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Simulation a Plant-Wide Control System Using MATLAB

**By:- Eng. Sahar Nasrallah
**

Supervised by:- Dr Deeb Abu Fara

http:www.mathworks.com

Lecture Outline

Project Objective

Project Description -Reactor/Distillation Column Plant-

** Dynamic Process Modeling
**

What is Simulink ?

** How to solve ODE using Simulink? (Simple Example)
**

What is your task ?

Project Objective

The objective of the project is to practice simulation a

plant-wide control system.

Project Description

. The binary distillation column (DC) has 20 stages. is fed to a reactor where the reaction A →B takes place isothermally. DC produces two product streams: an overhead (distillate) stream rich in A and a (bottom) stream rich in the desired product B. mainly A but also containing some B.Project Description A mixture of two species.

Project Description The A-rich distillate is recycled to the reactor to increase the conversion of A to B. .

Project Description An Isothermal Reactor:- .

Project Description A Distillation Column:- .

6. Each tray represents an equilibrium stage . The reaction rate is first order in A (Elementary RXN). 5. 3. 2.Project Description A number of simplifications are used here: 1. 4. Column operation is at atmospheric pressure. Constant relative volatility is used to describe vapor/liquid equilibrium. Reactor operation is isothermal (ᴧT = 0). The column operates with equimolal overflow (L=V).

A →B rA = -kRHRz Reactor residence time.Dynamic Process Modeling Reactor: General Information: Reaction rate expression is first order in reactant A. HR (Fo + D) = 2.5 hr .

5 mole fraction A .33 h-1 HR : Reactor holdup. 0. 2400 lb-mol z : DC feed composition. 0.Dynamic Process Modeling rA : rxn rate ( reactant A consumption rate) kR : Specific reaction rate (rate constant).

Total (overall) Mass Balance: Accumulation = Inlet .F (= 0 for perfect reactor level/mols control) .Dynamic Process Modeling Reactor: Model: 1.Outlet 𝑑𝐻𝑅 𝑑𝑡 = Fo+ D .

Ib-mol/h F : Column feed rate.Dynamic Process Modeling HR : Reactor holdup. 960 lb-mol D : Distillate flow rate. 2400 lb-mol Fo : Fresh feed 460. 500 lb-mol .

Individual Component (A) Mass Balance: Accumulation = Inlet .Dynamic Process Modeling Reactor: Model: 2.Outlet + disappearance (𝑑𝐻𝑅𝑧) 𝑑𝑡 = F0z0+ DxD .Fz + (-kRHR z) (= 0 for perfect reactor level/mols control) .

Dynamic Process Modeling z0 : Fresh feed composition.95 mole fraction A z : Column feed composition.9 mole fraction A XD : Recycle composition. 0. 0. 0.5 mole fraction A .

Dynamic Process Modeling Distillation Column: General Information: i. Saturated liquid feed is to 12th stage (of 20) numbered from the top down. A is the more volatile component. assume equilibrium holds for each stage: yi = (α 𝑥𝑖)/(1+𝑥𝑖) . Equimolal overflow is assumed. ii.

Total (overall) Mass Balance: Accumulation = Inlet — Outlet + disappearance (𝑑𝐻𝐷) 𝑑𝑡 = V-R-D (= 0 for perfect reactor level/mols control) HD: Drum holdup 185 lb-mol .Dynamic Process Modeling Distillation Column: Drum Model: 1.

5001b-mol/h . 1600 1 b-mol/h R : Relux flow rate.Dynamic Process Modeling V : Vapor boilup. 1100 Ib-mol/h D : Distillate flow rate.

Individual Component (A) Mass Balance: Accumulation = Inlet — Outlet + disappearance (𝑑𝐻𝐷𝑥𝐷) 𝑑𝑡 = V(y20) — R(xD) — D(xD) ( 0 for perfect reactor level/mol control) .Dynamic Process Modeling Distillation Column: Drum Model: 2.

=2 .Dynamic Process Modeling y20 : The A concentration in the vapor outlet from tray 20 — upper tray — yi = α 𝑥𝑖 1+𝑥𝑖 = 0.974 α : Relative volatility.

yi-1) for 13≤i ≤19 .xi )-V(yi .Dynamic Process Modeling Distillation Column: Stage i above feed Model: 1. Individual Component (A) Mass Balance: Accumulation = Inlet — Outlet + disappearance (𝑑𝐻𝑆) xi 𝑑𝑡 = L(xi+1.

5 lb.Dynamic Process Modeling — Rectification Section — Hs: Individual stage holdup Hs = 23.mol L=Li+1=Li=Li-1=R V = Vi+1 = Vi = Vi-1 .

Individual Component (A) Mass Balance: Accumulation = Inlet — Outlet + disappearance (𝑑𝐻𝑆) x12 𝑑𝑡 = L(x13.Dynamic Process Modeling Distillation Column: Feed Stage: 1.y11) + F z .x12)-V(y12 .

Dynamic Process Modeling where L’ =L + F L: Liquid hold up = R. 1100 Ib-mol/h F : Column feed rate. 960 lb-mol/h .

yj-1) for 1 ≤ j ≤11 .Dynamic Process Modeling Distillation Column: Stage j below feed Model: 1.xj )-V(yj . Individual Component (A) Mass Balance: Accumulation = Inlet — Outlet + disappearance (𝑑𝐻𝑆) xj 𝑑𝑡 = L’(xj+1.

mol L’=Lj+1=Lj=Lj-1=R+F = L+F = 2060 V = Vj+1 = Vj = Vj-1 . Hs = 23.Dynamic Process Modeling — Stripping Section — Individual stage holdup.5 lb.

Total (overall) Mass Balance: Accumulation = Inlet — Outlet + disappearance (𝑑𝐻𝐵) 𝑑𝑡 = L’-V-B (= 0 for perfect reactor level/mols control) HB: Boiler holdup 275 lb-mol .Dynamic Process Modeling Distillation Column: Bioler Model: 1.

1600 lb-mol/h B : Bottoms flow rate. 4601 b-mol/h .Dynamic Process Modeling L’ : L+F = 2060 lb-mollh V : Vapor boilup.

Dynamic Process Modeling Distillation Column: Boiler Model: 2. Individual Component (A) Mass Balance: Accumulation = Inlet — Outlet + disappearance (𝑑𝐻𝐵𝑥𝐵) 𝑑𝑡 = L’(x1) — V(yB) — B(xB) ( 0 for perfect reactor level/mol control) .

2. It’s special interface .What is Simulink ? What is the SIMULINK ? 1. . both in: A. Simulink is a MATLAB toolbox that differs from the other toolboxes. Simulink is a tool for simulating dynamic systems with a graphical interface specially developed for this purpose within the MATLAB environment.

What is Simulink ? What is the SIMULINK ? 1. Simulink is a MATLAB toolbox that differs from the other toolboxes. Simulink is a tool for simulating dynamic systems with a graphical interface specially developed for this purpose within the MATLAB environment. 2. both in: .

The source code of the Simulink system is not open. It’s special interface . It’s special “programming technique” . C. . B.What is Simulink ? A.

What is Simulink ? linear or nonlinear time-dependent processes (dynamic systems that are continuous in time) can be described using: 1. convert a block diagram directly into Simulink and simulate the operation of the system. differential equations or (in the case of discrete times) difference equations. dynamic systems is with block diagrams. . 2.

What is Simulink ? This is an attempt to understand the behavior of the system by means of a graphical representation. which essentially consists of representations of individual components of the system together with the signal flow between these components. .

What is Simulink ? Steps for solving Simulink problem : 1. Simulink Simulation. 2. . Constructing a Simulink Block Diagram. 3. Parametrizing Simulink Blocks.

𝐝𝐲 =3𝑥+1 𝐝𝐭 —2𝑦 y(t) and x(t).How to solve ODE using Simulink Example: find the open loop response for the following of ODE using Simulink toolbox. .

How to solve ODE using Simulink Solution: .

How to solve ODE using Simulink .

What is you task ? Your task is to choose one or more of the alternatives and perform simulation study using MATLAB Simulink. to maintain the composition of B in the product stream xB at the nominal value . .0105 mole fraction. despite disturbances in the fresh feed composition zO and the feed flow rate FO. 0.

7a) .What is you task ? Alternative 1 (Fig. 23.

What is you task ? CSTR Model: .

What is you task ? CSTR Model: • (𝑑𝐻𝑅𝑧) 𝑑𝑡 (𝑑𝐻𝑅) 𝑑𝑡 = F0z0+ DxD .Fz + (-kRHR z) • (𝑑𝑧) 𝑑𝑡 = [F0z0+ DxD − Fz + (−kRHR z)] − z (𝑑𝐻𝑅) 𝑑𝑡 𝐻𝑅 where • (𝑑𝐻𝑅) 𝑑𝑡 = (Fo+D-F) .Fz + (-kRHR z) + 𝐻𝑅 (𝑑𝑧) 𝑑𝑡 • z = F0z0+ DxD .

zo • Outputs: z .HR .What is you task ? CSTR Model: • Inputs: D – F – Fo – xD .

What is you task ? Distillation Column Model: .

What is you task ? CSTR -Distillation Column Model: .

Thank You… .

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