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Merseyside Area

Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements

Annual Report 2002-3

By Paul Goggins, Parliamentary Under-Secretary for

Community and Custodial Provision in the Home Office.

As the recently appointed Minister with responsibility for

the MAPPA, I am pleased to introduce this, the second,
annual MAPPA report. It is clear that in the last year
(2002/3) the multi-agency public protection
arrangements (the MAPPA) continued to play an
important role in what remains one of this government’s
highest priorities – the protection of the public from
dangerous offenders.

As someone with many years’ experience of working in

the field of child protection, I am particularly impressed
by the important contribution the MAPPA are making to
strengthen collaboration between agencies at a local
level where the focus is on the dangerous offender.
These improvements must, however, impact on the
protection of children. As the tragic death of Victoria
Climbie showed, an effective multi-agency partnership
is crucial and the MAPPA are an important element.

To ensure greater consistency in the MAPPA across

the 42 Areas of England and Wales, and to prepare for
the implementation of measures contained in the
Criminal Justice Bill, we published the MAPPA
Guidance in April. Building on good practice, that
Guidance clarified the structure of the operational
arrangements as well as the importance of formal
review and monitoring – of which this annual report is a
vital part. The Criminal Justice Bill will strengthen the
MAPPA in two ways. First, it will make the involvement
of other agencies part of the statutory framework.
Second, it will introduce the involvement of lay people –
those unconnected with day-to-day operation of the
MAPPA – in reviewing and monitoring the MAPPA.
Annual reports and this new lay involvement show the
Government’s commitment to explaining how the often
sensitive and complex work of public protection is

The Government is also strengthening the protection of

the public with other measures in the Criminal Justice
Bill. They include new sentences for dangerous
offenders to prevent their release if they continue to be
dangerous. Additionally, the Sexual Offences Bill will
tighten up sex offender registration, introduce a new
offence of ‘grooming’, and enable sex offender orders
to be imposed on violent offenders who pose a risk of
causing serious sexual harm – thereby extending sex
offender registration to them.

I commend this report to you and congratulate all the

agencies and individuals who have contributed to the
achievement of the MAPPA locally in your area.

Paul Goggins
The National Picture

This section of the report draws attention to wider

context of the operation and development of the Multi-
Agency Public Protection Arrangements (the MAPPA).

The most important work undertaken within the MAPPA

is done locally, led by the police and probation – who
act jointly as the ‘Responsible Authority’ in your Area –
and in each of the 42 Areas of England and Wales. The
experience and good practice upon which this work is
based began in the 1990s – most significantly as a
result of the closer working relationship required by the
Sex Offender Act (1997). The Criminal Justice and
Courts Services Act (2000) formalised that relationship
and built on the existing experience by requiring the
police and probation services to establish
arrangements (the MAPPA) for assessing and
managing the risks posed by sexual and violent
offenders. The Act also required the Responsible
Authority to publish an annual report on the operation of
those arrangements. This report, covering April 2002 to
March 2003, is the second annual report.

The Importance of Partnership

Key to the development of the MAPPA in the past year

has been the closer involvement of other agencies,
such as housing, health and social services, working
alongside police and probation. The truly multi-agency
nature of the MAPPA and the collaboration which
underpins it is to be strengthened further by the
Criminal Justice Bill. The Bill will place a ‘duty to co-
operate’ on a wide range of organisations including
local health authorities and trusts; housing authorities
and registered social landlords; social services
departments; Jobcentres; Youth Offending Teams; and
local education authorities. In addition, the Prison
Service will join the police and probation services and
become part of the MAPPA ‘Responsible Authority’.

Supporting and co-ordinating the development of the

MAPPA throughout the 42 Areas of England and
Wales, is the National Probation Directorate’s Public
Protection Unit (PPU). This Unit acts as a central point
for advice and, increasingly, involvement in the
management of difficult cases. These include, for
example, UK citizens who have committed serious
offences abroad and return to this country without
anywhere to live. The Unit is also able to provide
financial support when the risk management plans
make exceptional demands upon local resources.

Involving the Public

MAPPA developments in the next 18 months will also

include the appointment by the Home Secretary of two
‘lay advisers’ to each Area. The eight Areas of England
and Wales which have been piloting these
arrangements since January (Cumbria, Greater
Manchester, Durham, South Wales, Dorset,
Hampshire, Surrey and West Midlands) report that they
add real value. Lay advisers will contribute to the
review and monitoring of the MAPPA which is
undertaken by each Area’s Strategic Management
Board – the work of which you can read more in this

The purpose of appointing ‘lay advisers’ is to ensure

that communities understand more of what is done to
protect them and that those involved professionally with
the MAPPA are aware of the views of the community.
The lay advisers will not ‘represent’ the community in
the way, for example, that local councillors do, nor will
they be involved in operational decision-making. And,
given the sensitivity of much of what the MAPPA does,
especially with the few offenders who pose a very high
risk of serious harm to the public, it is not practicable for
the general public to be involved. Lay advisers will,
however, ensure an appropriate and a practical level of
community involvement.

MAPPA Offenders

This year the annual report provides a more detailed

breakdown of the number of sexual and violent
offenders who are covered by the MAPPA in your Area.
As last year, the figures include the number of
registered sex offenders. Because sex offender
registration is for a minimum of 5 years (and generally
for much longer) the figures are cumulative. This is why
they have increased – by 16 per cent in England and
Wales. Only a very small proportion (about six per cent
throughout England and Wales) are considered to pose
such a high risk or management difficulty that they are
referred to the highest level of the MAPPA – the Multi-
Agency Public Protection Panels (the MAPPP).

Figures alone do not, of course, tell the whole story.

The anonymised case studies illustrate the practical
work of the MAPPA, and demonstrate the preventive
action which can be taken. Prior to the MAPPA, action
of this kind was mainly taken by one agency alone, with
the effect that on occasion offenders’ behaviour which
might have triggered preventative action went
unnoticed. The multi-agency approach of the MAPPA
helps ensure that if an offender does breach the
condition of the licence under which they were released
from prison or a court order prohibiting certain activities,
then action to enforce the condition or order and protect
the public can be taken more swiftly.

If you are interested in reading the reports of other

Areas, they will be published on the National Probation
Service’s website at
(under the public protection section) with all of them
being available once the last area has published its
annual report in September.
1. Area Summary

Prior to the mid 1990's, Criminal Justice agencies

tended to work in isolation, with only pockets of co-
operation/collaboration on specific areas of work.

Since that time, the whole Criminal Justice agenda has

been refocused with an emphasis on partnership
working. This change of focus has encouraged
agencies to break down the barriers which previously
existed between them, whilst the introduction of a
series of modernising Criminal Justice Acts and
extensive media reporting of prominent criminal cases
has increasingly had agencies reassess their working

In essence - the Criminal Justice agencies realised that

their agendas were actually very similar and had
evolved with a new and overdue direction towards
Public Protection, with a far greater priority given to the
victims of crime. Offending behaviour was challenged
in a more vigorous way, with offenders forced to face
up to their responsibilities - not least the consequences
of their behaviour on victims and the wider community.
This was a fundamental, landmark change of

The various criminal and social agencies realised that

they often dealt with the same people, but there was
little sharing of information/intelligence.

Consequently, from the mid 1990s the Police and

Probation Services led on establishing a closer working
relationship, to manage in particular the small number
of offenders who caused the most concern in terms of
risk to the public. This led to an agreed protocol
between the two Services, to share information/
intelligence on individuals who were seen as 'very high
This new approach to offending behaviour led to the
establishment of Multi-Agency Public Protection Panels
(MAPPPs) throughout Merseyside. This arrangement
reflected the development of inter-agency working
between key criminal justice agencies, to establish a
more proactive approach to crime, with an inclusive
attitude towards victims of serious crime.

The best way to explain the MAPPP arrangement is to

envisage various agencies possessing 'a piece of the
jigsaw' and it is not until all the pieces are shared that
the full picture is seen.

Over the last few years, well established inter-agency

working arrangements have been developed, with all
relevant agencies committed to preventing (or
reducing) crime, to engaging positively with offending
behaviour and to addressing the needs of victims.
Offenders were confronted with their behaviour, and
given every encouragement to lead law-abiding lives.
All this was driven by an expectation that offenders
would impose some internal controls on their own
behaviour. In addition other vigorous external controls
are imposed (often on a compulsory basis) by the
relevant agencies.

In the North West area, police, probation and prisons

meet at a strategic level to share responsibilities
towards public protection. Senior managers from all
three agencies meet regularly to ensure consistent
implementation of national policy and guidance across
the region. This work has culminated in an annual
seminar attended by representatives from a wide range
of agencies, to emphasise responsibility for assessing
and managing the risk presented by very high risk
offenders. These seminars are an opportunity to
update delegates on national issues and to share best
practice at a regional level.
2. Roles and Responsibilities

Under the Criminal Justice and ii) Social Services have committed either a violent
Court Services Act 2000, the or sexual crime and received a
Police and Probation Services The five Social Services prison sentence.
have overall responsibility for departments across Merseyside
ensuring all serious sexual or offer a range of facilities to Victim issues are now an
violent offenders are managed vulnerable groups, both adults integral part of criminal justice
in an effective way. and children. Social Services work and no longer seen as a
lead on child protection issues 'bolt-on' optional extra. This
Where cases are assessed as and these arrangements are previously neglected area is
being low or medium risk, now becoming more closely now a central theme in all
management is usually covered integrated to MAPPPs. criminal work. The input of
by a single in-house agency victim organisations into the
approach. High risk offenders work of the Strategic
iii) Housing
are managed by a more Management Group is seen as
Departments/ Trusts
vigorous risk assessment and vitally important.
and Voluntary Sector
risk management process.
Associations vi) Prison Service
A range of agencies may be
brought together under a Multi- Stable accommodation is Alongside the Police and
Agency Public Protection Panel regarded as a substantial factor Probation Services, the Prison
arrangement, with each MAPPP in reducing offending, thereby Service plays a very prominent
usually Chaired by a senior reducing the risks to the public. role in not only accommodating
representative from the Merseyside has well prisoners in a secure
Probation or Police Services, as established accommodation environment, but in addressing
these two organisations have a providers offering a range of their offending behaviour. This
statutory responsibility to lead facilities, from intensive is then pursued - usually on
on such issues. supervision to totally statutory Licence - once the
independent living. offender returns to the
It is now accepted that public community.
protection can only be truly iv) Youth Offending Teams
achieved through collaborative
arrangements between all the Offenders under the age of 18
relevant agencies concerned. are dealt with on a multi-agency It important to stress that
basis via local Youth Offending criminal justice agencies deal
Apart from the Police and Teams (YOTs), and these make with a large number of
Probation Services, the other a major contribution to inter- offenders across a wide age
main contributors to MAPPP agency arrangements. range. All are assessed in
arrangements are: - terms of the risk they pose to
v) Victim Organisations the public, and only a minority
i) Health are regarded as 'very high risk'.
There are a range of services to
Merseyside is well served with a victims, both pre-sentence via
wide range of specialist medical the prosecution/court
and psychiatric services to processes, and post-sentence,
engage with offenders, e.g. where victims are advised on
those with a mental health the progress of offenders who
3. The Operation of MAPPA

This is now the second year of This can be very staff intensive, leads all such action. For the
the Multi Agency Public however, the full resources of first time the Prison and
Protection Panel (MAPPP) Merseyside Police are available Probation Services are
structure, and as one of the key to the MAPPP to be developed introducing a single national risk
agencies in these appropriately and assessment tool, which is an in-
arrangements, Merseyside proportionately in order to depth mechanism to analyse all
Police have welcomed this minimise any risk posed. offence factors.
more formal approach to public
protection from offenders who For the future, Merseyside From the moment an offender is
pose a serious risk. Police is seeking to establish a sentenced at court, his or her
dedicated Public Protection circumstances are assessed,
Once a MAPPP is convened, a Unit, and work is currently and an action plan put into
senior member of the probation ongoing to determine the exact place to tackle the offender’s
service or police will chair the terms of reference and staffing criminal lifestyle.
meeting in order to assess the requirements of such a unit.
risk posed and thereafter agree For example, every offender
a course of action to reduce and It should be pointed out that in who is released from prison on
manage that risk. respect of sex offenders, the Licence to the Probation
compliance rate on registration Service, is notified to
From a police perspective this in Merseyside is extremely high, Merseyside Police colleagues in
may entail surveillance in order and reoffending extremely low. terms of their supervision
to monitor the behaviour of an arrangements, the risk they
individual, and the use of When addressing public pose to the community, and the
intelligence to determine protection issues and Licence conditions which have
compliance with prison licences, challenging offending behaviour been tailor-made to minimise
court orders or probation - an in-depth risk assessment that risk.
orders, or to ascertain whether and risk management process
an offender's behaviour is
contravening any legislation.
4. A Case Study

The following is a real vi) Medical/Psychiatric The above case had been
example of an offender Services - an assessment for reviewed on a number of
whose circumstances court had shown some occasions via MAPPP
activated local MAPPP 'personality disorder' traits and arrangements. This initially
arrangements:- that the offender was somewhat enquired into the total history of
paranoid and felt justified in his the case in great depth,
i) Offender (JJ) - committed a previous aggressive actions. assessed the past and current
very serious physical/sexual He was seen to have a marked risks, and identified appropriate
assault against his ex-partner lack of empathy for the victim. action plans for all agency
and received five years representatives attending the
imprisonment; the couple have vii) Victim Support MAPPP.
a ten year old child. Organisations - reported that
the victim had been severely The offender was eventually
ii) Background Investigation traumatised by the experience released under the specified
- the offence was seen as part and feared for her life. conditions, and was closely
of an established history of monitored by all the relevant
domestic violence by the viii) Police - took the agencies who met regularly to
offender against his ex-partner. ongoing threat towards the review his progress.
This then escalated up to the victim seriously, and arranged
offence in question as the with other relevant agencies to Outcome - to date the
female attempted to terminate relocate her and her child and offender has complied with all
the relationship. ensure appropriate security the conditions in his prison
devices were installed within the Licence, and has co-operated
iii) Prison Service - during the home. with criminal justice
prison sentence information/ professionals and with hostel
intelligence came to light that ix) Probation Service - staff. Police report no attempt
the offender still harboured arranged for stringent to make contact with the family,
aggressive feelings towards his conditions to be included in the directly or indirectly, and the
ex-partner and intended to offender’s prison Licence. He school reported that the child
cause her further harm. There was ordered:- concerned had settled down
were also veiled threats that he and was once again making
might snatch his child, as ◆ not to frequent a certain good progress.
access had been denied to him. neighbourhood
The above case is ongoing, and
iv) Education - the Head ◆ not to have contact with the will remain subject to the above
Teacher indicated that the child victim or child without prior arrangements, which will
concerned was of above permission continue to incorporate
average intelligence and had intensive supervision and input
been performing well at school. ◆ to reside at a Probation from the various agencies to
However deterioration in his hostel (in a different area from ensure that the public is
performance had been noted the offence) protected.
during the lead up to the court
hearing, which had caused the ◆ to be subject to an early Note: While on prison Licence,
child to become anxious and curfew at the hostel and to an offender can be recalled to
temperamental. abide by strict hostel conditions prison at a moment’s notice - 24
hours a day, 7 days a week.
v) Social Services ◆ to receive drug testing Any recall does not need to go
Department - had arrangements, as drug/alcohol through the court process - it is
automatically become involved abuse had been part of the dealt with directly by the Home
as the child had witnessed the Index offence Office on the authority of an
aftermath of the serious assault Assistant Chief Probation
against the victim. ◆ to attend a six month Officer. Such recalls can be
programme in relation to activated within a few hours.
domestic violence.
5. Disclosure

The power to decide whether to disclosure to schools in a always in place, but rarely
disclose information about an particular neighbourhood. needed. There have been no
offender rests with the police. occasions so far where
Each MAPPP has disclosure as Disclosure to the media may disclosure has been required in
an option. For example, when happen where they may be able Merseyside in 2002/3.
an offender has a history of sex to assist public protection by
offences, agencies should wide coverage of an individual A new initiative in 2001/2
ensure that there is disclosure case. The media can play a agreed a media protocol
to a new partner if there are major role in helping to alert the between police, probation and
concerns about the partner or public. the local and regional media.
any children of the family This helped ensure that the
becoming a potential victim. For example, if an offender media are better aware of how
deliberately fails to comply with agencies co-operate to manage
Similarly, if a man with a history supervision and his offenders in the community, and
of extreme violence against whereabouts become unknown, how media coverage can both
previous partners is found to an appeal for information may help and hinder their
have begun a new relationship, be made through the media. supervision.
police may disclose details of This may allow them - and the
the man's offences to his new public - to help track down the The protocol also sets out what
partner. offender and thereby protect the assistance police and probation
public. will offer to the media in their
In very rare cases of predatory coverage.
sex offenders, there may be Plans for such a scenario are

6. The Strategic Management of MAPPA

The Strategic Management Management Board – to so that local arrangements can

Board (the inter-agency concentrate on the quality of be improved.
representatives who oversee MAPPP arrangements on
local MAPPP arrangements) Merseyside. The Strategic Management
was formed in early 2002. It Board meet every two to three
has spent the first year of During the year the Strategic months, jointly Chaired by an
activity in setting up secure Management Board has looked Assistant Chief Constable and
operational practices and at the new national risk an Assistant Chief Officer for
agreeing the content of the first assessment mechanism (known Probation. This group is briefed
Annual Report. as OASys) and received on the extent of MAPPP cases
detailed presentations on the on Merseyside, and the inter-
The Strategic Management content of some public enquiry agency arrangements put in
Board has now received a reports concerning offenders place to protect the public.
further, detailed Home Office from other areas who had re-
Guidance manual, which will - offended in a serious way. The Strategic Management
for the first time - offer national Board role is expected to widen,
standards and further develop It is important for all areas to and have lay membership
the role of the Strategic learn from cases that go wrong, added to the group by late
7. Victim Work

There is now far greater of murder/manslaughter victims be a very positive and effective
awareness and sensitivity within two months of sentence, working relationship.
towards the needs of victims, to see if they wish to take up the
particularly those who have 'Victim Information Service'. In addition there is further
suffered from a serious violent support available from Victim
or sexual offence. An improved This is now a statutory right for Support Schemes - a national
service is evident throughout victims and can keep the victim, charity for victims of all crime.
the court process - supporting or the family of a homicide Victim Support is an
victims in giving evidence etc, victim, up-to-date about the independent organisation,
right through to post-sentence prison sentence, check out any offering a free and confidential
issues. rumours, and act as a filter for service whether a crime has
anxieties over release been reported or not. Trained
The Probation Service now has arrangements. staff and volunteers at local
a statutory duty to contact branches offer information and
victims of serious violent or In the Merseyside area about support to victims, witnesses,
sexual offences (where a prison 600 victims qualify for this families and friends.
sentence of one year or more service every year.
has been passed), to ensure Victim Support provides the
that they are kept up to date For homicide cases, the Witness Support Service based
about the progress of the Probation Service in in every criminal court in the
offender, and more importantly, Merseyside has a formal country, to offer assistance
the future arrangements for working partnership with the before, during and after a trial.
release. Merseyside branch of Support Victims can also contact the
After Murder and Manslaughter National Helpline direct on 0845
The Probation Service in (SAMM) - a national charity, set 3030900 for information,
Merseyside has specialist up by families of homicide support and details on local
teams dealing with prisoners victims. This collaborative services and other relevant
and victim issues, which approach in addressing the organisations.
includes contacting the families needs of families has proved to
8. Statistical Information No. of Offenders

i. The number of registered sex offenders on 31 March 2003 657

ii. The number of sex offenders having a registration requirement who were either 51
cautioned or convicted for breaches of the requirement, between 1 April 2002
and 31 March 2003

iii. The number of Sex Offenders Orders applied for and gained between 1 April
2002 and 31 March 2003

(a) The total number of Sex Offenders Orders applied for 8

(b) The total number granted 8

(c) The total number not granted 0

iv. The number of Restraining Orders issued by the courts between 1 April 2002 1
and 31 March 2003 for offenders currently managed within MAPPA

v. The number of violent and other sexual offenders considered under MAPPA 1081
during the year 1 April 2002 and 31 March 2003 (as defined by section 68 [3],
[4] and [5])

vi. The number of "other offenders" dealt with under MAPPA during the year 1 12
April 2002 and 31 March 2003 as being assessed by the Responsible Authority
as posing a risk of serious harm to the public (but who did not fall within either
of the other two categories, as defined by s.67 [2b])

vii. For each of the three categories of offenders covered by the MAPPA
("registered sex offenders", "violent and other sex offenders" and "other
offenders"), identify the number of offenders that are or have been dealt with

a) MAPPP - registered sex offenders 27

b) MAPPP - violent and other sex offenders 28

c) MAPPP - other offenders 12

viii. Of the cases managed by the MAPPP during the reporting year what was the
number of offenders:

a) who were returned to custody for breach of licence 7

b) who were returned to custody for breach of a Restraining Order or Sex 2

Offender Order

c) charged with a serious sexual or violent offence 1*

• Note: Of the 67 individuals subject to a MAPPP report in 2002/03, only one was charged/convicted of a new serious
offence (child cruelty); he received a new prison sentence of 15 months.
Contact Details:
Merseyside Probation Area Address Phone

Assistant Chief Officer National Probation Service 0151-920 9201

Pre & Post Release Division 4th Floor
Burlington House
Crosby Road North

Should you require further information about this annual report, or wish to contact one of the named agencies/
organisations, please forward your query to the above address where your enquiry will be dealt with accordingly.

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