programme there will be an examination of the factors which impact upon the level of offender retention. NPD will work closely with areas and compile data through offender focus groups in the field, structured interviews and questionnaires.

Annual Report for Accredited Programmes 2005-2006 15

Appendix 1: Profile of programmes by area for 2005-06
Think First ETS OTO Cog Booster ASRO OSAP ART CALM C-SOGP

Region/Area
West Midlands Staffordshire Warwickshire West Mercia West Midlands North East County Durham Northumbria Teesside East of England Bedfordshire Cambridgeshire Essex Hertfordshire Norfolk Suffolk North West Cheshire Cumbria Lancashire Greater Manchester Merseyside East Midlands Derbyshire Leicestershire & Rutland Lincolnshire Northamptonshire Nottinghamshire Yorks & Humberside Humberside North Yorkshire South Yorkshire West Yorkshire South East Hampshire Kent Surrey Sussex Thames Valley South West Avon & Somerset Devon/Cornwall Dorset Gloucestershire Wiltshire London Wales Dyfed/Powys Gwent North Wales South Wales x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

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x x x x

x x x x

x x

x x x

NPD Interventions Unit 16

N-SOGP

TV-SOGP

IDAP

CDVP

DID

WAC

Region/Area
West Midlands Staffordshire Warwickshire West Mercia West Midlands North East County Durham Northumbria Teesside East of England Bedfordshire Cambridgeshire Essex Hertfordshire Norfolk Suffolk North West Cheshire Cumbria Lancashire Greater Manchester Merseyside East Midlands Derbyshire Leicestershire & Rutland Lincolnshire Northamptonshire Nottinghamshire Yorks & Humberside Humberside North Yorkshire South Yorkshire West Yorkshire South East Hampshire Kent Surrey Sussex Thames Valley South West Avon & Somerset Devon/Cornwall Dorset Gloucestershire Wiltshire London Wales Dyfed/Powys Gwent North Wales South Wales x x x x x x x x

x

x x

x x x

x x x

x x x x x x

x x x x x x

x x x x x x

x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x

x x x x

x x x x

x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x x

x x x

x

x x x x

x x x x

x

Annual Report for Accredited Programmes 2005-2006 17

Appendix 2: Programme Details
Probation Offending Behaviour Programmes
General Offending Programmes
PROGRAMME Enhanced Thinking Skills
Addresses thinking and behaviour associated with offending. Employs a sequenced series of structured exercises designed to teach interpersonal problem solving skills Accredited Male & female medium to medium high risk (OGRS 41 –100), but where an individual is scoring 75 and over the sentence plan should identify additional work to reflect the higher risk (the equivalent OASys range would be 50160 with offenders over 100 requiring additional work) Level and range of cognitive skills deficits assessed through OASys scores

Think First

One to One

Cognitive Skills Booster
Designed to reinforce learning from general offending programmes, through skills rehearsal and relapse prevention Accredited Male and female offenders who have already completed a general offender programme.

Women’s Acquisitive Crime
Based on MI techniques – works with women in each stage. Emphasis on emotional management and building healthy relationships

Description of Programme

Status Target Group

Selection Criteria

An offence-focused programme that addresses thinking and behaviour. Phase 1 teaches problem solving skills, phase 2 applies to offending, phase 3 rehearses self management and social skills Accredited Male & female medium to high risk (OGRS 41–100), but where an individual is scoring 75 and over the sentence plan should identify additional work to reflect the higher risk (the equivalent OASys range would be 50-160 with offenders over 100 requiring additional work) Level and range of cognitive skills deficits assessed through General offender matrix

Teaches a range of problem solving skills in order to change behaviour and the underpinning thoughts. Attitudes and values related to offending.

Accredited Male & female. Medium to medium high risk of reconviction (OGRS 41 to 100), but where an individual is scoring 75 and over the sentence plan should identify additional work to reflect the higher risk (the equivalent OASys range would be 50-160 with offenders over 100 requiring additional work)

Accredited Female. OGRS 31 plus (or OASys 40 plus) over-ride Women who have a current conviction of an acquisitive nature or there is a pattern of previous offending or the current offence has an underlying motivation of an acquisitive nature

Level and range of cognitive skills deficits assessed through General offender matrix Complex pattern of personal problems, personal characteristics that make group learning difficult. Lacks the offending related needs, serious mental health problems, inability to meet the learning outcomes e.g./severe drug dependency 21 sessions of 1 to 1.5 hours

Exclusion Criteria

Programme Sessions

Lacks the offending related needs, serious mental health problems, inability to learn in a group setting 20 sessions of 2-2.5 hours

Lacks the offending related needs, serious mental health problems, inability to learn in a group setting 22 sessions of 2-2.5 hours

Previous completion of general offender programme and evidence that they have benefited from the original GOBP. Has failed to benefit sufficiently from the original programme. 10-12 x2-2.5 hour sessions depending on group size – normally10 1 pre programme session. Relapse prevention work with manager 4 – 10 weeks (20 to 25 hours in total)

Level and range of cognitive skills deficits assessed through OASys

Serious mental health issues, inability to meet the learning outcomes e.g. sever drug dependency 31 sessions of 2 hours each. Additional work will be needed for the higher risk women or those with greater need 1 preparation session held by tutors Non-specified

Pre-programme

None specified

4 pre programme sessions 4 sessions + 2 optional sessions) 6 – 22 weeks (44 to 55 hours excluding pre and post sessions)

1 pre programme motivational session None specified

Post programme

None specified

Core Programme Duration (excl. pre and post sessions)

4 –10 weeks (40 – 50 hours total)

Group size

Implementation

Minimum 4, Maximum 12, Optimum 10 Complete

Minimum 4, Maximum 12, Optimum 10 Complete

Up to 11 weeks @ 2 sessions per week (21 to 32 hours total) Suspension of up to 6 weeks – restart after individual assessment at appropriate point. Suspension 6 weeks or longer – restart at beginning Individual delivery

Twice a week for 16 weeks. 3 times a week for 11 weeks

Complete

Minimum 4, Maximum 12, Optimum 8 From March 2003

Optimum 8-10 Min 3 Sept 03

NPD Interventions Unit 18

Violence Programmes
PROGRAMME Aggression Replacement Training
Aims to reduce aggressive behaviour through teaching social skills, anger management techniques and improved moral reasoning

CALM

Cognitive Self Change Block 6
An integral part of a programme which starts in prisons and continues in the community. Reinforces learning from the prison-based blocks, applies it to the community setting and maintains an up to date relapse prevention plan. Accredited High-risk seriously violent male offenders

Description of Programme

Aims to reduce aggressive and offending behaviour which is related to poor emotional management through teaching social skills, emotional management techniques and REBT Accredited Males only, OGRS 41 to 100 but where an individual is scoring 75 and over the sentence plan should identify additional work to reflect the higher risk. (the equivalent OASys range would be 50-160 with offenders over 100 requiring additional work) AND/OR Medium or above risk of harm in the community (OASys). High or very high risk requires further structured work or a sequenced programme to be provided. Current offence of aggression or loss of emotional control and/or previous pattern of aggression or loss of emotional control. Deficits, measured by OASys, in 2 of the following areas: social skills, emotional management, perspective taking and pro-criminal attitudes. Primarily instrumentally violent & domestic violence offenders. 24 sessions of 2 –2.5 hours. None specified. None specified. 8 to 24 weeks

Status Target Group

Accredited Male & female offenders, OGRS 41 to 100 but where an individual is scoring 75 and over the sentence plan should identify additional work to reflect the higher risk. (the equivalent OASys range would be 50-160 with offenders over 100 requiring additional work) AND/OR Medium or above risk of harm in the community (OASys). High or very high risk requires further structured work or a sequenced programme to be provided.

Selection Criteria

Current aggressive offence and/or established pattern of aggressive behaviour. Deficits measured in OASys in 2 of the following areas; social skills, emotional management, perspective taking and moral development

Release from prison having started the programme

Exclusion criteria

Programme Sessions

Offenders who are primarily instrumentally violent & domestic violence offenders. 18 sessions of 2 hours.

Not applicable

Pre-programme Post programme Core Programme Duration (excl. pre and post sessions) Group Size Implementation

5 sessions 5 sessions 6 to 12 weeks (36 hours total)

Minimum 3 maximum10 Complete Nov 2002

Minimum 3 maximum10 In progress – 17 out of 25 areas

One-to-one sessions in the context of licence appointments N/a N/a Maximum until the end of the licence or until ended by risk management decision N/a In progress.

Annual Report for Accredited Programmes 2005-2006 19

Sex Offender Programmes
PROGRAMME C-SOGP (West Midlands)
Aims to reduce offending by adult male sex offenders

TV-SOGP (Thames Valley Programme)
Aims to reduce offending by adult male sex offenders and to provide support to partners of perpetrators Accredited Adult males within normal IQ range who commit any type of sexual offence. Also accept voluntary referrals e.g. from Social Services Sexual offence General exclusion criteria apply plus total denial of any incident 10 consecutive day Foundation Block Victim Empathy block twice weekly sessions of 2 hours (60 hours) Life Skills block twice weekly sessions of 2 hours (40 hours) Relapse prevention weekly sessions of 2 hours (44 hours) Partners programme weekly sessions of 2 hours (36 hours) High risk/high deviancy men do whole programme, low risk, low deviancy men can miss out Life Skills block. Men who have successfully completed Prison SOTP can go directly to the Relapse prevention programme Flexible sessions included in Offender Manager’s pack Monitoring risk factors and reinforcement included in Offender Manager’s pack Either 196 hours for high risk/high deviancy men or 156 hours for low risk/low deviancy men 8 optimum. Max 10 Completed

N-SOGP (Northumbria Programme)
Rolling programme which aims to reduce offending by adult male sex offenders

I-SOTP

Description of Programme

Aims to reduce offending by non-contact internet sex offenders

Status Target Group

Accredited Adult males within normal IQ range who commit any type of sexual offence. Also accept voluntary referrals e.g. from Social Services

Accredited Adult males within normal IQ range who commit any type of sexual offence. Also accept voluntary referrals e.g. from Social Services range

Partially Accredited Adult males with normal IQ who commit non-contact internet related sex offences

Selection Criteria Exclusion criteria

Programme Sessions

Sexual offence General exclusion criteria apply some discretion to take total denial of any incident 50 hour induction module. Low risk/low deviancy men then go directly to 50 hour Relapse Prevention Programme. High risk/high deviancy men undertake full programme (250 hours) consisting of 6 modules. Men can join at the beginning of each module. Men who have successfully completed Prison SOTP can go directly to the Relapse Prevention Programme.

Sexual offence General exclusion criteria apply plus total denial of any incident Offenders assessed as High Risk/Deviance attend Core Programme (144 hrs min.) followed by Relapse Prevention (36hrs), giving total programme length of 180 hours. Low risk/deviance offenders will normally complete individual work with Offender Manger followed by relapse prevention module. Offenders released from prison will follow similar route depending on assessment. Sessions are normally run for 3.5 hours during the day, but can be run as two evening sessions a week. The Core Programme is a rolling group and the RP module is closed.

Internet sexual offence High deviancy or contact offence

70 hours focusing on internet related offending.

Pre-programme

Flexible sessions included in Offender Manager’s pack

Offender Manager’s pack

Flexible sessions included in Offender Manager’s pack

Post programme

Monitoring risk factors and reinforcement included in Offender Manager’s pack

Monitoring risk factors and reinforcement included in Offender Manager’s pack

Monitoring risk factors and reinforcement included in Offender Manager’s pack

Core Programme Duration (excl.pre and post sessions) Group Size Implementation

Either 100 hours or 260 hours depending on risk/deviancy profile 8 optimum. Max 10 Completed

Either 180 hours for High risk/deviance or 36 hours plus individual work for low risk/deviance 8 optimum. Max 10 Completed

70 hours

1-2-1 or group up to 10 and 8 optimum Implementation across NPD 2006-07

NPD Interventions Unit 20

Substance Misuse Programmes
PROGRAMME
Description of Programme

ASRO
Modular group work programme. Aims to teach offenders the skills required to reduce or stop substance misuse Accredited Male and female Male & female medium to high risk (OGRS 50–100 or OASys scores above 64, but where an individual is scoring 75 (OASys 100) and over the sentence plan should identify additional work to reflect the higher risk) Offending is related to substance misuse, offender sufficiently stable & motivated. As for general offending behaviour programmes

Drink Impaired Drivers
Programme combines cognitive behavioural work and education. Aims to reduce the risk of future drink related driving offences

OSAP
Modular group work programme. Aims to teach offenders the skills required to reduce or stop substance misuse

PRISM
Programme for One to One delivery. Aims to teach offenders the skills required to reduce or stop substance misuse

Status Target Group

Accredited Male and female offenders who commit a drink drive related offence. Priority to be given to those whose offence has an aggravating factor e.g. high reading, accident or repeat offence

Partially Accredited Male and female medium to high risk of offending (OGRS 50–100 or OASys scores above 64), but where an individual is scoring 75 (OASys 100) and over the sentence plan should identify additional work to reflect the higher risk

Accredited Male and female medium to high risk of offending (OGRS 50–100 or OASys score above 64), but where an individual is scoring 75 (OASys 100) and over the sentence plan should identify additional work to reflect the higher risk

Selection Criteria

Drink drive related offence and relevant skills or knowledge deficits As for other GOBPs. Not suitable for problem drinkers until they are stabilised. The programme is unlikely to be suitable for offenders with more than four previous convictions who are likely to have a wider range of criminogenic needs which cannot be met by this programme. 14 sessions of 2.5 hours to be delivered weekly

Exclusion criteria

Offending is related to substance misuse Offender sufficiently stable and motivated. As for general offending programmes

Offending is related to substance misuse. Offender sufficiently stable & motivated. As for general behaviour programmes

Programme Sessions

20 sessions of 2.5 hours. Programme has modular structure. Sessions can be delivered from one to three times per week.

26 sessions of 2.5 hours. Programme has modular structure. Can be delivered from one to three times per week.

Pre-programme

Core Programme Duration (excl.pre and post sessions) Post programme

Written guidance re preparatory work for offender managers 10 - 20 weeks (50 hours in total)

4 pre programme sessions

3 pre programme sessions

Twenty sessions from between 45 and 120 minutes. Sessions recommended twice weekly for sessions 1 – 4, weekly for sessions 5-12 and 2 x weekly or weekly for sess. 13 - 20 Written guidance re preparatory work for offender managers 10 - 20 sessions (50 hours in total)

14 weeks ( 35 hours in total)

12- 24 weeks

None specified, other than action post programme report

Group Size Implementation

8-12 Completed

Written guidance offender managers which details further optional work in 6 areas depending upon the progress which the offender made in the core programme Minimum 4, Maximum 12, optimum 10 Completed

Minimum 4 maintenance sessions with case worker

None specified, other than action post programme report

8-12 Pilot commenced June 2003

Not applicable Under review

Annual Report for Accredited Programmes 2005-2006 21

Domestic Violence
PROGRAMME
Description of Programme

CDVP
CBT Domestic Violence Sequential programme for male perpetrators of medium to high risk of harm. Based on CSC and similar to prison dv programme. Includes interagency risk assessment/info exchange management; victim contact; proactive offender management and core groupwork. Accredited Male offenders who were or are in heterosexual relationships with medium & medium/high risk of harm offenders Use of SARA , male, offence committed in context of dv In denial; Severe mental health issues, inability to meet learning outcomes e.g. severe drug dependency 25 groupwork sessions of 2 hrs Sequential but flexible. Can be delivered 2/3 times per week. 9 individual sessions including pre and post 3 pre programme individual sessions plus one pre group 4 relapse prevention sessions 9-13 weeks

IDAP
CBT Offender focussed, challenging attitudes and beliefs Teaches non controlling behaviour strategies, and enhanced victim empathy. Includes interagency risk assessment/info exchange management; victim contact; proactive offender management and core groupwork. Accredited Male offenders, in/were in heterosexual relationships, who are of medium to high risk of harm Spousal Abuse Risk Assessment tool (SARA) male, offence committed in context of dv In denial; Serious mental health problems, inability to meet the learning outcomes e.g./ severe drug dependency 27 group sessions of 2 hours, delivered weekly, modular rolling programme; 13 individual sessions including pre and post 4 individual sessions plus one group orientation At least four relapse prevention session with offender manager Probably not less than 27 weeks in total plus pre and post sessions 8- 12 completed

Status Target Group

Selection Criteria

Exclusion Criteria

Programme Sessions

Pre-programme

Post programme

Core Programme Duration (excl. pre and post sessions) Group size Likely Implementation Date

8-12 completed

NPD Interventions Unit 22

Research Portfolio
PROGRAMME Description of Programme Black and Asian Research
Test out the added value of supporting modules attached to a GOBP Self Development module with a GOBP delivered to a black and Asian only group and to mixed groups Research Male & female medium to high risk (ORGS 41–100) Meets GOBP criteria, motivated. As for GOBP. Excused SD not motivated after MI SD Module 4 sessions

Low Intensity Alcohol Misuse
Programme for individuals with alcohol related offending who are not dependent and do not meet the criteria for ASRO or OSAP

Status Target Group Selection Criteria Exclusion Criteria Programme Sessions Pre-programme Post programme Core programme Duration (excl. pre and post sessions) Group size Review of Pilot stage

Research Male or female below OGR 50 Alcohol related offending not suitable for ASRO or OSAP

SD 8-10 hrs.

10 2 hour sessions

SD 4-12 2005

1-2-1 0r up to 12 Group

Last Updated November 2006

Annual Report for Accredited Programmes 2005-2006 23

NPD Interventions Unit 24

Table of Abbreviaitons and Acronyms
ASRO ART BIS CALM CDVP CSAP C-SOGP CSB DATs DID DV EPTM E-OASYS ETS GOBP IAPS IDAP i-SOGP LCB N-SOGP NPD NPS NPSISS OASys OBPT / OBPU OGRS OSAP OTO PICTS PIM RP SOTPs SPSI SU TV-SOGP WAC Addressing Substance Related Offending Aggression Replacement Training Barrett Impulsivity Scale Controlling Anger and Learning to Manage it Community Domestic Violence Programme Correctional Services Accreditation Panel Community Sex Offender Group Programme Cognitive Skills Booster Drug Action Teams Drink Impaired Driver Programme Domestic Violence Effective Practice Training Manager Electronic Offender Assessment System Enhanced Thinking Skills General Offending Behaviour Programme Interim Accredited Programmes Software Integrated Domestic Abuse Programme Internet Sex Offending Group Programme Locus of Control Northumbria Sex Offender Group Programme National Probation Directorate National Probation Service National Probation Service Information System Strategy Offender Assessment System Offending Behaviour Programmes Team / Unit Offender Group Reconviction Score Offender Substance Abuse Programme One to One programme Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles Programme Implementation Manager Relapse Prevention Sex Offender Treatment Programmes Social Problem Solving Inventory Substance Use Thames Valley Sex Offender Group Programme Women’s Acquisitive Crime / Women’s Programme

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