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ITETHIC READER

Monica Frances Hao De La Salle College of Saint Benilde 4/15/2009

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

PREFACE ---------------------------------------------- 3

DEDICATION ------------------------------------------ 4

BOP ---------------------------------------------------- 5

HANDBOOK OF ETHICS ------------------------------ 13

CYBER ETHICS ---------------------------------------- 44

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PREFACE
Before the start of the term, I personally did not expect that I will be reading a book. What I am expecting in ITETHIC class is that we will be having pure lectures at a lot of analysis in different systems. Fortunately, while doing and reading the book reviews and theses, I have learned a lot with regards to what is happening to the world now, what are the crises that we are experiencing, why are the corporations transforming to new technologies, why is the competition so aggressive and a lot more. With those ideas and stories that I have learned and understand, I need to be knowledgeable, more strategic, and analytical when my time will come that I will own a corporation or just a simple company. I need to apply the stories that I have read and learned from the book so that I will be able to correct the mistakes that some corporations or companies that they have committed.

This book was memorable and meaningful for me because aside from I can apply what I have learned in the stories of the company’s’, my mind became open due to the rapid changes in technology. Nowadays, technologies are becoming more innovative and progressive. Devices, applications, and equipments are in high technology. With that case, people should be aware and prepared of what else will come and might happen in the future. I hope that the book that I read will also be read by many people so that they will have information about the world today. They just can’t rely on news or surveys or articles. They must read the experiences of those companies who are into that situation now.

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DEDICATION

To my family
Who is supporting me in doing the three books

To my Barkada
Who is telling me that I can do it.

To our professor
Who is encouraging us to make it possible and to believe in us.

To GOD
Who is always been there and giving me strength to continue and finish it.

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Monica Frances T. Hao 00B Book: The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid Chapter 1: The market at the Bottom of the Pyramid BY: C.K Prahalad Library Reference: N/A

ITETHIC

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Fortune-Bottom-Pyramid-EradicatingPublishing/dp/0131877291/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1234441981&sr=1-1 Quote: “When the poor are converted to consumers, they get more than access to products and services” Learning Expectation: • • • In this chapter, I want to discover new terms and ideas about the world outside. I want to know the stability of the oppressed. In this chapter, I wonder if this topic is or can be related to our country

Review: For more than 50 years, the World Bank, donor nations, various aid agencies, national governments, and, lately, civil society organizations have all fought the good fight, but have not eradicated poverty. The adoption of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) by the United Nations only underscores that reality, as we enter the 21st century, poverty and the disenfranchisement that accompanies it—remains one of the world’s most daunting problems. What is needed is a better approach to help the poor, an approach that involves partnering with them to innovate and achieve sustainable win–win scenarios where the poor are actively engaged and, at the same time, the companies providing products and services to them are profitable. This collaboration between the poor, civil society organizations, governments, and large firms can create the largest and fastest growing markets in the world. Large-scale and wide-spread entrepreneurship is at the heart of the solution to poverty. The strength of these innovative approaches, as you will come to appreciate, is that they tend to create opportunities for the poor by offering them choices and encouraging self-esteem. Entrepreneurial solutions such as these place a minimal financial burden on the developing countries in which they occur. Lessons Learned: • • • • • The power of dominant logic The influence of dominant logic The economic pyramid The nature of the BOP market There is money at the BOP

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• • • • • • • • •

The poor and high-cost economic ecosystems Access to BOP markets The BOP markets known to be brand-conscious The BOP market is connected BOP consumers accept advance technology readily The market development imperative Creating the capacity to consume The need for new goods and services Benefits to the private sector

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Where is the term “Equalized” used for in the book? What is a “latent market”? What is a “mandis”? What is the root cause of this crisis? Is this applicable to our country? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00B Book: The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid Chapter 2: Products and services for the BOP BY: C.K Prahalad Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Fortune-Bottom-Pyramid-EradicatingPublishing/dp/0131877291/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1234441981&sr=1-1 Quote: “The poor as a market are 5 billion strong” Learning Expectation: • • In this chapter, I want know what are the ways on how we can help the less fortunate people I want to know whether the government will prioritize them

Review: In this chapter, the author says that we need to connect the poor through entrepreneurship, which enables wealth creation through transparent and legitimate means, Prahalad said. He emphasized that businesses could create wealth for themselves, too, through poverty alleviation. The poor deserve world class products and services. The lifestyles of the poor are different than their income levels might suggest, as can be seen from the way poor people allocate their income to consumption," Prahalad noted. Indeed, in urban slums, it is commonplace to find homes that are cramped and surrounded by squalor but have TV sets, refrigerators and pressure cookers. Often, at least one family member will possess the latest cell phone. The poor, even if they live in shanty towns, want to consume like wealthier people. This factor potentially can create surges in consumption.

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According to Prahalad, resources and aspirations must be related to each other for entrepreneurship to flourish. "By creating a mismatch between aspirations (more) and resources (less) you create entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurs leverage resources and change the business model to get more, for fewer resources. So the task for us is, how to create aspirations that rest outside the current resource base," says Prahalad. Innovative solutions by imaginative entrepreneurs would help solve poverty, he feels. Entrepreneurs should use Price - Profit = Design as their guiding principle rather than the shortage economy paradigm of Cost + Profit = Price. Challenge and change the price performance equations. If we can satisfy 500 million (poor) customers in India by producing world-class quality, then that can become the biggest export opportunity in the world," Prahalad said. Innovating to create solutions the market needs at a price it can afford is important if Indian enterprise has to be globally competitive Lessons Learned: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • A philosophy for developing products and services for the BOP The twelve principles of innovation for BOP markets Making each of the principles happen Price performance Innovation hybrids Scale of operations Sustainable development: eco-friendly Identifying functionality of developed markets Process innovation Deskilling of work Education of customers Designing for hostile infrastructure Interfaces Distribution by accessing the customer

5 integrative questions: 1. What is “media dark”? 2. Is the term “markets” in this book same as the definition of markets in the enterprise world? 3. What can other countries do to help them survive? 4. When will this crisis last? 5. Is there a “way” to prevent this from happening to other countries? Monica Frances T. Hao 00B Book: The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid Chapter 3: A Global Opportunity BY: C.K Prahalad Library Reference: N/A Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Fortune-Bottom-Pyramid-EradicatingPublishing/dp/0131877291/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1234441981&sr=1-1 Quote: ITETHIC

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“A focus on solving the problem has to start with a cost target that is no more than the cost of boiled water” Learning Expectation: • • In this chapter, I want know whether the alternative ways in solving the crisis discussed in chapter 2 will be executed. To be able to get moral lessons from people who are part of the tragic crisis

Review: In this chapter, Prahalad argues that businesses can seize these opportunities if they look beyond four assumptions about doing business with and for poor people: that they cannot afford their products; that they will not accept new technologies; that they do not have any use for products and services; and that managers will not be excited about marketing to the bottom of the pyramid. The participation of the poor in the identification of consumer interests and needs can open new win-win opportunities for doing business and addressing poverty. Lessons Learned: • • • • • • • • • • Engaging the BOP Local growth opportunities Local innovations and global opportunity BOP solutions for developed markets Lessons for MNCs from BOP markets Capital Intensity Sustainable development Innovations The costs of managing Learning to live in a network of relationships

5 integrative questions: 1. What does the phrase “I curve” mean? 2. What are the “costs of organization”? 3. Aside from the places in the middle-east, what other countries, places or continent do you think this crisis is happening? 4. What is a social enterprise? 5. Do you think this people will leave their hometowns if the crisis there will not be stopped? Monica Frances T. Hao 00B Book: The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid Chapter 4: The Ecosystem for Wealth Creation BY: C.K Prahalad Library Reference: N/A ITETHIC

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Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Fortune-Bottom-Pyramid-EradicatingPublishing/dp/0131877291/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1234441981&sr=1-1 Quote: “I did not even know how to hold a mouse” Learning Expectation: • • In this chapter, will it truly be a help for the BOP if they will be building a new ecosystem? I want to if the government has a budget, and how much.

Review: Adam Smith, in his seminal work The Wealth of Nations, described wealth as "the annual produce of the land and labor of the society". This "produce" is, at its simplest, that which satisfies human needs and wants of utility. In popular usage, wealth can be described as an abundance of items of economic value, or the state of controlling or possessing such items, usually in the form of money, real estate and personal property. An individual who is considered wealthy, affluent, or rich is someone who has accumulated substantial wealth relative to others in their society or reference group. The term implies a social contract on establishing and maintaining ownership in relation to such items which can be invoked with little or no effort and expense on the part of the owner. The concept of wealth is relative and not only varies between societies, but will often vary between different sections or regions in the same society. A personal net worth of US $10,000 in most parts of the United States would certainly not place a person among the wealthiest citizens of that locale. However, such an amount would constitute an extraordinary amount of wealth in impoverished developing countries. As I have read the previous chapters, wealth is a “need” for the people in the bottom of the pyramid so that they can cope up with other countries. People there can be educated, employed, and many more. For me, there is/are still ways on how their environment can be changed. All they need is patience, hard work, prayers, etc. Lessons Learned: • • • • • • • • • • Ecosystems for a developing country Learning the sanctity of contracts Reducing inequalities in contracts Building governance capabilities among the poor The essence of maturation model. Organization of the group Mobilizing the savings Investing those savings Access to bank capital The ecosystem for wealth creation

5 integrative questions: 1. What is a “sanchalak”? 2. Will the ecosystem help the people rise from crisis?

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3. What is the contribution of SHG? 4. What composes the private sector? 5. Is the government budget sufficient enough? Monica Frances T. Hao 00B Book: The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid Chapter 5: Reducing Corruption: Transaction Governance Capacity BY: C.K Prahalad Library Reference: N/A Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Fortune-Bottom-Pyramid-EradicatingPublishing/dp/0131877291/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1234441981&sr=1-1 Quote: “Understood but not explicit” Learning Expectation: • • In this chapter, I want to know what are the ways to prevent, reduce corruption I want to know if their government is sincere enough to help the people and their country rise from poverty or corruption. ITETHIC

Review: Corruption slows and impedes the consolidation of democratic institutions and weakens the rule of law. Around the world corruption diverts resources from productive use, distorts economies, reduces growth, and causes enormous social tension. High levels of corruption make it more difficult for countries to grow and develop. It is all too often linked with trans border criminal activity, including drug trafficking, organized crime, and money laundering. The transaction governance capacity talks about the clearness of the process and consistently possible. They said that they should reduce frictional losses in doing business at the BOP. Their main focus is to overt corruption. If this corruption will be overt, I will say that the people in the BOP will boost their economy, society and etc. It is a step-by-step procedure on they can come back to a normal life. Beat corruption, fund their economy or ecosystem, give them education and work hard. Lessons Learned: • • • • • • • • Whether the poor are the poor TGC Building TGC The Andhra Pradesh e-Governance Story Intended transformation to citizen-centric governance Corruption and e-governance eSeva centre for good governance

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• •

the good governance model guiding principles of the CGG in Andhra Pradesh

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What does a transaction governance capacity do? Who will be benefiting from this transaction? What is “e-seva”? Is “e-seva” different from “e-governance”? Are there still ways rather than the transaction capacity on how to build up the BOP? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00B Book: The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid Chapter 6: Development as Social Transformation BY: C.K Prahalad Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Fortune-Bottom-Pyramid-EradicatingPublishing/dp/0131877291/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1234441981&sr=1-1 Quote: “Identity for the individual” Learning Expectation: • • In this chapter, I want to see the results if this development will continuously happen I want to know where will these people go or what will happen to them after these social transformation

Review: Social transformation is the process by which an individual alters the socially ascribed social status of their parents into a socially achieved status for themselves. However another definition refers to large scale social change as in cultural reforms or transformations. The first occurs with the individual, the second with the social system. Social transformation is considered an interpersonal negotiation because it requires that the individual have their social position be validated by others for transformation. It is a reciprocal relationship in which people have to be embraced and correctly identified with the cultural expectations of their particular class membership. This is the only way that persons can move from their own ascribed status to a new achieved status. To summarize this chapter, people should be treated as consumers so that they can reap the benefits of respect, choice and self-esteem and have an opportunity to climb out of the poverty trap. Lessons Learned: • The transitions at the private sector and the BOP

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• • • • • • •

Breaking down barriers to communication BOP consumers upgrade Gaining access to knowledge Identity for the individual Evolving checks and balances The real test: from the pyramid to the diamond The shape of rural income distribution

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is “e-choupal”? What is “hinglish”? What is the importance of a person having an “identity”? Who will really benefit, the male or the female one? Can this social transformation happen also to other continents, countries?

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Monica Frances T. Hao 00B Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Author: Kenneth Einar Himma and Herman T. Tavani Chapter 1: Foundations of Information Ethics By: Luciano Floridi Library Reference: N/A

ITETHIC

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1237964676&sr=8-1 Quote: “Insisting on the necessarily human-based nature of the agent means undermining the possibility of understanding another major transformation in the ethical field, the appearance of artificial agents that are sufficiently informed, “smart,” autonomous, and able to perform morally relevant actions independently of the humans who created them, causing “artificial good” and “artificial evil”” Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics” I want to learn what does Foundation of information ethics is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the information ethics? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the information ethics means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? I also want to know the different stages of the foundation of ethics, to know what a moral agent is. Review: In this book it is mentioned in the first paragraph that “we call our society as information society” as I see through it they said that our society is information society because we are in the computer generation and almost all the things that we need now can already be found in the internet/ web. You can search anything you need or want. The information society has already posed fundamental ethical problems, whose complexity and global dimensions are rapidly growing and evolving. Before they say that Information Ethics has come to mean different things to different researchers working in a variety of disciplines, including computer ethics, business ethics, medical ethics, computer science, the philosophy of information, social epistemology ICT studies, and library and information science. They have found a simple model in which it had helped one to get some initial orientation in the multiplicity of issues belonging to Information Ethics. They are referring to the RPT model. The RPT model is useful to explain, among other things, why any technology that radically modifies the “life of information” is bound to have profound moral implications for any moral agent. In this chapter there are four stages of information ethics. The first stage is IE as an ethics of informational resources. It was used as a general label to discuss issues regarding information (or data) confidentiality, reliability, quality, and usage. Not surprisingly, the disciplines involved were initially library and information science and business and

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management studies. The second stage is IE as an ethics of informational products. In this stage they have understood that IE will cover moral issues arising, for example, in the context of accountability, liability, libel legislation, testimony, plagiarism, advertising, propaganda, misinformation, and more generally of pragmatic rules of communication. The third stage is IE as an ethics of informational environment. In this stage they are more focused on the environmental and global concern which means that if they have an activity or project to make they will first see if the project will not destroy the global concerns. The last stage or the fourth stage of the information ethics is IE as a macroethics. In this last stage it is stated that it is a patient-oriented, ontocentric, ecological macroethics. Lessons Learned: • • • • • • Four stages of foundation of information ethics. Importance of information ethics. Information society RPT model Responsibilities of Human agents Four moral principles

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is foundation of information ethics? Who is Luciano Floridi? What is his other works? What is a RPT model? What are the four stages of Foundation of information ethics? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00B Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Author: Kenneth Einar Himma and Herman T. Tavani

Chapter 2: Milestones in the History of Information and Computer Ethics By: Terrell Ward Bynum Library Reference: N/A Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1237964676&sr=8-1 Quote: “The Human Use of Human Beings, explored the likely impacts of information technologies upon central human values, such as life, health, happiness, security, freedom, knowledge, opportunities, and abilities.” Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics” I want to learn what does Milestones in the History of Information and Computer Ethics is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the history of information and

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computer ethics? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? I also want to know who is Robert Weiner, Deborah Johnson and her influential text book, James Moor and his classic paper, the professional ethics approach of Donald Gotterbarn. Review: In this chapter of the book it is said that “today’s “Internet age” and the search for global information ethics,” the concepts and procedures that Wiener employed can be used to identify, analyze, and resolve social and ethical problems associated with information technologies of all kinds—including, for example, computers and computer networks; radio, television, and telephones; news media and journalism; even books and libraries.” which means that in our generation every information we need can now be found in the internet and can be found in the technologies that are invented now a day. For me, I am very thankful that any information I need for my studies or for my personal life can now be searched through the use of the internet. It is said that in the year 1985 was a pivotal year for computer ethics plus the Computers and Ethics issue of the journal Metaphilosophy especially Moor.s article “What is computer ethics?” provided excellent curriculum materials and a conceptual foundation for the field. In addition, Maner.s earlier trailblazing efforts had created a “ready-made audience” of enthusiastic computer science and philosophy scholars. The stage was set for exponential growth. Lessons Learned: I have learned about Norbert Werners foundation of information ethics, computer ethics developments after Wiener and before Maner, Walter Maners computer ethics initiative, Deborah Johnsons influential textbook and the start of the “uniqueness debate”, James Moors classic paper and his influential computer ethics, the professional ethics approach of Donald Gotterbarn, computing and human values, Luciano Floridis information ethics theory, and the exponential growth of computer ethics. 5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Who is Terrell Ward Bynum? What are the Milestones in the History of Information and Computer Ethics? What is computing and human values? Who is Luciano Floridi? Who is James Moor? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00B Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Author: Kenneth Einar Himma and Herman T. Tavani Chapter 3: Moral Methodology and Information Technology By: Jereon Van Den Hoven Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1237964676&sr=8-1

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Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics” I want to learn what does Moral Methodology and Information Technology is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Moral Methodology and Information Technology? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the moral methodology and information technology means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: Computer ethics is the study of the moral questions that are associated with the development, application, and use of computers and computer science. It is also a form of applied or practical ethics. According to Generalism, “the very possibility of moral thought and judgment depends on the provision of a suitable supply of moral principles.”6 The simplest way to be a generalist is to think that there are fairly accurate general moral rules or principles that may be captured and codified, for example, in codes of conduct, which can be applied to particular cases. Practical ethics is a matter of drafting codes of conduct or formulating moral principles or moral rules and drawing up valid practical syllogisms. Particularists in ethics oppose the search for universally valid moral rules. They consider universally valid principles an intellectual mirage. There are some important points in particulatism and these are that theory and thinking in terms of moral principles and rules seems to be part of our moral practices and the other is that it “black-boxes” moral justification and a lot more. Lessons Learned: • • • • • • I I I I I I have have have have have have learned learned learned learned learned learned in in in in in in this this this this this this chapter chapter chapter chapter chapter chapter about about about about about about Moral Methodology and Information Technology. applied ethics. Generalism. particularism. reflective equilibrium. value sensitive design.

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is Moral Methodology? What is Information Technology? How is Jereon Van Den Haven? What is the difference between ubiquitous and pervasive? What is applied ethics? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00B Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Author: Kenneth Einar Himma and Herman T. Tavani Chapter 4: Value Sensitive Design and Information Systems By: Batya Friedmen, Peter H. Khan Jr., and Alan Borning

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Library Reference: N/A Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1237964676&sr=8-1 Quote: “There is a longstanding interest in designing information and computational systems that support enduring human values” Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics” I want to learn what does Value Sensitive Design and Information Systems is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Value Sensitive Design and Information Systems? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does Value Sensitive Design and Information Systems means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: In this chapter of the book it will explain to us what value sensitive design and information systems are. Before I start I will first explain to you what is value sensitive design. Value Sensitive Design is a theoretically grounded approach to the design of technology that accounts for human values in a principled and comprehensive manner throughout the design process. But before explaining much of value sensitive design I will first explain what does values means. Values are the morals, principles, ethics, values and etc that a person have. The tripartite methodologies are conceptual, empirical and technical investigations. The first tripartite methodology is conceptual which means Value Sensitive Design takes up these questions under the rubric of conceptual investigations. Careful working conceptualizations of specific values clarify fundamental issues raised by the project at hand, and provide a basis for comparing results across research teams. The second is Empirical investigations are also often needed to evaluate the success of a particular design. Empirical investigations can be applied to any human activity that can be observed, measured, or documented. Lastly technical investigations involve the proactive design of systems to support values identified in the conceptual investigation. Lessons Learned: • • • • Value Sensitive Design and information system The Tripartite methodology Value sensitive design in practice Practical suggestions for using value sensitive design

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Who is Batya Friedmen? Who is Peter H. Khan Jr.? Who is Alan Borning? What is Value Sensitive Design? What is Information Systems? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao

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00B Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Author: Kenneth Einar Himma and Herman T. Tavani Chapter 5: Personality-Based, Rule-Utilitarian, and Lockean Justifications of Intellectual Property By: Adam E. Moore Library Reference: N/A Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1237964676&sr=8-1 Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics” I want to learn what does Personality-Based, Rule-Utilitarian, and Lockean Justifications of Intellectual Property is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Personality-Based, Rule-Utilitarian, and Lockean Justifications of Intellectual Property? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does Personality-Based, Rule-Utilitarian, and Lockean Justifications of Intellectual Property means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: In this chapter, the first topic is about intellectual property. It is said that intellectual property is generally characterized as nonphysical property that is the product of cognitive processes and whose value is based upon some idea or collection of ideas. They said that Rights do not surround the abstract nonphysical entity, or res, of intellectual property, rather, intellectual property rights surround the control of physical manifestations or expressions. Systems of intellectual property protect rights to ideas by protecting rights to produce and control physical embodiments of those ideas. They have identified four problems for personality based justification of intellectual property. The first is it is not clear that we own our feelings, character traits, and experiences. Second is even if it could be established that individuals own or have moral claims to their personality it does not automatically follow that such claims are expanded when personalities become infused in tangible or intangible works. Third is assuming that moral claims to personality could be expanded to tangible or intangible items we would still need an argument justifying property rights. Personality-based moral claims may warrant nothing more than use rights or prohibitions against alteration. Lastly, there are many intellectual innovations in which there is no evidence of the creator’s personality. It is argued that adopting the systems of copyright, patent, and trade secret, leads to an optimal amount of intellectual works being produced and a corresponding optimal amount of social utility. A final strategy for justifying intellectual property rights begins with the claim that individuals are entitled to control the fruits of their labor. Laboring, producing, thinking, and persevering, are voluntary and individuals who engage in these activities are entitled to what they produce.

Lessons Learned: • I have learned about intellectual property

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• • • •

I have also learned about the personality based justification of intellectual property. I have also enumerated the problems that have encountered in personality based justification of intellectual property. I have learned about the rule utiltarian incentives based argument for intellectual property. I have also learned the Lockean justification of intellectual property?

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is Personality-Based? What is Rule-Utilitarian? What is Lockean Justifications of Intellectual Property? Who is Adam E. Moore? What are his other contributions? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00B Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Author: Kenneth Einar Himma and Herman T. Tavani

Chapter 6: Informational Privacy: Concepts, Theories, and Controversies Library Reference: N/A Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1237964676&sr=8-1 Quote: “Let her professor alone” Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics” I want to learn what does Informational Privacy: Concepts, Theories, and Controversies are all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Informational Privacy: Concepts, Theories, and Controversies? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Informational Privacy: Concepts, Theories, and Controversies? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: The word "privacy" has been used to describe many concerns with the modern world. It is a complex concept even before other concerns are lumped with it. The concept of "privacy" deserves to be carefully examined. It defies easy definition, and many proposals to protect privacy have gone forward without a clear articulation of what privacy really is. Importantly, privacy is a personal, subjective condition. One person cannot decide for another what his or her sense of privacy should be.

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An important conclusion flows from this latter observation. That is that government regulation of the private sector in the name of privacy can only create confidentiality or secrecy rules based on the guesses of politicians and bureaucrats. The better way to protect true privacy is to distribute decisions about how personal information is used to the people affected. Lessons Learned: • The Restricted Access Theory The control Theory The Restricted Access/Limited Control (RALC) Theory Three ‘‘Benchmark Theories” of Informational Privacy Privacy as Contextual Integrity The concept of privacy Unitary, Derivative, and Cluster Definitions of Privacy

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What will happen if there were no privacy? What is privacy as contextual integrity? What are the Unitary, Derivative, and Cluster Definitions of Privacy? Why do we need to benchmark in privacy? What is informational privacy? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00B Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Author: Kenneth Einar Himma and Herman T. Tavani Chapter 7: Online Anonymity Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1237964676&sr=8-1 Quote: “The logic of anonymity in modern life.”

Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics” I want to learn what does Foundation of information ethics is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the information ethics? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the information ethics means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? I also want to know the different stages of the foundation of ethics, to know what a moral agent is.

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Review: Anonymity is a result of not having identifying characteristics (such as a name or description of physical appearance) disclosed. This can occur from a lack of interest in learning the nature of such characteristics, or through intentional efforts to hide these characteristics. An example of the former would include a brief encounter with a stranger, when learning the other person's name is not deemed necessary. An example of the latter would include someone hiding behind clothing that covers identifying features like hair color, scars, or tattoos, in order to avoid identification. In some cases, anonymity is reached unintentionally, as is often the case with victims of crimes or war battles, when a body is discovered in such a state that the physical features used to identify someone are no longer present. Anonymity is not always found in such morbid situations, however. As an example, a winner of a lottery jackpot is anonymous (one of however many play the lottery) until that person turns in the winning lottery ticket. Lessons Learned: • • • • PURPOSES AND ETHICS OF ANONYMITY Globalization of Online Activity The concept of anonymity Data Mining, Tracking, and User’s Presumption of Anonymity

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is tracking? What is Data Mining? Define anonymity in the web What is anonymity as a complex structure? What is its difference compared to the basic function of anonymity? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00B Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Author: Kenneth Einar Himma and Herman T. Tavani Chapter 8: Ethical Counterkacking Issues Involving Computer Security:

Hacking, Hacktivism, and

Library Reference: N/A Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1237964676&sr=8-1 Quote: “Unauthorized entry into some other person’s computer seems not relevantly different than uninvited entry onto the land of another person” Learning Expectation:

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In this chapter of the book “The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics” I want to learn what does Ethical Issues Involving Computer Security: Hacking, Hacktivism, and Counterkacking is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Ethical Issues Involving Computer Security: Hacking, Hacktivism, and Counterkacking? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Ethical Issues Involving Computer Security: Hacking, Hacktivism, and Counterkacking means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: A hacker is someone who gains unauthorized access to a computer system. Many hackers just like the challenge of breaking through a computer security system but not all hackers are harmless. It must also be said that not all hackers are bad. Government and huge companies use hackers to maintain their security systems. People normally confuse hackers with crackers. While hackers crack the code of passwords to hack into a security system, crackers crack the code of software to bypass its security mechanisms like copyright protection etc. Hacking and cracking are two different methods, but hackers normally possess cracking skills and crackers, hackings skills. Also note that not all hackers are humans. You also get computerized hackers, but they are developed by humans of course. For me, let us just be careful with our personal files. We cannot say, due to the immorality of some people, our files at one glance, might disappear. Let us be resourceful, we should know the proper ways to prevent this scenario, and etc. Lessons Learned: • • • • The Active Response Spectrum THE PRIMA FACIE CASE AGAINST HACKING OVERCOMING THE PRIMA FACIE CASE: HACKING MOTIVATED BY BENIGN PURPOSES HACKING BACK: ACTIVE RESPONSE TO COMPUTER INTRUSIONS

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is hacking? Why do we need to do hacking? Why do some people love that job? Is Hacktivism moral? What is The Active Response Spectrum? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00B Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Author: Kenneth Einar Himma and Herman T. Tavani Chapter 9: Information Ethics and the Library Profession Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1237964676&sr=8-1

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Quote: “neutral point of view” Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics” I want to learn what does Information Ethics and the Library Profession is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Information Ethics and the Library Profession? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Information Ethics and the Library Profession means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: Information ethics is the field that investigates the ethical issues arising from the development and application of information technologies. It provides a critical framework for considering moral issues concerning informational privacy, new environmental issues, problems arising from the life-cycle (creation, collection, recording, distribution, processing, etc.) of information (especially ownership and copyright, digital divide). Information Ethics is related to the fields of computer ethics and the philosophy of information. Dilemmas regarding the life of information are becoming increasingly important in a society that is defined as "the information society". Information transmission and literacy are essential concerns in establishing an ethical foundation that promotes fair, equitable, and responsible practices. Information ethics broadly examines issues related to ownership, access, privacy, security, and community. All these issues bring up important challenges to what is commonly seen as the core value of librarianship—intellectual freedom. We explore what is meant by neutrality and the benefits and possible costs of taking the “neutral point of view.”

Lessons Learned: • The library profession and its connection to information ethics

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is information ethics in other terms? What is neutrality in information ethics? Why is there a library profession in information ethics? What is its relevance? Why are there bias? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00B Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Author: Kenneth Einar Himma and Herman T. Tavani

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Chapter 10: Ethical Interest in Free and Open Source Software Library Reference: N/A Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1237964676&sr=8-1 Quote: A software development community dedicated to developing and promoting free software Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics” I want to learn what does Ethical Interest in Free and Open Source Software is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Ethical Interest in Free and Open Source Software? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Ethical Interest in Free and Open Source Software means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: Just in case we forgot, Open source software is defined as computer software for which the source code and certain other rights normally reserved for copyright holders are provided under a software license that meets the Open Source Definition or that is in the public domain. This permits users to use, change, and improve the software, and to redistribute it in modified or unmodified forms. It is very often developed in a public, collaborative manner. Open source software and free software are different terms for software which comes with certain rights, or freedoms, for the user. They describe two approaches and philosophies towards free software. Open source and free software both describe software which is free from onerous licensing restrictions. It may be used, copied, studied, modified and redistributed without restriction. Free software is not the same as freeware, software available at zero price Lessons Learned: • • • • Free and Open Source Software The Ethics of Software Developers Critiques of Free and Open Source Software The History of Free and Open Source Software

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is a free software? What is an open source software? What can we benefit from them? How are they different programmatically? What are the theories behind it? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao

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00B Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Author: Kenneth Einar Himma and Herman T. Tavani Chapter 11: Internet Research Ethics: The Field and Its Critical Issues Library Reference: N/A Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1237964676&sr=8-1 Quote: Internet research is undertaken from a wide range of disciplines. Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics” I want to learn what does Internet Research Ethics: The Field and Its Critical Issues is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Internet Research Ethics: The Field and Its Critical Issues? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Internet Research Ethics: The Field and Its Critical Issues means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: Internet research ethics involves the research ethics of Internet research, with an emphasis on social science, humanities and scientific research carried out via the Internet. Common applications of Internet research include personal research on a particular subject (something mentioned on the news, a health problem, etc), students doing research for academic projects and papers, and journalists and other writers researching stories. It should be distinguished from scientific research - research following a defined and rigorous process - carried out on the Internet. Lessons Learned: • • • Copyright Public researching Private researching

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is copyrighting? Who are the public researchers? Who are the private ones? What are some theories regarding internet researching? Is it relevant? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00B

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Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Author: Kenneth Einar Himma and Herman T. Tavani Chapter 12: Health Information Technology: Challenges in Ethics, Science, and Uncertainty Library Reference: N/A Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1237964676&sr=8-1 Quote: The demands of privacy are intuitively straightforward and the consequences of its violation obvious

Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics” I want to learn what does Health Information Technology: Challenges in Ethics, Science, and Uncertainty is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Health Information Technology: Challenges in Ethics, Science, and Uncertainty? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Health Information Technology: Challenges in Ethics, Science, and Uncertainty means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: Same as in chapter 6, privacy may be the primary topic of this chapter. Internet privacy consists of privacy over the media of the Internet: the ability to control what information one reveals about oneself over the Internet, and to control who can access that information. Many people use the term to mean universal Internet privacy: every user of the Internet possessing Internet privacy. Internet privacy forms a subset of computer privacy. A number of experts within the field of Internet security and privacy believe that security doesn't exist; "Privacy is dead - get over it" according to Steve Rambam, private investigator specializing in Internet privacy cases. Privacy advocates believe that it should exist. The same is true for confidentiality, which applies to information—medical records, for instance. Where privacy is customarily about people, confidentiality applies to information about people. Privacy is also sometimes regarded as including within its scope people’s concern about protecting confidentiality Lessons Learned: • • • Privacy and confidentiality in the web PERSONAL HEALTH RECORDS Diagnostic Expert Systems

5 integrative questions: 1. What is the difference between privacy and confidentiality? 2. Are they relevant? 3. What is a decision support?

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4. What is a clinical decision system? 5. What is a diagnostic expert system? Monica Frances T. Hao 00B Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Author: Kenneth Einar Himma and Herman T. Tavani Chapter 13: Ethical Issues of Information and Business Library Reference: N/A Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1237964676&sr=8-1 Quote: Introduction to Business ethics Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics” I want to learn what does Ethical Issues of Information and Business is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Ethical Issues of Information and Business? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Ethical Issues of Information and Business means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: Business ethics is a form of Applied Ethics that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that arise in a business environment. Applied Ethics is a field of ethics that deals with ethical questions. Focusing on the specific to a professional and Large and small business's applied ethics also include many different fields such as: medical, technical, legal and the main focus of this article business ethics. Business ethics can be both a normative and a descriptive discipline. As a corporate practice and a career specialization, the field is primarily normative. In academia descriptive approaches are also taken. The range and quantity of business ethical issues reflects the degree to which business is perceived to be at odds with non-economic social values. This part of business ethics overlaps with the philosophy of business, one of the aims of which is to determine the fundamental purposes of a company. If a company's main purpose is to maximize the returns to its shareholders, then it should be seen as unethical for a company to consider the interests and rights of anyone else. Lessons Learned: • • • • Different business issues Norms and Values Corporate responsibility Business Ethics and Computer Ethics ITETHIC

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INFLUENCE OF BUSINESS ON ETHICS AND INFORMATION

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What are the ethical issues in business? Is it the same with information? Differentiate a shareholder from a stockholder Is privacy related? Why do we need to understand these ethics in business? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00B Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Author: Kenneth Einar Himma and Herman T. Tavani Chapter 14: Responsibilities for Information on the Internet Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1237964676&sr=8-1 Quote: There are numerous sites where Internet Safety, Security and Responsibility issues are addressed Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics” I want to learn what does Responsibilities for Information on the Internet is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Responsibilities for Information on the Internet? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Responsibilities for Information on the Internet means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: The Internet is both a source of promise for our children and a source of concern. The promise is of Internet-based access to the information age—and the concern is over the possibility that harm might befall our children as they use the Internet. Realizing the promise in all its richness requires that adults put these concerns into perspective and also take responsible steps to address them. The purpose of this chapter is to help put the risks of Internet use by children into perspective and to provide a balanced assessment of different approaches that can help parents and other responsible adults to deal constructively with the risks that children face on the Internet, using as its primary illustrative example protecting kids from inappropriate sexually explicit material on the Internet.

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There are a lot of issues we have to dwell with right after knowing what it is that needs to be done but still, be responsible enough to take extra protective measures with what you do online Lessons Learned: • • • • • • • Protect your personal information. It's valuable. Know who you're dealing with online. Use security software tools as your first line of defense. Keep your web browsers and operating system up to date. Use strong passwords or strong authentication technology to help protect your personal information. Back up important files. Learn what to do if something goes wrong.

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is the importance of protected information? How can we prevent this? Who should be responsible? Why do we need a strong password? Is this applicable to all users? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00B Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Author: Kenneth Einar Himma and Herman T. Tavani Chapter 15: Virtual Reality and Computer Simulation

Library Reference: N/A Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1237964676&sr=8-1 Quote: In a virtual-people simulation, every inhabitant is a native of the simulated world. Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics” I want to learn what does Virtual Reality and Computer Simulation is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Virtual Reality and Computer Simulation? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Virtual Reality and Computer Simulation means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review:

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Simulated reality is the proposition that reality could be simulated—perhaps by computer simulation—to a degree indistinguishable from "true" reality. It could contain conscious minds which may or may not know that they are living inside a simulation. In its strongest form, the "simulation hypothesis" claims it is possible and even probable that we are actually living in such a simulation. This is different from the current, technologically achievable concept of virtual reality. Virtual reality is easily distinguished from the experience of "true" reality; participants are never in doubt about the nature of what they experience. Simulated reality, by contrast, would be hard or impossible to distinguish from "true" reality. In a virtual-people simulation, every inhabitant is a native of the simulated world. They do not have a "real" body in the external reality. Rather, each is a fully simulated entity, possessing an appropriate level of consciousness that is implemented using the simulation's own logic (i.e. using its own physics). As such, they could be downloaded from one simulation to another, or even archived and resurrected at a later date. It is also possible that a simulated entity could be moved out of the simulation entirely by means of mind transfer into a synthetic body. Another way of getting an inhabitant of the virtual reality out of its simulation would be to "clone" the entity, by taking a sample of its virtual DNA and create a real-world counterpart from that model. The result would not bring the "mind" of the entity out of its simulation, but its body would be born in the real world. Lessons Learned: • • • • Virtual Reality definition Virtual Property and Virtual Economies The Goods and Ills of Computer Games Computer simulations

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is virtual reality? Can virtual and reality be separated? How is this connected to the computer? Is there privacy here? What is an avatar? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00B Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Author: Kenneth Einar Himma and Herman T. Tavani Chapter 16: Genetic Information: Epistemological and Ethical Issues Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1237964676&sr=8-1 Quote:

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The mind also fills in such things as context and informs our understanding by, for instance, utilizing our familiarity with the tools of information creation and dissemination Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics” I want to learn what does Genetic Information: Epistemological and Ethical Issues is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Genetic Information: Epistemological and Ethical Issues? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Genetic Information: Epistemological and Ethical Issues means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: Today's students have formed their habits of mind by interacting with information that is digital and networked. They are, in a way, older than their teachers, whose relationships with information are governed by earlier generations of technology. There is more. Not only do our students possess skills and experiences that previous generations do not, but the very neurological structures and pathways they have developed as part of their learning are based on the technologies they use to create, store, and disseminate information. Importantly, these pathways and the categories, taxonomies, and other tools they use for thinking are different from those used by their teachers. Lessons Learned: • • • PROBLEMS OF GENETIC INFORMATION Notion of Genetic Information Oldest to newest technology

5 integrative questions: What is a genetic information? What is a notion of genetic information? Who founded it? What is central dogma? 5. What is TACG? Monica Frances T. Hao 00B 1. 2. 3. 4. Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Author: Kenneth Einar Himma and Herman T. Tavani Chapter 17: Genetic Information: Epistemological and Ethical Issues Library Reference: N/A Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1237964676&sr=8-1 Quote:

ITETHIC

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If it takes over 100 years for countries to agree to a simple treaty on how to handle and protect intellectual property, it will be many years before we have a universal agreement on how to handle international hacking activity Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics” I want to learn what does Genetic Information: Epistemological and Ethical Issues is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Genetic Information: Epistemological and Ethical Issues? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Genetic Information: Epistemological and Ethical Issues means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: The issue of law and cyber conflict is something that while relatively new, is something that people, nation states, and military organizations have been working on for the last 10 years at least. Many countries have robust cyber warfare rules of engagement, and the more interesting part about this is that any country with an internet connection can engage in cyber conflicts. Attribution (IE Knowing who is attacking you, and being able to act appropriately against the real place that is attacking you) has long been a problem. Zombies, bot nets, jump points, and the millions of compromised computers both Windows and Linux are the cannon fodder of cyber warfare. Attributing the attacker back to the point of origin is going to be difficult if not impossible without some smart people having unrestricted access to packets, and to compromised systems. Legally though, it gets more interesting as the state of cyber law is often well behind the state of cyber warfare tools. Lessons Learned: • • • CYBER WARFARE Hacktivism Widespread conflict in the web

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is cyber conflict? What are the ethical frameworks of Hacktivism? What is Hacktivism Can these issues be terminated? Is this applicable in our country? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00B Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Author: Kenneth Einar Himma and Herman T. Tavani

Chapter 18: A Practical Mechanism for Ethical Risk Assessment—A SoDIS Inspection Library Reference: N/A

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Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1237964676&sr=8-1 Quote: In developing their tool, the pair looked at two existing measures of ethical risk that were ultimately found lacking: the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) and the Ethics Resource Center Ethics Quick Test. Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics” I want to learn what does A Practical Mechanism for Ethical Risk Assessment—A SoDIS Inspection is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the A Practical Mechanism for Ethical Risk Assessment—A SoDIS Inspection? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the A Practical Mechanism for Ethical Risk Assessment—A SoDIS Inspection means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: My example for this risk assessment is the Management, investors, and the public at large have become increasingly interested in evaluating companies for ethical performance and risk in the wake of Sarbanes-Oxley, the NYSE standards, the updated U.S. sentencing guidelines, and the Department of Justice principles of prosecution. "It's not just this explicit regulatory push, but there's also this heightened awareness in society that these things matter," said Shawn L. Berman, assistant professor of management at Santa Clara University. And once fraud taints an organization, it's costly to make amends in terms of both image and finances. The key is to proactively determine where risks lie and either eliminate the source or mitigate the risk before it reaches headline proportions. To address this need in the industry, Berman and Kirk O. Hanson, executive director of the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics, presented a preliminary draft of the ethics assessment tool they are developing, dubbed the Santa Clara Alternative. They unveiled their work in progress at the June 13, 2006, meeting of the Business and Organizational Ethics Partnership. The tool builds on a presentation Hanson gave at an earlier BOEP meeting entitled "Crisis-Prone or Crisis-Prepared." Lessons Learned: • • • • Software Development Impact Statement Stakeholder Identification SoDIS Stakeholders Identification Identification of Tasks or Requirements

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. What is SoDIS? Explain the SODIS procedure Why do we need risk assessment? Is it relevant?

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5. How important is it? Monica Frances T. Hao 00B Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Author: Kenneth Einar Himma and Herman T. Tavani Chapter 19: Regulation and Governance of the Internet Library Reference: N/A Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1237964676&sr=8-1 Quote: "Our identities have no bodies, so, unlike you, we cannot obtain order by physical coercion. We believe that from ethics, enlightened self-interest, and the commonwealth, our governance will emerge." Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics” I want to learn what does Regulation and Governance of the Internet is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Regulation and Governance of the Internet? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Regulation and Governance of the Internet means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: Social norms, perceptions, and expectations regulate behavior. When one thinks of the Internet, one thinks of a decentralized, far flung, heterogeneous, and unregulatable space. However, there are strongly held social norms that regulate (affect) the behaviour of Net users. Designers and users of Cyberspace have created/captured these norms in pithy maxims – it seems appropriate that memes regulate a land of ideas. I claim that the maxims discussed below act as a particular type of social norm, regulation by meme. The model of policy formation focuses on the flow and stages of its creation. Individual preferences are aggregated to yield a single policy. That policy is than deployed, implemented, and enforced. Policy is traditionally defined as the method by which an institution is administered. An Internet policy is an expressed goal about the use and operation of the Internet. Note, when I speak of Internet policy I'm speaking broadly; I'm speaking of informal or formal rules and expectations of conduct, behavior, and requirements over people, institutions, processes, and protocols. Lessons Learned: • • • Internet restrictions Internet rules Internet regulations ITETHIC

5 integrative questions:

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What is Censorship? What is content regulation? Why do we need rules when browsing? Is there a consequence when we break the rule? What is governance? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00B Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Author: Kenneth Einar Himma and Herman T. Tavani Chapter 20: Information Overload Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1237964676&sr=8-1 Quote: “A symptom of the high-tech age, which is too much for one human being to absorb in an expanding world of people and technology. It comes from all sources including TV, newspapers, magazines as well as wanted and unwanted regular e-mail and faxes. It has been exacerbated enormously because of the formidable number of results obtained from web search engines.”

Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics” I want to learn what does Information Overload is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Information Overload? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Information Overload means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: Information overload refers to an excess amount of information being provided, making processing and absorbing tasks very difficult for the individual because sometimes we cannot see the validity behind the information. As the world moves into a new era of globalization, an increasing number of people are logging onto the internet to conduct their own research and are given the ability to produce as well as consume the data accessed on an increasing number of websites. As of February 2007 there were over 108 million distinct websites and increasing. Users are now classified as active users because more people in society are participating in the Digital and Information Age. More and more people are considered to be active writers and viewers because of their participation. This flow has created a new life where we are now dependant on access to information. Therefore we see an information overload from the access to so much information, almost instantaneously, without knowing the validity of the content and the risk of misinformation.

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E-mail remains a major source of information overload, as people struggle to keep up with the rate of incoming messages. As well as filtering out unsolicited commercial messages, users also have to contend with the growing use of e-mail attachments in the form of lengthy reports, presentations and media files. Lessons Learned: • • • Definition of information overload Causes of information overload Consequences of information overload

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is information overload? What are the given consequences of information overload? What is its impact on society? Is this positive or negative? When does overloading occur? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00B Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Author: Kenneth Einar Himma and Herman T. Tavani Chapter 21: Email Spam Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1237964676&sr=8-1 Quote: From the beginning of the Internet (the ARPANET), sending of junk e-mail has been prohibited, enforced by the Terms of Service/Acceptable Use Policy of internet service providers (ISPs) and peer pressure. Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics” I want to learn what does Email Spam is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Email Spam? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Email Spam means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: E-mail spam, also known as junk e-mail, is a subset of spam that involves nearly identical messages sent to numerous recipients by e-mail. A common synonym for spam is

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unsolicited bulk e-mail (UBE). Definitions of spam usually include the aspects that email is unsolicited and sent in bulk "UCE" refers specifically to unsolicited commercial e-mail. E-mail spam has steadily, even exponentially grown since the early 1990s to several billion messages a day. Spam has frustrated, confused, and annoyed e-mail users. Laws against spam have been sporadically implemented, with some being opt-out and others requiring opt in e-mail. The total volume of spam (over 100 billion emails per day as of April 2008) has leveled off slightly in recent years, and is no longer growing exponentially. The amount received by most e-mail users has decreased, mostly because of better filtering. We, users should take care of our e-mails. We should not always entertain unknown messages. Because we might not know, there are some of those messages that contain viruses. Lessons Learned: • • • • • • History of e-mail Definition of span Definition of junk in e-mail The Accountability of the Sender and the Degree of Deception Number of identical emails sent The Ethics of Reducing the Number of Spam Emails Read After They Are Sent

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is a spam? What is inside a junk mail? Is spam harmful? How can we ignore it? Why is it called or named spam? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00B Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Author: Kenneth Einar Himma and Herman T. Tavani Chapter 22: The Matter of Plagiarism: What, Why, and If Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1237964676&sr=8-1 Quote: Free online tools are becoming available to help identify plagiarism, and there is a range of approaches that attempt to limit online copying, such as disabling right clicking and placing warning banners regarding copyrights on web pages. Learning Expectation:

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In this chapter of the book “The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics” I want to learn what does The Matter of Plagiarism: What, Why, and If is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Matter of Plagiarism: What, Why, and If? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Matter of Plagiarism: What, Why, and If means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: Plagiarism is the use or close imitation of the language and ideas of another author and representation of them as one's own original work. Within academia, plagiarism by students, professors, or researchers is considered academic dishonesty or academic fraud and offenders are subject to academic censure, up to and including expulsion. In journalism, plagiarism is considered a breach of journalistic ethics, and reporters caught plagiarizing typically face disciplinary measures ranging from suspension to termination. Some individuals caught plagiarizing in academic or journalistic contexts claim that they plagiarized unintentionally, by failing to include quotations or give the appropriate citation. While plagiarism in scholarship and journalism has a centuries-old history, the development of the Internet, where articles appear as electronic text, has made the physical act of copying the work of others much easier, simply by copying and pasting text from one web page to another. Plagiarism is not copyright infringement. While both terms may apply to a particular act, they are different transgressions. Copyright infringement is a violation of the rights of a copyright holder, when material protected by copyright is used without consent. On the other hand, plagiarism is concerned with the unearned increment to the plagiarizing author's reputation that is achieved through false claims of authorship. Lessons Learned: • • • • Definition of plagiarism Different views in plagiarism Issues about plagiarism Facts about it

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is plagiarism? Who are affected by this act? How can it be prevented? Is it moral or ethical? What do you mean by lack of accreditation? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00B Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Author: Kenneth Einar Himma and Herman T. Tavani

Chapter 23: Intellectual Property: Legal and Moral Challenges of Online File Sharing Library Reference: N/A

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Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1237964676&sr=8-1 Quote: There are a number of risks associated with using file sharing software. A common risk is inadvertently sharing files that should remain private. With many P2P clients it is not always clear which files are being shared and some may contain personal information such as credit card numbers. In addition running P2P software provides another potential access point to those who may wish to compromise a system. Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics” I want to learn what does Intellectual Property: Legal and Moral Challenges of Online File Sharing is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Intellectual Property: Legal and Moral Challenges of Online File Sharing? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Intellectual Property: Legal and Moral Challenges of Online File Sharing means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: The oldest form of file sharing is Sneakernet (called such because people would physically transfer files from one person to another by walking; using their sneakers). Before network file sharing people would exchange files on Magnetic tape (including audio cassettes, 8-tracks, VHS, Betamax, etc.), floppy disks and other removable media. Webhosting is also used for file-sharing; it is similar to the server-based approach, but uses the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and related technologies for file transfer. In small communities popular files can be distributed very quickly and efficiently without extra software in addition to the ubiquitous web browsers. Web hosters are independent of each other; therefore contents are not distributed further. Another term for this is one-click hosting. Lessons Learned: • • • • • Sneakernet File server-based sharing Web-based sharing Sharing or theft Secondary liability

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is an online file sharing? Is it an intellectual property? Is it ethical to do such act? What is a P2P? Are there ways for it to be legal? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00B

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Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Author: Kenneth Einar Himma and Herman T. Tavani Chapter 24: Censorship and Access to Expression Library Reference: N/A Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1237964676&sr=8-1 Quote: Automatic censorship sometimes stops matter which it was not intended to stop Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics” I want to learn what does Censorship and Access to Expression is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Censorship and Access to Expression? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Censorship and Access to Expression means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: Internet censorship is control or suppression of the publishing or accessing of information on the Internet. The legal issues are similar to offline censorship. One difference is that national borders are more permeable online: residents of a country that bans certain information can find it on websites hosted outside the country. Conversely, attempts by one government to prevent its citizens from seeing certain material can have the effect of restricting foreigners, because the government may take action against Internet sites anywhere in the world, if they host objectionable material. Barring total control on Internet-connected computers, such as in North Korea and Cuba, total censorship of information on the Internet is very difficult (or impossible) to achieve due to the underlying distributed technology of the Internet. Pseudonymity and data havens (such as Freenet) allow unconditional free speech, as the technology guarantees that material cannot be removed and the author of any information is impossible to link to a physical identity or organization. Lessons Learned: • • • • Definition of censorship Expression The harms of expressions Implication

5 integrative questions: 1. What is censorship? 2. What are the pros and cons? 3. Is it bad or harmful to people?

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4. Who are affected? 5. What are the types of censorship? Monica Frances T. Hao 00B Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Author: Kenneth Einar Himma and Herman T. Tavani Chapter 25: The Gender Agenda in Computer Ethics Library Reference: N/A Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1237964676&sr=8-1 Quote: There are a number of questions that are frequently discussed under the rubric of computer ethics. One set of issues deal with some of the new ethical dilemmas that have emerged, or taken on new form, with the rise of the internet. For example, there is a wide range of behaviors that fall under the heading of “hacking”, many of which have been variously defended and opposed by ethicists. Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics” I want to learn what does The Gender Agenda in Computer Ethics is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the The Gender Agenda in Computer Ethics? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the The Gender Agenda in Computer Ethics means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: Computer Ethics is a branch of practical philosophy which deals with how computing professionals should make decisions regarding professional and social conduct. The term "computer ethics" was first coined by Walter Maner in the mid-1970s, but only since the 1990s has it started being integrated into professional development programs in academic settings. The conceptual foundations of computer ethics are investigated by information ethics, a branch of philosophical ethics established by Luciano Floridi. Computer ethics is a very important topic in computer applications. Identifying ethical issues as they arise, as well as defining how to deal with them, have traditionally been problematic in computer ethics. Some have argued against the idea of computer ethics as a whole. However, Collins and Miller proposed a method of identifying issues in computer ethics in their Paramedic Ethics model. The model is a data-centered view of judging ethical issues, involving the gathering, analysis, negotiation, and judging of data about the issue. Lessons Learned: • COMPUTER ETHICS ITETHIC

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• • • •

Gender and computer ethics Cyberstalking Hacking Hacker Communities

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is computer ethics? What is cyberstalking? How is gender related to computer ethics? Is it punishable? What is a hacker community? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00B Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Author: Kenneth Einar Himma and Herman T. Tavani Chapter 26: The Digital Divide: A Perspective for the Future Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1237964676&sr=8-1 Quote: Recognition of digital divide as an immense problem has led scholars, policy makers, and the public to understand the “potential of the Internet to improve everyday life for those on the margins of society and to achieve greater social equity and empowerment Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics” I want to learn what does The Digital Divide: A Perspective for the Future is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Digital Divide: A Perspective for the Future? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Digital Divide: A Perspective for the Future means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: The term digital divide refers to the gap between people with effective access to digital and information technology and those with very limited or no access at all. It includes the imbalances in physical access to technology as well as the imbalances in resources and skills needed to effectively participate as a digital citizen. In other words, it is the unequal access by some members of society to information and communications technology, and the unequal acquisition of related skills. The digital divide may be classified based on gender, income, and race groups, and by locations. The term global digital divide refers to differences in technology access between countries or large regions of the world.

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This term initially referred to gaps in the ownership of, or regular access to, a computer. As Internet access came to be seen as a central aspect of computing, the term's usage shifted to encompass gaps in not just computers but also access to the Internet. Recently, some have used the term to refer to gaps in broadband network access. The term can mean not only unequal access to computer hardware, but also inequalities between groups of people in the ability to use information technology fully. Lessons Learned: • • • • Digital divide Its relation to the future Implications of these digital divide Its relation to poverty and absolution

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is digital divide? Is it important? What is poverty and absolute? Are they related to the first question? Is it moral?

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Monica Frances T. Hao 00B Book: The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics Author: Kenneth Einar Himma and Herman T. Tavani Chapter 27: Intercultural Information Ethics Library Reference: N/A

ITETHIC

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Handbook-Information-ComputerEthics/dp/0471799599/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1237964676&sr=8-1 Quote: The basic question concerning the status of moral persons, their respect or disrespect, remains unchanged although we may discuss as to what are the candidates and what this respect means in a specific situation. We may also discuss as to how this code has been interpreted (or not) within different ethical and cultural traditions and how it is being conceived with regard to the challenge of information technology. Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “The Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics” I want to learn what does Intercultural Information Ethics is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Intercultural Information Ethics? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Intercultural Information Ethics means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: Digital information technology has at first sight changed the horizon of human thinking and action in such a way that we have to deal with many problems for which classic ethical theories do not have only any answers but they cannot even provide a sufficient basis to deal with them. This insight into the somehow unique ethical challenges of the technological civilization was clearly seen by Hans Jonas. But, as Rolf Elberfeld remarks, Jonas dealt with this question only within the horizon of European philosophy. It is indeed necessary to undertake an intercultural dialogue on information technology which means not only to become aware of the conditions under which different life styles and life projects can coexist within the new digital environment but also in order to explore how it affects and is being appropriated by different cultures particularly as they are conditioned by this new environment. As far as information technology pervades our being-in-the-world itself on a global scale and influences all aspects of life including philosophical thinking itself, the question about the uniqueness of computer ethics can be discussed Lessons Learned: • • • Digital IT European philosophy Remarks of Elberfeld

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Jonas

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is digital IT? Does it provide high performance of technology? Who is Elberfeld? Who is Jonas? How European philosophy is related to digital IT? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics Chapter 1.1: Ethics and the Information Revolution By: Terrell Ward Bynum Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote: “Computing technology is the most powerful and most flexible technology ever devised. For this reason, computing is changing everything where and how we work, where and how we learn, shop, eat, vote, receive medical care, spend free time, make war, make friends, make love” By: Rogerson and Bynum Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Ethics and the Information Revolution is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Ethics and the Information Revolution? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Ethics and the Information Revolution means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: In our generation, or what we call the computer generation computer is really in demand and as we can see most of the houses have personal computers or laptop. For me, I need a computer at home because most of my home works can be found in the internet. Computer is a universal tool because it is logically malleable. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) now affects (in both good and bad ways) community life, family life, human relationships, education, freedom, democracy, and so on. Now I will tell you some of the historical background or milestones of computer ethics a Field of study founded by Norbert Wiener, MIT professor in early 1940’s during WWII while helping to develop an antiaircraft cannon capable of shooting down warplanes. In 1950 Wiener published, The Human Use of Human Beings established himself as founder of Computer Ethics. Donn Parker, SRI International, began to examine unethical and illegal uses of

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computers by computer professionals. Parker wrote: “It seemed that when people entered the computer center they left their ethics at the door.” Published Rules of Ethics in Information Processing in CACM in 1968. Published a great deal and gave lectures relaunched the field, a second founder of computer ethics. In 1970 Joseph Weizenbaum, MIT CS professor developed ELIZA. Eliza is a crude imitation of a psychotherapist. Joseph was shocked at others reactions. He authored Computer Power and Human Reason, a classic in Computer Ethics and is considered a key person in the formative history of the area. In 1980’s, growth in number of social and ethical consequences of information technology. Terrell Bynum began work in the field planning with Maner conferences that led to publications, videos, teaching materials in the field. In 1990 the development of the Centre for Computing and Social Responsibility. Feeling that there was a need for a “second generation” of Computer Ethics developments. There are some topics in computer ethics and these are Computers in the workplace, Computer Security, software ownership, professional responsibility. I think most of our technology is being developed through the use of internet, computers and we should also know the ethics in computer so that we will not hurt others. Lessons Learned: • • • • • • • The information revolution Information technology and human values Computer Ethics: some historical milestones Redefining the field of computer ethics Some topics in Computer Ethics Global information ethics The future of Computer Ethics

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Who is Terrell Ward Bynum? What is ethics and information revolution all about? What are the mile stones in computer ethics? Who redefined the field of computer ethics? What is global information ethics? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics Chapter 1.2: Ethics on line By: Deborah G. Johnson Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote: “Online communication has been evolving and growing at an unprecedented pace, and there is every indication that the demand for it will continue. Its evolution, however, has not been without problems and the mist disturbing of these problems involves human behavior.

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Disturbing and disruptive behavior ranges from unauthorized access, theft of electronic property, launching of destructive worms and viruses, racism, defamation, harassment, to a recent incident involving a form of rape online.” Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Ethics and the Information Revolution is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Ethics and the Information Revolution? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Ethics and the Information Revolution means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: Basically in this chapter we would encounter some issues with regards to the use of the internet. In this chapter they also discuss some ethical issues with the information that is spread in the public or private. As we can see that online communication has been evolving with these there are also some problems that have already been encountered with these online communications. There are some people that love to hack the private information and accounts of a person which is ethical not correct. Most of the things now in the world uses computer to build software or hardware with that many are imitating and copying the idea. There are some advantages of online communication because for me it can help the people especially the member of the family that are working abroad they use the internet to be able to talk and see their loved ones. For students, we use the internet very often because we search online for our assignments and for our projects. Students now a day will not go to the library to search for their project because the internet is much updated than books. We use the internet or the web as our reference and in the internet we can learn many things like for IT students we can have tutorials online with the different programming languages and we can also search for sample codes. Like for the professionals they use the internet or the web to communicate with their investors or business partners abroad. Lessons Learned: • Special Characteristics of Communication in Networks o Scope o Anonymity o Reproducibility Anonymity o Diminished trust o Variety and Consent

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is ethics on-line? Who is Deborah G. Johnson? What is diminished trust? What are the scopes, anonymity and reproducibility in communication in network? What is variety and consent? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics

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Chapter 1.3: Reason, Relativity, and Responsibility in Computer Ethics By: James H. Moor Library Reference: N/A Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote: “We are entering a generation marked by globalization and ubiquitous computing. The second generation of computer ethics therefore must be an era of ‘global information ethics.’” By: Bynum and Rogerson “The widespread desire to be wired should make us reflect on what awaits as the computer revolution explodes around the world. The digital genie is out of the bottle on a world-wide scale.” By: Moor

Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Reason, Relativity, and Responsibility in Computer Ethics is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Reason, Relativity, and Responsibility in Computer Ethics? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Reason, Relativity, and Responsibility in Computer Ethics really means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: In this chapter the author shares about the reason, relativity and responsibility in computer ethics which means that if we are the user, developer and etc we should know what are the do’s and don’ts to respect each other. The first topic talks about the searching for ethics in the global village, the author said that “There is disagreement about the nature of computer ethics. He disagrees with the two position and these positions are the routine ethics position and the cultural relativism position he said that both are popular” to further understand what does this tow position means I will be explaining it briefly, the first is routine ethics position which means that ethical problems in computing are regarded as no different from ethical problems in any field, there is nothing special about them. The second is cultural relativism which means that local customs and laws determine what is right and wrong. The next topic is about logical malleability and informational enrichment it is said that Computers are logically malleable because they are general purpose machines like no others and Computers are informational enriching because they certainly automate, and they are able to collect information while working, that information can be used in making decisions. The third topic is about special nature of computer ethics; James moor believes that computer ethics is a special field of ethical research and application in that and “Computer ethics has two parts: (I) the analysis of the nature and social impact of

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computer technology and (ii) the corresponding formulation and justification of policies for the ethical use of such technology.”

Lessons Learned: • • • • • • Ethics in the global village Logical malleability and informational enrichment The special nature of computer ethics Reasons within relative frameworks Core values Responsibility, resolution, and residue

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Who is James Moor? What is Global Village? What are the reasons within relative frameworks? What are responsibility, resolution and residue? What are the policies for a website? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics Chapter 1.4: Discolsive Computer Ethics By: Phillip Brey Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote: “Privacy is the freedom granted to individuals to control their exposure to others. A customary distinction is that between rational and informational privacy. Relational privacy is the control over one’s person and one’s personal environment, and concerns the freedom to be left alone without observation or interference by others.” Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Discolsive Computer Ethics is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating Discolsive Computer Ethics? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Discolsive Computer Ethics means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review:

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In this chapter it discuss about the disclosive computer ethics. There are subtopics in this chapter the first sub topic is limitations of mainstream computer ethics it is said that Mainstream Computer Ethics is said to be the name that will be used in essays in the chapter for those approaches that currently make up in mainstream computer ethics. In this chapter we can learn or read about the typical computer ethics, it is discussed in this chapter about the issues that these issues are not affecting the developers or programmers. This topic also argues the importance of a complementary approach which is called the disclosice computer ethics which is concerned with the moral deciphering of embedded values and norms in computer systems, applications and practices. There are also key values as departure points for analysis and these are justice, autonomy, democracy and privacy. Lastly, it is also argued that research in disclosive computer ethics should be multilevel and interdisciplinary, distinguishing between a disclosure level, a theoretical level, and an application level. I think that disclosive computer ethics is a needed approach in computer ethics because it deviates from traditional approaches in applied ethics, which focus on morally controversial practices and neglect embedded normativity in technological systems and practices, and still often concentrate on formulating applying moral theory. The proposed disclosive method may well be generalized to other areas of applied ethics in which technology plays an important role. Lessons Learned: • • • Limitations of mainstream computer ethics Hidden morality and disclosive computer ethics Key values as departure points for analysis o Justice o Autonomy o Democracy o Privacy The need for multi-level interdisciplinary research

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Who is Philip Brey? What is discolsive computer ethics What are the key values as department points for analysis? What is hidden morality and disclosive computer ethics? What is Limitations of mainstream computer ethics? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics Chapter 1.5: Gender and Computer Ethics By: Alison Adam Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote:

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“Feminist ethics has two major roles. The first is to challenge the traditional ethical canon; the second is to develop theoretical ideas derived, in part, from the challenge to mainstream ethics to develop a new ethics with which to make normative judgments on ethical problems from a wide range of domains.“ Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Gender and Computer Ethics is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Gender and Computer Ethics? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Ethics and the Gender and Computer Ethics means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: In this chapter of the book the author discussed about the gender and computer ethics. At first I doubt about this topic because I never thought gender is also an issue in computer ethics. I wonder if how gender would be an issue in computer issue. What would be the issue that is related to the gender? The chapter has characterized two strands of gender and computer ethics. The first is that women’s access to technology. I think that this problem is not applicable in the Philippines because we have a democratic country and men and women are equal, there is no discrimination in our country to the women. But some countries think that women cannot do what men can do but they are very wrong because men and women are equal we can also do what men can. They thought that men are the one who will rule and the one who gives money to a family. Well, in what I have experience men and women are equal because they can both excel and they can both improve for them to be better especially when they are developing something. I think that other countries think that women are useless because before women are born to be slaves, before women are not studying but now I can say that women are better than men, they excel more because women are more determined and intelligent. Lessons Learned: • • • Gender and Computer Ethics – Barriers and Pipelines Gender and Computer Ethics – Men’s and Women’s Moral Decision Making Critique of Gender and Computer Ethics Studies o Student Population o Quatitative vs Qualitative Methodology o Ethical Decision vs Ethical Processes o Lack of Theory Plea for Feminisy Ethics

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Who is Alison Adam? What is Gender and computer ethics? What are the critiques of gender and computer ethics studies? What is plea for feminisy ethics? What is qualitative research methodology mean? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00A

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Book: Cyber Ethics Chapter 1.6: Is the Global Information Infrastructure a Democratic Technology? By: Deborah G. Johnson Library Reference: N/A Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote: The adoption of a given technical system unavoidably brings with it conditions for human relationships that have a distinctive political cast for example, centralized or decentralized, egalitarian or inegalitarian, repressive or liberating. Certain kinds of technology do not allow such flexibility to choose unalterably a particular form of political life. Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Global Information Infrastructure a Democratic Technology? is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Global Information a Infrastructure Democratic Technology? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Global Information a Infrastructure Democratic Technology means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: In this chapter it is asked that if the global information infrastructure a democratic technology. For me yes, because global information infrastructure is democratic technology. Because global information infrastructure is about the developing communications framework intended to eventually connect all telecommunications and computer networks world-wide. They develop framework for the people to communicate with each other all over the world which means that it is democratic because they created it for the benefit of other people. To say that the GII or the Global information infrastructure is democratic if this technology has a value embedded in it, that it contains or favors or facilities democracy. While democracy is a value in the sense that when individuals make claims about the internet or the GII being democratic, they are claiming that there is a strong link between the technology and patterns of behavior associated with democracy and considered desirable. The infrastructure in which many aspects of our lives used to take place like work, bank, shopping, entertainment and banking are being re created and transformed in the GII. An example of this is shopping, before we need to go to malls to buy something or just to window shop but now we can go to the websites of the brand that we want and go buy the item that we wanted. it gives values to people because we can save more money and time because we will not go to malls anymore just to buy a shirt, skirt, bags and etc. Lessons Learned: • • Technology and Values Values Embedded in Technologies o The moral metaphysical meaning of embedded values o The support meaning of embedded values o The material meaning of embedded values

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Values Embedded in the Global Information Infrastructure o The moral/metaphysicall meaning of embedded values o The support meaning of embedded o The material menaing of embedded values Democracy as the Starting Place: Power and Insularity o Power to the Many o Joint Deliberation

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is the global information infrastructure democratic technology? Who is Deborah G. Johnson? What is technology and values? What are the values embedded in technologies? What are the values embedded in the global information infrastructure? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics

Chapter 1.7: Applying Ethical and Moral Concepts and Theories to IT Contexts: Some Key Problems and Challenges By: Frans A.J. Birrer Library Reference: N/A Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote: “Naïve technological determinism is persuasive, for it makes the picture a lot simpler. But it is also highly undesirable, since it is a source of self-fulfilling and self destroying prophecies. “ Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Applying Ethical and Moral Concepts and Theories to IT Contexts: Some Key Problems and Challenges is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Applying Ethical and Moral Concepts and Theories to IT Contexts: Some Key Problems and Challenges? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Applying Ethical and Moral Concepts and Theories to IT Contexts: Some Key Problems and Challenges means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: In this chapter there are three conditions in order to apply moral concepts in IT context. First is we must know to what kind of questions such concepts and theories can be applied, and to what they cannot. Second, we must know the limitations of specific concepts and theories. Third is we must have sufficiently knowledge of the domain to which we want to apply them. They have also discussed about the computer ethics and the role of experts.

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They said that some of the experts have taken for granted the ethics because they have larger or bigger scope so they have a hard time in thinking of the ethics. But some of the experts are confused on to what to do with the big or large scope that they have because they have a hard time in thinking how to apply the ethics. We should admit that there are some people who are pretending to be an expert even though they are not. Some pretend that they know everything about certain things or certain topic which is not right because if a person is like that he is not an ethical person because before a person applies ethics in his job, project or work he/she should have ethics. Lessons Learned: • • • Untangling terminological confusion: the demarcation of “computer ethics” Connecting ethics and social context Computer ethics and role of experts

5 integrative questions: 1. What are Applying Ethical and Moral Concepts and Theories to IT Contexts: Some Key Problems and Challenges? 2. Who is Frans A.J. Birrer? 3. What is computer ethics and role of experts? 4. What is connecting ethics and social context? 5. What are the reasons to distinguish ethics in narrow sense? Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics Chapter 1.8: Just Consequentialism and Computing By: James Moor Library Reference: N/A Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote: “The ends do not justify the means” “The ends do not justify any means that harm people.” “The ends do not justify using unjust means” Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Just Consequentialism and Computing is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Just Consequentialism and Computing? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Just Consequentialism and Computing means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? ITETHIC

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Review: Actually this is the second time that I have encountered the word consequentialism. The first time I encounter this is when I read about contemporary moral values. It also has the same author or the writer of this topic. James Moor, the writer of the book believed that just consequentialism is a practical theory and is a good approach to ethical problems in computer ethics. I also believed that we should also think the other people before we would make decisions or any programs we should not misjudge them by not considering others because your program might harm other people without you knowing it. As what James Moor said I think that we should make an agreement with the people involved in the project, they should agree or give their suggestions when a developer will develop it. We should not think that it would just benefit us but we should also consider that it would also benefit the people who are involved in the project. Most of the developer or programmers don’t consider the people who are using the program. James Moor also introduced the article about the good as the enemy of just. The story is about the company who wants to market their services by giving out to people’s personal information. If we have a company, we should think of what others might feel. Lessons Learned: • • • Consequentialism constrained by justice The good as the enemy of the just Computing in uncharted waters

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is just consequentialism and computing> Who is James Moor? What does “computing in uncharted waters” mean? Explain the ends do not justify any means that harm people. Why is consequentialism constrained justice? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics

Chapter 2.1: The Internet as Public Space: Concepts, Issues, and Implications in Public Policy By: Jean Camp and Y.T. Chien Library Reference: N/A Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote: “There has been much recent debate about what the internet really is – its role in society – as it rapidly moves from a pure academic interest into the public domain. Of particular internet when it comes to characterizing cyberspace is the way we look at the public services that are being created with the internet. Naturally, since the internet is part of the

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national and global telecommunications infrastructure, many tend to classify the internet’s services into traditional media types. One of the earlier voices in this debate (Camp and Riley, 1996) argues, however, that this classification hardly works well.” Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does The Internet as Public Space: Concepts, Issues, and Implications in Public Policy is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Internet as Public Space: Concepts, Issues, and Implications in Public Policy? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Internet as Public Space: Concepts, Issues, and Implications in Public Policy? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: In this chapter it tells about the internet as a public space. But first I will define you what is internet; according to my research internet is a global network of interconnected computers, enabling users to share information along multiple channels. Internet provides 24/7 for people to have convenience. Well as we all know that internet is everywhere and almost every people know how to use the internet. But knowing how to use the internet has its disadvantages because people now a day are already lazy because people are already lazy in going to the library and do some research, and people are now lazy in going to malls and go buy some stuff. The two authors suggest that internet is more than multi-media. The four media types are publisher, distributor, broadcast, and common carrier. Internet is associated with multimedia because internet tackles all the four types of multimedia. First, users can distribute any items in the web. Second, any user can broadcast any information he wants to address to people. Third, users can be carrier of the author and the reader. Last is publisher. There are many websites that offers us to publish our article and videos. Universities don’t want to have internet in the schools because they don’t want their student to access porn sites and etc. that is why most universities blocked some of the accounts in porn sites and etc. Lessons Learned: • • • The internet is more than multi-media Digital characteristics of a public space Uses of Internet as public space: Opportunities and Barriers o Universities o Hospitals o International Marketplaces o Schools o The digital stump o The marketplace Implications in Public Policy o Governance of internet use o Impact on social capital and society leadership o Impact on social well-being

5 integrative questions: 1. What does “the internet is more than multimedia” means? 2. What is the Internet as Public Space: Concepts, Issues, and Implications in Public Policy?

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3. Who are the users of internet as public space? 4. What are digital characteristics of a public space? 5. What are the implications in public policy? Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics Chapter 2.2: The Law of Cyberspace By: Larry LEssig Library Reference: N/A Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote: “We must come to understand this change. We must recognize the political consequences of this change. And we must take responsibility for these consequences. For the trajectory of the change is unmistakable, and the fruit of this trajectory, poison.” Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does The Law of Cyberspace is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating The Law of Cyberspace? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Law of Cyberspace means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: In this chapter they have discussed the four constraints. The first is constraints is law, the second constraint is the social norm. The third constraint is market. Last but not the least constraint is nature or architecture. The first constraint discusses about the law in cyberspace. As what I know everything in the world has a law provided so does cyberspace does. Every country has its own law. The law serves us the normal citizen as the rules and regulations to be followed if we did not follow it there is a consequence that we should face. A country needs to have a law so that the citizen will be disciplined and will be responsible in what they should do and what they should not. The second constraint is the social norm. The social norm acts the guide for the people to be similar with other people. Most of us don’t want to make our self funny because it is very shameful. The third constraint is market. They are the ones who regulate what the company would provide. They would think if their offered products and services will be benefited by the customer. Lastly, the constraint is about the nature or architecture. The problem is that we are physically limited in our world. We can’t reach other places easily. The four constraints are very useful in the cyber space because each of the constraint is connected to one another. Lessons Learned: • • • The laws present and open in “cyberspace” Four constraints in cyberspace differentiate the real space and cyber space ITETHIC

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5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Who is Larry Lessig? What is law of cyberspace? What are the four constraints in cyber space? What is the difference between real space and cyber space? What is real space? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics Chapter 2.3: Of Black Holes and Decentralized Law-Making in Cyberspace By: David G. Post Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote: “The decentralized process that built the internet protocols and the domain name system cannot, ex ante “ensure the stability of the internet.” if that is indeed the goal, that option is off the table. Because there is no way to answer the question” “what kind of domain name system would we have today had the commerce department stepped aside in 1998?” that course of action could not be taken seriously. Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Black Holes and Decentralized Law-Making in Cyberspace is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Black Holes and Decentralized Law-Making in Cyberspace? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Black Holes and Decentralized Law-Making in Cyberspace means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: This sub topic simply discusses about spam messages. The sub topic gives an example or an incident that happens to a professor of Franklin Pierce Law Center. The email address of the professor was listed in the RBL or Real time Black hole List. The professor was rejected to send a mail to his recipient because this RBL thinks that the email address is a spam. But he would not allow this spam to transfer the message to the recipient. Before he would successfully transfer the message, the server of the recipient would look if the email address is listed in the RBL. Thus, he is unable to send any messages even though it is not really a spam. Now a day almost all people have email and the spam messages are now growing because of the people who have no goals in life but want to just destroy other people. Spam messages are really irritating especially when you need to send it to other people and that people cannot receive it because you are in the real time black hole list. Sometimes other people might misinterpret you because the recipient cannot receive the

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messages. The author is just noticing us that there are a lot of problems in cyber space and we might find a difficulty in solving it. I think that we should think of a good proposal to stop the spammers and for the innocent people will not be a spammer because it is not good for them especially when they use it for business purpose only. Lessons Learned: • • • • The The The The incident explanation question debate

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Who is David G. Post? What does of Black Holes and Decentralized Law-Making in Cyberspace means? What is RBL? What does Post mean of decentralized decision making? What is better decentralized or centralized decision making? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics

Chapter 2.4: Fahrenheit 451.2: Is Cyberspace Burning? How Rating and Blocking Proposals May Torch Free Speed on the Internet Library Reference: N/A Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote: “Libraries are places of inclusion rather than exclusion. Current blocking or filtering software prevents not only access to what some may consider “objectionable” material, but also blocks information protected by the first amendment. The result is that legal and useful material will inevitably be blocked.” Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Fahrenheit 451.2: Is Cyberspace Burning is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating Fahrenheit 451.2: Is Cyberspace Burning? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Fahrenheit 451.2: Is Cyberspace Burning means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: I think that cyberspace is burning because most of the information now a day can be seen in the internet or the web. I think that now a day they are already posting everything in the internet because now a day most of the people are searching through the web only

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few who are searching in the library or what. Internet is where the students go to if they need any information about their studies and etc. but I think that it anything that would be posted in the internet would be screened by the people and would be banned if it does not give any sufficient or necessary information. It should be that the entire website should be viewed by the expert so that the porn sites would be lesser. Lessons Learned: • • • • • • • • • cyberspace burning Free speech online: a victory under siege Rethinking the rush to rate Recommendations and principles Six reasons why self-rating schemes are wrong for internet third-party rating The problems with user-based blocking software at home Blocking software should not be used by public libraries Internet rating systems

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Why is cyberspace burning? What are the six reasons why self-rating schemes are wrong for internet? What is free speech online? What are internet rating systems? What is third-party rating? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics Chapter 2.4: Filtering the Internet in the USA: Free Speech Denied? By: Richard S. Rosenberg Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote: “Although defendant is under no obligation to provide internet access to its patrons, it has chosen to do so and is therefore restricted by the First Amendment in the limitations it is allowed to place on patron access. Defendant has asserted in the limitations it is allowed to place on patron access. Defendant has asserted a broad right to censor the expressive activity of the receipt and communication of information through the Internet with a Policy that is not necessary to further any compelling government interest; is not narrowly tailored; restricts the access of adult patrons to protected material just because the materials is unfit for minors; and provides inadequate procedural safeguards to ensure prompt judicial review. Such a policy offends the guarantee of free speech in the First Amendment and is therefore unconstitutional.” Learning Expectation:

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In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does filtering the Internet in the USA: Free Speech Denied is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating Filtering the Internet in the USA: Free Speech Denied? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Filtering the Internet in the USA: Free Speech Denied means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: It is good that the internet in the USA is already been filtering so that the sites or the black mail. They are protecting the people’s privacy it is good that they should protect one in encountering things that are not meant to be seen or be aware of such as online violence, sex and etc. I think that the main issue is that other country should also filter the internet so that they can protect the other people’s privacy. Country should choose the websites on what to publish because now a day children knows how to use the internet and they can accidentally watch it. Some kids now a day really needs guidance because others become very naughty because they go to sites that they should not be seen. Kids need the supervision of their parents for them to have knowledge on what is right and what is wrong. If these kids will continue that actions they will be very naughty and I think that it is not good for them. Lessons Learned: • • • • • Definitions Examples of Problems with blocking and filtering programs Mainstream Loudoun Librarians and filtering programs Discussion and analysis

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is filtering the internet in the USA? Who is Richard Rosenberg? What are the features of filter system? What does filtering means? What is blocking? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics

Chapter 2.5: Censorship, the Internet, and the Child Pornography Law of 1996: A Critique By: Jacques N. Catudal Library Reference: N/A Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote:

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“When the law speaks universally, then, and a case arises on it which is not covered by the universal statement, then it is right, where the legislator fails us and has erred by oversimplicity, to correct the omission- to say what the legislator himself would have said had he been present, and would have put into his law if he had known.” Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Censorship, the Internet, and the Child Pornography Law of 1996: A Critique is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Censorship, the Internet, and the Child Pornography Law of 1996: A Critique? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does Censorship, the Internet, and the Child Pornography Law of 1996: A Critique means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: I can say that pornographic movies and pictures are everywhere. I can’t get it why many people love to watch it and many people are contributing to it. I think that pornography needs to be stopped because it really affects the children and if it will not stop children would be applying it when they grow older. It will just affect the population of the country and the world. We need to stop it before it is too late or else those children will also suffer. I have seen the picture of an 11 year old guy and a 13 year old girl who already have their child. Imagine that they are too young to have a baby and they even don’t know what the life of being parents is. Children now a day already know what sex means and if they get much older out of their curiosity they would really apply it. Most people now a day surf the internet for watching those pornographic videos, pornographic pictures and going to cyber sex web sites. I think that it is just right to have law about that child pornography so that the internet pornography would be lessening. Although it would not be lessened immediately but it would be decreased as time goes by. Lessons Learned: Definitions Scope Child pornography prevention act Argument 1: CPPA Violates the First Amendment Argument 2: CPPA’s protective are inadequate Argument 3: CPPA can harm our children 5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What What What What What is is is is is censorship? child pornography? CPPA Violates the First Amendment? CPPA’s protective are inadequate? CPPA can harm our children? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics Chapter 2.6: PICS: Internet Access Controls Without Censorship

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By: Paul Resnick and James Miller Library Reference: N/A Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote: “On the internet, we can do still better, with richer labels that reflect diverse view points, and more flexible selection criteria. PICS, the platform for the internet content selection, establish internet conventions for labels formats and distribution methods while dictating neither a labeling vocabulary nor who should pay attention to which labels. It is analogous to specifying where on a package a label should appear, and in what font it should be printed, without specifying what it should say.” Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does PICS: Internet Access Controls without Censorship is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the PICS: Internet Access Controls without Censorship? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the PICS: Internet Access Controls without Censorship means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: I think that it is important to have an internet access controls especially to the nudity, sex and violence so that the browser would be safe and it will restrict the websites that has or have nudity, violence and sex contents. It will be benefiting a family if their computers or laptops have these protections to their web browser or browsers. Like in our school the school restricts website that can download nudity, violence and sex contents. I think that the school has a good idea with it so that the student would not be downloading or watching those nudity pictures which will just affect their personality. I think that the parents should guide them especially when they are surfing the net. Without the guidance of the parents or without the parents scolding their children once they caught them seeing those nudity pictures they would think that what they were doing is right or correct. They should somehow see the history of the links that their children go to so that if there are some that is already beyond its limit they can scold them to correct that behavior. Lessons Learned: • • • • • • • • • • • Definition of PICS The labelling vocabulary Granularity Creation of labels Coverage Revenue generation Collaborative labelling Online journals Labelling vocabularies Privacy vocabularies Reputation vocabularies

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5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What What What What What is PICS? is the creation of labels? are online journals? are privacy vocabularies? are labeling vocabularies? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics

Chapter 2.7: Internet Service Providers and Defamation: New Standards of Liability By: Richard A. Spinello Library Reference: N/A Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote: “Our primary concern in this paper involves the vicarious liability of the internet service provider (ISP), which gives individuals access to the internet. If an individual defames someone else through internet postings or by way of other online communications, does the Internet Service Provider (ISP) have any liability in these situations? This issue of ISP liability is just one way in which remarkable ascendancy of the internet raises new challenges about the proper assignment of liability. Lamentably, cyber space defamations have provoked considerable confusion for the American legal system, as evidence by the convincing rulings set forth about ISP liability.” Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Internet Service Providers and Defamation: New Standards of Liability is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Internet Service Providers and Defamation: New Standards of Liability\? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Internet Service Providers and Defamation: New Standards of Liability means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: In this chapter the author basically discuss about the Internet Service provider. In this chapter they have discuss about internet service provider and internet defamation. They also discuss about the law of ISP liability. “Our primary concern in this paper involves the vicarious liability of the internet service provider (ISP), which gives individuals access to the internet. If an individual defames someone else through internet postings or by way of other online communications, does the Internet Service Provider (ISP) have any liability in these situations? This issue of ISP liability is just one way in which remarkable ascendancy of the internet raises new challenges about the proper assignment of liability. Lamentably, cyber space defamations have provoked considerable confusion for the American legal system, as evidence by the convincing rulings set forth about ISP liability” which means that

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we cannot insult or even misjudge others especially we cannot insult the ISP because I think that they are doing their best just to provide a good internet service for us to have. Lessons Learned: • • • • • • Legal Definitions and standards Internet service providers and legal defamation Legal precedents for ISP liability Cyberspace alter the need for libel laws Moral perspective Summary

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What are legal definitions and standards? What is Internet service providers and legal defamation What does ISP means? What is moral perspective? Who is Richard A. Spinello? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics Chapter 3.1: Digital Millennium Copyright Act Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote: “In general, a service provider shall not be liable for monetary relief, or, except as provided in subsection, for injunctive or other equitable relief, for infringement of copyright by reason of the storage at the direction of a user of material that resides on a system or network controlled or operated by or for the service provider.” Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Digital Millennium Copyright Act is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Digital Millennium Copyright Act? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Digital Millennium Copyright Act means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: In this chapter of the book the author discussed about Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) which is a United States copyright law that implements two 1996 treaties of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). The law has five provisions and these are WIPO Copyright and Performances and Phonograms Treaties Implementation Act, Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act, Computer Maintenance Competition

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Assurance Act, Miscellaneous Provisions and Vessel Hull Design Protection Act but the chapter focuses on the second provisions which is Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act which means creates a safe harbor for online service providers (OSPs, including ISPs) against copyright liability if they adhere to and qualify for certain prescribed safe harbor guidelines and promptly block access to allegedly infringing material (or remove such material from their systems) if they receive a notification claiming infringement from a copyright holder or the copyright holder's agent. Lessons Learned: • • Public Law 105-304 Sec. 103 Copyright Protection Systems and Copyright Management o Definition in general o In details Sec. 1201 Circumvention of copyright protection systems Violations regarding circumvention of technical measures Sec. 1202 Integrity of Copyright management information Online Copyright infringement liability limitation o Limitations on liability for copyright infringement o Limitations on liability relating to material online o System Caching o Information location tools o Limitation on liability of non-profit education institutions Conditions for eligibility

• • • •

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What What What What What is is is is is Digital Millennium act? Public Law 105-304? section 103? section 1201? section 1202? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics Chapter 3.2: Note on the DeCSS Trial Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote: “Cracking this code was not a major hurdle for Johansen and within a short time a decryption program called DeCSS was born. This program allows a user to decode a DVD disk. Once the program is decoded, it can be downloaded with the help of a compression program called DivX, which can compress huge DVDs into manageable files that can be stored on a CD or a hard drive.”

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Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Note on the DeCSS Trial is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Note on the DeCSS Trial? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Note on the DeCSS Trial means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: In this chapter it discusses about DeCCS trial and these are the fake DVD’s and CD’s that are being bought in the market. These DVDs or CDs are illegal because the first thing is that they are being sold at a very low price, second the copies are just took from the CAM in the movie house and lastly the copies are not clear and sometimes there are people or persons head that you can see in the movie. I admit that I buy pirated DVD and VCD movies and series but I have also realize that it is a crime and I can be sued if they have caught me buying those DVD and VCD. But some of the copies are clear and in that case most of the people are buying those pirated DVD and VCD copies. I can say that I cannot blame those people because of the economic crisis that we have others just buy their DVD or VCD copies and will let their family watch it because it is much cheaper compare to buying the DVD or VCD copy or watching to the movie house. I am not for against the original copy I am just saying that the fact that our economic crisis many wants to watch movie but they have no enough money or they have no budget for that. Lessons Learned: • • • Technical background The lawsuit The outcome

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What What What What What is is is is is Note on the DeCSS trial? the technical background of the trial? the lawsuit in the trial? the outcome in the trial? DeCSS? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics Chapter 3.3: A Politics of Intellectual Property: Environmentalism for the Net By: James Boyle Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote:

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“Everyone says that we are moving to an information age. Everyone says that the ownership and control of information is one of the most important forms of power in contemporary society. These ideas are so well-accepted, such cliches, that I can get away with saying them in a law review article without footnote support. (For those blessedly unfamiliar with law reviews, this is a status given to only the most staggeringly obvious claims; the theory of evolution, and the orbit of the earth around the sun, probably would not qualify.)” Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Politics of Intellectual Property: Environmentalism for the Net is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Politics of Intellectual Property: Environmentalism for the Net? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Politics of Intellectual Property: Environmentalism for the Net means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: In this chapter the author discussed about the intellectual property. As I was reading through this chapter I have a hard time in understanding it because in the first place I don’t what intellectual means so I researched about it and I have found out that Intellectual property is divided into two categories: Industrial property, which includes inventions (patents), trademarks, industrial designs, and geographic indications of source; and Copyright, which includes literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and architectural designs. But with that I still have a hard time in understanding the true meaning of this. Because it is quite broad and it has a deeper meaning. I have also found out that A Politics of Intellectual Property: Environmentalism for the Net has 5 information age and these are "Code is Code" - The Logic of the Information Relation, Intellectual Property is the Legal Form of the Information Age, The Conceptual Structure of an Intellectual Land-Grab, A Brief Case-Study: Copyright on The Net, and The Analogy to Environmentalism. In the first age it is said that everyone says that the ownership and control of information is one of the most important forms of power in contemporary society. Second is that The more one moves to a world in which the message, rather than the medium, is the focus of conceptual, and economic interest, the more central does intellectual property become. Third is that "There is a fundamental conflict between the efficiency with which markets spread information and the incentives to acquire information." Fourth is that If the information society has an iconic form (one could hardly say an embodiment) it is the Internet. Lastly is that he environmental movement was deeply influenced by two basic analytical frameworks. The first was the idea of ecology; the fragile, complex and unpredictable interconnections between living systems. The second was the idea of welfare economics the ways in which markets can fail to make activities internalize their full costs. Lessons Learned: • • • • • • The logic of the information relation Intellectual property is the legal form of the information age The conceptual structure of an intellectual land-grab Tensions in an intellectual property system Analyzing the case study: Copyright on the Net The analogy to environmentalism

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5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Who is James Boyle? What are tensions in an intellectual property system? What is the analogy to environmentalism? What is the logic of the information relation? What is intellectual property? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics Chapter 3.4: Intellectual Property, Information, and the Common Good By: Michael C. McFarland, SJ Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote: “If I claim a plot of land as my property, I am saying I can control who has access to that land and what they do there. I can build a fence around it, rent it out, or drill it for oil on it. If a car is my property, I get the keys to it. I can exclude others from using it and use it myself for whatever I want, as long as I do not threaten the lives or property of others. Intellectual property is different because its object is something intangible, although it usually has tangible expression. The intellectual property in a book is not the physical paper and ink, but the arrangement of words that the ink marks on the paper represent. The ink marks can be translated into regions of magnetic polarization on a computer disk.” Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Intellectual Property, Information, and the Common Good is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Intellectual Property, Information, and the Common Good? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Intellectual Property, Information, and the Common Good means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: Well for this chapter it basically discussed about Intellectual Property, Information, and the Common Good they have said that Intellectual Property is objects that are intangible although they usually have tangible expressions. There are also types of intellectual property and these are Intellectual property can range from lyrics in a song to poems, to programming code and in essence one’s ideas, Copyright, Trademark, Patent, Industrial design right, and Trade secret. There are five conflicts over intellectual property and these are Plagiarism, Software Piracy, Repacking Data and Databases, Reverse Engineering, and Copying in Transmission. I will not explain to you what plagiarism and software piracy means because it is already common to us and I know that we already know

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it. Instead of explaining it I will just give you an example of repacking data and databases and here it is A company named ProCD published a CD-ROM containing a large compilation of telephone listings. A University of Wisconsin graduate student put all the data on the CDROM onto his Web site and charged users to access it. The company sued, claiming it had invested $10 million in collecting the data, putting it into an easily accessible form, packaging and marketing it, while the student was cutting into their sales and making profits himself with almost no effort (Samuelson, 1996b). ProCD won, but only on the narrow grounds that the student had violated the shrink-wrap license agreement that came with the CD-ROM. There has been much debate recently about whether databases and the data in them should receive more protection than currently afforded by copyright law. Now let’s move to reverse engineering, Reverse engineering is the translation of cryptic code back into human-readable form to. Developers often find they must study the actual code or hardware design of the system their product must work with in order to get the interface right. They must do reverse engineering since the original code or design is usually jealously guarded by the designers. Lastly is the copying in transmission, an example of this would be The Internet, like most large computer networks today, uses so-called “store and forward” architecture. No computer in the chain has complete knowledge of or control over the route the message will follow. For the sake of reliability, each computer keeps a copy of the message after sending it and holds the copy until it has received verification that the message has reached its destination. This procedure is used for all kinds of network transactions, including email; file transfers, and Web pages. I hope that you have learn something from this. Lessons Learned: • • • Conflicts over intellectual property: Five Cases Philosophical justification for intellectual property A more balanced view of the common good

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What What What What What are the 5 cases of conflicts over intellectual? is a conflict over intellectual property? is intellectual property? is the common good? is a more balanced view of the common good? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics

Chapter 3.5: Is Copyright Ethical an Examination of the Theories, Laws, and Practices Regarding the Private Ownership of Intellectual Work in the United States By: Shelly Warwick Library Reference: N/A Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote:

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“Rights are interest possessed under law or custom and agreement in an intangible thing especially of a literary and artistic nature.”

Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Copyright Ethical an Examination of the Theories, Laws, and Practices Regarding the Private Ownership of Intellectual Work in the United States is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Copyright Ethical an Examination of the Theories, Laws, and Practices Regarding the Private Ownership of Intellectual Work in the United States? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Copyright Ethical an Examination of the Theories, Laws, and Practices Regarding the Private Ownership of Intellectual Work in the United States means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: In this book it first gives us an introduction about what is going to happen or to be discussing in this book and I will give you a brief of the introduction the author is just telling what the Constitution of the United States empowers Congress to secure for authors and inventors the exclusive rights to their writing and discoveries for a limited time in order to promote the progress of science and the useful arts. The focus is on two key questions: What is the relationship between ethics and copyright law and practice in the United States? And is the concept of private ownership of intellectual property inherently ethical? They have also discussed about the rights do they arise and they have said that Rights are interest possessed under law or custom and agreement in an intangible thing especially of a literary and artistic nature. They have also discussed about the history of copy right in the United States at first they have the legal basis for copyright in the United States is Article 1, Section 8 of the Constitution next they have Copyright Act of 1790 then the limited nature of the rights conferred by the 1790 act, which granted to authors the rights to print, reprint, publish, and vend their writings for 14 years, makes more sense when it is understood that the rights not granted to authors are reserved to the people as sovereign. Then the United States copyright law has been consistently revised to embrace new media and to provide a wider range of rights to copyright holders, usually in reaction to copying not prohibited by the current law but deemed unjust or unethical by the Courts or Congress. After recognizing the need for reciprocal international copyright (granted it was a bit late), the U.S. became a founding member of the Universal Copyright Convention (UCC) in 1951, and later a signatory to the Berne Convention in 1989. Then the last major revision of copyright law took place in 1976 after over 20 years of studies and debate. Lastly, the Current copyright law, as per the Copyright Act of 1976 as amended, protects all “original works of authorship fixed in a tangible medium of expression.” Then there is a question if the copy right is legal well we have to see the two approaches first If, as Hettinger suggests, every creator stands on the shoulders of giants, what is the essential morality in allowing the last contributor to reap the full reward or to have the right to prevent others from building on her contribution? Then if, as postulated by Locke, an individual is entitled to what he or she creates, what are the ethics of limiting a creator’s rights in regard to his or creation? Lessons Learned: • • • Brief Definition The rights The origins of those rights

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• • • • •

Property rights Theories of intellectual property and copyright History of copyright in the United States Limitations of copyright Ethical manner of copyright

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What What What What What are property rights? is the origin of those rights? is the History of copyright in the United States are the limitations of copyright? is the ethical manner of copyright? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics Chapter 3.6: On the Web, Plagiarism Matters More Than Copyright Piracy By: John W. Snapper Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote: “The above observation provides evidence for a claim that the Web creates an environment that heightens the dangers of plagiarism and lessens the dangers of piracy. The evidence is suggestive, but does not justify a radical revision of our present system.” Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does On the Web, Plagiarism Matters More Than Copyright Piracy is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the On the Web, Plagiarism Matters More Than Copyright Piracy? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the On the Web, Plagiarism Matters More Than Copyright Piracy means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: In this chapter they have discussed about plagiarism and piracy. As far as I know they are both inter related or similar because for me plagiarism is copying ones work without citing the source. While for piracy I think that it is copying a file or video or music of others and reproducing it. Plagiarism and piracy is different because they in piracy you are reproducing ones work while in plagiarism you are just copying ones work. I think that now a day most of the users plagiarize and forget to site the source because they don’t know or they don’t have an idea what plagiarism is. Most of the student is now plagiarizing because they don’t even cite the source and some are citing their source but they just copy the entire document and paste it which is unfair because the author thinks really hard just to

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have an answer or review or even comment about a certain book or movie but others just copy and paste the review or comment of the author. While for piracy I admit that I buy those pirated DVDs and VCD’s because I have no budget for the original ones and sometimes I am downloading software’s and movies for me to watch my favorite movie or my favorite series. Plagiarism is being made by many people because of the technology we have and the internet that we have. Lessons Learned: • • • • • • Plagiarism Piracy Harm in Plagiarism Harm in Piracy Use of copyright Mix of both concepts

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What What What What What is plagiarism? is piracy? can be the harm in plagiarism? is use of copyright? is use of copyright? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics Chapter 3.7: An Ethical Evaluation of Web Site Linking By: Richard A. Spinello Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote: “We also fully appreciate the dangers inherit in propertizing the web and the need to encourage the most flexible forms of linking. Therefore, we argue that any arbitrary or unnecessary restrictions against deep linking should be eschewed for the sake of the common good of open communications, flexibility, and maximum porosity in the Internet environment.” Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Ethical Evaluation of Web Site Linking is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Ethical Evaluation of Web Site Linking? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does Ethical Evaluation of Web Site Linking means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this?

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Review: As what I have read in this book and base on my understanding about what a deep linking is that it is making a hyperlink that points to a specific page or image on another website, instead of that website's main or home page. Such links are called deep links. If you are a person that is or has deep linking it means that he or she will not go to the index or the home page for his website but instead he will now go directly to the link or to the web page. I think that I disagree to the idea of the author because for me it is better that we would first go to the home page or to the index page because in this page it gives a preview to the content of the webpage. For me I think that this chapter is not important because I think that there are still more topic that is very useful like the plagiarism and etc. But I think that the author sees the importance in it because we have different opinions and different perspective. I think that now a day with the use of the technology and resource in the internet we are using the deep linking because if we search a keyword, there are results that will automatically direct it to the website. I think that the author chose to discuss this topic is for us, students and other people to see the importance of having this web site linking. Lessons Learned: • • The technical aspects of website linking Two case studies The ticketmaster vs Microsoft Case Maria’s online art gallery Websites as intellectual property Utilitarianism Labor-desert theory Personality theory Revisited deep linking Respecting the common good

• •

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What What What What What are the two case studies in this chapter? are the technical aspects of website linking? is website linking? is revisited deep linking? are the websites as intellectual property? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics Chapter 3.8: The Cathedral and the Bazaar BY: Eric Steven Raymond Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote:

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“Every good work of software by scratching a developer’s personal itch.” “Good programmers know what to write. Great ones know what to rewrite.” Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does The Cathedral and the Bazaar is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Cathedral and the Bazaar? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does The Cathedral and the Bazaar means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: In this chapter it discussed about the cathedral and the bazaar. I have already encountered this topic. As I have read this article I have found out that it is written by Eric Steven Raymond. This book is about hacking and open source community. Well, Hacking was introduced in the computer generation. When you say hacking it is not always the negative thing. Because some of people say that you’re hacking when you don’t acknowledge the true or original developer or founder. Mostly when we hear the word hacking it always about security features and etc. while an open source community now a day is growing and I think it is good that we share our knowledge because we can help the others. In this book I have gained a lot because it discuss about the hacking and the open source community. Base on his observations of the Linux kernel development process and his experiences managing an open source project, fetch mail. But before anything else, I need to experience first what a Linux kernel development process to be able to understand this topic better. Furthermore, the author also discussed about the “Good programmers know what to write. Great ones know what to rewrite.” As what I have understand with this line is that a good programmer know what to write in that case they can also explain them better while great programmers is the one who knows how to rewrite which means that great programmers can easily understand the source code of others. Lessons Learned: • • • • • The cathedral and the bazaar The mail must get through Characteristics of a good programmer Importance of having users Releasing early and releasing often

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What What What What What are cathedral and the bazaar? are the characteristics of a good programmer? is releasing early? is releasing often? is the importance of having users? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics

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Chapter 4.1: Towards a Theory of Privacy for the Information Age By: James H. Moor Library Reference: N/A Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote: “When we think of ethical problems involving computing, probably none is more paradigmatic than the issue of privacy. Given the ability of computers to manipulate information to store endlessly, to sort efficiently and to locate effortlessly we are justifiably concerned that in a computerized society our privacy may be invaded and that information harmful to us will be revealed.” Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Towards a Theory of Privacy for the Information Age is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Towards a Theory of Privacy for the Information Age? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does Towards a Theory of Privacy for the Information Age means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: In this chapter the author discussed about the issues that have encountered in piracy. In this chapter there are some issues in piracy that have already discussed in the previous chapter. They have said that now a day we can easily get a copy and reproduce a copy to the internet or even give to your friends or neighbors. Many of us are already familiar to use the internet and most of us are looking for a source where you can download for free like for software, movies, application, music and etc. Some of the sites that I know for a person to download free software, application music and etc are piratebay.org, mininova.org and a lot more. I can say that I am not innocent because I also download movies, music and software. In most houses that has computer you can also see that they also have internet. Most of them they are downloading songs, movies and software’s. Most of us are support piracy because of the crisis. I think that my brother when he is still 15 he started to download files that are not licensed because his friends recommend it to them but I think that if only the schools teaches the proper education about piracy and when they will teach us the dos and don’ts in downloading files. Lessons Learned: • • • • • • The definition of Greased Data Grounding Piracy The nature of piracy Setting and adjusting policies for private situations Publicity principle The rules and conditions of governing private situations

5 integrative questions: 1. What is Towards a Theory of Privacy for the Information Age?

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2. 3. 4. 5.

What What What What

is grounding piracy? is the nature of piracy? is publicity principle? are the rules and conditions of governing private situations? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics

Chapter 4.2: The structure of rights in directive 95/46/ZEC on the Protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and the free movement of such data. By Dag Elgesem

Library Reference: N/A Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote: “I think the notion of control is a central one in the theory of privacy. But even if we qualify the crude statement of the theory in the two directions suggested above, it is still far from rich enough to account for all of the dimensions of control that arise in the directive.” Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does the structure of rights in directive 95/46/ZEC on the Protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and the free movement of such data is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the structure of rights in directive 95/46/ZEC on the Protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and the free movement of such data? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the structure of rights in directive 95/46/ZEC on the Protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and the free movement of such data means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: In this chapter they have discussed the three parts. First, a survey and analysis is given of the structure of individual rights in the recent EU Directive on data protection. It is argued that at the core of this structure is an un explicated notion of what the data subject can `reasonably expect' concerning the further processing of information about him or herself. In the second part of the paper it is argued that theories of privacy popular among philosophers are not able to shed much light on the issues treated in the Directive, which are, arguably, among the central problems pertaining to the protection of individual rights in the information society. In the third part of the paper, some suggestions are made for a richer philosophical theory of data protection and privacy. It is argued that this account is better suited to the task of characterizing the central issues raised by the Directive. I am really happy when I surf the net because I have gain ideas and learned a lot from it. Which can help me to become better business analysts or programmer because through the

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internet you can learn a lot like knowing what are the new technologies, gadgets and software’s. Lessons Learned: • • • • • • • • • • Introduction to the structure The directive on the question of further processing of personal data Data quality Legitimate purposes Sensitive data The right to be informed Data subject’s right to access and to object The reprocessing of personal data Using personal data for a different purpose Data protection and the philosophy of privacy o Privacy as restricted access o Privacy as control Channels for the flow of personal information o Relationship between privacy and data protection in the directive o Channels for the flow of personal information o Data protection and the protection of privacy o The directive and the protection of channels

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What What What What What is data quality? are legitimate purposes? is a sensitive data? are the data protection and the philosophy of privacy? are the channels for the flow of personal information? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics

Chapter 4.3: Privacy Protection, Control of Information, and Privacy enhancing technologies By: Herman Tavani and James Moor Library Reference: N/A Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote: “In our private lives we wish to control information about ourselves. We wish to control information that might be embarrassing or harm us. And, we wish to control information that might increase our opportunities and allow us to advance our projects.”

Learning Expectation:

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In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Privacy Protection, Control of Information, and Privacy enhancing technologies is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Privacy Protection, Control of Information, and Privacy enhancing technologies? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Privacy Protection, Control of Information, and Privacy enhancing technologies means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: In this chapter the author discusses about privacy protection, Control of information and privacy enhancing technologies. As I read through this chapter I have found out that it has divided this topic into two parts and these are topics about all the criticisms about the control of information as to the issues about the privacy protection concerned. Next we have the he privacy enhancing technology that would control the personal information. I can say that the word privacy is very familiar to us because all the people need privacy. In the information technology I think that they should really have privacy protection because for me in the industry you must know what the new technologies are, software’s and gadgets and you can use these tools to be able to build a new application. You really need to protect your software or application because many hackers would try to know what have you done to your application and how did you do the application and the program. I think that they should really protect it. Especially when these hackers spread things or he or she can destroy your application which I think that it is really unethical. Lessons Learned: • • • • • • • • The theory of privacy Normative privacy and the restricted access theory The use control in the justification and management of privacy Privacy-enhancing technologies PETs PETs and the role of individual choice in controlling personal information PETs and the principle of informed consent PET owners beware

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What What What What What is the theory of privacy? is normative privacy? is restricted access theory? are privacy enhancing technologies? is PETs? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics

Chapter 4.4: Toward an Approach to Privacy in Public: Challenges of Information Technology By: Helen Nissenbaum Library Reference: N/A

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Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote: “At the heart of the concern to protect “privacy” lies a conception of the individual and his or her relationships with society. The idea of private and public spheres or activity assumes a community in which not only does such a division make sense, but the institutional and structural arrangements that facilitate an organic representation of this kind are present.” Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Toward an Approach to Privacy in Public: Challenges of Information Technology is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Toward an Approach to Privacy in Public: Challenges of Information Technology? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Toward an Approach to Privacy in Public: Challenges of Information Technology means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: Well for this chapter it still discuss about privacy and now I will give you a brief definition of privacy, privacy is the control over all information about oneself regarding intimate and personal data. It is also the protection of information. The precise context will be determined by social and cultural convention. There are two Misleading Assumptions about the Public realm and these are there is a realm of public information about persons to which no privacy norms apply and an aggregation of information does not violate privacy if its parts, taken individually do not. It also discusses about This private realm, which is contrasted with a public realm, is defined in various ways. It is delimited by physical boundaries, such as the home; by personal relationships, such as family, friends, and intimates; and by selected fields of information, such as personal, sensitive, or embarrassing information. The aggregation and manipulate of information have significant bearings on the humans who are subjects such as Manipulation involves shifting information from one context to another. And unless subjects have granted permission to move this data, the subject has lost control over the data. And the act of compiling information may also transform harmless bits into a picture that can embarrass and hurt subjects. Compiling this information leads to portraits of the person, not used to build friendship, but used to judge and make decisions that will affect the subject in important ways Lessons Learned: • • • • • • • Privacy The personal Realm Violating privacy in public – the case of Lotus Marketplace: Households Two misleading Assumptions Erroneous Assumption1 Erroneous assumption 2 Implications for a theory of privacy

5 integrative questions: 1. What is privacy? 2. What is violating privacy in public – the case of Lotus Marketplace: Households? 3. What are the two misleading assumptions?

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4. What are the implications for a theory of privacy? 5. What is the personal realm? Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics Chapter 4.5: KDD, Privacy, Individuality, and Fairness By: Anton H. Vedder Library Reference: N/A Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote: “The data subject has some specific rights with regard to “his or her” personal data. Among these rights are the right of access (knowing what data is being stored and whether the data relating to the data subject are being processed.), the right of rectification, the right to know to whom the data has been disclosed, and the right to object to the processing of data relating to the data subject.” Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does KDD, Privacy, Individuality, and Fairness is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the KDD, Privacy, Individuality, and Fairness? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the KDD, Privacy, Individuality, and Fairness means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: For this chapter the author discussed about the knowledge in discovery in database, privacy individuality and fairness through KDD or data mining. KDD stands for knowledge discovery in databases. KDD is being described by the book as the nontrivial extraction of implicit, previously unknown, and potentially useful information from data. For my understanding, KDD is what we call the gathering of data where knowledge discovery in databases collects information, data, and etc. The book also discussed about Web mining refers to the whole of data mining and related techniques that are used to automatically discover and extract information from web documents and services. In KDD they should have a good privacy because most of the people would not want their personal information to be spread out to the public especially when they are popular or rich. The book also discussed about personal data which means that it is often considered to be exclusive kind of data eligible for protection by privacy law and privacy norms. Personal data is what we call our data and information relating to an identified or identifiable person. Lessons Learned: • • • Definition of KDD Personal data Law ITETHIC

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• • • • •

Ethics Social consequences Categorical privacy Solutions Closing remarks

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What What What What What is KDD? are the social consequences? is categorical privacy? is fairness? is individuality? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics Chapter 4.6: Data Mining and Privacy By: Joseph S. Fulda Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote: “Data mining is most easily accomplished when the data are highly structured and available in many different forms at many different levels in what are known as data warehouse.” Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Data Mining and Privacy is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Data Mining and Privacy? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Data Mining and Privacy? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: In this chapter it discussed about data mining and privacy. It is said that Data mining is the process of analyzing data from different perspectives and summarizing it into useful information - information that can be used to increase revenue, cuts costs, or both. I have already encountered what data mining is the collection of data and summarizing it. It is like gathering the important details first before anything else. Data mining is where you collect the important data and saving it to the database while the unimportant is placed somewhere else. In this topic they have also discussed about data warehouse contains four kinds and these are integrated data, both detailed and summarized data, historical data and lastly the Meta data. In this chapter they have suggested the local government to separate data mining and privacy because these two are different. It will just provide a conflict if they will not separate the two.

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Lessons Learned: • • • • • • Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining The issue Analysis of the issue Issues in the first case as well as the second case Categories in pre-existing data Cluster data by mapping

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What What What What What is data mining? is privacy? are Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining? are categories in pre-existing data? id cluster data by mapping? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics Chapter 4.7: Workplace Surveillance, Privacy, and Distributive Justice By: Lucas D. Introna Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote: “If data about themselves and their activities are captured, it is in their interest to have maximum control over it- what is captured, who sees it, for what purposes, and so forth.” Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Workplace Surveillance, Privacy, and Distributive Justice is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Workplace Surveillance, Privacy, and Distributive Justice? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Workplace Surveillance, Privacy, and Distributive Justice means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: In this chapter the author first discussed about Surveillance. He said that it is a popular topic in today’s society because Some Data like 45% of major U.S. firms record and review employee communications and activities on the job or Includes phone calls, e-mail, and computer files or In a MacWorld survey of 301 businesses, 22% of them have searched employee computer files, voice mail, e-mail, or other networking communications or Percentage jumps to 30% for businesses w/ 1,000 or more employees. The Author’s purpose is that the real issue of workplace surveillance is justice as fairness and will

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inherent the political possibilities of surveillance concerns employees and they simply do not trust the interested gaze of management. In Resisting Workplace Surveillance there are two trends influence the discussion of workplace surveillance and these are the increasing challenges by the employees of their conditions of work, especially the normalizing practices of discipline and the rapid development of surveillance technology that created unprecedented possibilities for comprehensive surveillance. Lessons Learned: • • • • • Definition of surveillance in the workspace Definition of privacy and justice Resisting workplace surveillance Privacy as a matter of justice Privacy, surveillance, and distributive justice o From individual perspective o From the perspective of the collective o Self-interested individuals • Conclusion • Some implications

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What What What What What is surveillance in the workspace? is privacy and justice? is resisting workplace surveillance? is privacy as a matter of justice? are Privacy, surveillance, and distributive justice? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics Chapter 4.8: Privacy and Varieties of Informational Wrongdoing By: Jeroen Van Den Hoven Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote: “Domain specific standards regulate activities and relationships in specific domains of social life. Individuality by roles, examples of domains includes the family, the educational system, the scientific community, the criminal justice system, the medical system, the economic system, the political system and so forth.” Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Privacy and Varieties of Informational Wrongdoing is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Privacy and Varieties of Informational Wrongdoing? I also want to learn in

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this chapter if what does the Privacy and Varieties of Informational Wrongdoing means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: Well for this article it is concerned with the question of how to balance the claims of those who want to limit the availability of personal information in order to protect individuals and the claims of those who want to make information about individuals available in order to benefit the community. Liberals and Communitarians are on each side of this debate. Communitarians argue that the community benefits from having knowledge about its members. They make the claim that Liberalism is plagued by free-rider problems, by people who continue to enjoy the benefits of membership and identity while no longer participating in the activities that produce these benefits. The Moral reason for dataprotection is Hoven states that it is unlikely that both sides will ever come to an agreement. However, there are a few moral reasons for data-protection that both sides should agree on and these are Information-Based Harm, Informational Inequality, and Informational Injustice.

Lessons Learned: • • • • • • • • Definition of Privacy The different varieties of informational wrongdoing Panoptic technologies and the public good Information-based harm Informational inequality Informational injustice Spheres of access Encroachment on moral autonomy

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What What What What What is privacy? are the different varieties of informational wrongdoing? are panoptic technologies and the public good? are spheres of access? is encroachment on moral autonomy? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics

Chapter 5.1: Defining the Boundaries of Computer Crime: Piracy, Break-Ins, and Sabotage in Cyberspace By: Herman T. Tavani Library Reference: N/A Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote:

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“One might reasonably ask what the value would be in pursuing questions about computer crime from the point of view of a descriptive category. One argument to support the view that having a descriptive category of computer crime is worthwhile can be advanced by appealing to an insight of James Moors with respect to certain conceptual confusions that have arisen because of the development and use of computer technology.” Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does defining the Boundaries of Computer Crime: Piracy, Break-Ins, and Sabotage in Cyberspace is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Defining the Boundaries of Computer Crime: Piracy, Break-Ins, and Sabotage in Cyberspace? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Defining the Boundaries of Computer Crime: Piracy, Break-Ins, and Sabotage in Cyberspace means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: In this chapter I think that the highlight or the one who attracts my attention is to know what the three types of computer crime are. The author has classified it as software piracy, electronic break and computer sabotage. I will be explaining each type one by one and I will try it to explain very carefully and briefly for you to understand it more. First I will discuss to you about software piracy, it is said that it is the unauthorized copying of software which I think many people are doing it. Because many are uploading it and wants to share the cheats, license key and etc. Next I will explain to you what an electronic break means that some of the programmers would make software in order for a person to access the private information of the company. In this case they are already making a way to hack the private information of the company. I think that it is very unethical for you to get the private information of the company. Lastly we have the computer sabotage which means that bad persons will find their way in order for that software to have leak and have errors. If the software would have leaks, then that person can see the information. I think that only dumb person will do that because you are destroying the work of others. Lessons Learned: • • • • • • • • • • Boundaries of Computer Crime Definition of a Computer crime The need to know these computer crimes Legal categories of computer crime Moral categories of computer crime Informational/descriptive categories of computer crime Computer crime as a descriptive category of crime Establishing clear and coherent criteria Applying the definition to some specific cases The three types of computer crime: o Piracy o Break-ins o Sabotage

5 integrative questions: 1. What are boundaries of computer crime?

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2. 3. 4. 5.

What What What What

is computer crime? are the legal categories of computer crime? are the moral categories of computer crime? are the three types of computer crime? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics Chapter 5.2: Terrorism or Civil Disobedience: Toward a Hacktivist Ethic By: Mark Manion and Abby Goodrum Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote: We strongly oppose any attempt to use the power of hacking to threaten or destroy the information infrastructure of any country, for any reason. Declaring ‘war’ against anyone, any group of people, or any nation is a most deplorable act.. this has nothing to do with hackivism or the hacker ethic and is noting a hacker can be proud of. (Hackernews, 12/29/98) Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Terrorism or Civil Disobedience: Toward a Hacktivist Ethic is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Terrorism or Civil Disobedience: Toward a Hacktivist Ethic? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Terrorism or Civil Disobedience: Toward a Hacktivist Ethic means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: It is said that in this topic the commercial world has been shocked by the growth of hacking activities. I can say that many of the companies are being attacked by these hackers through the use of the internet or the World Wide Web. In the first quarter of 2000 Yahoo, Amazon, eBay, CNN, and Buy.com were all attacked by groups of hackers by Denial of Service attacks. This shut them down for several hours and blocked users from accessing their web sites. The hacktivism proposal is a Hacktivism has the potential to play an active and constructive role in the overcoming of political injustice, to educate, inform, and be a genuine agent of positive political and social change. Lessons Learned: • • • • • Definition of a hacktivist Hacktivist Ethic Electronic civil disobedience Hacktivism and electronic civil disobedience Hacktivism

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• •

Cyberterrorism Toward a Hacktivist ethic o Access to computers o All information should be free o Mistrust authority

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What What What What What is is is is is a hacktivist? a hacktivist ethic? electronic civil disobedience? cyberterrorism? hacktivism? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics Chapter 5.3: Web Security and Privacy: An American Perspective By: J. Lean Camp Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote: “No person shall be help to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.” Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Web Security and Privacy: An American Perspective is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Web Security and Privacy: An American Perspective? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Web Security and Privacy: An American Perspective means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: For this chapter it talks about security and security is defined in this chapter as the degree of protection against danger, loss, and criminals. Individuals or actions that encroach upon the condition of protection are responsible for a "breach of security." and for me security is really important especially when you love to surf the net and you have a lot of accounts like yahoo, plurk, hotmail, Friendster, face book, multiply and etc. other people might say bad things about a certain person using your identity and if your Account has been hacked tell it to the public immediately to avoid some misunderstanding with your

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friends and etc. Security is the most important thing in our life because we protect our identity, family and when we already have company we also protect theirs by being loyal to them and not telling others the secret of the company. Lessons Learned:

• • • • • • • • • • •

Access Control List Definition of security Definition of integrity Availability Private key encryption A replay attack Simple replay attacks fall with public key cryptography Browsing information Provided technical services Browser client connects Definition of the following: o ISP o IP o DNS o Web proxy o Legal Issues and Societal Implications o Web activities

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What What What What What are the legal issues and societal implications? are the web activities? is browser client connects? is browsing information? is private key encryption? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics Chapter 5.4: The Meaning of Anonymity in an Information Age By: Helen Nissenbaum

Library Reference: N/A Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote: “Information technology has made it possible to trace people in historically unprecendented ways. We are targets of surveillance at just about every time of our lives.”

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Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Meaning of Anonymity in an Information Age is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Meaning of Anonymity in an Information Age? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Meaning of Anonymity in an Information Age means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: In this chapter to be able to extend this understanding into the electronic sphere, one might suggest that conducting one's affairs, communicating, or engaging in transactions anonymously in the electronic sphere, is to do so without one's name being known. Specific cases that are regularly discussed include: sending electronic mail to an individual, or bulletin board, without one's given name appearing in any part of the header, participating in a "chat" group, electronic forum, or game without one's given name being known by other participants, buying something with the digital equivalent of cash and being able to visit any web site without having to divulge one's identity. Being too mysterious is sometimes nice but too much of it is not good because for me you need to get out of your mom’s skirt for you to be able excel, even not in class and especially when you are now professional you need to be confident because no one will like you if you are the mysterious type of a person. Lessons Learned:

• • • • • • • • • •

Brief definition of anonymity Data-flow Information registration Gatekeepers Analysis after admission Methods Anonymity of sender First encryption with a public and secure key Double encryption twice applied Encryption procedure with an anonymity sender

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What What What What What is data flow? are gatekeepers? is information registration? is anonymity of sender? is the first encryption with a public and secure key? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics Chapter 5.5: The Meaning of Anonymity in an Information Age

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Library Reference: N/A Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote: The power of information technology to extract or infer identity from non-identifying signs and information has been inventively applied by literary scholars to settling disputes and unraveling mysteries of authorship Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Meaning of Anonymity in an Information Age is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Meaning of Anonymity in an Information Age? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Ethics and the Meaning of Anonymity in an Information Age means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: An understanding of the natural meaning of anonymity, as may be reflected in ordinary usage or a dictionary definition, is of remaining nameless, that is to say, conducting oneself without revealing one's name. A poem or pamphlet is anonymous when unattributable to a named person, a donation is anonymous when the name of the donor is withheld, people strolling through a foreign city are anonymous because no-one knows who they are. Extending this understanding into the electronic sphere, one might suggest that conducting one's affairs, communicating, or engaging in transactions anonymously in the electronic sphere, is to do so without one's name being known. Specific cases that shows sample include: • sending electronic mail to an individual, or bulletin board, without one's given name appearing in any part of the header • participating in a "chat" group, electronic forum, or game without one's given name being known by other participants • buying something with the digital equivalent of cash • being able to visit any web site without having to divulge one's identity Lessons Learned: • Definition of anonymity • Information generation • Gatekeepers • Usage of anonymity 5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What What What What What does a gatekeeper do? is a gatekeeper? is information generation? is the difference of anonymity in cyber ethics and in the handbook of ethics? is the relevance of using anonymity? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00A

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Book: Cyber Ethics Chapter 5.6: Written on the Body: Biometrics and Identity Library Reference: N/A Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote: Authentication by biometric verification is becoming increasingly common in corporate and public security systems, consumer electronics and point of sale applications. In addition to security, the driving force behind biometric verification has been convenience. Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Written on the Body: Biometrics and Identity is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Written on the Body: Biometrics and Identity? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Written on the Body: Biometrics and Identity means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: Biometrics refers to methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. In information technology, in particular, biometrics is used as a form of identity access management and access control. It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance. The main operations a system can perform are enrollment and test. During the enrollment, biometric information from an individual is stored. During the test, biometric information is detected and compared with the stored information. Note that it is crucial that storage and retrieval of such systems themselves be secure if the biometric system is to be robust. The first block (sensor) is the interface between the real world and our system; it has to acquire all the necessary data. Most of the times it is an image acquisition system, but it can change according to the characteristics desired. The second block performs all the necessary pre-processing: it has to remove artifacts from the sensor, to enhance the input, to use some kind of normalization, etc. In the third block features needed are extracted. This step is an important step as the correct features need to be extracted and the optimal way. A vector of numbers or an image with particular properties is used to create a template. A template is a synthesis of all the characteristics extracted from the source, in the optimal size to allow for adequate identifiability. Lessons Learned: • • • • Biometrics Characteristics and types of biometrics Identifying biometric identity Virtual identities

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5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What What What What What is biometrics? is its relevance to IT? are the types of biometrics? are biometric identities? does biometric verification do? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics Chapter 6.1: Ethical Considerations for the Information Professions Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote: Information technology affects fundamental rights involving copyright protection, intellectual freedom, accountability, and security. Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Ethics and the Information Revolution is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Ethics and the Information Revolution? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Ethics and the Information Revolution means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: Information ethics is the field that investigates the ethical issues arising from the development and application of information technologies. It provides a critical framework for considering moral issues concerning informational privacy, moral agency, new environmental issues, problems arising from the life-cycle (creation, collection, recording, distribution, processing, etc.) of information (especially ownership and copyright, digital divide). Information Ethics is related to the fields of computer ethics and the philosophy of information. Dilemmas regarding the life of information are becoming increasingly important in a society that is defined as "the information society". Information transmission and literacy are essential concerns in establishing an ethical foundation that promotes fair, equitable, and responsible practices. Information ethics broadly examines issues related to ownership, access, privacy, security, and community. Lessons Learned: • • Information ethics Its implication

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• •

Information society Information philosophy

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What are the ethical considerations for the information profession? What is the implication of having information ethics? What is information philosophy? What is information society? Are these concepts related? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics Chapter 6.2: Software Engineering Code of Ethics: Approved! Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Software Engineering Code of Ethics: Approved! is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Software Engineering Code of Ethics: Approved!? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Software Engineering Code of Ethics: Approved! means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: Computers have a central and growing role in commerce, industry, government, medicine, education, entertainment and society at large. Software engineers are those who contribute by direct participation or by teaching, to the analysis, specification, design, development, certification, maintenance and testing of software systems. Because of their roles in developing software systems, software engineers have significant opportunities to do good or cause harm, to enable others to do good or cause harm, or to influence others to do good or cause harm. To ensure, as much as possible, that their efforts will be used for good, software engineers must commit themselves to making software engineering a beneficial and respected profession. In accordance with that commitment, software engineers shall adhere to the Code of Ethics and Professional Practice. Lessons Learned: 8 principles: • PUBLIC - Software engineers shall act consistently with the public interest. • CLIENT AND EMPLOYER - Software engineers shall act in a manner that is in the best interests of their client and employer, consistent with the public interest. • PRODUCT - Software engineers shall ensure that their products and related modifications meet the highest professional standards possible.

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• •

• • •

JUDGMENT - Software engineers shall maintain integrity and independence in their professional judgment. MANAGEMENT - Software engineering managers and leaders shall subscribe to and promote an ethical approach to the management of software development and maintenance. PROFESSION - Software engineers shall advance the integrity and reputation of the profession consistent with the public interest. COLLEAGUES - Software engineers shall be fair to and supportive of their colleagues. SELF - Software engineers shall participate in lifelong learning regarding the practice of their profession and shall promote an ethical approach to the practice of the profession.

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What does IEEE-CS stands for? What does ACM stands for? What do the 8 principles imply? Why does software engineering need ethics? Is this punishable when people will break the rule/s? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics

Chapter 6.3: No, PAPA: Why Incomplete Codes of Ethics are worse than none at All Library Reference: N/A Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote:

Written guidelines issued by an organization to its workers and management, to help them conduct their actions in accordance with its primary values and ethical standards. Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does No, PAPA: Why Incomplete Codes of Ethics are worse than none at All is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the No, PAPA: Why Incomplete Codes of Ethics are worse than none at All? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the No, PAPA: Why Incomplete Codes of Ethics are worse than none at All means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: A code of ethics is a set of principles of conduct within an organization that decision making and behavior. The purpose of the code is to provide members and interested persons with guidelines for making ethical choices in the conduct of their Professional integrity is the cornerstone of many employees' credibility. Member guide other work. of an

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organization adopt a code of ethics to share a dedication to ethical behavior and adopt this code to declare the organization’s principles and standards of practice. A code of ethics issued by a business is a particular kind of policy statement. A properly framed code is, in effect, a form of legislation within the company binding on its employees, with specific sanctions for violation of the code. If such sanctions are absent, the code is just a list of pieties. The most severe sanction is usually dismissal—unless a crime has been committed. As for those who write moral codes has to know the possible events that may occur once a moral code is written or not written done because there might be cases wherein those codes has to strictly follow and comply to practical actions people actually do Lessons Learned: • • • • • PAPA Teleworking Telecommuting Moral codes Code of ethics

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What What What What What does PAPA stands for? is code of ethics? is teleworking? is telecommuting? are the PAPA issues? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics Chapter 6.4: Subsumption Ethics Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote: Subsumption is the process of building larger components from smaller ones. In this sense, a cell subsumes DNA function. Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Subsumption Ethics is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Subsumption Ethics? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Subsumption Ethics means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this?

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Review: A subsumption is a way of decomposing complicated intelligent behaviour into many "simple" behaviour modules, which are in turn organized into layers. Each layer implements a particular goal of the agent, and higher layers are increasingly more abstract. Each layer's goal subsumes that of the underlying layers, e.g. the decision to move forward by the eatfood layer takes into account the decision of the lowest obstacle-avoidance layer. As opposed to more traditional AI approaches subsumption architecture uses a bottom-up design. For example, a robot's lowest layer could be "avoid an object", on top of it would be the layer "wander around", which in turn lies under "explore the world". Each of these horizontal layers access all of the sensor data and generate actions for the actuators — the main caveat is that separate tasks can suppress (or overrule) inputs or inhibit outputs. This way, the lowest layers can work like fast-adapting mechanisms (e.g. reflexes), while the higher layers work to achieve the overall goal. Feedback is given mainly through the environment. Lessons Learned: • • • Subsumption ethics Subsumption in robots Behavior models

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is subsumption? What are its fields? How is it related to programming? Is it relevant? What can we contribute? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics Chapter 6.5: Ethical Issues in Business Computing Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote: The etymology of "business" relates to the state of being busy either as an individual or society as a whole, doing commercially viable and profitable work. Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Ethical Issues in Business Computing is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the Ethical

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Issues in Business Computing? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the Ethical Issues in Business Computing means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: A business (also called a firm or an enterprise) is a legally recognized organization designed to provide goods and/or services to consumers. Businesses are predominant in capitalist economies, most being privately owned and formed to earn profit that will increase the wealth of its owners and grow the business itself. The owners and operators of a business have as one of their main objectives the receipt or generation of a financial return in exchange for work and acceptance of risk. Notable exceptions include cooperative businesses and state-owned enterprises. Socialist systems involve either government agencies, public, or worker ownership of most sizable businesses. Good business practices are essential in today´s society. The Business and Computing Faculty is committed to teaching you the skills you need to pursue a career in business. A wide range of full and part-time programmes leading to national qualifications are offered. Courses range through all levels of business, computing and office training, from basic bridging courses to degree-level study. The Bachelor of Business Studies, Bachelor of Computing Systems, New Zealand Diploma in Business and Diploma in Information & Communications Technology programmes are some examples of the qualifications offered. Practical hands-on skills and sound theory are combined in these programmes. Lessons Learned: • business computing • issues surrounding it • implications of those issues 5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is business computing? What is the purpose of a business computing system? What can we contribute? Is it that big? How can we apply it? ITETHIC

Monica Frances T. Hao 00A Book: Cyber Ethics Chapter 6.6: The Practitioner from Within: Revisiting The Virtues Library Reference: N/A

Amazon Link: http://www.amazon.com/Cyberethics-Morality-Cyberspace-RichardSpinello/dp/0763737836/ref=pd_bbs_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1238923623&sr=8-1 Quote:

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Without any practice, careers can no longer be developed Learning Expectation: In this chapter of the book “Cyber Ethics” I want to learn what does Ethics The Practitioner from Within: Revisiting The Virtues is all about. How will this chapter help me in appreciating the The Practitioner from Within: Revisiting The Virtues? I also want to learn in this chapter if what does the The Practitioner from Within: Revisiting The Virtues means? How does it help the industry? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? Review: A general practitioner, or GP is a medical practitioner who provides primary care and specializes in family medicine. A general practitioner treats acute and chronic illnesses and provides preventive care and health education for all ages and both sexes. They have particular skills in treating people with multiple health issues and comorbidities. In the English-speaking world the term general practitioner is common in Ireland, the United Kingdom, some other Commonwealth countries. In these countries the word physician is largely reserved for certain other types of medical specialists, notably in internal medicine. Virtues can be placed into a broader context of values. Each individual has a core of underlying values that contribute to our system of beliefs, ideas and/or opinions (see value in semiotics). Integrity in the application of a value ensures its continuity and this continuity separates a value from beliefs, opinion and ideas. In this context a value is the core from which we operate or react Lessons Learned: • • • • Practitioner Ethics Values from within Virtues from within

5 integrative questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is or what does a practitioner do? What is a value? What is virtue? How is this related to IT? Do they contribute a lot?

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