1.0.

Introduction
1.1. What is Computer?
A computer is an electronic device that manipulates information, or "data." It has the ability to store, retrieve, and process data. You can use a computer to type documents, send email, and browse the internet. You can also use it to handle spreadsheets, accounting, database management, presentations, games, and more. All types of computers consist of two basic parts: Hardware is any part of your computer that has a physical structure, such as the computer monitor or keyboard.

Figure 1: Computer Monitor Software is any set of instructions that tells the hardware what to do. It is what guides the hardware and tells it how to accomplish each task. Some examples of software are web browsers, games, and word processors such as Microsoft Word.

Cheaper compare to laptops. or large in style. It's usually possible to add more RAM or a bigger hard drive. home. Easy to upgrade and expand. Laptop Computers / Notebook     Explanation Mostly used at work. They can be small. school. 1. and usually sit on a desk. Types of Computer Desktop Computers     2. More difficult to access the internal components. . Unable to upgrade them as much as a desktop. or the library.Figure 2: Some Examples of Software 1.2. Two Main Different Types of Computers No. medium. Laptops are battery or AC-powered personal computers that allowing you to use them almost anywhere. or add new parts.

Using microprocessor Third Generation Computers (1960s) . History of Computer First Generation Computers (1940s – 1950s) .IBM System/360 Chart 1: History of Computer First Generation of Microcomputers (1971 – 1976) • MOS Technology KIM-1 • Altair 8800 • Apple I Second Generation Microcomputers (1977 – present) • Commodore PET • Apple II • IBM PC (80s) Graphical User Interface (GUI) •“DOS” or Disk Operating System • Macintosh Portable Computers • Epson HX-20.Using microprocessor .3.IBM 1401 Fourth Generation Computers (1971 – present) .1.ENIAC Second Generation Computers (1955 – 1960) . GRiD compass • Dulmont Magnum • Kyotronic 85 Chart 2: Fourth Generation Computers (1971 – present) .

There are two basic types of monitors: o CRT (cathode ray tube) monitors o LCD (liquid crystal display) monitors.  Both types produce sharp images. but higherspeed modems are usually separate components. CRT monitors. are generally more affordable. The most important of these components is the central processing unit (CPU). 3. using text and graphic. 2.4. Modem     A modem is a device that sends and receives computer information over a telephone line or high-speed cable. which acts as the . 1. or microprocessor. Parts of Computer Figure 3: Component of Computer No. however. but LCD monitors have the advantage of being much thinner and lighter. System Unit The system unit is the core of a computer system. Modems are sometimes built into the system unit.1. Parts Monitor   Explanation A monitor displays information in visual form.

The two main types of printers are inkjet printers and laser printers. 6. 4. Speakers allow you to listen to music and hear sound effects from your computer.    Laser printers are faster and generally better able to handle heavy use.  Another component is random access memory (RAM).           The information stored in RAM is erased when the computer is turned off. Has keys for letters and numbers. . found on the top row. Almost every other part of your computer connects to the system unit using cables. They may be built into the system unit or connected with cables. Inkjet printers are the most popular printers for the home. perform different functions depending on where they are used. but it also has special keys: o The function keys. Keyboard A keyboard is used mainly for typing text into your computer. Mouse A mouse is a small device used to point to and select items on your computer screen. 5. They can print in black and white or in full color and can produce high-quality photographs when used with special paper. 7. Speaker Speakers are used to play sound."brain" of your computer. oblong. Printer A printer transfers data from a computer onto paper. Some newer mice are wireless. which temporarily stores information that the CPU uses while the computer is on. It's small. and connected to the system unit by a long wire that resembles a tail.

such as the arrow keys. located on the right side of most keyboards. allow you to move your position within a document or webpage. allows you to enter numbers quickly.o The numeric keypad. . o The navigation keys.

which performs arithmetic and logical operations. The ALU is divided into different sections for different functions. Arithmetic/Logic Unit (ALU) The computer’s ability to perform numerical and logical operations is provided by the ALU. and performing various logical functions. calling on the ALU when necessary. various ways have been worked out to perform all arithmetic operations by means of addition techniques. All registers store bits of information that are received in the form of electron pulses. Figure 4: Relationship between ALU and CU i. however.2. Logical operations can be performed with binary digits by letting the digits stand for “true” and “false” instead of for the numbers 1 and 0. Then.  The control unit (CU). All of the ALU’s operations—even its logical operations—are performed using binary digits. which extracts instructions from memory and decodes and executes them. at the CPU’s . To simplify the design of computer circuits. such as adding numbers.0 CPU (CU & ALU) Two typical components of a CPU are the following:  The arithmetic logic unit (ALU). comparing numbers. One very important kind of section is known as a register.

Some registers can do other jobs—such as decoding instructions—in addition to storing information temporarily. Control Unit. . Pulses generated anywhere in the CPU are synchronized to the clock “beat” so that operations take place in exactly the right order. The control unit schedules and coordinates the work of all of the other parts of the computer. However. or billions of cycles per second).command. the faster the clock speed of a processor. the faster the computer can perform its functions. employing more than one processor in a computer or using processors with multiple cores can achieve even higher processing speeds. Many flipflops can be connected together to make registers for counting or for other functions. they release the information for use elsewhere. Most PCs have clock speeds of around 3 to 4 GHz (gigahertz. One of the main functions of the control unit is to regulate the speed of computer operations so that the operations can be synchronized. ii. Registers usually consist of banks of electronic switches known as flip-flops. In general. it sends out a continuous stream of electronic pulses generated by an oscillator called the clock. The clock sets the basic rhythm of all of the CPU’s calculating and processing operations. Different kinds of computers have different clock speeds. To do this.

5. Trackball The trackball is sort of like an upside-down mouse. trackpoint. This output could be a display on the computer screen. sound.0 Input and Output Before a computer can process your data. The device you use will depend on what form this data takes (be it text. You move the on-screen cursor by sliding your finger along the surface of the touch pad. as when you type the contents of a report.3. . graphics tablet. Typical pointing devices are: mouse. which lack room for even a touch pad. hardcopy on printed pages. and touch screen.). joystick. 2. you often need to produce output of the results. 4. Touch pad Most laptop computers today have a touch pad pointing device. 1. artwork. 3. i. Similarly. incorporate a trackpoint. you need some method to input the data into the machine. Device Keyboard Explanation The computer keyboard is used to enter text information into the computer. with the ball located on top. Trackpoint Some sub-notebook computers (such as the IBM ThinkPad). trackball. Pointing Devices The graphical user interfaces (GUIs) in use today require some kind of device for positioning the on-screen cursor. a small rubber projection embedded between the keys of the keyboard. etc. Input Device No. after the computer has processed your data. 6. or even the audio playback of music you composed on the computer. touch pad. Mouse The mouse pointing device sits on your work surface and is moved with your hand.

and not for controlling the on-screen cursor in productivity software. 11. Output Device No. Microphone A microphone can be attached to a computer to record sound (usually through a sound card input or circuitry built into the motherboard). 2. Joysticks Joysticks and other game controllers can also be connected to a computer as pointing devices. 10. The printer needs several 3. Ink Jet Printer . These printers form the image on the page by spraying tiny droplets of ink from the print head. Device CRT Monitor Explanation The traditional output device of a personal computer has been the CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) monitor. Graphics tablet A graphics tablet consists of an electronic writing area and a special “pen” that works with it. have touch sensitive display screens. Graphics tablets allows artists to create graphical images with motions and actions similar to using more traditional drawing tools. 9. Scanners A scanner is a device that images a printed page or graphic by digitizing it. especially small hand-held PDAs. Touch screen Some computers. ii. Flat Panel Monitor A flat panel display usually uses an LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) screen to display output from the computer. They are generally used for playing games. 8. 1.7. 12. MIDI Devices MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is a system designed to transmit information between electronic musical instruments. producing an image made of tiny pixels of different brightness and color values which are represented numerically and sent to the computer.

magenta. to concert quality music. . to impressive game sound effects. 4. 5. Sound Output Computers also produce sound output. Laser Printer A laser printer produces good quality images by the same technology that photocopiers use. ranging from simple beeps alerting the user. yellow.colors of ink (cyan. and black) to make color images.

0 Secondary Storage    Secondary storage is a storage medium that holds information until it is deleted or overwritten regardless if the computer has power.  Solid State Devices . As can be seen by the below picture there are three different storage on a computer. a floppy disk drive and hard drive are both good examples of secondary storage devices. although primary storage is accessed much faster than secondary storage because of the price and size limitations secondary storage is used with today's computers to store all your programs and your personal data. For example.4. Figure 5 : Types of Computer Storage  Currently the most common forms of secondary storage device are:  Floppy disks  Hard disks  Optical Disks  Magnetic Tapes.

PHP. System software System software is computer software designed to operate the computer hardware. .0 Software  Software.  In other words. JSP. Java. or otherwise support other programs and applications. algorithms and its documentation concerned with the operation of a data processing system. and window systems 2. Programming tools are intended to assist a programmer in writing computer programs. and to provide a platform for running application software. C++.org. XML. debug.  Types of software include web pages developed in languages and frameworks like HTML. operating systems. software is a set of programs. maintain. utilities. ASP. to provide basic functionality. Programming software Programming software include tools in the form of programs or applications that software developers use to create. System software includes device drivers.  Software refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of the computer. or Smalltalk. and desktop applications like OpenOffice. ObjectiveC. servers. and they may be combined in an integrated development environment (IDE) to more easily manage all of these functions. is a collection of computer programs and related data that provides the instructions for telling a computer what to do and how to do it.  Three main type of software: 1.NET. Microsoft Word developed in languages like C.5. Perl. C#. procedures.

Application software Application software is developed to perform in any task that benefits from computation. including the internet browser being used to display this page. It is a set of programs that allows the computer to perform a specific data processing job for the user.3. It is a broad category. . and encompasses software of many kinds.

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