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A Management driven, scientific methodology for product and process improvement which creates breakthroughs in financial performance and Customer satisfaction. Source: Motorola (Mr. Bill Smith)
A methodology that provides businesses with the tools to improve the capability of their business processes. This increases the performance and decrease the process variation, leads to defect reduction and improvement in profits, employee morale and quality of product. Source: ASQ
Six Sigma seeks to identify and remove the causes of variation in manufacturing and/or service delivery and business processes VARIATION… “the enemy of the customer satisfaction” .
If you control the inputs. Processes require inputs (x) and produce outputs (y). you will control the outputs: This is generally expressed as y = f(x). Six Sigma is a METHODOLOGY: This view of Six Sigma uses an roadmap known as DMAIC (define. starting with identifying the problem and ending with the implementation of long-lasting solutions. improved and controlled. improve and control). A few such tools include statistical process control (SPC). . analyzed. control charts. measured. Pareto Charts. OEE. Six Sigma is a SET OF TOOLS: The Six Sigma expert uses qualitative and quantitative techniques to drive process improvement. Fish-Bone Diagrams etc. Six Sigma is a METRIC: it uses the measure of sigma. failure mode and effects analysis and flowcharting. measure. DMAIC defines the steps a Six Sigma practitioner is expected to follow. analyze.DIFFERENT OPINIONS ON THE DEFINITION OF SIX SIGMA: Six Sigma is a PHILOSOPHY: This perspective views all work as processes that can be defined. DPMO (Defect Per Million Opportunities). RTY (Rolled Throughput Yield) etc.
First Time Yield 7. Defects Per Million Opportunities (DPMO) 5. Defects Per Unit (DPU) 3. Yield 6. We will discuss each in detail as we do through the course. 1.Each of these metrics serves a different purpose and may be used at different levels in the organization to express the performance of a process in meeting the organization’s (or customer’s) requirements. Defects 2. Parts Per Million (PPM) 4. Rolled Throughput Yield (RTY) .
997% 99. 537 500.976% 99.Yield DPMO COPQ SIGMA 99.210 66.4% 93% 65% 50% 3. 000 < 10% 10 – 15 % 15 – 20 % 20 – 30 % 30 – 40 % > 40 % 6 5 4 3 2 1 Source: Journal for Quality and Participation.4 233 6. Strategy and Planning Analysis . 807 308.
Who is part of the Six Sigma Team? Business Sponsor (Executive Leadership) Process Owner (Champion) Master Black Belt (Train the trainer) Black Belt (Technical Advisor) Team Leader Other Resources (IS. HR) Project members . Finance.
This person has overall responsibility for approving the improvement projects undertaken by the Six–Sigma teams. and CHAMPIONS often have several projects under their supervision.EXECUTIVE LEADERSHIP / LEADERSHIP TEAM: The leadership team is the executive responsible for that business unit and appropriate members of his/her staff and direct reports. . make sure that the resources required for project completion are available Conduct regular meetings with the team or the Black Belt to ensure that progress is being made and the project is on schedule. a business leader whose job is to facilitate: project identification and selection identify black belts and other team members who are necessary for successful project completion remove barriers to project completion. CHAMPION / PROCESS OWNER: Each project has a CHAMPION. The CHAMPION role is not full time.
3. Typically. project reviews. and training of Green Belts & Black Belts. Provides technical support to improvement efforts . They should be well versed with the six sigma Technologies and have the ability to drive results.MASTER BLACK BELT (MBB): A Master Black Belt (MBB) is a technical leader. BLACK BELT: Black Belts are application experts and work projects within the business. 1. the Black Belt and Master Black Belt roles are full time. and may work with the Champion and the leadership team in: project identification and selection. Contributes to the accomplishment of organizational goals 4. consulting with Black Belts in technical issues. Project team leader 2. Facilitates DMAIC teams in applying Six Sigma methods to solve problems.
Involved in identifying improvement opportunities 3. Involved in continuous improvement efforts (Applying basic tools & PDCA) 4. Leading team members on DMAIC (Supporting the projects with process knowledge and data collection) . Well versed in the definition & measurement of critical processes 2.GREEN BELT: Green Belts are practitioners of six sigma Methodology and typically work within their functional areas or support larger Black Belt projects. 1.
SIX SIGMA PROGRAMS SS SIX SIGMA LEAN SIX SIGMA Elimination of Defects from Existing Products and Processes LSS Elimination of Wastes % Defects from Existing Products and Processes DFSS DESIGN FOR SIX SIGMA Elimination of Defects from new Products and Processes .
. Time Study. Gage R & R. Hypothesis. FMEA. Takt Time. CTQ. DOE. ANOVA. Value Mapping. MSA (R & R) DMAIC DMADV Tools 5S. FMEA. Systems Engineering . Supply Chain. Cellular Prod. QFD. Poke Yoke VOC.SIX SIGMA FRAMEWORKS Program Focus / Theme Methodology SIX SIGMA VARIATION Defects Cost of Poor Quality Lean Six Sigma WASTE / SPEED Cycle Time. Regression. SPC. CTQ. CoQ. DOE. Delivery Cost of Operation DFSS RELIABILITY & ROBUSTNESS Design Features DMAIC SIPOC. TPM. Reliability Analysis. SPC.
Customers Requirements and Critical to Quality (CTQs) Problem Statement. 2. 4. 3. and Team Evaluate the Available Resources Evaluate Key Organizational Support Develop Project Plan and Milestones Develop Process Map 1. 3. Process Chart SIPOC Diagram WBS / Project Management CTQs Surveys .DMAIC: DEFINE Define the project goals & and project outcome ACTIVITIES TOOLS 1. 5. 7. 2. Goals and Benefits Identify Process Owner. 5. 6. 4.
Determine Process Capability and Sigma Baseline 1. 4. Process Flow Charts 2. R & R 5. Begin Developing Y = f(x) Relationships 7.DMAIC: MEASURE Measure the baseline – determine current performance and process capability Define Defect. 2. 3. Collect the data and make extensive study 6. Process Sigma Calculations . Voice of the Customer Gathering (HoQ) 6. ACTIVITIES TOOLS 1. Data Collection Plan 3. Measurement System Analysis (MSA). Unit and Key Performance Indicators (KPI’s) Detailed Process Map of Appropriate Areas Develop Data Collection Plan Validate the Measurement System Analysis (MSA) by Calibrating the Measuring Tools / Guages 5. Benchmarking 4.
Identify the Results of variations (Effects) 3. 6. Determine Root Cause(s) 6. Regression Analysis Cause & Effect and Diagrams (Fishbone Diagrams) Test of Hypothesis Data Analysis Failure Mode and Effect Analysis . Identify Sources of Variation (Causes) 5. Define Performance Objectives 2. Run Charts Scatter Plots. Pareto Analysis. Y = f(x) Relationship 1. 3. Determine Vital Few X’s. 4. 2.DMAIC: ANALYZE ACTIVITIES TOOLS 1. 5. Identify Value / Non–Value Added Process Steps 4.
Perform Design of Experiments (DoE’s) 2. Mistake Proofing (Poke Yoke) 2. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis 5. 1. Simulations TOOLS ACTIVITIES . Validate Potential Improvement by Pilot Studies 6. Correct/Re-Evaluate Potential Solution 1. Develop Potential Solutions 3. Design of Experiments (DoE) 3.DMAIC: IMPROVE Improve the process with experimentations by eliminating defects and re–engineering. Assess Failure Modes of Potential Solutions 5. House of Quality (Quality Function Deployment) 4. Define Operating Tolerances 4.
Reward / Award the Team Members 1. 6. Cost Saving / Avoidance. Process Sigma Calculation 2. ISO 9001 . Profit Growth Close Project. 5. Control Charts 3. Finalize Documentation. ACTIVITIES TOOLS 1. Control Plan 5. Handoff to Process Owner Verify Benefits. 3. Cost of Quality Calculations 4. Define and Validate Monitoring and Control System Develop Standards and Procedures (SOP’s) Implement Statistical Process Control Determine New Process Capability and Cost of Quality Develop Transfer Plan. 4. 7. 2.DMAIC: CONTROL Maintain the Process Capability.
Statistical Tools 3. Quality Tools 2.SIX SIGMA TOOLS 1. Management Tools Remember Every tool is a JUNK unless used appropriately .
SIX SIGMA TOOLS Quality • • • • QFD FMEA SPC QC TOOLS • Control Charts • Capability Analysis • Probability Distribution • Sampling • Confidence Interval • Regression Analysis Statistical Management • Project Management • Organizational Behavior • Human Resource Management • Knowledge Management .
PROCESS MAPPING .
related. adds value to it. Process Inputs raw material / goods / information Resources: Labor & Capital Services Outputs Goods . sequential (connected) set of activities that takes an input from a “supplier”. and produces an output that goes to the “customer”.A PROCESS is a logical.
procurement process. material. maintenance process etc. technology. .) Processes have a beginning and an end state. procedures. and infrastructure Processes have associated costs A collection of processes make up the business A business’s strength is its weakest process Processes must be designed to produce a product or service to meet customer requirements. Processes are coordinated activities that involve people.Following are the typical characteristics of a process: Every business function can be considered as a process (marketing process. manufacturing process.
but cannot be eliminated based on current technology. or thinking o Examples: company’s Mess / canteen. excess transportation (all seven wastes are in this category) . Can and should be eliminated o Examples: idle/wait time. but creates no value in the eyes of the customer. employee’s insurance etc. law.Value Added Activity o Transforms material or information or people o Its done the right – first time – every time o Directly Plays role in customer’s satisfaction Non-Value Added Activity – Necessary Waste o No value is created. policy.Pure Waste o Consumes resources. rework. ISO compliance. Non-Value Added Activity . excess inspections.
WAITING: Waiting for material or information. UNNECESSARY MOVEMENT: Moving people to access or process material or information 5. INVENTORY: Having more material or information than you need 3. OVER-PROCESSING: Processing more than necessary to produce the desired output . or material or information waiting to be processed 6. DEFECTIVE OUTPUTS: Errors or mistakes causing the effort to be redone to correct the problem 7.1. OVER-PRODUCTION: Creating too much material or information 2. TRANSPORTATION: Moving material or information 4.
mentioning the stakeholders involved and success criterion.PROCESS MAPPING o A Process Map (Flowchart) is a diagram that uses graphic symbols to represent the nature and flow of the steps in a process / system. o Clearly indicates the start and end of the process Process Symbol “An Operation or Action step” Terminator Symbol “Start or Stop Point in a process” Inventory / Buffer “Raw Material / Finished Goods Storage” Inventory / Buffer “Partial Finished Goods “Work In Process” Storage” Flow Line Database Symbol “Electronically Stored Information” Decision Point Document Symbol “A Document or Report” .
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