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SRI VENKATESWARA UNIVERSITY: TIRUPATI – 517 502

4-Year B.Tech (CSE), V Semester


Choice Based Credit System (CBCS)
(With effect from the academic year 2008-09)
Scheme of Instruction and Examinations

Instruction hours per


No. of Credits
Course week
Course Title
No.
L T P Total L+T Practical

CS 351 Theory of Computation 3 1 --- 4 4 ---

CS 352 Operating Systems 2 1 --- 3 3 ---

Design and Analysis of


CS 353 3 1 --- 4 4
Algorithms

CS 354 Data Base Management Systems 3 1 --- 4 4 ---

CS 355 Software Engineering 2 1 --- 3 3 ---

CS 356 Data Communications 2 --- --- 2 2 ---

PRACTICALS

CS 352P Operating Systems Laboratory --- --- 2 2 --- 1

Design and Analysis of


CS 353P --- --- 2 2 --- 1
Algorithms Laboratory

Data Base Management Systems


CS 354P --- --- 2 2 --- 1
Laboratory

CS 357P Soft Skills Laboratory --- --- 2 2 --- 1

CS 358P Shell Programming Laboratory --- --- 2 2 --- 1

TOTAL 15 5 9 29 20 5

L: Lectures T: Tutorials P: Practical


NOTE: For each Course:
Sessional Marks: 40
End Semester Examination Marks: 60
Total Marks: 100
Duration of End Semester Examination: 3 Hours
CS 351 TOP
SRI VENKATESWARA UNIVERSITY :: TIRUPATI
B.Tech (CSE) - V SEMESTER (CBCS)
(With effect from the academic year 2008 – 09)

THEORY OF COMPUTATION
No. of Credits: 4
Instruction Weeks / Semester: 15 Instruction Hours / Week: 4

UNIT I
Review of Basic Mathematical Objects: Sets, Logic, Functions, Relations, Languages.
Review of Mathematical Induction and Recursive Definitions: Proofs, Mathematical Induction,
Recursive Definitions, Structural Induction.
Regular Expressions and Finite Automata: Regular languages, Regular expressions, Memory
requirement for language recognition, Finite automata, Distinguishing strings, Unions,
Intersections, and Complements.
Finite Automata with Output: Moore machine, Mealy machine, Moore versus Mealy, Transducers
as models of sequential circuits.

UNIT II
Nondeterminism and Kleene’s Theorem: Nondeterministic finite automata (NFA), NFA with Λ-
transitions, Kleene’s theorem.
Regular and Nonregular Languages: A criterion for regularity, Minimal finite automata, Pumping
lemma for regular languages, Decision problems, Regular languages versus programming
languages.

UNIT III
Contex-Free Grammars: Definition, Examples, Regular grammars, Derivation trees and ambiguity,
An unambiguous CFG for algebraic expressions, Simplified forms and normal forms.
Pushdown Automata: Definition, Deterministic pushdown automata, Pushdown automata versus
context-free grammar, Parsing.

UNIT IV
Context-Free and Non-Context-Free Languages: Pumping lemma for context-free languages,
Intersections and Complements of context-free languages, Decision problems involving context-
free languages.
Turing Machines: Definition, Examples, Computing a partial function with a Turing machine,
Combining Turing machines, Multi-tape Turing machines, Non deterministic Turing machines,
Universal Turing machines, Models of computation and the Church-Turing thesis.
UNIT V
Recursively Enumerable Languages: Recursively enumerable and recursive, Enumerating a
language, More general grammars, Context-sensitive languages and the Chomsky hierarchy, Not
recursively enumerable languages.
Unsolvable Problems: Non-recursive languages and unsolvable problems, Reducing one problem to
another – Halting problem, Other unsolvable problems involving Turing machines, Rice’s theorem,
Post’s correspondence problem, Unsolvable problems involving context-free languages.
Computable Functions: Primitive recursive functions, Primitive recursive predicates and some
bounded operations, Unbounded minimalization and μ-recursive functions,
Gödel numbering, Computable functions versus μ-recursive functions, Non-numeric functions and
computability.

Text Book:
Martin J C, Introduction to Languages and the Theory of Computation, 3rd edition, Tata
McGraw-Hill, 2003.

Reference Books:
1. Hopcroft J E, Motwani R, and Ullman J D, Introduction to Automata Theory, Languages, and
Computation, 3rd edition, Pearson Education, 2008.
2. Azad S K, Theory of Computation – An Introduction to Automata, Formal Languages, and
Computability, Dhanpat Rai & Co, 2005.
3. Cohen D I A, Introduction to Computer Theory, 2nd edition, John Wiley, 2000.
4. Sipser M, Introduction to the Theory of Computation, Thomson Brooks/Cole, 1997.
5. Linz P, An Introduction to Formal Languages and Automata, 2nd edition, Narosa, 1997.
CS 352 TOP
SRI VENKATESWARA UNIVERSITY :: TIRUPATI
B.Tech (CSE) - V SEMESTER (CBCS)
(With effect from the academic year 2008 – 09)

OPERATING SYSTEMS
No. of Credits: 3
Instruction Weeks / Semester: 15 Instruction Hours / Week: 3

UNIT I
Introduction: Definition of operating system, User view, System view, Computer system
organization, Computer system architecture, Operating system structure, Operating system
operations, Process management, Memory management, Storage management, Protection and
security, Distributed systems, Special purpose systems, Computing environments.
System Structures: Operating system services, User – Operating system interface, System calls,
Types of system calls, System programs, Operating system design and implementation, Structure,
Implementation, System generation, System boot.

UNIT II
Process Concept: Process scheduling, Operations on processes, Interprocess communication,
Communication in client server systems.
Multithreaded Programming: Multitheading models, Thread libraries, Threading issues, Examples.
Process Scheduling: Basic concepts, Scheduling criteria, Scheduling algorithms, Multiple-processor
scheduling, Thread scheduling, Examples.
Inter-process Communication: Race conditions, Critical Regions, Mutual exclusion with busy
waiting, Sleep and wakeup, Semaphores, Mutexes, Monitors, Message passing, Barriers, Classical
IPC Problems - Dining philosophers problem, Readers and writers problem.

UNIT III
Memory-Management Strategies: Introduction, Swapping, Contiguous memory allocation, Paging,
Segmentation, Examples.
Virtual Memory Management: Introduction, Demand paging, Copy-on-write, Page replacement,
Frame allocation, Thrashing, Memory-mapped files, Kernel memory allocation, Examples.

UNIT IV
Deadlocks: Resources, Conditions for resource deadlocks, Ostrich algorithm, Deadlock detection
and recovery, Deadlock avoidance, Deadlock prevention.
File Systems: Files, Directories, File system implementation, management and optimization.
Secondary-Storage Structure: Overview of disk structure, and attachment, Disk scheduling, RAID
structure, Stable storage implementation.

UNIT V
System Protection: Goals of protection, Principles and domain of protection, Access matrix, Access
control, Revocation of access rights.
System Security: Introduction, Program threats, System and network threats, Cryptography for
security, User authentication, Implementing security defenses, Firewalling to protect systems and
networks, Computer security classification.
Case Studies: Linux, Microsoft Windows XP, and Vista.

Text Books:
1. Silberschatz A, Galvin P B, and Gagne G, Operating System Principles, 7th edition, Wiley-
India, 2006.
2. Tanenbaum A S, Modern Operating Systems, 3rd edition, Pearson Education, 2008. (for
Interprocess Communication, File systems, and Case studies)

Reference Books:
1. Deitel H M, Deitel P J, and Choffnes D R, Operating Systems, 3rd edition, Pearson Education,
2004.
2. Stallings W, Operating Systems – Internals and Design Principles, 5th edition, Prentice-Hall
of India, 2005.
3. Nutt G, Operating Systems, 3rd edition, Pearson Education, 2004.
CS 353 TOP
SRI VENKATESWARA UNIVERSITY :: TIRUPATI
B.Tech (CSE) - V SEMESTER (CBCS)
(With effect from the academic year 2008 – 09)

DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF ALGORITHMS


No. of Credits: 4
Instruction Weeks / Semester: 15 Instruction Hours / Week: 4

UNIT I
Introduction: Notion of algorithm, Fundamentals of algorithmic problem solving, Important
problem types – sorting, searching, string processing, graph problems, combinatorial problems,
geometric problems, numerical problems.
Fundamentals of the Analysis of Algorithm Efficiency: Analysis framework, Asymptotic notations
and basic efficiency classes, Mathematical analysis of recursive and non-recursive algorithms,
Example-fibonacci numbers, Empirical analysis of algorithms, Algorithms visualization.

UNIT II
Brute Force Methods: Selection sort and bubble sort, Sequential search and brute-force string
matching, Closest-pair and convex-hull problems by brute force, Exhaustive search.
Divide-and-Conquer: Mergesort, Quicksort, Binary search, Binary tree traversals, Multiplication of
large integers, Strassen’s matrix multiplication, Closest-pair and convex-hull problems by divide-
and-conquer.
Decrease-and-Conquer: Depth-first search and breadth-first search, Topological sorting, Algorithms
for generating combinatorial objects, Decrease-by-a-constant-factor algorithms, Variable-size-
decrease algorithms.

UNIT III
Transform-and-Conquer: Presorting, Gaussian elimination, Balanced search trees, Heaps and
heapsort, Horner’s rule, and binary exponentiation, Problem reduction.
Space and Time Tradeoffs: Sorting by counting, Input enhancement in string matching, Hashing, B-
trees.
Dynamic Programming: Computing a binomial coefficient, Warshall’s and Floyd’s algorithms,
Optimal binary search trees, Knapsack problem and memory functions.

UNIT IV
Greedy Technique: Prim’s Algorithm, Kruskal’s algorithm, Dijkstra’s algorithm, Huffman trees.
Limitations of Algorithm Power: Lower bound arguments, Decision trees, P, NP, and NP-complete
problems, Challenges of numerical algorithms.
Coping with the Limitations of Algorithm Power: Backtracking, Branch-and-bound, Approximation
algorithms for NP-hard problems, Algorithms for solving nonlinear equations.

UNIT V
Introduction to Parallel Algorithms and Architectures: Design of parallel algorithms, Architecture
constraints, Computing dot product on EREW PRAM versus the 2-dimensional mesh, Pseudocode
conventions for PRAMs and interconnection network models, Performance measures of parallel
algorithms.
Parallel Sorting: Sorting on CRCW and CREW PRAMS, Odd-even merge sort on EREW PRAM,
Sorting on one and two dimensional meshes, Sorting networks.

Text Books:
1. Levitin A, Introduction to the Design and Analysis of Algorithms, Pearson Education, 2003.
(for UNITS I to IV)
2. Berman K A, and Paul J L, Fundamentals of Sequential and Parallel Algorithms, Thomson
Brook/Cole, 1997. (Chapters 5 and 6, for UNIT V)

Reference Books:
1. Horowitz E, Sahni S, and Rajasekaran S, Fundamentals of Computer Algorithms, 2nd edition,
Universities Press, 2007.
2. Cormen T H, Leiserson C E, Rivest R L, and Stein C, Introduction to Algorithms, 2nd edition,
Prentice-Hall of India, 2001.
3. Dave P H, and Dave H B, Design and Analysis of Algorithms, Pearson Education, 2008.
CS 354 TOP
SRI VENKATESWARA UNIVERSITY :: TIRUPATI
B.Tech (CSE) - V SEMESTER (CBCS)
(With effect from the academic year 2008 – 09)

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS


No. of Credits: 4
Instruction Weeks / Semester: 15 Instruction Hours / Week: 4

UNIT I
Databases and Database Users: Database approach, its characteristics, and advantages, A brief
history of database applications, When not to use a DBMS.
Database System Concepts and Architecture: Data models, Schemas, and Instances, Three-schema
architecture, Data independence, Database languages, Centralized and client-server architectures for
DBMS, Classification of DBMSs.
Data Modeling using Entity-Relationship (ER) Model: High level conceptual data models, Entity
types, Entity sets, Attributes, Keys, Relationship types, Relationship sets, Roles, Structural
constraints, Weak entity types, ER diagrams, Naming conventions, Design issues, UML class
diagrams, Higher degree relationship types.
The Enhanced Entity-Relationship (EER) Model: Subclasses, Super classes, Inheritance,
Specialization, Generalization, Design choices, Formal definitions, Representing specialization and
generalization in UML class diagrams, Data abstraction, Knowledge representation, Ontology
concepts.

UNIT II
The Relational Data Model and Relational Database Constraints: Relational model concepts,
Constraints, Schemas, Update operations, Transactions, Dealing with Constraint violations.
The Relational Algebra and Relational Calculus: Relational operations, Queries in relational
algebra, Tuple relational calculus, Domain relational calculus.
Relational Database Design by ER- and EER-to-Relational Mapping: ER-to-relational mapping,
Mapping EER model constructs to relations.
SQL 99 Schema Definition, Constraints, Queries and Views: SQL data definitions, data types,
Specifying constraints, Schema change statements, Basic queries, Assertions and Triggers, Views.
Introduction to SQL Programming Techniques: Database programming, Embedded SQL, Dynamic
SQL, SQLJ, Function calls – SQL/CLI and JDBC, Database stored procedures, SQL/PSM.

UNIT III
Functional Dependencies and Normalization for Relational Databases: Informal design guidelines
for relation schemas, Functional dependencies, Normal forms, 2nd and 3rd normal forms, Boyce-
Codd normal form.
Relational Database Design Algorithms and Further Dependencies: Properties of relational
decompositions, Algorithms for relational database schema design, Multivalued dependencies, 4th
normal form, Join dependencies, 5th normal form.
Practical Database Design Methodology and Use of UML Diagrams: Role of information systems
in organizations, Database design and implementation process, Use of UML diagrams as an aid to
database design specification, Rational rose – a UML based design tool, Automated database design
tools.

UNIT IV
Algorithms for Query Processing and Optimization: Translating SQL queries into relational
algebra, Algorithms for various SQL operations, Using heuristics in query optimization, Using
selectivity and cost estimates in query optimization, Overview of query optimization in Oracle,
Semantic query optimization.
Introduction to Transaction Processing Concepts and Theory: Introduction, Transaction and system
concepts, Desirable properties of transactions, Characterizing schedules based on recoverability,
and serializability, Transaction support in SQL.
Concurrency Control Techniques: Two phase locking techniques for concurrency control,
Concurrency control based on time stamp ordering, Multiversion concurrency control techniques,
Validation concurrency control, Granularity of data items and multiple granularity locking, Using
locks for concurrency control in indexes.
Database Recovery Techniques: Recovery concepts, Recovery techniques based on deferred update,
and immediate update, Shadow paging, ARIES recovery algorithm, Recovery in multidatabase
systems, Database backup, recovery from catastrophic failures.

UNIT V
Object-Relational and Extended-Relational Systems: Object-relational features of SQL and Oracle,
Nested relational model.
Database Security: Introduction, Discretionary access control, Mandatory access control, Role-
based access control, Introduction to statistical database security, Introduction to flow control,
Encryption, Public key infrastructures, Privacy issues and preservation, Challenges of database
security.
Distributed Databases and Client-Server Architectures: Distributed database concepts, Data
fragmentation, Replication, Allocation techniques for distributed database design, Types of
distributed database systems, Query processing in distributed databases, Overview of concurrency
control and recovery, An overview of 3-tier client-server architecture, Distributed databases in
Oracle.

Text Book:
Elmasri R, and Navathe S B, Fundamentals of Database Systems, 5th edition, Pearson
Education, 2008. (Chapters 1, 2, 3, and 4 for Unit I; Chapters 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 for Unit II;
Chapters 10, 11, and 12 for Unit III; Chapters 15, 17, 18, and 19 for Unit IV; Chapters 20, 22,
23, and 25 for Unit V)

Reference Books:
1. Silberschatz A, Korth H F, and Sudarshan S, Database System Concepts, 5th edition,
McGraw-Hill, 2006.
2. Ramakrishnan R, and Gehrke J, Database Management Systems, 3rd edition, McGraw-Hill,
2003.
3. Date C J, An Introduction to Database Systems, 7th edition, Pearson Education, 2000.
4. Rob P, Database Systems – Design, Implementation, and Management, 7th edition, Thomson,
2007.
CS 355 TOP
SRI VENKATESWARA UNIVERSITY :: TIRUPATI
B.Tech (CSE) - V SEMESTER (CBCS)
(With effect from the academic year 2008 – 09)

SOFTWARE ENGINEERING
No. of Credits: 3
Instruction Weeks / Semester: 15 Instruction Hours / Week: 3

UNIT I
Introduction to Software Engineering: Software evolution, Legacy software, Software myths.
A Generic View of Process: Software engineering layers, Process frame work, Capability Maturity
Model Integration (CMMI), Process patterns, and assessment, Personal software process (PSP),
Team software process (TSP) models.
Process Models: Prescriptive models, Waterfall model, Incremental model, RAD model, Spiral
model, Concurrent development model, Formal methods model, Unified process.
An Agile view of Process: Definition, Extreme programming, Adoptive software development
(ASD), Dynamic system development method (DSDM), Scrum, Crystal, Feature driven
development, Agile modeling (AM).

UNIT II
Software Engineering Practice: Principles, Communication practices, Planning practices, Analysis
modeling principles, Design modeling principles, Coding principle and practice, Testing principles,
Deployment.
System Engineering: Computer-based systems, System modeling, System simulation, Business
process engineering overview, Product engineering overview, Hatley-Pirbhai modeling, System
modeling with UML.
Requirements Engineering: Requirements engineering tasks, Initiation, Eliciting requirements,
Developing use-cases, Building the analysis model, Negotiating and validating requirements.

UNIT III
Building the Analysis Model: Requirements analysis, Analysis modeling approaches, Data
modeling concepts, Object-oriented analysis, Scenario-based modeling, Flow-oriented modeling,
Class-based modeling, Creating a behavioral model.
Design Engineering: Design process, Design quality, Design concepts, Design model, Pattern-based
software design.

UNIT IV
Creating an Architectural Design: Software architecture, Data design, Architectural styles and
patterns, Architectural design, Assessing alternative architectural designs, Mapping data flow into a
software architecture.
Modeling Component-level Design: Nature of component, Designing class-based components,
Conducting component level design, Object constraint language, Designing conventional
components.
Performing User Interface Design: The rules, User interface analysis, User interface design, Design
evaluation.

UNIT V
Testing strategies: A strategic approach to software testing, Test strategies for conventional
software, Test strategies for object-oriented software, Validation testing, System testing, Art of
debugging.
Testing Tactics: Software testing fundamentals, Black-box and white-box testing, Basis path
testing, Control structure testing, Object-oriented testing methods, Class level testing methods,
Interclass test case design, Testing for special cases, Testing patterns.
Product Metrics: Software quality, Product metrics, Metrics for the analysis model, Metrics for the
design model, Metrics for source code, Metrics for testing, Metrics for maintenance.

Text Book:
Pressman R S, Software Engineering-A Practitioner’s Approach, 6th edition, McGraw-Hill,
2005. (Chapters 1, 2, 3, and 4 for Unit I; Chapters 5, 6, and 7 for Unit II; Chapters 8 and 9 for
Unit III; Chapters 10, 11, and 12 for Unit IV; Chapters 13, 14, and 15 for Unit V)

Reference Books:
1. Sommerville I, Software Engineering, 5th edition, Pearson Education, 1996.
2. Jawadekar W S, Software Engineering – Principles and Practice, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2004.
3. Behforooz A, and Hudson F J, Software Engineering Fundamentals, Oxford University Press,
1996.
CS 356 TOP
SRI VENKATESWARA UNIVERSITY :: TIRUPATI
B.Tech (CSE) - V SEMESTER (CBCS)
(With effect from the academic year 2008 – 09)

DATA COMMUNICATIONS
No. of Credits: 2
Instruction Weeks / Semester: 15 Instruction Hours / Week: 2

UNIT I
Data Communications and Networking Overview: Introduction, Communications model, Data
communications, Networking.
Protocol Architecture: Justification, A simple protocol architecture, OSI, TCP/IP.

UNIT II
Data Transmission: Concepts and terminology, Analog and digital data transmission, Transmission
Impairments, Channel Capacity.
Guided Transmission Media: Twisted pair, Coaxial cable, Optical fiber.

UNIT III
Unguided Transmission Media: Wireless transmission, Antennas, Microwave, Broadcast radio,
Wireless propagation, Line-of-site transmission, Multipath, Refraction.
Signal Encoding Techniques: Digital data, Digital Signal; Digital data, Analog Signal; Analog data,
Digital Signal; Analog data, Analog Signal.

UNIT IV
Digital Data Communication Techniques: Asynchronous and synchronous transmission, Error
detection and correction, Line configurations, Interfacing.
Data Link Control Protocols: Flow control, Error control, High level data link control.

UNIT V
Multiplexing: Frequency division multiplexing, Synchronous time division multiplexing, Statistical
time division multiplexing, Asymmetric digital subscriber line, xDSL.
Spread Spectrum: Introduction, Frequency hopping spread spectrum, Direct sequence spread
spectrum, Code division multiple access.

Text Book:
Stallings W, Data and Computer Communications, 7th edition, Pearson Education, 2004.

Reference Books:
1. Halsall F, Data Communications, Computer Networks, and Open Systems, 4th edition, Pearson
Education, 1996.
2. Forouzan B, Data Communications and Networking, 4th edition, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2007.
3. Guptha P C, Data Communications and Computer Networks, Prentice-Hall of India, 2006.
4. Shay W A, Understanding Data Communications and Networks, 2nd edition, Brooks/Cole
Thomson Learning, 1999.
CS 352P TOP
SRI VENKATESWARA UNIVERSITY :: TIRUPATI
B.Tech (CSE) - V SEMESTER (CBCS)
(With effect from the academic year 2008 – 09)

OPERATING SYSTEMS LABORATORY


No. of Credits: 1
Instruction Weeks / Semester: 15 Instruction Hours / Week: 2

Ø At least 10 assignments are to be given covering the topics of the course, “Operating
Systems”.
CS 353P TOP
SRI VENKATESWARA UNIVERSITY :: TIRUPATI
B.Tech (CSE) - V SEMESTER (CBCS)
(With effect from the academic year 2008 – 09)

DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF ALGORITHMS

LABORATORY
No. of Credits: 1
Instruction Weeks / Semester: 15 Instruction Hours / Week: 2

Ø At least 10 assignments are to be given covering the topics of the course, “Design and
Analysis of Algorithms”.
CS 354P TOP
SRI VENKATESWARA UNIVERSITY :: TIRUPATI
B.Tech (CSE) - V SEMESTER (CBCS)
(With effect from the academic year 2008 – 09)

DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

LABORATORY
No. of Credits: 1
Instruction Weeks / Semester: 15 Instruction Hours / Week: 2

Ø At least 7 assignments are to be given covering the topics of the course, “Database
Management Systems”.

Ø A mini project is to be given, to implement a simple database application using either 2-tier
or 3-tier client/server architecture. An appropriate graphical user interface, with input screens
and report generation facility is to be incorporated.
CS 357P TOP
SRI VENKATESWARA UNIVERSITY :: TIRUPATI
B.Tech (CSE) - V SEMESTER (CBCS)
(With effect from the academic year 2008 – 09)

SOFT SKILLS LABORATORY


No. of Credits: 1
Instruction Weeks / Semester: 15 Instruction Hours / Week: 2

At least the following activities are to be undertaken in this lab:

Preparing for a Technical Presentation:


Literature survey
Development of reading skills
Development of listening skills
Internet browsing
Vocabulary development
Effective organization of technical material

Technical Speaking:
Slide Preparation
Effective speaking, with proper accent, and intonation.
Correct pronunciation
Effective body language
Interaction with audience

Technical Writing:
Effective technical writing
Preparing effective e-mails
Preparing effective curriculum vitae

Team Activities:
Debate
Group discussion
Brain storming
CS 358P TOP
SRI VENKATESWARA UNIVERSITY :: TIRUPATI
B.Tech (CSE) - V SEMESTER (CBCS)
(With effect from the academic year 2008 – 09)

SHELL PROGRAMMING LABORATORY


No. of Credits: 1
Instruction Weeks / Semester: 15 Instruction Hours / Week: 2

At least 10 assignments are to be given covering the following:

Ø Unix Shell Programming: Fundamentals, Basic shell commands, Shell environment,


Shell variables, Shell constructs, Shell functions, Writing shell scripts.

Ø Embedded awk and perl scripting.

Ø Basics of Microsoft Windows Power Shell.

Text Books:
1. Kochan S G, Unix Shell Programming, 3rd edition, Pearson Education, 2003.
2. Kopczynski T, Windows Power Shell Unleashed, Pearson Education, 2007.

Reference Books:
1. Ball B, Using Linux, PHI, 1998.
2. Forouzan B A, and Gilberg R F, Unix and Shell Programming, Thomson, 2003.
3. Das S, Unix Concepts and Applications, 2nd edition, TMH, 1998.
4. Muster J, Unix Made Easy, 3rd edition, TMH, 2002.
5. Kernighan, and Pike, The Unix Programming Environment, PHI,
6. Perl , O’Railly,
7. Wilson, Windows Power Shell Scripting Guide, PHI, 2008.