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Module 1

Module 1 will cover the following:


Te schwa /@/
English
Pronunciation made easy
Accessible
Online Pronunciation course - 25
hours via Blended learning.
Sounds
Concepts
30 common words
words
In module 1:
Class 1 - 45 minutes
Coursework - 1 hour
Review - 45 minutes
1
Class 1 - 45 minutes
Youll study this in your video-conference class

@
The word the has 2 forms :
The usual - /@/ is the weak form. This is because only the im-
portant words in a sentence are stressed, the is an article and
therefore usually thrown away or pronounced in its weak
form. The schwa, or /@/ is the weak form.
To make a word weak you change the vowel to the schwa /@/
and link the word to the next. N.B You do not use the weak
form before a vowel sound.
For example:
Whats the time?
The time is two oclock.
Whats @-time?
@-time is two oclock
2
You can listen the the audio
version of this class afer the
lesson by clicking here
You pronounce the stressed the /i:/ when an article precedes
a vowel sound. You also pronounce the in its stressed form /i:/
when you want to emphasise that one thing is the specifc thing that
you are referring to. For example:
Tat wasnt a reason I lef University, it was the reason.
Tat was Di: only reason.
Te majority of the time you will use its unstressed form.
Word 2 - of /@v/
@
v
The word of has 2 forms :
The usual - /@v/ is the weak form. This is because only the im-
portant words in a sentence are stressed, of is a preposition and
therefore usually thrown away or pronounced in weak form.
The schwa, or /@/ is the weak form.
3
Whats the date?
Its the 1st of July.
Whats @-date?
Its @-1st @v-July
Word 3 - to /t@/
t
@
In the weak form of to you link it to the next word, like the
words the and of.
Whats the time?
Its fve to seven.
Whats @-time?
Its fve t@-seven
Where are you going?
to the beach.
Where are you going?
t@-@-beach
4
Use the strong form of to when you end a sentence with a preposi-
tion
What are you doing?
What you asked me to.
What are you doing?
What you asked me tu:
t
u:
Word 4 - and /{nd/
{ n d
5
And also has 2 forms. Te stressed form, with the { symbol, is used for
emphasis only.
Did you want just this one?
No, I wanted this one and that one?
Te weak form - with the schwa, is much more common. Its linked to
the following word, like the previous words weve looked at.
Whats the date and time of the event?
Whats @ date @nd-time of the event?
Its ten to nine on the seventh of July
Its ten t@-nine on @-seventh @v-July
Practice:
Its 10 to 2 on the 7th of August
Its 3 oclock on the 5th of December
Word 5 - a /ei/
6
Te article a has two forms
Te strong /ei/ used for emphasis and the weak, the schwa, used in most
cases.
Whats the date and time of the event?
Whats @ date @nd-time of the event?
Its a quarter to nine on the 20th of January
it's @-quarter t@-nine on D@-twentieth-@v-January
Word 6 - in /In/
I n
Wheres the event going to be held?
In the conference hall
Where's Di:-event going t@-be held?
In @-conference hall
7
Word 7 - is /Iz/
Te word is is pronounced with the sound z, not s
When is Julien arriving from France?
When iz Julien arriving from France?
Tere is no weak form of is
Word 8 - it /It/
I z
I t
8
I t
Is it 8 o clock?
No, Its a quarter to 8.
Iz It eight @-clock?
no, Itz @-quarter tu:-8
Notice that it is /tu:/ and not /t@/ because the preposition precedes a
vowel.
Word 9 - you /ju:/
j u:
You is made with a consonant sound, the /j/ consonant is distinct
from the i: vowel as the /j/ is made with the tongue touching both
sides of the mouth and teeth. Tere is a weak form, with the schwa,
when the word isnt emphasised.
Where are you having lunch?
At the restaurant
Where are j@ having lunch?
@t-@-restaurant
9
Word 10 - that /D@t/
Te word that has a strong and weak form. Te weak form is usu-
ally used as a relative clause
Its the photo that I took
Its the thing that you use to cut grass
itz @ photo D@t I took.
Itz D@-thing D@t-you use t@-cut grass
Te strong form /D{t/, like cat, is usually used as an adverb
Im not that good at football!
Im not D{t good @t-football!
That concludes Class 1. The next thing that you should
study is Coursework 1
10
Coursework 1
Do this 1-2 days after your class
Focus 1: the schwa
Te Schwa is the most common sound in the English language. It occurs
only in unstressed syllables and getting it correct helps spoken English to
sound more natural and fuent.
Any vowel letter can be pronounced as schwa and the pronunciation of a
vowel letter can change depending on whether the syllable in which it oc-
curs is stressed or not.
Te phonemic symbol for schwa is:
/@/
Where is it found?
1. /@/ can usually be found in function words which are unstressed in the
sentence, function words serve a purpose in the sentence but are not the
main words. Examples are:
Articles
a, an, the,
Prepositions
at, to, of, for
Modal verbs
can
@, @n, D@ - @-name, @n-apple, D@-people


@t, t@, @f, f@ - @t-D@-door, t@-me, queen @f-England
not f@-me

c@n - c@n-I have
You should study this section
on your own, read it several
times and make sure you un-
derstand it. You can also listen
the the audio version by click-
ing here
Auxiliaries / verb to be
are, was, were, had, have, has
Are you OK? @-you OK?
Was the shop open? w@s-D@-shop open?
Were the shops open? w@-D@-shops open?
He had lost his wallet. he-@d-lost his wallet.
Have you been to Germany? h@v-you been t@-Germany?
Has he been to Germany? H@s he been t@ Germany?
Conjugations (joining words)
and, or, than, that
...you and I... ...you-@nd-I...
...this or that... ...this-@r-that...
Im taller than you. Im taller @n-you
...the photo that I took... ...D@-photo D@t-I took...

Pronouns
them, you, your
Give them back! Give th@m-back!
Did you know? Did y@-know?
Heres your pen. Heres y@-pen.
2. /@/can also be found in content words as part of their normal pro-
nunciation, not weak form:
Te schwa sound is ofen represented by the letters a (usually at the
beginning), ai, e, o, and le, er and or (usually at the end of a word like
spectacle, doctor and Lawyer). Te schwa is also ofen represented by
sufces such as able, ible, tion, sion
Listen to and read the sounds, then repeat them yourself.
according, account, action, afraid, ago, agree, allow, alone, along, amount, article,
attempt, away,
battle, became, become, begin, believe, belong,
captain, certain, certainly, character, children, command, common, com
consider, contain, continue,
decide, declare, degree, demand, desire, destroy, diference, diferent, direction,
discover, distance, double,
garden, general, given, golden
Tis is only a small sample, there are hundreds more examples of this.
Many common words contain the schwa sound as their normal spelling.
Exercise 1
In this exercise, look at these sentences and decide where the schwa
sound occurs. It may occur more than once in each sentence. Te mini-
mum number of schwas in a sentence is 1, the maximum 7. Te frst one
has been done for you.

1 . I t s f o r y o u
Its and you are both stressed words - the subject and the object - so they are not pronounced
in weak form
2 . I t t a k e s a l o t o f t i m e
3 . H o w a b o u t a c u p o f t e a ?
4 . W h a t a r e y o u d o i n g t o n i g h t ?
5 . W h a t t i m e w i l l y o u a r r i v e a t V i c t o r i a ?
6 . I w a s g o i n g t o t e l l y o u
7 . T h e l e i s u r e c e n t r e i s c l o s e d f o r a p r i v a t e
f u n c t i o n
8 . T h e a i r p o r t i s n o t f a r f r o m t h e c a p i t a l c i t y
9 . T h e b o o k i s a b o u t p r o n u n c i a t i o n
1 0 . W e n e e d m o r e f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t
1 1 . Y o u n e e d t o p a y a t t e n t i o n a l l t h e t i m e
1 2 . I t i s a v e r y t h o r o u g h r e p o r t
Exercise 2
Look at the words below and decide where in the word the schwa
sound occurs.
Underline and/or write the schwa symbol over the correct part of the
word. Te frst one has been done for you.
Hint: One word has two examples of schwa. All the others have only
one.
d o c t o r b a n a n a t o m o r r o w d i f f i c u l t
s u m m e r l e v e l p r o t e c t s u r v i v e
p u p i l t h e a t r e m e a s u r e w i z a r d
Answers to exercise 1
1 . I t s f o r y o u
2 . I t t a k e s a l o t o f t i m e
3 . H o w a b o u t a c u p o f t e a ?
4 . W h a t a r e y o u d o i n g t o n i g h t ?
5 . W h a t t i m e w i l l y o u a r r i v e a t V i c t o r i a?
6 . I w a s g o i n g t o t e l l y o u
7 . T h e l e i s u r e c e n t r e i s c l o s e d f o r a p r i v a t e
f u n c t i o n
8 . T h e a i r p o r t i s n o t f a r f r o m t h e c a p i t a l c i t y
9 . T h e b o o k i s a b o u t p r o n u n c i a t i o n
1 0 . W e n e e d m o r e f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t
1 1 . Y o u n e e d t o p a y a t t e n t i on a l l t h e t i m e
1 2 . I t i s a v e r y t h o r o u g h r e p o r t
Answers to exercise 2
d o c t o r b a n a n a t o m o r r o w d i f f i c u l t
s u m m e r l e v e l p r o t e c t s u r v i v e
p u p i l t h e a t r e m e a s u r e w i z a r d
You can listen to the the
answers here
Focus 2: words 11-25
Word 11 - he /hi:/
h i:
He has two forms. the h sound is ofen dropped making the word sound
like /i:/. Read the examples, listen and practice
Whats i: done now?
Did you do what i: said?
Hes arriving at noon
Really? Tat wasnt what hi: told me?
Did i: place the order with the supplier?
Do you know what i: said to me?
Rules - use the weak form in unstressed positions. Usually not at the be-
ginning of a sentence
You should study this section
several times, with the recording
and without, paying attention to
how the words sound and trying
to copy them.
Word 12 - was /wQz/
w Q z
Was has two forms, read, listen to and repeat the example sentences
below. Te phonetics in examples will show you which are strong form
and which are weak. Take notice of the patterns, when is was in its
stressed form and when is it in its weak form?
It w@s thD 3rd @f j@ly
he wQsn't @ very nice man
the flight wQsn't on time
w@s the report OK?
don't tell me what it wQs, tell me what it wQsn't!
Rules - use the weak form in unstressed positions and, generally, in the
afrmative only.
Word 13 - for /f@/
f @
For has two forms, /fO:/ and /f@/. Read, listen to and repeat the exam-
ple sentences below. Te phonetics in examples will show you which are
strong form and which are weak. Take notice of the patterns, when is for
in its stressed form and when is it in its weak form?
C@n you take minutes @f this meeting f@r the records?
What @re you asking me fQr? (why are you asking me?)
F@ when would y@ like D@ r@port?
Will y@ write @n e-mail f@ me?
No I won't do it fO: you, but I'll help you.
Rules - use the weak form in unstressed positions. Use the stressed form
only when you want to emphasis the word.
Word 14 - on /Qn/
Q n
On doesnt have two forms but its pronunciation can vary depending on
how you emphasis the word
Read the examples, listen and practice
Te report's on the desk
Did y@ say D@ report w@s Qn the desk @r in D@ desk?
Can y@ come t@ D@ meeting on Di: 18th @f J@ly?
Im sorry, I wont be on time f@ D@ meeting, D@ trafc is terrible!
Rules - stress the word more if its part of a phrase like on time and if its
important for the meaning of the sentence.
Word 15 - are /a:/
a:
Are has two forms, /a:/ and /@/read, listen to and repeat the example sen-
tences below. Te phonetics in examples will show you which are strong
form and which are weak form. Take notice of the patterns, when is are in
its stressed form and when is it in its weak form?
@ y@ going t@ be @t D@ meeting next week?
they @ not Di: only examples @v unethical business practice. (or they're not)
They a: import@nt examples, though.
Tey can't come here, we'll have t@ go t@ where they a:
Rules - use the weak form in unstressed positions, use a: for emphasis and
at the end of sentences.
Word 16 - as /{z/
{ z
As has two forms, but the weak form /@z/ is much more common. Te
phonetics in the examples will show you which are the stressed form and
which are the unstressed. Take notice of the patterns, when is as in its
stressed form /{z/ and when is it in its weak form /@z/?
Its D@ same price @z that one.
Im going t@ choose D@ second option @z its cheap@
{z you know, todays meeting Iz @bout D@ merger
Rules - use the weak form in unstressed positions and, use /{z/ at the
beginning of a sentnce or for emphasis.
Word 17 - with /wID/
w I D
With doesnt have two forms but its pronunciation can vary depending on
how you emphasis the word.
Im nQt going wID you
C@n y@ come t@ D@ supermarket wIDme?
Lets look at this sentence slowly
CAN YOU COME TO THE SUPERMARKET WITH ME?
C{N ju: COME TU: D3: SUPERMARKET WID ME?
Weak form - normal form with important words underlined
C@N j@ COME T@ D@ SUPERMARKET WID ME?
Word 18 - his /hIz/
h I z
His doesnt have two forms however the h sound is ofen dropped and
is so the word sounds like Iz. Remember the previous rule about the weak
he - /i:/. Look at the examples below
Has i: caught Iz fight yet?
It's not yours, it's hIz
HIz last speech w@z fantastic!
Hi: cleans Iz car every day!
Rules - use the weak form in unstressed positions and, usually, not at the
beginning of a sentence
Word 19 - they /DeI/
D eI
Tey doesnt have two forms but its pronunciation can vary depending
on how you emphasis the word.
n.b. they is a subject pronoun
DeI havent been formally introduced yet.
H@v DeI met the new CEO?
DeI dont want @ big cel@bration, just @ few drinks.
Word 20 - I /AI/
aI
I has two forms, when the subject I is not important, or obvious in the
context it is said using the schwa sound /@/. Te stressed sound is com-
mon, however. When you want to say Ill, the sound sounds more like a
long a /a:/ - a:ll
Why Iz i: so late? ai dont know
Why Iz i: so late? @ dont know
ai don't think he ever wanted th@ job (formal, less use of weak vowels)
do y@ think a:'ll get D@ promotion?
Rules - use the weak form in when you don't want to emphasise yourself,
the subject.
Word 21 - at /{t/
{ t
at has strong and weak forms - /{t/ and /@t/. Look at the examples below
I'll meet you @t D@ bank @t 08:30
No, don't meet me {t D@ bank, meet me in the bank
Is D@ conference being held @t D@ conference centre?
Word 22 - be /bi:/
b i:
Be only has one form - /bi:/
If it's meant t@ be, It'll be.
You should bi: happy, y@'re going on holiday next week!
Word 23 - this /DIs/
D I s
Tis only has one form - /DIs/
DIs iz D@ building ai w@z referring to.
Do y@ want DIs?
Word 24 - have /h{v/
h { v
have has both strong and weak forms, the strong form - / h{v/ and
the weak form / h@v/. Take notice of the patterns, when is have in its
stressed form and when is it in its weak form?
H@v y@ got D@ time?
C@n aI have @ cup @v cofee please?
Would y@ like t@ have @ bett@ car?
When d@ we have that meeting, Paul?
Tey havent got @clue, h@v they!
@v y@ seen d@ new batman flm?
Rules - use the weak form as an auxiliary (except in formal speech and
negative sentences). Many people drop the initial h, (fnal example) but
this isnt considered correct pronunciation.
Word 25 - from /frQm/
f r Q m
from has both strong and weak forms, the strong form /frQm/ and the
weak form /fr@m/. Take notice of the patterns, when is frQm in its
stressed form and when is it in its weak form /fr@m/?
Can you get me some money fr@m the bank?
Where did y@ get y@ phone frQm?
I got it fr@m D@ shop on D@ high street
Rules - use the strong form /frQm/, only for emphasis and at the end of a
sentence.
That concludes Coursework 1. The next thing that you
should study is class 2. Revision 1 will come after class 2
Module 2
Module 2 will cover the following:
elision
English
Pronunciation made easy
Accessible
Online Pronunciation course - 25
hours via Blended learning.
Sounds
Concepts
26-28
words
In module 1:
Class 1 - 45 minutes
Coursework - 1 hour
Review - 45 minutes
1
Class 2 - 45 minutes
Youll study this in your video-conference class
2
You can listen the the audio
version of this class afer the
lesson by clicking here
How do you pronounce these words?
Wednesday
ofen
extraordinary
What is elision?
elision is all dropping sounds or not pronouncing them fully in fu-
ent speech. Elision occurs when two sounds that are created in a
similar way by the mouth are next to each other in a sentence.
For instance, we know that the word round is pronounced /raUnd/
and the word to is pronounced /t@/. However, when the words are
used together as in round to, we ofen drop the fnal /d/, so that
phonetically it reads /raUn t@/. Tis is because /t/ and /d/ are both
labio-dental sounds, and we tend to drop one in this case the
voiced /d/. Tis is called elision.
http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/english/frameset.html
Some words regularly attract the stress, while others dont. Tose
that are regularly unstressed are:
Focus 1 - elision
2
auxiliary verbs primary and modal
determiners (articles, demonstrative pronouns, etc.)
subject pronouns (he, she, it, they, etc.)
prepositions (one/two syllable words e.g. on, in, at, upon, etc.)
conjunctions (and, but, so, etc.)
You will notice that these are primarily grammatical words, rather
than content words such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc. We might
think of them as small words but technically they are called func-
tion words.
Tere are 3 main phonetic environments where this occurs:
a) Syllable-fnal clusters involving /t, d/
conscripts is pronounced /kQnscrips/
facts is pronounced /fks/
the fact that is pronounced /@ fk {t/
Helens machine stopped printing is pronounced
/hel@nz m@Si:n stQp prInti/
/h/ and /j/ tend not to create this elision but other consonants can in
rapid speech such as
-pt, -kt, -st, -f, -St, -tSt, -bd, -gd, -nd, -ld, -zd, -dZd, -vd, -d:
next day /neks deI/
mashed potatoes /mS p@teItAUz/
the last post /lA:s pAUst/
b) Te elision of /@/
Tis can occur in several environments. In connected speech /@/ can
easily disappear at word boundaries when the sound comes at the start
of the next word as in:
go away /gaU_weI/
or when it is followed by a stressed syllable beginning with /r/ or /l/
police /plis/
Elision can also occur when the sound comes in the middle or fnal
combinations as in:
preferable /prefr@b/
library /laIbri:/
c) Te loss of /h/

/h/ is lost in pronominal weak forms (i.e. the weak form of the pro-
noun) when they dont occur at the start of an utterance. As you can
see from the example below, the /h/ of the two masculine pronouns is
retained at the beginning of the sentence
He, but gets elided when it occurs for a second time, in the middle of
the sentence.
He passed his exam is pronounced
/hi: p={st Iz Igzm/
Practice with these examples
Te old man told me to go away
Te city is most famous for its cathedrals and churches
Tey said he should buy her a hand bag
With the following words, try to remember
what we learned in module 1
Word 26 - had /h{d/
h { d
Had has two forms - h{d and h@d. Which are stressed and which are
unstressed?
You can listen the the audio
version of this class afer the
lesson by clicking here
Had you been there before?
had he had a bad day?
You got the same mark that I had.
Tey hadnt been there long when she fell ill
Word 27 - or /O:/
O:
You has both strong and weak forms /O:/ and /@/. Which are
stressed and which are unstressed?
Do you want this one or that one?
On the menu today we have fsh...or....meat.
No, you cant have both - you have have one or the other
Can I enter or am I too late?
Word 28 - one /wVn/
w V n
One only has one form - /wVn/ the reason the 'uh sound is not the schwa
is because its a stressed syllable - the schwa only occurs in unstressed syl-
lables.
How many do you want?
One please
Ive only met him on one occassion.
What times the event?
It starts at half past one
That concludes class 2 - you should review this
class and then do coursework 2
Coursework 2
Do this 1-2 days after your class
Focus 1: sounds
You should study this section
on your own, read it several
times and make sure you un-
derstand it. You can also listen
the the audio version by click-
ing here
Study the following exercises on mimimal pairs, sounds are compared
to make them easier to pronounce and distinguish between
That concludes coursework 2 - you should review
this class and then do review 1
Review 1
Do this 1-2 days after your class
You should study this section
on your own, read it several
times and make sure you un-
derstand it. You can also listen
the the audio version by click-
ing here
Focus: the schwa, elision & minimal pairs
1. Which words contain the schwa in each of the sentences or
phrases below?
Which words are prepositions in each of the sentences or phrases
below? Do you notice anything?
Answer to the exercise
2. Look at the poem below. Which words contain the schwa?
Tere once was was lady from Niger,
Who went for a ride on a tiger.
Tey came back from the ride
With the lady inside,
And a smile on the face of the tiger.
Check your answers then listen and check.
Tere once was was lady from Niger,
Who went for a ride on a tiger.
Tey came back from the ride
With the lady inside,
And a smile on the face of the tiger.
3. Look at the poem again. Which words are stressed?
Listen to the poem again and try to copy the ryhthm. Aferwards,
choose which words are stressed, the frst line has been done for you.
Te answer is on the next page.
Tere once was was lady from Niger,
Who went for a ride on a tiger.
Tey came back from the ride
With the lady inside,
And a smile on the face of the tiger.
Tere once was was lady from Niger,
Who went for a ride on a tiger.
Tey came back from the ride
With the lady inside,
And a smile on the face of the tiger.
How are the following word or phrases pronounced? Which letters are
removed?
Te next day.

Te last car
Hold the dog!
Send Frank a card.
lunchtime
strange days
I can speak.
I cant speak
secretary
camera
memory
How are the following word or phrases pronounced? Which letters
are removed?
Te next day. D@ nex deI
Te last car D@ la:s ka:
Hold the dog! haul D@ dQg
Send Frank a card. sen fr{ak @ ca:d
lunchtime lUnStaIm
strange days stranZdeIz
I can speak. AI cUn spi:k
I cant speak aI ca:n spi:k
secretary sekr@tri:
camera kamr@
memory memri:
In the following exercises, listen to the words spoken one time and decide
if the speaker says the same words or diferent words the next time.
Answers
Module 2
Module 2 will cover the following:
-ed endings & plurals
English
Pronunciation made easy
Accessible
Online Pronunciation course - 25
hours via Blended learning.
Sounds
Concepts
28-60
words
In module 3:
Class 3 - 45 minutes
Coursework 3 - 1 hour
Review 2 - 45 minutes
1
-ed endings
How do you pronounce the endings of these verbs?
to want
to believe
to wish
If a veb ends with a t or d its pronounced /ID/.
If a verb ends with a voiced sound its pronounced /d/
If a verb ends with an unvoiced sound its pronounced /t/
Lets look at the phonetic symbols and decide if they are voiced or un-
voiced.
-ed endings
How do you pronounce the endings of these verbs?
to want
to believe
to wish
If a veb ends with a t or d its pronounced /ID/.
If a verb ends with a voiced sound its pronounced /d/
If a verb ends with an unvoiced sound its pronounced /t/
Lets look at the phonetic symbols and decide if they are voiced or un-
voiced.
disapprove
disarm
discover
dislike
divide
double
doubt
drag
drain
dream
explain
explode
extend
force
form
found
frame
frighten
fry
heat
help
hook
hop
hope
hover
increase
infuence
inform
inject
injure
instruct
joke
judge
kick
kill
queue
remove
repair
repeat
replace
reply
x-ray

yawn
yell

zip
Plurals
You pronounce the plural form of nouns by adding an /s/ sound. Tere are
exceptions.
Exception 1:
Nouns that in ch, s, sh, x, or z form the plural by adding es to the singular.
Its because these words which end in ch, s, sh, x or z would be difcult to
pronounce if only an s were added. Here are some examples:
branch branches
fox foxes
bus buses
Exception 2:
Nouns that end in y which are preceded by a consonant form the plural by
changing the y to i and then adding an es. Heres an example:
city cities
Exception 3:
Nouns that end in f form the plural by changing the f to v and then add-
ing an es. Here are some examples:
half halves
leaf leaves
thief thieves
wolf wolves
Exception 4:
Nouns that end in fe form the plural by changing the f to v and then adding
only an s. Here are some examples:
knife knives
life lives
Finally, there are many irregular plural noun forms which one must
commit to memory. Here are some examples:
man men
woman women
child children
tooth teeth
foot feet
louse lice
mouse mice
ox oxen
goose geese
How do you pronounce the plurals of the 50 most common nouns? Re-
member the schwa, sentence stress and elision when you pronounce the
sentences
age Te age of my daughter is three.
air Te air is quite clear today.
anger His anger knows no limits.
animal Im not sure of the name of that animal over there in that cage.
answer He provided an excellent answer to my question.
apple I love a good red apple afer dinner.
area Tis area is intended for recreation
arm He put his arm out for inspection.
art It would be difcult to live without art.
atom One of the smallest elements is the atom.
baby She put her baby into its crib.
back I turned my back on that outrageous man.
ball He hit the ball out of the park.
bar Lets go to the bar and get a beer.
base He works at the base on the otherside of town.
bat If you look up there you can see a bat fying between the trees.
bear Te bear is a dangerous but playful animal.
beauty Te countryside is splendid in its beauty.
bell He rang the bell to signal the end of class.
bird Do you know the name of that bird on that branch?
bit Could you hand me that bit for this drill?
block He picked up the block of wood and began to work on it.
blood Look at the blood on the foor! Whats happened?
blow He received a mighty blow from his opponent in the boxing
match.
board Use that board over there to cover up the window.
boat He bought a new boat for his birthday.
body He lef the body at the side of the road.
bone I found a prehistoric bone in the desert.
book You should read this book!
bottom You will fnd the coin at the bottom of the lake.
box I put the extra clothes into that box.
boy Do you see that boy over there?
branch Tere is a bird on that branch.
bread Could you get some bread when you go to the supermarket?
break Ill take a fve minute break and then get back to work.
brother My brother lives in Seattle.
call Give me a call when you arrive.
camp I set up camp at the edge of the wood.
capital Te capital of Washington state is Olympia.
captain Te captain told his crew to raise the sail.
car He drove his car very fast.
Coursework 3
1 Hour
Review
What is Voiced?
A simple explanation of voiced consonants is that they use the voice. Tis is easy
to test by putting your fnger on your throat. If you feel a vibration the consonant
is voiced. Here is a list of some voiced consonants. Pronounce each consonant
sound (not the letter) and feel the vibration of your vocal chords.
b
d
th (as in then)
v
l
r
z
dZ (as in Jane)
What is Voiceless?
Voiceless consonants do not use the voice. Tey are percussive and use hard
sounds. Once again, you can test if a consonant is voiceless by putting your fnger
on your throat. You will feel no vibration in your throat, just a short explosion of
air as you pronounce. Pronounce each of these consonant sounds and feel NO
vibration in your throat.
p
t
k
s
sh
ch
th (as in thing)
You should study this class with
and without the audio playing
to get a good understanding of
the work covered here
Consonants having multipe pronunciation
When consonants are put in groups they can change the voiced or voiceless qual-
ity of the consonant that follows. A great example of this is the past simple form
of regular verbs. As you know, regular verbs add -ed to the end of the verb in the
past simple.
play - played
wash - washed
live - lived etc.
Tese past simple verbs all end in -ed. However, some of the verbs are pro-
nounced with a voiceless t sound and some are pronounced with the voiced d
sound. Why? Here are the rules:
If -ed is preceded by a voiceless consonant sound (p, k, sh, etc.) -ed sounds as a
voiceless t. Remember that the e is silent.
If -ed is preceded by a voiced consonant sound (d, b, v, etc.) -ed sounds as a
voiced d. Remember that the e is silent.
If -ed is preceded by a vowel sound (ofen ay) -ed sounds as a voiced d because
vowels are always voiced. Remember that the e is silent.
Exception: If -ed is preceded by t pronounce a voiced -id. In this case, the e is
pronounced.
Tis pattern can also be found with plural forms. If the consonant preceding the
s is voiced, s will sound as voiced z:
chairs
machines
bags
If the consonant preceding the s is voiceless, s will sound as voiceless s:
bats
parks
pipes
Connected Speech
Finally, when speaking in sentences the ending consonant sounds can change
based on the following words. Tis is ofen referred to as connected speech.
Here is an example of a change from a voiced b in the word club to a voiceless
p because of the voiced t of to of the following word:
We went to the club to meet some friends.
Here is an example of a change from a voiced d past simple verb changed to
voiceless t:
We played tennis yesterday afernoon.
Exercise
Take this list of words and decide if the fnal consonants are voiced or
voiceless.
washed
traveled
coats
gloves
shells
watched
started
changed
books
wheels
lived
dreams
seats
dropped
exchanged
globes
phones
carts
listened
organized
Are the following endings correct?

Remember, a regular verb in the past ends with an /ID/, /D/ or /T/
sound.
Te bear jump/T/ out of its cage and into the crowd. She must have realiz/D/
that this was her best chance to escape. Te bears trainer look/T/ as though
he were about to faint from the terror of it all; it seem/ID/ like his worst night-
mare come true. He scrambl/D/ to his feet and start/ID/ waving his hands and
shouting to get the bears attention. She stop/D/ her wild rampage only for a
moment at the sound of her trainers pleas. She quickly turn/D/ back to the
crowd and resum/T/ knocking people to the foor. Te trainer suddenly had an
idea. He reach/D/ into his pocket and pull/D/ out a large chocolate cover/ID/
treat a known favorite of the bear. He shout/ID/ the bears name once more
to get its attention. She turn/D/ to face him. She saw the treat and ran in full
gallop towards him. He threw the treat into the cage and the bear follow/ID/.
He lock/T/ the door behind her and fell to the foor in relief. Apparently, the
bear valu/T/ food more than freedom.
Answers
Exercise 1
washed - voiceless
traveled - voiced
coats - voiceless
gloves - voiced
shells - voiced
watched - voiceless
started - voiced
changed - voiced
books - voiceless
wheels - voiced
lived - voiced
dreams - voiced
seats - voiceless
dropped - voiceless
exchanged - voiced
globes - voiced
phones - voiced
carts - voiceless
listened - voiced
organized - voiced
Exercise 2
Te bear jump/T/ out of its cage and into the crowd. She must have realiz/D/
that this was her best chance to escape. Te bears trainer look/T/ as though he
were about to faint from the terror of it all; it seem/D/ like his worst nightmare
come true. He scrambl/D/ to his feet and start/ID/ waving his hands and shout-
ing to get the bears attention. She stop/T/ her wild rampage only for a moment
at the sound of her trainers pleas. She quickly turn/D/ back to the crowd and
resum/D/ knocking people to the foor. Te trainer suddenly had an idea. He
reach/T/ into his pocket and pull/D/ out a large chocolate cover/D/ treat a
known favorite of the bear. He shout/ID/ the bears name once more to get its at-
tention. She turn/D/ to face him. She saw the treat and ran in full gallop towards
him. He threw the treat into the cage and the bear follow/D/. He lock/T/ the
door behind her and fell to the foor in relief. Apparently, the bear valu/D/ food
more than freedom.
What is a Plural?
One object (e.g., one hat, one pen) is referred to as singular because it is one sin-
gle object. If we want to refer to more than one (e.g., three hats, fve pens), an s is
added to the word (hats, pens), and we call it plural.

Pronouncing Plural Endings
Te sound of a plural s changes from /s/ to /z/ depending on whether it follows a
voiced or voiceless consonant.
Plural S is /s/:
All the fnal consonants in the singular form of the following words are voiceless;
therefore, the sound for s is /s/.
Examples: rats, cufs, cups, kits
When s is added to words ending in the voiceless consonant sounds f, k, p, t, and
ck, the plural s will have the sound of voiceless /s/.
Examples: cufs, parks, pups, cats, stacks, etc.
Plural S is /z/:
Te fnal consonant in the singular form of the following words are voiced;
therefore, the sound of the plural s is /z/.
Examples: fags, jobs, fans, pads
When an s is added to words ending in the voiced consonant sounds b, d, g, l, m,
n, r, and v, the plural s will have the sound of voiced /z/.
Examples: cubs, hands, dogs, calls, clams, bins, cars, gloves
Plural S is /iz/:
If a word ends in double s, double z, x, sh, or ch, -es must be added to form
the plural. Te sound for -es is /iz/.
Examples: classes, buzzes, boxes, wishes, matches
Note:
Tese pronunciation rules also apply to verbs that have an -s or -es added.
Examples: clap/claps, tap/taps, run/runs, sob/sobs, pass/passes, miss/misses
Exercise
How are the following plural nouns pronounced?
chips
rents
thanks
parents
streets
apartments
bags
hours
years
cartons
ceilings
gardens
tomatoes
mountains
vegetables
buses
Revision 2
45m
In this document we will review:
the schwa (weak vowel)
elision
-ed endings
plurals
Please read this document be-
fore listening to it. And review it
several times to ensure that you
understand.
Tis is a poem by William Wordsworth
I wandered lonely as a cloud
Tat foats on high oer vales and hills,
When all at once I saw a crowd,
A host, of golden dafodils;
Beside the lake, beneath the trees,
Fluttering and dancing in the breeze.
Continuous as the stars that shine
And twinkle on the milky way,
Tey stretched in never-ending line
Along the margin of a bay:
Ten thousand saw I at a glance,
Tossing their heads in sprightly dance.
Te waves beside them danced; but they
Out-did the sparkling waves in glee:
A poet could not but be gay,
In such a jocund company:
I gazed---and gazed---but little thought
What wealth the show to me had brought:
For of, when on my couch I lie
In vacant or in pensive mood,
Tey fash upon that inward eye
Which is the bliss of solitude;
And then my heart with pleasure flls,
And dances with the dafodils.
Here is the poem again
I wander/d/ lonely @s @ cloud
T@t foats on high oer vale/z/ @nd hill/z/,
When all @t once I saw @ crowd,
@ host, @f golden dafodil/z/;
Beside th@ lake, beneath th@ tree/z/,
Fluttering @nd dancing in th@ breeze.
Continuous @s th@ star/z/ th@t shine
@nd twinkle on th@ milky way,
Tey stretch/t/ in never-ending line
Along th@ margin @f @ bay:
Ten thousand saw I @t @ glance,
Tossing their heads in sprightly dance.
I have highlighted
the schwa (weak vowel)
elision
-ed endings
plurals
sentence stress
Now look at the third and fourth verses and, on a piece of pa-
per, note down examples of:
Te waves beside them danced; but they
Out-did the sparkling waves in glee:
A poet could not but be gay,
In such a jocund company:
I gazed---and gazed---but little thought
What wealth the show to me had brought:
For of, when on my couch I lie
In vacant or in pensive mood,
Tey fash upon that inward eye
Which is the bliss of solitude;
And then my heart with pleasure flls,
And dances with the dafodils.
William Wordsworth
Afer you have done this, look at the next page and compare
your work with my answer
the schwa (weak vowel)
elision
-ed endings
plurals
sentence stress
My answer
T@ waves beside them dance/t/; but they
Out-did th@ sparkling waves in glee:
A poet could not but be gay,
In such @ jocund company:
I gazed---@nd gazed---but little thought
What wealth th@ show t@ me h@d brought:
F@r of, when on my couch I lie
In vacant or in pensive mood,
Tey fash upon that inward eye
Which is th@ bliss @f solitude;
And then my heart with pleasure flls,
And dances with th@ dafodils.
William Wordsworth
Module 4
Module 4 will cover the following:
Sentence stress
English
Pronunciation made easy
Accessible
Online Pronunciation course - 25
hours via Blended learning.
Sounds
Concepts
28-60
words
In module 4:
Class 4 - 45 minutes
Coursework 4 - 1 hour
Review 3 - 45 minutes
1
Sentence stress
Sentence stress is the music of spoken English. Like word stress, sentence
stress can help you to understand spoken English, especially when spo-
ken fast.
Sentence stress is what gives English its rhythm or beat. You remember
that word stress is accent on one syllable within a word. Sentence stress
is accent on certain words within a sentence.
Most sentences have two types of word:
content words
structure words
Content words are the key words of a sentence. Tey are the important
words that carry the meaning or sense.
Structure words are not very important words. Tey are small, simple
words that make the sentence correct grammatically. Tey give the sen-
tence its correct form or structure.
If you remove the structure words from a sentence, you will probably
still understand the sentence.
If you remove the content words from a sentence, you will not under-
stand the sentence. Te sentence has no sense or meaning.
Imagine that you receive this telegram message:
SELL CAR GONE FRANCE
Tis sentence is not complete. It is not a grammatically correct sen-
tence. But you probably understand it. Tese 4 words communicate very
well. Somebody wants you to sell their car for them because they have
gone to France. We can add a few words:
SELL my CAR Ive GONE to FRANCE
Te new words do not really add any more information. But they make
the message more correct grammatically. We can add even more words to
make one complete, grammatically correct sentence. But the information
is basically the same:
Will you SELL my CAR because Ive GONE to FRANCE.
In our sentence, the 4 key words (sell, car, gone, France) are accentuated
or stressed.
Why is this important for pronunciation? It is important because it
adds music to the language. It is the rhythm of the English language.
It changes the speed at which we speak (and listen to) the language. Te
time between each stressed word is the same.
In our sentence, there is 1 syllable between SELL and CAR and 3 sylla-
bles between CAR and GONE. But the time (t) between SELL and CAR
and between CAR and GONE is the same. We maintain a constant beat
on the stressed words. To do this, we say my more slowly, and because
Ive more quickly. We change the speed of the small structure words so
that the rhythm of the key content words stays the same.
Syllables
2 1 3 1
Will you SELL my CAR because Ive GONE to FRANCE.
Time
1 1 1 1
Will you SELL my CAR because Ive GONE to FRANCE.
Te basic rules of sentence stress are:
content words are stressed
structure words are unstressed
the time between stressed words is always the same
Te following tables can help you decide which words are content words and
which words are structure words:
Content words - stressed
Words carrying the meaning Example
main verbs SELL, GIVE, EMPLOY
nouns CAR, MUSIC, MARY
adjectives RED, BIG, INTERESTING
adverbs QUICKLY, LOUDLY, NEVER
negative auxiliaries DONT, ARENT, CANT
Structure words - unstressed
Words for correct grammar Example
pronouns he, we, they
prepositions on, at, into
articles a, an, the
conjunctions and, but, because
auxiliary verbs do, be, have, can, must
Te rules are for for what is called neutral or normal stress. But some-
times we can stress a word that would normally be only a structure
word, for example to correct information. Look at the following dia-
logue:
Teyve been to Mongolia, havent they?
No, THEY havent, but WE have.
Note also that when be is used as a main verb, it is usually unstressed
(even though in this case it is a content word).
Sentence stress exercises
First, you need to be able to immediately distinguish between content
and function words. Are the following words function or content?
went
with
just
quickly
the
hard
next to
CD ROM
open
had
Next, take a look at the sentences and choose the words that should be
stressed.
Example: Jack went to the shop to grab some coke.
He had fnished breakfast before I arrived.
Phillip ordered a huge steak for dinner.
Tey will have to stay up late if they are going to fnish their homework.

It must have been something in the air that caused Jack to shout.
Could you please be more quiet?
Notice how some of the shorter sentences actually have more stressed
words than the longer ones (2 compared to 3). Tese shorter sentences
can ofen take longer to speak than longer sentences with many func-
tion words!!!
Now go to the video below and look at some real life examples of sen-
tence stress:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-19243357
That concludes lesson 4, now study coursework 4
Coursework 4
English
Pronunciation made easy
Accessible
Online Pronunciation course - 25
hours via Blended learning.
In module 4:
Class 4 - 45 minutes
Coursework 4 - 1 hour
Review 3 - 45 minutes
Sentence stress and words 28-45
Now well cover words 28 - 60. In the example sentences, the stressed words
are underlined. However, as you know, word stress can change depending
on the emphasis the speaker wants to give. Click your fngers on the un-
derlined words and remember the time (t) between each underlined word
must be the same.
Word 28 - by /baI/
By is a preposition (next to; close to) and adverb (to go past). Look at
these examples.
Preposition
Te shop is by the Restaurant
Adverb
Te crowd cheered as the Royal Family went by
Word 29 - hot /hQt/
As an adjective, hot is in a stressed position.
this soup is equally good hot or cold
flled with passionate excitement, anger, or other strong emotion:
she was hot with rage
informal involving much activity, debate, or interest:
I have got some hot gossip!
informal very knowledgeable or skilful:
Toni is very hot on local history
Word 30 - but /bVt/
But is a conjunction, and unstressed in most cases.
used to introduce a phrase or clause contrasting with what has already been men-
tioned:
he stumbled but didnt fall
the food is cheap but delicious
used to indicate the impossibility of anything other than what is being stated:
one cannot but sympathize
there was nothing they could do but swallow their pride
Word 31 - some /sVm/
Some is a determiner and pronoun. Look at the following examples. Re-
member to focus on the sentence stress.
Determiner
an unspecifed amount or number of:
I made some money running errands
he played some records for me
used to refer to someone or something that is unknown or unspecifed:
she married some newspaper magnate twice her age
there must* be some mistake
* Stress on the must for emphasis
(pronounced stressing some) a considerable amount or number of:
he went to some trouble
Ive known you for some years now
(pronounced stressing some) at least a small amount or number of:
he liked some music but generally wasnt musical
Pronoun
1an unspecifed number or amount of people or things:
here are some of our suggestions
Word 32 - what /wQt/
What has three uses - as an interrogative pronoun, relative pronoun,
interroragive determiner, relative determiner
Interrogatives are usually stressed
[interrogative pronoun] asking for information specifying something:
whats your name?
Im not sure what you mean
[relative pronoun] the thing or things that (used in specifying something):
what we need is a commitment
[interrogative determiner] asking for information specifying something:
what time is it?
do you know what excuse he gave?
[relative determiner] (referring to the whole of an amount) whatever:
he had been robbed of what little money he had
Word 33 - there /De@/
Tere is an adverb. So its un a stressed position
we went to Paris and stayed there ten days
at the end of the day we are there to make money
I dont agree with you there
Word 34 - all /O:l/
All is a determiner, pronoun and adverb and therefore usually in an un-
stressed position except when used as an adverb
we all have diferent needs
determiner
10 percent of all cars sold
he slept all day
adverb
dressed all in black
shes been all round the world
Word 35 - your /jO:/
Your is a possessitve determiner, so its unstressed (except if it needs em-
phasis)
Whats your name?
Can I see your ticket, sir?
Tats not my bag, its yours!
Word 36 - when /wen/
when is an interrogative and a conjunction.
when did you last see him?
when would such a rule be justifable?
Conjunction
call me when youve fnished
can you spare fve minutes when its convenient?
Word 37 - when /wen/
when is an interrogative and a conjunction.
when did you last see him?
when would such a rule be justifable?
Conjunction
call me when youve fnished
can you spare fve minutes when its convenient?
Word 38 - up /Vp/
Up is usually used as an adverb and a preposition.
Adverb
two of the men helped her up
she made her way up to bed
Preposition
she climbed up a fight of steps
he lived up the road
Word 39 - use /ju:s/
Use is a verb and therefore is a stressed word within a sentence
she used her key to open the door
the poem uses simple language
I couldnt help feeling that she was using me (exploiting me)
Word 40 - we /wi:/
we is a pronoun and is therfore usually unstressed
shall we have a drink?
we should eat as varied and well-balanced a diet as possible
Word 41 - can /c{n/
can is a modal verb and usually unstressed. It has lots of func-
tions: to give permission, express ability, express possibility and
express a request.
they can run fast
I can speak Italian
there are many ways holidaymakers can take money abroad
you can use the phone if you want to
can you open the window?
Pronunciation and
Understanding Native Speakers
25 HOUR COURSE
Module 4
revision 3
words 42-60
Words 42 - 60
This document will cover words 42 - 60.
Up to this point we have studied the following linguistic concepts
the schwa /@/.
We pronounce many vowel sounds as the weak /@/ in unstressed positions,
this makes it easier to say these words quickly.
elision of the /h/, the /@/ and of /t/ and /d/ in consonant clusters.
Again, this makes it easier for us pronunce words quickly, in both stressed
and unstressed positions
the pronunciation of -ed endings of verbs / adjectives and the
plural form of nouns and 3rd person present simple verbs.
voiced and unvoiced consonants are the key here, remember that if the end-
| . '. |||v. . .. . . ..J |. . .v.|..J ...J '. .. |. '.
past /plural form.
Sentence stress
The content words (nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs) give the sentence its
rhythm, the time (t) between each stress word should be the same.
Strong and weak forms of words
This is different to sentence stress, sometimes we choose to emphasise
one word more than others, to show that the opposite is not true, for exam-
ple. This can change the meaning of the sentence
..J ^. .'. /../
If when is an interrogative - when do you want to go. '. | |.
usually stressed.
As a relative adverb - saturday is the day when I get my hair J...
it is usually unstressed.
`.. '. J.. |. .J.'|.J | '. ..... .'.v. '|. |. '...... | |.
part of the passive construction to get / have something done / verb in
,.. ,.|.|,'.
As a conjunction - call . .'. ,..v. |.'.J. | |. ....'', .-
stressed
... '..' . ... .. ...... .|' '. ..J .'.
When is the concert?
wen iz D@ cAnc@t?
.'. ...'J ,.. ,.. . ... '. '
wen wUd y@ prVf3: t@ si: D@ fIlm
Can you spare 5 minutes when it's convenient?
c@n y@ spa@ faIv mInIts wen Its c@nvi:nj@nt?
I loved maths when I was at school
ai lVvd m{Ts wen aI wVz @t sku:l
..J ^3 ..J /.3.J/
As a noun, word is in a stressed position,
'' .. '.v. . ..J .|' '|
,.,..' '|., . ..... ,|v..',)
aIl jVst (h){v @ w3:d wiD (h)Im
you know that I always keep my word
(keep my promise)
ju: naU D@t aI O:lweIz ki:p maI wO:d
..J ^^ '.. /haU/
=.. |. . .Jv.'. ....'', . |...|v. .Jv.'. .. |. ....'', | .
stressed position.
how old are you?
haU @Uld @ ju:
'. J|J '.. '.. . '.'.v.
hi: dIdnt n@U haU t@ bi:h@iv
..J ^' ..|J /..J/
^. '. ,.. . . '. v.' . ..,. | |. | . .....J ,..||.
Well thats not what he said to me!
w@l th{ts nAt wAt (h)i: sed t@ me!
She said that she'll be here in 15 minutes.
Si: sed th@t Si:l bi: hI@ In fIfti:n mInIts
..J ^c . /{n/, /@n/
^ |. . .|.'.. '.... | .. ..... | |. | . ......J ,..|-
tion and the /{/ vowel becomes the /@/
Can you give me an apple?
c@n j@ gIv mi: @n {p@l
'.. . |...| ,.| . v|..
D{ts @n IntrestIn pOInt @v vju:
..J ^/ ...' /i:tS/
As a determiner - 'each car costs 19.95' and pronoun - Derek had
.., . ...' . '|. v. ..'.. '. ..J ...' |. | . .-
stressed position. As an adverb, placed after a noun - Paul and Bill
have a glass each' it is stressed.
=.. .. ... .'. .x.,'...
each battery is in a separate compartment
i:tS b{tri: Iz In @ sVpr@t k@mpa:rtm@nt
the cameras cost 35 each
D@ c{mr@z cAst T3:ti: faIv paUndz i:tS
..J ^o .'. /Si:/
As a pronoun, she is usually in an unstressed position
Why was she so late?
waI w@z Si: saU leIt?
She forgot her passport!
Si: f@gAt (h)3: pa:spO:t
..J ^J '. /h3:/
As a pronoun, her is unstressed.
she knew I hated her
Si: nju: aI heItId (h)3:
But
...J .. '. v.' . '. .J .. '. . ...
it must be her
It mVst bi: h3:
..J ' .'|.' /wItS/
.'|.' |. ...J .. . |...|v. .'|.' ,'.. .'..'J '.,
'. |. ....'', | . .....J ,..||. ...J .. . .'.|v. ,...
. J..|. | ... . ,.''. . .'|.' ... ..'', .,.,..J
then it is usually unstressed.
which way is the wind blowing?
wItS weI Iz D@ wInd blaUinN
..J ' J. /du:/
When do is an auxiliary - 'where do you live?' when it is unstressed.
^. . .| v.' | |. .....J `.. .. ... '. .... . '. /../ |
its unstressed form.
What do you do for a living?
wAt d@ j@ du: f@(r)@ living?
(notice the linking r)
J. '.. | .'..'J J. | ... . '..
aI daUnt naU If aI SUd du: It naU O: leIt@
..J '. '.| /Te@/
As a pronoun, their is usually in an unstressed position.
They forgot their passports!
TeI f@gAt Te@ pa:spO:ts!
...'|',. '.| |' ... J.'.,.J
LVkIli:, Te@ flaIt w@z d@laId
..J '3 |. /taIm/
When do is an auxiliary - 'where do you live?' when it is unstressed.
^. . .| v.' | |. .....J `.. .. ... '. .... . '. /../ |
its unstressed form.
What do you do for a living?
wAt d@ j@ du: f@(r)@ living?
(notice the linking r)
J. '.. | .'..'J J. | ... . '..
aI daUnt naU If aI SUd du: It naU O: leIt@
..J '^ |. /taIm/
^. . .. . . v.'. |. | . .....J ,..||.
Are you having a good time?
@ y@ h{viN @ gUd taIm?
What time is it?
wAt taIm Iz It?
..J '' | /If/
If is a conjunction, so it is normally unstressed
What would you do if you lost your job?
wAt wUd j@ du: If j@ lAst y@ jAb?
..''. | | |. .''
,.x,...| ..,|.. . ...| .')
wel If It Isnt fr{nk
..J 'c .|'' /wIl/
.|'' |. . .J.' v.'. .. |. | . ......J ,..||.
will you have a cup of coffee with me?
wIl j@ h{v @ cVp @v cAfi: wID mi:
accidents will happen
{ksId@nts wIl h{p@n
..J '/ .., /weI/
.., |. . .. .'|.' ....'', ... . . |J|v|J..'. .'....|.|.
. '.'|..' '.'.v|.. '. J|J | | '|. ,,|..' .., . . ..,.. .
...'| '.v. .'..J | .v., .|'. .., |. .'.. . .Jv.'
...J |..'', '. ... J|v| .., .. .. '.' ..... | |.
therefore usually in a stressed position.
there are two ways of approaching this problem
De@ @ tu: weIz @v @praUtSIN DIs prAbl@m
. .., .. '.. . .. ..'. ' ..
Its weI tu: leIt t@ st{t @ fIlm naU
..J 'o .'.. /@baUt/
^. . ,.,..||. ..| . '. ..'.. . ...'| '|'. v.
'.. '|'| .'.. ,.. | |. ....'', ......J .. .'.. '. ...J
.. . .Jv.' .|' .'. . J..|,'.. ... .'.. .' ,..-
,'. | '. v... ,.. .'..'J .... '. ..J
This is a book about ancient Greece
DIs Iz @ bUk @baUt eInS@nt gri:s
Sales have reduced by about 15%
seIlz (h)@v r@dju:ct baI @baUt fIfti:n p@cent
..J 'J ., /meni:/
.. . J..|..
many people agreed with her
meni: pi:pl @gri:d wID h3:
as pronoun
the solution to many of our problems
D@ s@lu:S@n t@ meni: @v a: prAbl@ms
as adjective
one of my many errors
wVn @v maI meni: er@z
..J c '... /Di:z/
'. ,'..' . '|. |. ....'', ......J .|'. '|. | |. . ,... . .
determiner.
these are different from those
Di:z @ dIfr@nt fr@m DaUz
Where do you work these days?
we@ d@ y@ wO:k Di:z deIz?
Module 4
Module 5 will cover the following:
Strong and weak forms of words
English
Pronunciation made easy
Accessible
Online Pronunciation course - 25
hours via Blended learning.
Sounds
Concepts
60-80
words
In module 4:
Class 4 - 45 minutes
Coursework 4 - 1 hour
Review 3 - 45 minutes
1
When you are speaking English the words you stress can change the under-
lying meaning of a sentence. Lets take a look at the following sentence:
I dont think he should get the job.
Tis simple sentence can have many levels of meaning based on the word you stress.
Consider the meaning of the following sentences with the stressed word in bold. Read
each sentence aloud and give a strong stress to the word in bold:
I dont think he should get the job.
Meaning: Somebody else thinks he should get the job.
I dont think he should get the job.
Meaning: Its not true that I think he should get the job.
I dont think he should get that job.
Meaning: Tats not really what I mean. OR Im not sure hell get that job.
I dont think he should get that job.
Meaning: Somebody else should get that job.
I dont think he should get that job.
Meaning: In my opinion its wrong that hes going to get that job.
I dont think he should get that job.
Meaning: He should have to earn (be worthy of, work hard for) that job.
I dont think he should get that job.
Meaning: He should get another job.
I dont think he should get that job.
Meaning: Maybe he should get something else instead.
As you can see, there are many diferent ways this sentence can be understood. Te impor-
tant point to remember is that the true meaning of the sentence is also expressed through
the stressed word or words.
Here is an exercise to help you develop the art of correct word stress. Take the fol-
lowing sentence:
I said she might consider a new haircut.
Say the sentence aloud using the stress word marked in bold. Once you have spoken
the sentence a few times, match the sentence version to the meaning below. You will
fnd the answers to this quiz on the following page.
I said she should consider a new haircut.
I said she might consider a new haircut.
I said she might consider a new haircut.
I said she might consider a new haircut.
I said she might consider a new haircut.
I said she might consider a new haircut.
I said she might consider a new haircut.
A diferent hairstyle
Its a possibility.
It was my idea.
Not something else.
Dont you understand me?
Not another person.
She should think about it. its a good idea..
Finish this sentence, with a stress on each word in the frst clause:
I told you to paint the kitchen blue, not / i didnt...
Word 60 - then /Den/
Ten is an adverb and is usually in a stressed position
Consider these examples:
at that time; at the time in question:
I was living in Cairo then
Phoebe by then was exhausted
he accepted a peerage from the then Prime Minister, Edward Heath
afer that; next; aferwards:
she won the frst and then the second game
also; in addition:
Im paid a generous salary, and then theres the money Ive made at the races
in that case; therefore:
if you do what I tell you, then theres nothing to worry about
well, thats okay then
used at the end of a sentence to emphasize an inference being drawn:
so youre still here then
used to fnish of a conversation:
see you in an hour then
When a word has so many uses, it is up to you to decide when to stress the
word and when no to.
Word 61 - them /Dem/
Tem is a pronoun and usually unstressed, except to show emphasis
I bathed the kids and read them stories
rows of doors, most of them locked
how well do you have to know someone before you call them a friend?
But:
used afer the verb to be and afer than or as:
you reckon thats them?
were better than them
Word 62 - write /rait/
Wrote is a verb and therefor in a stressed position, look at these examples:
he wrote his name on the paper
Alice wrote down the address
he couldnt read or write
he had to write a cheque for 800
I wrote a letter to Alison
he has written a song specifcally for her
Word 63 - would /wUd/
Would is a modal verb, a structure word. You can stress the word to
emphasise that something is conditional or hypothetical
he said he would be away for a couple of days
I wouldnt drink that if I were you
would you like some water?
I would have to agree
they would say that, wouldnt they?
Here is an example where you might emphasis the word would
I would have gone, except I had a doctors appointment
Word 64 - like /laik/
Like is a preposition and is usually in unstressed positions, here are
some examples:
having the same characteristics or qualities as; similar to:
he used to have a car like mine
they were like brothers
she looked nothing like Audrey Hepburn
in the manner of; in the same way or to the same degree as:
he was screaming like a banshee
In stressed positions
used in questions to ask about the characteristics or nature of someone or something:
what is it like to be a tuna fsherman?
whats she like?
Word 65 - so /saU/
When so is used as an adverb it is in a stressed position. When it;s used
as a conjunction, its unstressed. Consider these examples:
she looked so pretty
thats so not fair
you are so going to regret this
the bird was about so long
times have changed and so have I
And:
they whisper to each other so that no one else can hear
so what if he failed?
That concludes lesson 5, now study coursework 5