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Program Peningkatan 2Q Kimia SPM

Penceramah: Lee Sok Yan

Kertas 2 a. Teknik Menjawab b. Bengkel (i) Menulis skema pemarkahan (ii) Menanda kertas 2. Kertas 3 a. a. Teknik Menjawab b. Bengkel (i) Menulis skema pemarkahan (ii) Menanda kertas
1.

Technique of Answering SPM Chemistry Paper 2


1. Underline the command word and note the marks allocated. 1 point is awarded 1 mark. 2. Underline also important data or information given so that you do not miss any helpful facts. 3. You are not required to answer in complete sentences. Answer according to what the question requires.

Name
Write the name and not the formula of the substance. Q: Name the gas collected at the anode during the electrolysis of dilute sulphuric acid. [1 mark] X: O2
A: Oxygen gas

State an observation
State what can be observed and not the name of the product/s. Q: What is observed when zinc powder is added to dilute sulphuric acid? [1 mark] X: Hydrogen gas or H2

A: Effervescence occurs/ gas bubbles are produced

State an observation
For colour change, state the initial and final colour. Q: What is observed when chlorine water is added to iron(II) sulphate solution until there is no further change? [1 mark] X: Solution turns brown.

A: Pale green solution turns brown

Describe a test
Describe how a test for an ion or a gas is carried out by stating (i) the method and (ii) the expected observation.
Q: State how you would verify that the gas released at the cathode is hydrogen. [1 mark] X: Test with a lighted splinter.

A: Place a lighted splinter at the mouth of the test tube. A pop sound is heard.

Explain
Give reasons for a statement/ fact/ principle.
Q: Blue litmus paper in a solution of hydrogen chloride in methylbenzene remains unchanged. Explain the observation. [2 marks] X: The solution does not show acidic properties. X: Hydrogen chloride cannot dissolve in methylbenzene.

A: Hydrogen chloride molecules cannot ionise in methylbenzene.// The solution consists of molecules only. No hydrogen ions present.

State the meaning/ Give definition


Definition must be accurate. Q: State the meaning of a hydrocarbon. X: An organic compound which has carbon and hydrogen. A: An organic compound which has only carbon and hydrogen.

Calculate
Calculations:
1. Show working 2. Write the unit for the final answer

Draw diagrams
Diagrams: a. Draw diagrams using a pencil. b. Draw diagrams to a reasonable size. c. Make sure that the set-up of the apparatus drawn works. d. Label all chemicals in words and label the main apparatus.

(a) Draw the arrangement of atoms in bronze, an alloy of copper.

Copper atom

Tin atom

(b) Draw the set-up of the apparatus to investigate the decomposition of copper(II) carbonate on heating.
Copper(II) carbonate

(c) Draw the structures of the two isomers of propanol.

propan-1-ol

propan-2-ol

(d) Draw the energy level diagram for the reaction between lead(II) nitrate and sodium sulphate solution.
Energy

Pb2+ + SO42H = -50.4kJ mol -1

PbSO4

IMPORTANT DIAGRAMS
The Structure Of Atom - Determination of melting and boiling point of naphthalene - Particle arrangement in solid, liquid and gas Chemical Formulae and Equations - Determination of empirical formula of magnesium oxide & copper(II) oxide Periodic Table - Reactions between chlorine gas and iron Chemical Bond - The electron arrangement in ionic and covalent compound. Sodium chloride/ Magnesium chloride Tetrachloromethane/ Carbon dioxide

IMPORTANT DIAGRAMS
Electrochemistry - Electrolysis of molten compound and aqueous solution - Voltaic cell with a salt bridge or a porous pot Acids and bases - Reaction between acid and carbonate - Titration Salts - Effect of heating on carbonates and nitrates Manufactured Substances in Industry - Comparison of the arrangement of atoms in a pure metal and an alloy

Common Mistakes Students Make


1. Names of ions
Inaccurate Chlorine ion Oxygen ion Hydroxide Chloride ion Oxide ion Hydroxide ion Correct

Common Mistakes Students Make


2. Half-equations
Inaccurate
Mg - 2e Mg2+ Mg

Correct
Mg2+ + 2e

Common Mistakes Students Make


3. Structure of the Atom Q: Explain why Q and R are placed in the same period. [1 mark]
Inaccurate Atoms of Q and R have the same number of shells Correct Atoms of Q and R have the same number of shells filled with electrons.

Common Mistakes Students Make


3. Explanation using Collision Theory Q: Explain how temperature affects the rate of reaction between zinc and hydrochloric acid. [4 marks]
Inaccurate At a higher temperature, the particles move faster. Collision frequency increases. Effective collision frequency increases. Rate of reaction increases. Correct At a higher temperature, the particles move faster. Collision frequency between zinc atoms and hydrogen ions increases. Effective collision frequency increases. Rate of reaction increases.

Section B Essay Questions SPM 2004 B (1) Diagram 1 shows the chemical symbols which represent elements X, Y and Z. 23 35 12 X Y Z 11 17 6 (a) Write the electron arrangement of atoms X and Y. [2 marks] (b) The reaction between atoms of X and Y forms an ionic compound whereas the reaction between atoms of Y and Z forms a covalent compound. Explain how these ionic and covalent compounds are formed. [8 marks]

Avoid general answers that do not refer to X, Y or Z.


Inaccurate answer 1(a) X 2:8:1 Y 2:8:7 (b) - To be stable Correct Answer X 2.8.1 Y 2.8.7

- To attain stable electron arrangement/ octet electron arrangement Atom of X donates one - X donates one electron to electron to form a positive form a positive ion - Y receives one electron to ion - Atom of Y receives one form a negative ion electron to form a negative ion

Inaccurate answer
-X

Correct Answer
-X+

and Y attract each other with a strong electrostatic force

ion and Y- ion attract each other with a strong electrostatic force

Wrong or inaccurate answer Correct Answer 1(b) Y and Z contribute/ -Atom of Y and atom of Z share 4 pairs of electrons share one pair of electrons.
-Four

atoms of Y share electrons with one atom of Z to form a molecule with the formula ZY4.

Section C A longer answer is usually needed in this section. Part of the questions in this section may involve experiments. Do not use formulae or symbols in your explanations except in writing chemical equations. All names of chemicals or reagents must be written in words. All diagrams of set up of apparatus must be functional, drawn to a reasonable size and labeled.

Use words showing the key action when writing the procedure of an experiment. Eg. Add one chemical to another Stir evenly Heat gently/ strongly State quantities used: Solutions mention volume and concentration Solids mention a certain mass/ whether an excess amount should be used

SPM 2003 C(4)(c) You are required to prepare dry magnesium chloride salt. Describe a laboratory experiment to prepare the salt. In your description, include the chemical equation involved. [10 marks]

Sample answer: Materials: Magnesium/ magnesium oxide/ magnesium carbonate and dilute hydrochloric acid. Apparatus: Beaker, filter funnel, filter paper, Bunsen burner, evaporating dish, glass rod.

Procedure:

1. (30-200) cm3 of (0.5 2.0) mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid is poured into a beaker and heated.
2. Magnesium/ magnesium oxide/ magnesium carbonate is added into the acid and stirred 3. It is added until it is in excess . 4. The mixture is filtered to remove the excess magnesium/ magnesium oxide/ magnesium carbonate. 5. The filtrate is heated in an evaporating dish until saturated/ concentrated .

6. The saturated solution is left to cool .


7. The mixture is filtered 8. the crystals are dried paper. Equation: and between pieces of filter

MgO + 2 HCl

MgCl2 + H2O [Max 10 marks]

CHEMISTRY PAPER 3
Assessment of science process skills. 16 aspects: Observe (Memerhati) Classify (Mengelas) Measure (Mengukur menggunakan nombor) Make inference (Membuat inferens) Predict (Meramal) Communicate present information using tables, graphs etc (Berkomunikasi)

Relate change in a parameter with time (Menggunakan perhubungan ruang dan masa) Interpret data (Mentafsirkan data) Define operationally (Mendefinisi secara operasi) Control variables (Mengawal pembolehubah) Make a hypothesis (Membuat hipotesis) Plan an experiment (Mengeksperimen) a. Problem statement b. Hypothesis c. Variables d. Materials and apparatus e. Procedure f. Tabulation of data

SPM 2010 Plan one laboratory experiment to investigate the effect of a catalyst on the rate of reaction between metal and acid. Use copper(II) sulphate solution as the catalyst. [17 marks]

Planning an experiment
Problem statement/ Aim, Hypothesis, Variables - can be concluded from the situation given.

a) Aim: To investigate the effect of a catalyst on the rate of reaction

(b) Manipulated variable: Presence of copper(II) sulphate solution

Responding variable: Rate of reaction

Constant variable: Volume and concentration of sulphuric acid/ mass of zinc

(c) Hypothesis:
The presence of copper(II) sulphate solution increases the rate of reaction between zinc and dilute sulphuric acid.

Planning an experiment
Materials and apparatus:

(i) Write separate lists


(ii) State the physical state of substances used - sodium hydroxide solution, magnesium oxide powder, zinc powder, oxygen gas (iii) State the correct quantity - Volume[20 - 200 cm3] HCl - Mass (solid)[ 2-5 g zinc power] - concentration[0.5-2.0 mol dm-3]

(d) Substances: Zinc strip, 0.5 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid, 0.5 mol dm-3 copper(II) sulphate solution

Apparatus: Conical flask [150 250] cm3, measuring cylinder, sandpaper, ruler, stopwatch

Planning an experiment
Procedure: Steps taken must include apparatus and quantity of materials.

(e) Procedure:

1.Measure with sandpaper.


2. Place

5 cm of zinc strip and clean


zinc strip in a conical flask.

3. Measure 25 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid with a measuring cylinder. 4. Pour the sulphuric acid into the conical flask and start the stopwatch immediately.

5. Swirl the conical flask and record the time taken for the zinc strip to completely react with the acid. 6. Repeat steps 1 to 5 by adding 20 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 copper(II) sulphate solution.

Communicate
Tabulation of Data (i) The number of columns and rows is determined by the manipulated variable and responding variable. (ii) Units (if related) must be written for all the titles (iii) Do NOT write the observation, inference or conclusion in the table.

(f) Tabulation of Data Experiment 5 cm zinc + 25 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid 5 cm zinc + 25 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid + 20 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 copper(II) sulphate solution Time taken/ s

Time is like a river.


You cannot touch the same water twice,

because the flow that has passed


will never pass again.

Prepared by: Lee Sok Yan SMK Damansara Utama