2. LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction to Motivation At one time, employees were considered as just another input into the production of goods and services. What perhaps changed this way of thinking about employees was research, referred to as the Hawthorn Studies conducted by Elton Mayo from 1924 to 1932, (Dickson, 1973). This study found employees are not motivated solely by money and employee behavior is linked not to their attitudes (Dickson, 1973). The Hawthorne studies began the human relations approach to management, where by the needs and motivations of employees become the primary focus of the managers (Bedeian, 1993). This chapter presents a brief discussion of the major motivational theories that must be considered when one deals with employees in the work environment. So manager should be sensitive to variations in employees’ needs, abilities and goals and consider differences in preferences for rewards, so that they enable to maximize the performance potential of the organization’s human resources. 2.2. Motivation Definition Many contemporary authors have also defined the concept of motivation. Motivation has been defined as: the psychological process that gives behavior purpose and direction (Kreitner, 1995); a predisposition to be have in purposive manner to achieve specific, unmet needs (Buiyrd, Bedeian, and Linder, 1995); an internal derive to satisfy and unsatisfied needs (Higgins, 1995); behavior either in terms of the energy extended in goal-seeking or in relation to the factor both internal and external which help initiate as well as maintain organized efforts (Evancevich, 1989); an inner state that energizes channel and sustains human behavior to achieve goals, further more a term used in management theory to describe forces within person that account for the level of direction and persistence of efforts extended work (R-Schermer Born jr, 1993). For this paper, motivation is operationally defined as the force that drives individual to accomplish personal and organizational goals
2.2.1 A System Model of Motivational and Performance Conceptually model for understanding motivational and performance (see figure 2.1) was created by integrating elements from several of the theories. Foundation of the model is based on system theory and reinforcement theory. System theory is based on the premise that good performance results from a sequential process of transforming inputs that influence the ability to achieve the desired goals. Materials and Machinery, performance objectives and expectations, individual differences, training, task characteristics, psychological climate and work flow and internal processes (Kreitner, 1999,p.181). 2.2.2. Historical Roots of Modern Motivation Theories Five methods of explaining behavior-needs, reinforcement, cognition, job characteristics, and feeling/emotion-underlie the evolution of modern theories of human behavior. Needs: needs theories are based on the premises that individuals are motivated by the unsatisfied needs. Reinforcement: reinforcement theorists, such as Edward L Thorndike an BF Skinner, proposed that behavior is controlled by its consequences, not by the result of hypothetical internal states such as instinct, drives, or needs. Cognitions: uncomfortable with the idea that behavior is shaped completely To conclude, each approach suggest it own factor of motivation and these factors are some how different from one another since the traditional approach, the human relation approach and human resource approach takes economic gain belongings and full use of the labor force respectively the main motivations. This shows that a particular behavior influenced by individual differences enormous among employees to perform well fail to motivate others. Therefore, we need motivational strategies to manage the individuality of each employee. Once we have discussed the concept of motivation approaches to motivation, it is now important to consider the theories of motivation. Famous Models of Motivation Theories Once the years, many psychologists have attempted to define and categorize what motivates people. This become particularly important after the Second World War as the western nations attempted to rebuild their drained industrial economies, and during the ‘50s and 60s’ much was researched and written about human relations. It was recognized that people who worked in organizations were more than just numbers, and if properly managed, could not only produce more, but also contributed more.
This is not the place to cover the work of every motivations theory: it is has simply chosen some famous models that have entered the mainstream management vocabulary. These theories are grouped into two types: these are content theories and process theories (Bennett, 1944 p.300-394). Content theories emphasizes explicitly on an attempts to develop on understanding of human needs, it focus on the factors with in the person that energize, direct, sustain and stop behavior (IvanCevich, 1993 p.124). Process theories on the other hand provide a description and analysis of how behavior is energized, directed, sustained and stopped (Ivancevich, 1993 p.124) 2.7.1 Content Theory of Motivation Physiological or psychological deficiencies that an individual fees some compulsion to eliminate are called need. Content theories of motivation use individual needs to explain the behavior and attitudes of people at work. Good managers establish conditions, in which people can satisfy important needs through their work and work setting. They also take action to eliminate things that block or interfere with the satisfaction of important needs (Schermehorn, 1993 p.444-445). This type of motivation theory includes the work of Moslow’s Hierarchy of needs; Aldefer’s existence, relatedness, and growth theory of motivation, Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene factor theory; Mc Gregory’s Theory X and Y; and Macelell and celmate’s needs achievement theory. But here focus on the three famous models of motivation 22.214.171.124 Moslow’s Theory of Motivation As (Ivancevich, 1993 p.125) writes the crux of Moslow’s theory is that needs are arranged in hierarchy. The lowest level needs are the physiological needs and the highest level needs are self-actualization needs • Physiological • Safety and security • Belongingness, social and love • Esteem • Self-actualization Maslow’s theory assumes that a person attempts to satisfy the more basic needs 9 physiological) before directing behavior towards satisfying upper-level needs. In Maslow’s thinking, several points are crucial and important to understanding the need hierarchy approach: • A satisfied need teases to motivate • Unsatisfied needs can cause frustration, conflict and stress • Maslow assumes that people have a need to grow and develop and, consequently will strive constantly to move up to hierarchy in terms of need satisfaction 126.96.36.199 Theory X /Theory Y Douglas Mc Gregory published “the human side of Enterprise” in 1960, in which he suggested that traditional management methods (which he called theory X) might not be the only way to get people motivated. Instead, we take a different approach (based on theory Y) and achieve the same if not more.
Theory X is the traditional view of direction and control, based on these assumption: • The average person inherently dislikes work and will avoid it if at all possible • As a result, most people have to be coerced, controlled and threatened if they are to put in enough effort to achieve the organization’s goals. • In fact, the average person prefers to be directed, avoids responsibility, is not ambitious and simply seeks security. Theory Y is based on the integration of individual and organizational goals assumes: • The physical and mental effort of work is as natural as play or rest, so the average person does not inherently dislike work. • We are capable of self-direction and self-control, so these factors do not necessarily have to come from else where. • Our commitment to an objective is a function of the rewards for its achievement. • The average person learns not only to accept but also to seek responsibility • Host people have a capacity for imagination, ingenuity and creativity • The intellectual potential of most people is under used in modern industrial life Theory Y is not a soft option in fact, it can take as much management efforts as theory X, but the effect of theory Y approach will last longer. 188.8.131.52 Herzeberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory Frederick Herzberg studied and practiced clinical psychology in Pittsburg, where he researched the work-related motivations of thousands of employees. His findings were published in “The motivation to work” in 1959. He concluded that there were two types of motivation: Hygiene Factors that can demotivate if they are present such as supervision, interpersonal relations, physical working conditions, and salary. Hygiene factors affect the level of dissatisfaction, but are rarely quoted as creators of job satisfaction. Motivation factors that will motivate if they are present such as achievements, advancement, recognition and responsibility. Dissatisfaction is not normally blamed on motivation factor, but they are cited as the cause of job satisfaction. Son, once we have satisfied the hygiene factors, providing more of them won’t generate much more motivation, but lack of motivation factors will not of them serves demotivate. There are clear relationships to Maslow’s here, but Herzberg’s ideas really shaped modern thinking about reward and recognition 2.7.2 Process Theories of Motivation While “need theories” of motivation concentrates up on “what” motivates peoples, “process theories” concentrates up on “ how “ motivation occurs. These theories identify the variables that go into motivation and their relationship with each other. Two of these theories are explained here (Chandan, 1994 p.76-79).
184.108.40.206 Vroom’s Expectancy Model The expectancy model is based up on the belief that motivation is determined by the nature of reward people expect to get as a result of their job performance. The underlining assumption is that a man is a rational being and will try to maximize his perceived values of such rewards. He will choose an alternative that would give him the most benefit. People are highly motivated if they believe that a certain type of behavior will lead to a certain type of outcome and their extent of personal preference for that type of outcomes. There are three important elements in the model. These are: Expectancy: this is a person’s perception of likelihood that a particular outcome will result from a particular behavior or action. Instrumentality: This factor relates to a person’s belief and expectation that his performance will lead to a particular desired reward. It is the degree of association of first level outcome of particular effort to the second level outcome which is the ultimate reward Valence: valence is the value a persons assigns to his desired reward. He may not will to work hard to improve performance if the reward for such improved is not what he desires. It is not the actual value of the reward but the perceptual value of the reward in the mind of the worker that is important. Accordingly to this model of motivation, the person’s level of effort (motivation) depend on: 1. Expectancy 2. Instrumentality 3. Valence