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, Australia 6-10 August 2007 The Thirty-first Annual Pacific Armies Management Seminar (PAMS) was held 6-10 August 2007 in Sydney, Australia. This Seminar was co-hosted by the Australian Army and the United States Army, Pacific. PAMS is aimed at facilitating and enhancing interactions among the Armies of the Asia-Pacific and Indian Ocean regions. Nine nations participated in the first PAMS in 1978 and this year’s seminar had twenty-nine nations participating. The theme for this Seminar was “Developing Security/Land Forces’ Leaders for the 21st Century” and included the following four subtopics: 1. Describe the Impact of National Demographic Factors on Leader Development in Security/Land Forces. 2. Illustrate the Education and Training Challenges for Security/Land Forces in the 21st Century. 3. Developing Leader and Soldier Skills for Coalition Operations. 4. Discuss the Small-Unit Leadership Challenges Within a Coalition Involved in Irregular Warfare. Welcoming Remarks Major General John P. Cantwell, AM, Deputy Chief of Army, Australian Army, welcomed all participants to PAMS XXXI and noted the significance of the meetings bringing 29 nations together. He thanked his staff for their work in making arrangements for the seminar and conveyed his hope for a very productive PAMS XXXI and PACC V. Lieutenant General John M. Brown III, Commanding General, U.S. Army Pacific, expressed his thanks to the Australian co-hosts for selecting the venue of Sydney and the work done in preparing for the conference. He thanked all the participants for attending this 31st annual event of PAMS. General Brown noted 20 of the Armies’ Chiefs or their representatives were also in attendance of the PACC V Conference held simultaneously with PAMS. He acknowledged the possibility that some of the current PAMS attendees could someday return in the role of an Army Chief to a future PACC. General Brown pointed out the importance of PAMS and its forum to discuss the important issues such as the elimination of terrorist leaders, multilateral operations, training of future leaders. He reflected upon the early development of PAMS and the hopes of the first attendees. He recollected that they recommended that he should keep the forum where many could attend, all can contribute, and all can recommend the topics of discussion. He pointed out that this intent continues today.
TOPIC #1 Describe the Impact of National Demographic Factors on Leader Development in Security/Land Forces Brigadier General Eduardo Aldunate Herman Commandant of the Chilean Army’s Schools Division Brigadier General Aldunate began by noting the upcoming Chilean Bicentennial in 2008. The nation, given its geography and strategic location makes it a vital part of the Asia-Pacific Region. General Aldunate emphasized that commanders’ leadership is the most important in today’s volatile world. That leadership shows its value when they are able to resolve conflict. It is essential that officers understand their national values and respect not only the values but also their history. The Chilean Army engages in four major activities: threat reduction, national power increment, encouragement of joint actions, and peacekeeping. Specifically, the Army provides an international presence, deterrent cooperation, compromise in multinational operations (in a variety of locations such as Cyprus, Haiti, Bosnia, the Middle East, and the India-Pakistan region) and regional and local integration. It provides support in surveillance on terrorist activities, but also supports the national development in activities such as road building. Given its expanded involvement, it is important that training to these missions be incorporated into leadership training. One of the notable changes in the Chilean Army is the increased involvement of women, a phenomenon that has occurred within the past 20 years. Along with these changes is a need for modernization of the military educational system. The Army must prepare leaders to function in international scenarios. There have been some changes occurring in today’s Chilean Army. Schools now teach values along with leadership. Military education also focuses on international cooperation, military participation, and humanitarian assistance. Brigadier General Aldunate concluded that despite financial shortages, the Chilean Army’s program to train good commanders remains a top priority. Leadership must be proactive in meeting this training goal. Colonel Alan Geoffrey McCone Director of Strategic Human Resource Requirements in Personnel Branch, Indian Army Colonel McCone addressed the issue of New Zealand’s Army leadership for the New Generations. He noted that his nation had an all-volunteer Army, based in a society that has broad cultural ties. Colonel McCone addressed the role that generations have on demographic influences and leadership.
Colonel McCone cited a recent Hudson Report that published a study on Generations X and Y and their changing values, particularly in New Zealand. The report determined that the primary difference between the two generations studied came with levels of experience, levels of financial and family commitment, depth of personal development, political awareness and emotional maturity (not generational differences across the board). Colonel McCone cited the Hudson report in support of his belief that the reasons for joining the New Zealand Army have not changed significantly in 30 years. Three areas of focus in the study were the national environment, the family environment, and educational environment. Demographic figures show that the population of New Zealand is now four million. Given the relative geographical isolation of New Zealand, the government places importance on “showing a flag” on the world stage in order to maintain economic ties. Despite this, given its smaller population and isolation, many citizens take the view of “Why should we care [about the rest of the world]?” This attitude has the result of generally discouraging citizens from joining the military forces. New Zealand values promote a relatively egalitarian society and in recent years, support the multi-cultural traditions of New Zealand. This egalitarianism has resulted in a low unemployment rate, which has further hampered young citizens from joining the military service. In recent years, however, an increasing economic disparity, increased use of drugs among young people, and an aging population in New Zealand gives cause for concern and calls for creative ways to recruit the younger generation as they seek jobs in the market. Over the past 30 years, students have been encouraged to think and question, and children are taught their rights as an individual. Today’s younger generations are more ready to ask “Why” of military commanders, rather than to give ready assent. They generally possess a greater ability to multi-task and are very comfortable with technology. Their loyalty, increasingly, is to themselves and therefore poses a challenge to leadership in the military. Colonel McCone discussed the development of a leadership model for the future. He noted that it is vital that the New Zealand Army values must be at the heart of the framework. These values must be defended and not sacrificed. Internalizing these Army values, modeling them and instilling them in the everyday lives of Soldiers are at the very core of leadership. Leaders must live the New Zealand Army ethos and values, as subordinates will mode themselves on leaders’ behavior and not on their words. They must respond to ethically and morally ambiguous situations and display moral courage and integrity in the face of pressure. Leaders in the 21st Century must think smart by thinking ahead, being creative and prepared to be flexible and consider the consequences of the actions. Leaders influence others by building trust in their subordinates and building relationships. Good leaders are respectful of and make an effort to understand other cultures. They are able to make and maintain relationships with a wide variety of people. Leaders must also confront and resolve conflict between Soldiers, units, Forces, and ethnic factions. They build teams that train as coherent, tight knit units, something that promotes a healthy Army culture.
A strong leadership culture in the New Zealand Army is built on a foundation consisting of a shared value base, strong professional identity and clear sense of leadership mission. This culture forges close bonds among members of the organization, supports morale and encourages the growth and emergence of future Army leaders. Colonel McCone concluded with some suggestions that some methods of building a leadership culture include telling stories as a means of teaching and training. Leaders must support risk taking in subordinates and they implement changes in the organization from time to time. Today’s leadership must be able to lead 24/7 and operate in an asymmetric environment. The New Zealand Army today seeks to develop a realistic recruitment message, but one that is explicit about expected behavior of its Soldiers. Colonel McCone concluded that the secret to success in today’s Army is not in the framework but in the implementation.
TOPIC #2 Illustrate the Education and Training Challenges for Security/Land Forces in the 21st Century Major General Richard R.G. Wilson, AM Commander, Training Command Australian Army Major General Wilson opened his presentation by stating that now, more than ever, warfare is a thinking person’s game. It is a multi-dimensional, multiorganizational and multi-cultural construct, characterized by complexity, ambiguity, volatility and uncertainty. General Wilson observed the changes in the 21st Century environment, where the traditional warrior mindset is still attuned to the delivery of “hard power.” He noted that the mindset must be broadened to include the non-kinetic “soft power” effects such as civil affairs, information operations, language and cultural awareness training. He observed that the 21st Century land forces, to be truly effective, must possess both brains and brawn. It will require major moves to change the training program There are a number of factors, cited by British Lieutenant General Sir John Kiszely, that retard the speed of learning in the military forces. Those factors include the following: a tendency towards anti-intellectualism within the military; an inability to accommodate internal and external criticism; the absence of a military seat of learning; an inability to make necessary change; and a propensity to confuse activity with progress. Major General Wilson posed several solutions to the challenges cited. Overall, a methodology of learning that focuses more on the development of cognitive skills must be applied in army institutions of learning. The methodology must focus on the learner and also re-balance training and education. This entails that Soldiers must be motivated to think about what is being taught and how it can be applied. Military educators and trainers must develop core behaviors, such as leadership, physical and mentally toughness, courage, initiative, teamwork, and compassion. Armies must also adopt new teaching practices that encourage active and meaningful development of knowledge. In the 21st Century, Armies must exploit technology and develop both information mediums and learning mechanisms. The progression of learning must be improved, in both collective and individual learning. This means that the Armies must develop a learning organization, one that actively creates, captures, transfers and mobilizes knowledge to allow it to adapt to a changing environment. That organization must actively promote and reward collective learning. Major General Wilson concluded that armies of the 21st Century must modify their focus on planning and training for the wars of yesterday. Changes must be made, but the impetus for the changes can only come from the top.
Colonel Francois Loeuillet Commander, Land Forces, New Caledonia Army of France Colonel Loeuillet began his presentation with a short video about the French Army in New Caledonia, a French Overseas Territory. As he commenced with his remarks, the colonel observed that the major challenge for the French Army today is to safeguard its capability to adapt to current realities while keeping Soldiers at the heart of the system in which “savoir-ệtre” and competence is essential. He stated that the 21st Century armed forces must adapt to current realities of the world. He observed that the center of gravity in the world is now an urban environment. The new framework that the French land forces face includes a new environment, new threats, and a challenge to win the battle that will lead to peace. In these challenges, he proposed that the “strategic corporal” is the key success or failure. The colonel conceded, however, that much more than forces is required to master the world today. Modern conflicts consist of three phases: a decisive phase, stabilization, and normalization. The requirements for education and training include a constant—that is, the essence of the combatant; a requirement for impartiality; and autonomy at the lowest level. Colonel Loeuillet noted current French Army priorities are spread across the globe. He stated that there are currently 22,568 members of the French armed forces deployed throughout the world, including Kuwait, Israel, Georgia, Kosovo, Bosnia, the Sahara, Chad, Cameroon, Gabon, and several locations. Men are the keystone of the priorities. The Army underscores a need for realism in education and training for its leaders. Within the military culture of the French Army, a leader is a peace builder loyal to the constitution. He understands complexity, commands in adversity, and makes decisions. The first part of the officer’s education consists of his basic education, specialty school basic course (one year), platoon leader time, a fivemonth specialty advanced course, and company commander time. The second part of the officer’s education consists of an operational assignment at a headquarters, the command and general staff college, followed by another operational assignment (at a battalion headquarters, part of a project team, etc.). There must be realism in education and training. Joint education and training is increasingly important. Urban warfare is also critical to leaders in the 21st Century. The French Army is currently building the CENZUB, a training facility that will include a training site for basics (section and platoon levels) and an equipped training site that will represent a small town on an area of one square kilometer and provides all varieties of urban areas. It will include an urban real-fire range.
Topic #3 Developing Leader and Soldier Skills for Coalition Operations Brigadier General Sanjay M. Holey Brigade Commander Army of India Brigadier General Holey began his remarks with an apt quote from the Ramayana, one of the Hindu scriptures: “O’ Friend, behold my chariot through which I am always decidedly victorious. Courage and tenacity are its wheels, immutable truth and character are its flags. Strength, discrimination, self control and charity are its horses. Forgiveness, mercy and equanimity are the reins and devotion to the Lord its charioteer. O’ Friend. Whoever possesses such a chariot can never be defeated.” General Holey recalled that India has fought in four wars in the past 50 years and is presently engaged in a War against Terrorism. He noted, however, that most terrorist in the Indian sub-continent are not “suicide” terrorists, but are trans-national terrorists. Opponents of the Indian government primarily use hand-held weapons and engage in few pitched battles. They employ hit and run tactics and have an intimate knowledge of the ground. Following their attacks, they attempt to merge with the local population. General Holey recounted a few examples of terrorism in the Indian nation and described the involvement of the Indian military. Traditionally, the point at which the Indian Army becomes involved in low intensity conflict (such as proxy wars, insurgencies, and border skirmishes) is where it is perceived to be the instrument of last resort. Some of the emerging challenges in the 21st Century environment include the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their likely exploitation by terrorists; asymmetric threats including cyber and information warfare techniques; and trans-national signatures in future terrorist attacks. In meeting and countering the threat in India, the Army drew upon legal provisions that recognized the primacy of civil authority. The Indian government formulated a national strategy that addressed the strategic center of gravity (the population) and then an end-state or conflict resolution. It also put forth a national initiative that created a secure environment and isolated the conflict zone. It addressed local aspirations and implemented a public information and perception management program. Brigadier General Holey noted that some of the causes for the instability in the internal security environment were fundamentalism and extremism in certain parts of India; politico-socio-economic instability; and ideological, ethnic, and linguistic differences. The catalyst of this violence has been interference by neighboring states and an initial inept handling of the situation when violence first occurred. In countering the threat, the General observed, the Army must conduct its operations with an “iron fist with a velvet glove.” There must be clearly defined
rules of engagement, avoiding collateral damage and human rights violations. A comprehensive surrender policy must be developed and adhered to. In general, fighting irregular warfare in India consists of small team operations (two to three person teams). Brigadier General Holey concluded that the Indian Army had many success stories in its irregular warfare experience. There is a current groundswell for peace and the general stance of locals in problem areas towards the Army is favorable. A large number of “overground” workers have been neutralized, a success largely attributed to the various Army civic action projects. Major General Hotmangaradja Pandiatan Territorial Commander, Indonesia Army Major General Pandiatan began by stating that the world today is witnessing a rapid globalization and advancement in technology as well as a historic trend in peace resulting in an ever increasing interdependence and cooperation among nations. This has given armies new opportunities for communication and cooperation. He noted some of the challenges facing the Indonesian Army (TNI) as it defends its territory. In terms of geography, Indonesia covers an area, east to west, which extends a distance equal to that of San Francisco to New York. The nation consists of hundreds of ethnicities and is divided into 12 territorial divisions. General Pandiatan noted that the Indonesian police took responsibility for internal security in most matters, although the TNI assumed internal security duties in times of national crisis or great danger. He explained that within each territorial jurisdiction, the TNI conducted “Binter,” that is Territorial nurturing. This is a unique method to win the hearts and minds of the people. The method developed during Indonesia’s colonial experience and culminated with its struggle for independence in 1945. The general revealed that the 2000 Parliamentary decision on the Army created a cultural distance between the TNI and Indonesian people. Existing regulations and legislation limits the TNI’s roles in taking action regarding security threats. He noted that with a new (2004) TNI regulation, the TNI has exploited and improved its social network and interaction on its local cultural basis. Through Binter, the TNI and Indonesian people can develop a close bond. Indonesia does support territorial centers for developing of Binter. One such center is at Pusterad, which is a Territorial Nurturing, Learning and Knowledge Management Center. This center works hand in hand with universities, research institutions, think-tanks, and other related government and private institutions. The Total Warfare Strategy School prepares the cadres of the TNI leaders prepared to meet a wide number of irregular threats in the 21st Century and simulate irregular threats.
The Patriot Leadership Development Center is another institution that educates and develops mid-level leaders who will directly confront irregular threats. The Army Territorial Center Education and Training at Pusdikter educates, trains, sharpens the commanders of territorial command units. Major General Pandjaitan concluded that the transition of responsibilities to handle the internal security in the peaceful time from TNI to the police has left some security loopholes that irregular armed opponents exploit. This unbalanced and disproportionate division of responsibilities has left the police overwhelmed, while the military cannot intervene in many of the internal security issues. In the meantime, the TNI continues to focus on the strengths of Binter and to improve its educational institutions and leadership development centers.
Topic 4 Discuss the Small-Unit Leadership Challenges Within a Coalition Involved in Irregular Warfare Brigadier General Dato’ Azmi bin Rashid Assistant Chief of Staff, Operation and Training Branch Malaysia Army Brigadier General Rashid began his presentation with a short video of the Malaysian Army capabilities and involvement in operations. He opened his remarks by noting that since 11 September 2001, there has been an evolution in the global strategic landscape. He observed that Malaysia does not face such threats of terrorism, although the ability of terrorist organizations to globally network has compelled the Malaysian government to heighten its vigilance. The Army learned many of the lessons learned from the time of the Emergency [1948-1960]. Officially, the Malaysian Army has not adopted the term “Irregular Warfare” and believes that many countries are still deliberating on the actual definition of this warfare. On 25 September 2005, the U.S. Special Operations Command conducted an Irregular Warfare Workshop in Malaysia. The Malaysian Army conducted a series of combined operations with neighboring Thailand from 1974 until 1985. The operations included the numerous joint border posts manned by both the Malaysia Army and the Thais in the form of coordinated patrol. Combined operations conducted between the Malaysian Army and the Royal Thai Army resulted in 118 communist terrorists killed, 20 communist terrorists. Operations conducted with the Indonesian Army and resulted in two communist terrorists captured. More importantly, this latter operation resulted in the forces being able to dislodge the infrastructure established by the Communist Party along the Malaysian-Indonesian border. General Rashid recounted that the combined operations experience with the Royal Thai Army and Indonesia saw the deployment of no less than five battalions from each Army, divided into platoon-sized elements that each secured assigned sub-sectors. Each element proved to be independent, self-sustained, and exceptionally versatile in their mission performance. When operating in a coalition environment, it is important to establish command and control; identify the primary language of the operation; identify the threat; establish SOPs (Standard Operating Procedures); and address the matter of logistics. Irregular warfare typically requires the deployment of small units (platoons and sections) undertaking a large number of functions with their assigned Areas of Operations. Irregular warfare, given the complexities of coalition operations, poses many challenges to commanders. The nature of such warfare requires small unit leaders to act quickly decisively. Small unit leaders must understand their mission, the threat, rules of engagement, and then observe the rule of law. They
must be aware of the demographics of their environment and identify all the important actors in the area of operations. In addition to observing these factors, small unit leaders must work with the media, gather intelligence, and continue to put Soldiers first. Brigadier General Rashid stated that to overcome all these challenges facing the small unit leader requires training, training, and more training. Emphasis must be given to individual training. Training will foster the right attitude and behavior of small unit Soldiers, particularly when faced with the local population. He concluded that globalization and technological developments have added much in the means toward achieving their endstate. The small unit leader must maintain the legitimacy of his cause and that of his force. He must also ensure the cohesiveness of friendly forces within the coalition. The greatest danger to the mission may not be the insurgents, but the uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity inherent to irregular warfare. Small unit leaders must therefore be adaptable, knowledgeable, flexible, and decisive all at the same time. Lieutenant General William B. Caldwell, IV Commanding General, U.S. Army Combined Arms Center and Fort Leavenworth United States Army Lieutenant General Caldwell introduced his presentation by posing the question of what position a leader should lead from. Unlike the usual answer of “from the front,” he proposed that today’s leaders of the 21st Century must be adaptive, innovative and a critical problem solver. Given these characteristics, the best place to lead from is the center. The dynamics traditionally associated with warfare are gone and with it, today’s leaders must change as the Army transitions from solving technical 20th Century problems to solving the complex problems adaptive problems of the 21st Century. The media, he observed, is everywhere and current technology allows them to almost instantly broadcast events across the globe. The internet explosion has prompted a revolution in how the military looks at information operations. Many of the terrorist organizations are now applying these resources to put out their message and propaganda. General Caldwell noted that today’s junior leaders must have character, technical and tactical proficiency, initiative and flexibility. The organization for growing this kind of leaders must have the proper culture, one of learning and adaptation. Junior leaders must have additional traits to “lead from the center.” They must be innovative and possess excellent communication skills. With the 21st Century’s real-time media, junior leaders must be able to deal with the media and have media savvy. They must also understand and respect the cultures of other coalition members In fostering the proper learning culture for junior leaders, that culture must be a reporting culture where the junior leader is comfortable reporting all news and information including negative events. It is a culture in which senior leaders delegate authority to subordinates and allow them to make critical decisions and
mistakes. At the same time, that culture must also be retrospective and encourage candid feedback from every level after an operation. Lieutenant General Caldwell concluded that the role of senior leaders is to establish a positive culture which fosters this kind of leadership and creates a learning culture. He predicted that “beautiful things will occur” when small unit leaders possess character, cultural understanding and media savvy. Soldiers will be more sensitive to other coalition nation’s cultures and understand that all coalition members are vital to the success of the operation. He advised that ranking members of the Armies must work to reduce friction in coalition relationships and maximize effectiveness. Special Session Cultivation of the Military Personnel in China’s Army Major General Luo Yuan Deputy Director, World Military Studies, People’s Liberation Army, People’s Republic of China Major General Luo commented on the emergence of an entirely new pattern of warfare in the 21st Century, prompted by the Information War. This development has pushed forward training of military personnel in the PLA towards a higher level of education and technological skills. Commanders must today have strategic vision to direct the information warfare and build an information-oriented military. Staff officers with scientific and cultural knowledge and technologically-oriented experts are needed for the development of armaments. More than ever, good NCOs are needed to handle weaponry and equipment skillfully. General Luo stated that in order to meet the challenges, a foundation for improvement must by in place for training personnel before 2010. The second step is to expedite the work and recruit talent into the Army. The PLA has undergone a reform of its personnel system of military cadres. The training system has also seen enormous changes. Approximately 20 percent of military cadres are now college students in the Chinese civilian university system. More than 60,000 cadres with college degrees now play an important role in training Soldiers at various posts. More than 30,000 cadres now hold doctorate or master’s degrees.
Synopsis Prepared by David E. Hilkert U.S. Observer, U.S. Army Pacific For complete transcripts of speeches go to APAN website
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