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Standard 2 Evidence 2

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and percentages

EVIDENCE 2 Resources needed: Interactive whiteboard Blank A4 paper for graphic organiser Common equivalent fractions cards 1 set between a pair Laminated 10 x 10 grids (1 per student) (Appendix A) 10 x 10 grid for teacher demonstration (Appendix B) Additional 10 x 10 grids to cut up for tenths and hundredths White board markers (1 per student) Fraction circles Counters Ipads for student use (base ten online model) Play dough MAB Blocks Cups & water Metre ruler Number line board game

The unit of work focuses on developing students understanding of the link between fractions, decimals and percentage using a variety of representations to deepen students conceptual understanding, the main intention is for students to understand the connection between common unit fractions, equivalent fractions using hundredths and decimals and percentage, i.e. 1/5 = 20/100 or 20 hundredths = .2 = 20%. Students should increasingly be able to move easily between the three concepts. The Ausvels (2012) Level 6, content strand number and algebra, sub strand fraction and decimals requires students to make connections between equivalent fractions, decimals and percentages; I have introduced the concept of percentage in Grade 5 as Moss and Cases (1999) research suggests that the subconstructs of rational number should be taught together in connection with one another to establish a deeper conceptual understanding of rational number. Students to make connections between fractions, decimals and percents need to have a prior knowledge of fractions including part of whole, ratios, division, measure and operator and it is essential that they have a developed an understanding of Ann Downton, Australian Catholic University ann.downton@acu.edu.au

REBECCA HOFFMANN STANDARD 2 EVIDENCE 2 equivalent fractions, that two equivalent fractions are two ways of describing the same amount by using different sized fractional parts (Van de Walle, Karp & Bay-Williams, 2010). Students need prior knowledge of the base ten decimal place system and understanding that place value system can be extended to include tenths, hundredths and thousandths. Students begin exploring the concepts of equivalence and decimals in Level 4 of Ausvels and in Level 5 students begin to make connections between fractions and decimal notation (2012). The unit incorporates aspects of fraction concepts, proportional thinking, measurement and algebraic thinking (Van de Walle, Karp & Bay-Williams, 2010). The unit of work begins by reviewing and activating students existing knowledge of equivalent fractions, the first session students use benchmarks to order equivalent fractions on a number line whilst modeling the equivalent fractions on a 10 x 10 grid. Throughout the sessions an emphasis is placed on the vocabulary of fractions, decimals and percentage; percent is another way of expressing hundredths. This unit uses a 10 x 10 grid which will be the basis for establishing the connection between decimal and percent. The following session links fractions and decimals again modeling the connection with 10 x 10 grid with session 3 introducing the link with percents. The last session is designed to consolidate student learning and share student thinking with the class using technology in an engaging manner. Students will share their thinking not only with one another but with the class and will need to justify their answers when responding to challenges and questions. I have incorporated visual, aural and kinesthetic aspects into the lessons using technology, visual representations, manipulatives and the interactive whiteboard to model the symbols and visual representations of rational number. MATHEMATICA L OBJECTIVE Session 1 Students will use benchmarks (comparison) of zero, one half and one to place commonly used unit fractions on a number line. Students will use TUNING IN INDEPENDENT LEARNING Activity 15.12 Ordering Unit fractions Teacher to model activity List a set of commonly used unit fractions such as 1/3, 4/8, REFLECTION AND MAKING CONNECTIONS Select several students to share their number line and their thinking. ADAPTATIONS DURING LESSON Enabling prompt ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES Teacher will listen for students discussing benchmarking using language such as; close to, greater than, less than. Fraction equivalence language such as;

Brainstorming activity Students to use a graphic organiser to represent 1 in as many ways as they can. Activity 15.10 Zero, one half,

Use visual representations and Teacher prompting for manipulatives to students to think about illustrate your ideas - Benchmarking e.g. Fraction circles, Fraction 10 x 10 grid, MAB equivalence blocks, counters Model equivalent Extending prompt fractions on 10

REBECCA HOFFMANN the 10 x 10 grid or one to model equivalent Students are fractions given a collection of common equivalent fraction cards, students are asked to work in pairs to sort the fractions in three groups; those close to 0, close to , close to 1 (more or less?). Focus questions: Which of the following two (or more) fractions are greater, or are they equal? (Activity adapted from Van de Walle, Karp & Bay-Williams, 2010)

STANDARD 2 2/5, 30/100, , x 10 grid 15/20, 8/16, (Appendix 1) 75/100 etc. Ask students to Teacher note represent each Leave visual fraction on representation and laminated 10 x 10 symbols of 3/5 on grid to display for reference in demonstrate proceeding lessons equivalence. Ask the children to put them in order from least to most. Challenge them to defend the way they are ordered. Place them on a number line and share their thinking with the student next to them.

EVIDENCE 2 same as, equivalent, halves, fourths, fifths, hundredths Teacher will observe and note use of language and understanding based on student representations

(Activity adapted from Van de Walle, Karp & Bay-Williams, 2010) Session 2 Present students Using a 10 x 10 Ask several students to with a lump of grid model the share their thinking Students will play dough and base ten fraction and draw an make ask them to of 65/100 explanation. Ann Downton, Australian Catholic University ann.downton@acu.edu.au

REBECCA HOFFMANN connections divide the play between dough into two fractions and equal amounts. decimals using a One section is to variety of be placed to the representations side and the second section is then divided into tenths. Focus question: Do these tenths still equal the same amount as the piece of play dough? (Number conservation) Introduce written notation using number cards and decimal points using the language of tenths. Challenge students to create hundredths. (Activity adapted from Caswell, 2006)

STANDARD 2 Focus question: Is this fraction more or less than ? Than 2/3? Than ? Focus question: What are some different ways to say this fraction using tenths and hundredths? Demonstrate two ways to write the fraction 65/100 or 6/10 + 5/100. Write it as a decimal using tenths and hundredths. Activity 17.2 Base ten fractions to decimals. Teacher prompting for students to think about: - Tenths - Hundredths Extend thinking by asking students to demonstrate commonly used unit fractions using the 10 x 10 grid. Ask students to complete assessment task. Teacher note Ensure decimal notation is added to 10 x 10 grid display and add play dough to visual display

EVIDENCE 2 illustrate your idea such as a fraction, www.kyrene.org/mat 10 x 10 grid and htools/pvb/index.html base ten materials for teacher to Extending prompt analyse. Using commonly used unit fractions, first model on 10 x 10 grid then write and draw an explanation for the decimal equivalent.

Students use their place value strips and squares. Agree that the large square represents 1. Have students Ann Downton, Australian Catholic University ann.downton@acu.edu.au

REBECCA HOFFMANN

STANDARD 2 cover a base-ten fractional amount of the square using their strips and tinies. Whole numbers require additional squares. The task is to decide how to write this fraction as a decimal and demonstrate the connection using their physical models. Students can arrange the same materials on an imaginary place value chart with a paper decimal point. Reverse the activity by giving students a decimal number and write it as a fraction and show it as a fractional part of the grid.

EVIDENCE 2

REBECCA HOFFMANN

STANDARD 2

EVIDENCE 2

from Van de Walle, Karp & Bay-Williams, 2010) Session 3 Share with Students are Ask students to share students the book given a cups of their thinking and Students will Piece = Part = water with diagrams. make Portion: Fraction various water connections = Decimal = levels and asked Teacher prompting to between Percent (Gifford to assign a think about: fractions, & Thaler, 2008) numerical value - Hundredths decimals and to provide links in from 1 to 100 - Tenths percent using a context. (100 being full) - Percents variety of to estimate its - Fractions representations Using the 10 x 10 fullness. Ask grid demonstrate students to Extend their thinking the link between complete a 10 x by asking how much of decimal and 10 grid to the cup is empty? percent. Each demonstrate the little square is fullness of the 75 + 25 = 100 1% of the cup. Make (proportional square; each row connections reasoning) is not only a between percent tenth but also and decimal and Use diagrams. 10% of the fraction, ask square. students to record their Explore with base results using ten models illustrations and a (halves, fourths, chart. fifths and eighths) Ask children to fill the cup up 50%, Use online visual ask students to representation to complete 10 x 10 Ann Downton, Australian Catholic University ann.downton@acu.edu.au

Enabling prompt Draw a diagram of the cup to help your thinking Extending prompt Work backwards, if you have .6 of a cup of water what precent of the cup will be filled?

Teacher to analyse student diagrams and charts for understanding of the link between fractions, decimals and percents.

STANDARD 2 grid, convert to decimal and fraction. Ask students to predict what percentage of cup will be. (Activity adapted from Van de Walle, Karp & Bay-Williams, 2010) Number line board game.

EVIDENCE 2

Session 4 Students are moving towards ordering fractions, decimals and percents on a number line.

Children are given a board game in which http://www.bbc.c the route consists o.uk/skillswise/to of 20 10cm pic/comparingnumber lines fractions divided into Students will tenths and continue to build hundredths. http://www.maththeir knowledge Using a large Students draw a play.com/Fractionsof the connection number line 2 digit number Decimals-Percentsbetween fraction, drawn (marked card which they Jeopardy/fractionsdecimal and into m (drawing can choose insert decimals-percentspercent attention to the a decimal jeopardy.html base ten system somewhere on demonstrated in the number card Students to revisit measurement) and move graphic organiser and onto the floor ask forward use a different colour Ann Downton, Australian Catholic University ann.downton@acu.edu.au

Students are divided into 4 teams and asked to play using the interactive white board: Fractions, Decimals and Percents Jeopardy. Students must demonstrate how they reached their answer.

Enabling prompt Encourage students to use 10 x 10 grids to think about tenths and hundredths Extending prompts Students can use a zero and a decimal to play the number line board game.

Teacher to observe and note the use of differing methods and understanding of the relationship between fractions, decimals and percents. Teacher to analyse graphic organiser.

REBECCA HOFFMANN a student to walk a distance onto the number line. Ask students how far the student has walked i.e. 2.30m. Make connections between decimal and percent i.e. so he has walked 2m and 30% of the way to 3m. Can we say that in a fraction i.e. 3 tenths. Use several examples. (Activity adapted from Moss & Case, 1999) Word count: 1919

STANDARD 2 designated see if they can add amount. Students anything to the chart. need to think about if they want the distance to be long or short. (Activity adapted from Moss & Case, 1999)

EVIDENCE 2

STANDARD 2

EVIDENCE 2

Caswell, R. (2006) Developing decimal sense. Australian Primary Mathematic Classroom. 11 (4), 25 28. Moss, J., & Case, R. (1999). Developing childrens understanding of the rational numbers: A new model and experimental curriculum. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 30 (2), 122 147. Van de Walle, J., Karp, K., & Bay-Williams, J.M. (2010). Elementary and middle school mathematics: Teaching developmentally (7th ed.) Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority., (2012). AusVELS. State Government of Victoria

STANDARD 2

EVIDENCE 2

STANDARD 2

EVIDENCE 2

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