North Yorkshire Area

Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements

Annual Report 2005-2006

1. National Perspective
Foreword
Making our communities safer and reducing re-offending is our highest priority and one of our biggest challenges. That is why the work undertaken through these multi-agency public protection arrangements (MAPPA) is so important. The supervision and management of sexual and violent offenders who pose the highest risk of serious harm, whether in the community or in custody, is complex and challenging; and is an aspect of public service where the public rightly expects all reasonable action to be taken. Although we have made significant progress in the last five years with the development of MAPPA across England and Wales, the review this year of a number of tragic incidents where people have been murdered or seriously injured reminded us of the importance of reviewing performance, improving practice and learning lessons. It is vital that these tasks are undertaken by the probation, police and prison services, as well as by those other agencies that contribute to the assessment and management of offenders. The publication of MAPPA Business Plans by each Area in this year’s annual reports offers a helpful and necessary programme of local development and review and must lead to enhanced practice. It will be essential that this progress is transparent and shared with local communities. In addition to this, however, it is important that no opportunity is missed to consider other measures that will further enhance public safety. That is why we are undertaking the Child Sex Offender Review, to look at how a particular group of offenders, who provoke anxiety for many, are best managed in the community. The review is consulting a wide range of practitioners and key stakeholders including the MAPPA lay advisers, and will report around the end of the year. Finally, in commending this report to you, I want to take the opportunity to thank all those involved locally in working with sexual and violent offenders, or in ensuring that these arrangements are fit for purpose. Where MAPPA is working well it is based on maintaining high professional standards and effective multi-agency collaboration in the delivery of robust risk management plans. While it is not possible to eliminate risk entirely, where allreasonable action is taken the risk of further serious harm can be reduced to a minimum and fewer victims will be exposed to repeat offending.

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Contents
Page 1. National Perspective 2. Introduction 3. What is MAPPA? 4. Operation in North Yorkshire a. Strategic Management Board (SMB) b. Key Achievements c. Victim Work d. MAPPA Offenders: Sexual Offender Management Violent Offender Management Domestic Violence e. Approved Premises f. Potentially Dangerous Individuals g. Disclosure 5. Frequently Asked Questions 6. Statistical Information 7. Contacts MAPPA-The First Five Years 1 3-4 5 7 8 9 10 11

16 17 18 19 20 21 22

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2. Introduction
Welcome to this the fifth annual report of the North Yorkshire and City of York Multi Agency Public Protection Arrangements (MAPPA).
Protecting the Public from the most serious offenders living in our communities continues to be our highest priority. Managing offenders and balancing the needs of victims, families and the communities in which they live is not an easy task and agencies need to work together. The implementation of the Criminal Justice Act 2003 introduced a new duty to cooperate agreement and we applaud the commitment that key agencies such as Housing, Social Services, Education, Health and the Youth Offending Teams have made towards increasing public protection in our Area. Nationally 2005/6 has seen a considerable increase in public interest in the operations of MAPPA. The HM Inspectorate of Probation’s report into the murder of Mr Monkton by two known offenders Hanson & White attracted widespread media coverage and a nationwide review by responsible authorities of their MAPPA procedures. Significantly, Hanson & White had not been made the subject of MAPPA procedures, but improved risk assessment and identification would have ensured that they were. The probation service in North Yorkshire has undertaken a thorough review of its risk and public protection procedures which were revised and re-issued in November 2005. An action plan is in place to address lessons learned as a result of the Hanson & White report. Public attention has also focussed in the past year on the provision of suitable accommodation for offenders returning to live in the community. The probation service manage a national network of approved premises, or hostels, which provide accommodation for those age 18+ who are on bail, subject to probation supervision or to a statutory licence on release from prison.

Della Cannings QPM BSc Chief Constable North Yorkshire Police

Roz Brown Chief Officer North Yorkshire Probation

Norman Griffin Governor HM Prison Service

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report. North Yorkshire operates one hostel as part of this national network of approved premises. Known as Southview, and situated in York, it has been operating since 1995 and over the past 11 years has become an integral part of the local community. The hostel manager keeps in close personal contact with the heads of local schools and with other key people concerned with organisations which look after the needs of children and vulnerable groups. He also attends all local ward WelcomeFurther details of the management and meetings. to this the fifth annual operation of the hostel are detailed elsewhere report of the North Yorkshire andin this report. The probation service in North Yorkshire has undertaken a thorough review of its risk and public protection procedures which were revised and re-issued in November 2005. An action plan is in place to address lessons learned as a result of the Hanson & White report.

City of York Multi Agency Public MAPPA procedures, when operating well, can be effective Protection the likelihood of further serious offences Arrangements (MAPPA). in reducing
being committed by those subject to MAPPA. In North Yorkshire, the MAPPA agencies have undertaken regular Protecting the Public samples of their MAPPA cases, the quality audits of from the most serious offenders living these audits are that in the great majority of findings of in our communities continues to be our highest priority andprocedures are shown to have significantly cases, MAPPA last year the Responsible Authority for MAPPA was strengthened of protection afforded to the public. increased the degree by the inclusion of the Prison Service and the appointment at Strategic Management ways The case examples in this report show some of the Board level ofthese lay advisors.can operate. developments in which two procedures These new mark another step in the increasingly collaborative and joined up working of criminal justice mind that whilst the level Realistically, it must be borne in organisations and key partnerin individual cases may be reduced, it can never of risk agencies and have increased the accountability of MAPPA Locking people up area throwing be entirely removed. in this challenging and of public protection. is not a practical solution for all but the away the key, highly dangerous few. The vast majority of violent and Managing offenders and balancing thestage be released into dangerous offenders will at some needs of victims, community, and it is the responsibility of the live the families and the communities in which they is not an easy task and in conjunction with the together. probation service, agencies need to work other MAPPA The implementation ofwith Criminal Justice to help reduce the agencies, to work the these offenders Act 2003 introduced a new them to likelihood of duty committing further serious offences. co-operate agreement and we applaud the commitment thatagencies are crucially Housing, Social vital The MAPPA key agencies such as important in this Services, Education, Health and the Youth Offending way it is work, as by working together in a co-ordinated Teams have made towards increasing public protection in possible to share information about an offender and our Area. co-ordinated risk management plans that should prepare reduce the chances of further serious offences being Nationally 2005/6 has seen a considerable increase in committed. public interest in the operations of MAPPA. The HM Inspectorate of Probation’s three MAPPA Responsible In North Yorkshire the report into the murder of Mr Monkton by two known offenders Hanson been Authorities, Police, Probation & Prison service have & White attracted widespread media developing closer ways of working. Since February 2006, coverage and a nationwide review by responsible authorthe Probation Public Protection Manager has been ities co-located with the Police Public Protection Unit at of their MAPPA procedures. Significantly, Hanson & White had HQ been madeWiske. This hasMAPPA improved Police not in Newby the subject of greatly procedures, but improved exchange and the day to day communication risk assessment and identification would have ensured violent and sex offenders subject to management of that they were. MAPPA in North Yorkshire. The probation service in North Yorkshire has undertaken a thorough review of its risk and process of This report demonstrates how the MAPPA public protection procedures which were revised and re- and identification, assessment and management of sexual issued in November 2005. An actionapplyingin place to violent offenders is achieved by plan is a structured address lessonsfrom prison a result of the Hanson & Whiteand approach, learned as release through to supervision monitoring in the community. We hope that you find it both informative and reassuring. 4

Public attention has also focussed in the past year on the provision of suitable accommodation for offenders returning to live in the community. The probation service and its partner agencies manage a national network of approved premises, or hostels, which provide accommodation for those age 18+ who are on bail, subject to probation supervision or to a statutory licence on release from prison. the public. The case examples in this report show some of the ways in which these procedures can operate. Realistically, it must be borne in mind that whilst the level of risk in individual cases may be reduced, it can never be entirely removed. Locking people up and throwing away the key, is not a practical solution for all but the highly dangerous few. The vast

majority of violent and dangerous offenders will at some stage be released into the community, and it is the

3. What is MAPPA?
responsibility of the p The legislation behind MAPPA places a duty on the Probation, Police and Prison Services, acting together as the “Responsible Authority”, to assess and manage the risk posed by sexual and violent offenders in the community. To do this the Responsible Authority works in partnership with other agencies who have a legal duty to co-operate with MAPPA. These are the Health Service, local authority Housing, Education, & Social Services Departments, Registered Social Landlords who accommodate MAPPA offenders, Job Centre Plus, Electronic Monitoring Providers, and Youth Offending Teams. The legal authority for MAPPA is contained in the Criminal Justice Act 2003. The Act allows the Responsible Authority and the duty to cooperate partners to work together and to share information. The Act defines the categories of offenders who are the subject of MAPPA. These are: Category 1: Registered sex offenders. Category 2: Violent and sex offenders who receive a sentence of imprisonment of 12 months or more. Mentally disordered offenders who have been transferred from prison to hospital, under a transfer direction and restriction order. Those convicted of a sexual or violent offence, who are then made subject of a hospital direction and limitation direction. Those convicted of a sexual or violence offence, who are then made subject of a hospital order with a restriction order, and those found unfit to plead who have committed the act as charged or not guilty by reason of insanity, under the Criminal Procedure (insanity) Act 1964 in respect of sexual or violent offences and then admitted to hospital with restrictions. Category 3: Other offenders: those who are not in Category 1 or 2 but who are considered by the Responsible Authority to pose a risk of serious harm to the public. The MAPPA framework identifies three separate but connected levels at which risk is assessed and managed.

Level 1- Normal Risk Management
This is the level for cases in which risks posed by the offender can be managed by one agency without actively or significantly involving other agencies. Level 1 should be applied only to Category 1 and 2 offenders because by definition Category 3 offenders present a degree of risk of serious harm which requires active, inter-agency management. Level 1 management will generally involve the Probation, or Police, Prison or Youth Offending Teams taking single responsibility. Generally offenders managed at Level 1 will be assessed as presenting a Low or Medium risk of harm. To share information about an offender and prepare co-ordinated risk management plans that should reduce the chances of further serious offences being committed.

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What is MAPPA?
responsibility of the p

Level 2- Local inter-agency risk management (RMM)
Level 2 (in North Yorkshire known as Risk Management Meetings but also known by the City of York YOT as Risk Strategy Meetings - RMMs) are applicable where either the level of risk is not so high nor the complexity of managing the risks so great as to require referral to Level 3 Mult-Agency Public Protection Panels (MAPPPs). Cases may be referred to an RMM for review after having been managed at MAPPPs when the seriousness of risk has diminished or where the complex multi-agency management of the risks have been brokered and firmly established by the MAPPPs. All RMMs held on MAPPA offenders must have Police and Probation attendance for the meeting to have the authority of the legislation. Staff from Prisons and other duty to cooperate agencies should be invited as appropriate. Generally offenders managed at RMM (level 2) will be assessed as presenting a High Risk.

Level 3 – Multi-agency Public Protection Panels (MAPPPs)
MAPPPs are responsible for the management of the “critical few” cases. The criteria for referring a case for MAPPP consideration are where the offender: is assessed as being a Very High risk of causing serious harm · presents risks (whether assessed as High or Very High) that can only be managed through close multi-agency co-operation at a senior level, because of the complexity of the case, or because of the unusual resource commitments it requires · is likely to attract strong media scrutiny · public interest in the management of the case is very high and there is a need to ensure that public confidence in the criminal justice system is sustained Whilst most will be offenders being released from prison, they may also include: · offenders discharged from detention under a hospital order · offenders returning from overseas (following release from custody or not) · offenders previously managed as a Medium or even a Low risk in the community who come to present a High or Very High risk as a result of significant changes of circumstances. 6

4. Operation in Yorkshire
responsibility of the Multi-agency public protection arrangements have been in place in North Yorkshire area since 2001. The arrangements involve Police, Probation and the Prison Service acting together as the “Responsible Authority” in partnership with other agencies. Under MAPPA, North Yorkshire area Responsible Authority and duty to cooperate agencies work together to share information about offenders who pose risks to others, assess those risks, agree plans to manage them, and keep the offender under review, through regular case conferences. Since 2001, senior managers within North Yorkshire Police and the Probation Service have placed significant priority towards ensuring that robust and effective arrangements are in place to comply with legislation and safeguarding the well being of the public within North Yorkshire. This is evidenced, in the Strategic Management Board creating an annual audit procedure to review operating practices and ensure that any recommendations are implemented. North Yorkshire area MAPPA continues to develop and in January 2006 the creation of a North Yorkshire Police and Probation Public Protection Unit was realised. This has ensured that Police and Probation Public Protection Managers are jointly responsible for effectively managing the North Yorkshire area MAPPA operational procedures including, reviewing and actioning MAPPA referrals and sharing agency information regarding MAPPA offenders. MAPPA offenders considered to represent the “critical few” (Level 3) are reviewed at the Area-wide MultiAgency Public Protection Panel (MAPPP) which meets centrally every month. The panel meetings are chaired by a senior representative of the Responsible Authority. Both Police and Probation Public Protection Managers are involved, together with senior police representation from the Area in which the offender resides. A core group of senior managers from the duty to cooperate agencies attend and participate in all meetings. MAPPA offenders identified as representing a lesser level of risk and where the complexity of managing the risks is not so great as to require referral to Level 3 (MAPPP) are reviewed at locally based Risk Management Meetings. These locally based meetings are also chaired by a senior representative of the Responsible Authority. The meetings are attended by Police Public Protection Officers and relevant key Probation staff. Relevant staff from duty to cooperate agencies additionally attend and participate in meetings. Members of staff working in any national or local government agency can and do refer offenders who are causing a concern to North Yorkshire area MAPPA via the Public Protection Unit. They are assessed by the Police and Probation Public Protection Managers. However, within North Yorkshire area, the majority of offenders are referred through Probation or Police officers, Youth Offending Teams or the Prison Service. These referrals are identified by respective agency involvement with offenders. (The Probation Service supervises all adult offenders released from prison on licence. Youth Offending Teams supervise youth offenders under the age of 18. The Police have responsibility for managing Registered Sex Offenders). All MAPPA meetings and related records are confidential. An accurate record is kept of information shared, risks identified, decisions made and responsibilities for tasks allocated with appropriate timescales. Due to the sensitive nature of the information discussed any request for access to meetings or records is carefully considered by North Yorkshire area MAPPA legal advisors. Robust risk management requires effective risk assessment and a variety of validated assessment tools are used by Probation, Youth Offending Teams, Police and the Prison Service. Probation and the Prison Service use the Offender Assessment System (OASys) to assess all offenders sentenced or under supervision. Additionally Probation and Police staff use ‘Risk Matrix 2000’ when assessing the risk of re-offending with sex offenders. For offenders who have committed acts of domestic abuse, Probation use the Spousal Abuse Risk Assessment (SARA) to identify risk factors. The use of these tools helps in building up a picture of the offender so that a comprehensive assessment can be made about the risk of harm and the risk of re-offending. Specific risk factors can then be targeted as part of the plan to manage the risks posed by that offender.

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a. Strategic Management Board
responsibility of the

Strategic Management Board Members
Roz Brown (Current Chair) North Yorkshire Probation ACC Peter Bagshaw North Yorkshire Police Lindsey Hall North Yorkshire Police Alan Jenks Representing Housing Paul Farrimond NHS Trust Steve Twynham Victim Support Tony Campbell Social Services Simon Goulding Lay Adviser Hugh ONeill Lay Adviser Pete Dwyer York Community Services Jill Holbert North Yorkshire YOT Alan Critchlow NYCC Education Services Norman Griffin HM Prison Service Paul Nixon Children’s and Family Services

Multi Agency Public Protection Arrangements (MAPPA) are managed in North Yorkshire by a Strategic Management Board (SMB). The SMB is chaired, in turn, by one of the senior managers from the Responsible Authorities (Police, Probation and Prison services) and members include senior managers from duty to cooperate Agencies (Youth Offending Teams, local Education Authorities, registered social landlords, Social Services, Strategic Health Authorities, Care Trusts and NHS Trusts, Jobcentre Plus and electronic monitoring providers). It also includes two Lay Advisors appointed by the Secretary of State. The SMB has produced its first 3 year Business Plan which covers the financial years from 1st April 2006 to 31st March 2009. It has been drawn up in line with guidance issued by the Responsible Authority National Steering Group (RANSG). The key priorities for the coming year can be summarised as follows: · Ensuring the high quality of MAPPA work (including quality audits; shared practice; lessons learned from best practice) · Maintaining public confidence in MAPPA (including production of annual report; victim awareness · Demonstrating high performance (including monitoring and evaluation and development of new database) The successful implementation of this business plan will provide evidence of the level of activity and performance of MAPPA and direct and drive improvements in the coming years. It will increase transparency and accountability and should provide valuable information and research data to enhance public confidence in MAPPA in North Yorkshire and the City of York.

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b. Key Achievements -2005-2006
responsibility of the

The Strategic Management Board (SMB) has drawn up the first formal 3 year Business Plan to cover the years 2006-9. The plan fits within the national RANSG plan. The progress of the Business Plan will be monitored through SMB meetings. · The SMB continues to operate in close partnership with the Local Criminal Justice Board and with Safeguarding Childrens’ Boards to provide a cohesive and consistent framework for action across the full spectrum of partnership agencies. The 3rd Annual MAPPA audit of Level 3 cases (the most serious) showed continuous improvement in the management and operation of MAPPA. The report highlighted a high standard of inter-agency information sharing, identification of risk and defensible risk management plans contained within cases subject to review. The North Yorkshire audit tool was supplied to the National Public Protection Unit and recognised as good practice. · The 1st Annual audit of Level 2 MAPPA cases showed that MAPPA was having a significant improvement in the management of risk. · The establishment, in January 2006, of a joint, centrally co-ordinated Police and Probation Public Protection Unit. (The Unit comprises of Police and Probation Public Protection Managers and administrative support). The co-location of inter-agency managers has assisted in increased information sharing, early identification of MAPPA sexual and violent offenders and potentially dangerous individuals within the North Yorkshire area. The Unit manages the registration requirements of all Registered Sex Offenders resident within the North Yorkshire area, monitoring compliance with legislation. Any identified breaches in registration requirements are robustly managed by Unit staff). · During July 05, a further three full-time Police Public Protection Officers were appointed (bringing the force total to six – two in each of the three areas of the force). This role involves supervision and management of Registered Sex Offenders within their area and Police representatives at area based Risk Management Meetings (Level Two) in respect of Sexual and Violent offenders. All North Yorkshire Police Police Public Protection Officers have received nationally accredited training in respect of sexual offender management.

· In July 2006, North Yorkshire Police are introducing Community Protection Units (CPUs), consisting of a Detective Sergeant and four Detective Constables covering each of the three areas of NYP (Central - York, Western - Harrogate, Eastern Scarborough). Each CPU will investigate offences of hate crime and domestic violence, and manage missing person enquiries. Each CPU will also incorporate the work of the existing Vulnerable Person Unit and domestic violence co-ordinator roles. The key objectives are to improve quality of investigation, reduce the number of repeat victims and increase the number of offenders arrested and convicted of such crime. · A North Yorkshire Area MAPPA case identified concerns regarding convicted sex offenders associating with a voluntary group working with vulnerable people. The case was locally managed and resolved, however, the case highlighted concerns with national practice that are now subject of review. The rollout of ViSOR across the North Yorkshire Police area. ViSOR is the national IT system for managing violent and sex offenders and during 2006/7 will be expanded to include operation by the probation and prison services. · North Yorkshire area MAPPA agencies have provided information to all schools throughout the area regarding the purpose and function of MAPPA and the role Southview Approved Premise has in the protection of the public from harm. · All YOT and relevant Probation staff who have responsibility for Chairing MAPPA meetings have attended external training, together with administrators with responsibility for recording minutes of MAPPA meetings. Further training is planned in 2006/7.

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c. Victim Work
responsibility of the

In respect of every MAPPA offender, there has to be at least one victim. They will undoubtedly have been traumatised by the offence(s) and have a level of fear of those who have offended against them. The Code of Practice for Victims of Crime (October 2005) governs the services provided by agencies including the Police, Crown Prosecution Service, Her Majesty’s Court Services, Prison Service, Parole Board, Youth Offending Teams and Probation Service. This code, implemented on the 1 April 2006, ensures that Victims of Crime receive appropriate support – from reporting a crime to the police, through the criminal justice process, and beyond. The code further directs that an enhanced service is provided in respect of vulnerable or intimidated victims. The Probation Service supervises all adult offenders released from prison on licence. The Probation Service also has a statutory responsibility for contact with the victims of serious sexual and violent crimes. Contact enables victims and their families to be informed of key sentencing stages and of the offenders proposed release plans. North Yorkshire Area MAPPA considers victim safety and reassurance to be a primary concern and is therefore a high priority of any risk management plan at a MAPPP or RMM meeting. Safety measures that can, and are used, are assistance with relocation, licence conditions preventing the offender returning to the area for part or the duration of their licence, licence exclusion zones, alarms for a victims residence with police response prioritisation, and in serious cases the offender may be subject to covert police methods. It is important to consider the welfare of previous victims, but additionally equally so to identify and protect individuals who may be at a future risk of harm. Safety measures, such as disclosure to organisations or specific individuals may be considered appropriate.

Contact Numbers
responsibility of the Victim Care Unit Tel - 0845 0710871 Fax - 01904 476257 York Crown Court Tel/Fax - 01904 655497 York Crown Court Tel/Fax 01904 637778 York Magistrates’ Court Tel/Fax -01904 637778 Scarborough Magistrates’ Court Witness Support Tel/Fax - 01723 503366

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d. MAPPA Offenders
responsibility of the

Registered Sex Offencer Management
The Sex Offenders Act 1997 - introduced a requirement for all relevant Sex Offenders to register details with their local Police. The Act identified a duty on the Police to monitor and manage persons on the Register. Since this time, there has been considerable updates to this legislation: The Crime and Disorder Act 1998 - introduced powers to assist Police in monitoring convicted sex offenders. The Police were given the ability to apply to a Court for a Sex Offender Order placing prohibitive restrictions and obligations on the activities of individual sex offenders, allowing more effective management of offenders within the community. The Criminal Justice and Court Services Act 2000 – strengthened legislation in dealing with registration requirements of sex offenders. It placed additional requirements relating to notifying the police of overseas travel. Section 67 and 68 placed a duty on the Police and Probation to make joint arrangements for the assessment and management of risks posed by relevant sexual and violent offenders, and other offenders who may cause serious harm to the public (MAPPA). The Sexual Offences Act 2003 – legislation radically reviewed and updated all sexual offence legislation. Introduced new offences to combat grooming and the use of technology to access vulnerable victims (i.e. internet crime). It further strengthened existing sexual offender requirements. This now includes new court orders that can be applied for at the time of conviction for a relevant sexual or violent crime. A Risk of Sexual Harm Order can be applied for by the police to restrict the grooming behaviour of those who are identified as having a sexual interest in children but have no convictions. North Yorkshire Police (NYP) have adapted policing methods to keep abreast of changing legislation. In 2004, NYPcreated the post of a Police Public Protection Manager and dedicated Public Protection Officers. The Police Public Protection Manager has responsibility to review police compliance with MAPPA legislation and oversee police management of MAPPA offenders (relevant sexual and violent offenders) on behalf of the force. In 2004, the Police Public Protection Officers were dedicated to Registered Sexual Offender management within their respective areas. In 2005 NYP doubled the number of officers performing the role to encapsulate violent offender management under MAPPA, in addition to sexual offender work. All registered sex offenders are managed and monitored on a regular basis by the police to ensure that any potential risks are identified and dealt with accordingly. Additionally the police monitor offender compliance with the relevant legislation, in respect of notification requirements. Risk assessments are undertaken on all registered sex offenders to identify the risk of re-offending and risk of harm, using the categories of low, medium, high and very high. Any identified risk is assessed and a risk management plan is agreed, this can include referrals to MAPPA meetings, disclosure requests, and applications for Sexual Offences Prevention Orders (SOPOs) or Risk of Sexual Harm Order. Any identified breach of registration requirements or Sexual Offences Orders are proactively investigated and dealt with.

Case Example - pseudonyms have been used in
all case examples contained within the report
Nigel is a serial sex offender who has convictions for indecent assault on young adolescent boys. He is subject to a Sexual Offences Prevention Order prohibiting him from associating with boys under the age of 16 years. Nigel was managed under North Yorkshire MAPPA during which time it was identified he had breached his Order by communicating with a young boy. He was arrested and imprisoned for the breach. When finally due for release from custody he was not subject to any licence conditions, having served his full term of imprisonment. It was identified he intended to leave prison and travel to an area where he was not known. North Yorkshire MAPPA instigated national alerts to all police forces and probation services. As a consequence a police force in another area of the country were able to identify him on arrival and were in a position to arrest him for further breaches of his Order when he communicated with a young boy. Proactive monitoring of Nigel, by MAPPA agencies, and early intervention when breaches of the Order were identified, have meant that the police were in a position to arrest Nigel, prior to any contact offences taking place. On both occasions, the enforcement of Order prohibitions has ensured that serious harm to young boys has been prevented from occurring.

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d. MAPPA Offenders
responsibility of the

Case Example - pseudonyms have been used in
all case examples contained within the report
James was convicted of several counts of taking indecent photographs of children and sentenced to a term of imprisonment over 8 years ago. On his release James was required to notify the police and register as a sex offender. He was released on licence. He complied with registration requirements and abided by licence conditions. James maintained voluntary contact with his Probation Officer for a period of time. James’s registration is managed by North Yorkshire Police Public Protection Officers and he therefore has regular contact. During one such contact James identified to the officer a concern he had regarding sexual thoughts he was having involving children. James had acknowledged the increased risk of re-offending and was seeking help. He had not committed further offences and therefore could not be dealt with through any criminal process. As a result of the contact, the Police Public Protection Officer liaised with Probation and through joint funding by Police and Probation a place for James was found on a Sex Offender Treatment Programme on a voluntary basis. This is an unusual step as Treatment Programme places are usually taken up by offenders subject to licence, however both Probation and Police staff were concerned at the level of risk that James posed. James is continually monitored by Police and Probation staff and the feedback from the programme is positive.

Just as programme facilitators can identify those who are benefiting from the programme they can also identify those who continue to cause concern, and take action.

Case Example - pseudonyms have been used in
all case examples contained within the report
Pete was sentenced to 6 years imprisonment for rape of an adult female - his first sexual offence but he has numerous convictions for burglary, theft and violence including domestic violence. He was released on Parole licence to an Approved Premise – the licence included conditions to address Sexual Offending, domestic violence issues, drug and alcohol use. He was registered as High Risk and managed at MAPPA level 2. Whilst in custody Pete had undertaken the prison based Enhanced Thinking Skills Course, Core Sex Offender Programme, Better Lives Booster Programme and drug and alcohol awareness courses. Prison reports indicated he had made good progress. During the Sex Offender Programme he demonstrated a good understanding of the underlying reasons for his offence such as his distorted belief that he was entitled to sex with the victim. He accepted full responsibility for his behaviour, developed good victim empathy skills and greater recognition of the impact of his offending on the victim and her family. He also showed understanding of how his use of alcohol and drugs had acted as disinhibitors at the time of the index offence. Following release Pete was referred to a Sex Offender Programme and commenced the Relapse Prevention Group. This is a nine week Group work programme in which participants in North Yorkshire attend one day per week. The key issues and risks identified for him were anger and violence, sexual attitudes towards women and his use of drugs and alcohol. Pete successfully completed the Relapse Prevention Programme. He made good progress in the following areas. Ability to identify risky areas in his life such as low self esteem, feeling he is being lied to, feeling envious or isolated also an awareness of the enormous impact that use of drugs and alcohol have on his thinking and behaviour. Pete developed a good understanding of how he needed to continue to be vigilant in managing his own risky thoughts and feelings. Pete had a good awareness of the areas of his life that needed to be managed. This includes managing his emotions, relationships and avoiding drug and alcohol use. He took a positive approach to drawing up his New Life Plan which is to be used for future reference now he has completed group work. Whilst Pete has now completed the Relapse Prevention Programme in the community he remains subject to licence and will continue to build on the work he has undertaken with his supervising officer.

The Probation Service in North Yorkshire has been running an accredited sex offender programme since 2003. The programme, which is demanding and challenging, is delivered in the context of an overall risk management strategy. The majority of sex offenders come from the victim’s family or circle of acquaintances. They often have distorted ways of thinking, which can include blaming the victim, denying their own level of responsibility and minimising the harm they have caused. The aim of the Sex Offender Programme is to teach new attitudes and behaviour so that the offender can recognise and start to self manage the risk he poses. Each sex offender undergoes a battery of psychometric tests in order to assess his level of deviancy and which of the two programmes (individual or group) is the most effective intervention for him. The programmes are long and intensive, consisting of four modules (144 hours in total) followed by a relapse prevention programme (36 hours). Throughout the programme there are regular and structured communication and liaison arrangements between the programme facilitators and probation officer supervising the offender. 12

d. MAPPA Offenders
responsibility of the

Case Example - pseudonyms have been used in
all case examples contained within the report
Michael was sentenced to 4½ years imprisonment for offences against children. He had no previous convictions. He was subject to post custody licence, registered as high risk to children and managed at MAPPA level 2. Whilst in custody Michael was assessed as suitable to undertake the prison based core sex offender treatment programme but he declined to do this as he had concerns with regard to confidentiality issues within the prison. He was refused parole and his non-parole licence included conditions to comply with requirements to address his sexual offending, not to use the internet and not to own camera or photography equipment. Identified risks were his sexual attraction to children, inability to take responsibility for his offending, minimisation of his offences and access to the internet. Following release Michael was referred to a Sex Offender Programme. His targets were: To develop a sense of personal responsibility for his sexual offending. Increase victim empathy and recognition of the harm caused to victim. Increase awareness of the role of his thoughts and feelings and how this impacted upon his behaviour. Develop an understanding of his emotional and sexual interest in children. Michael is continuing in treatment and attends group work one day per week. The first part of the programme seeks to encourage him to take full responsibility for his sexual offending and begin to understand his own distorted attitudes and how he justified his sexual offending behaviour. Progress reports indicate that he is making progress and a shift in his attitude, in that he takes full responsibility for his behaviour and does not blame the victim or his co-defendant. It is recognised that he needs to continue to explore his sexual attraction towards the victim and his own thoughts and feelings. Despite his reservations and fears about commencing group work Michael is able to use the experience to examine his own offending and he has been both challenging and supportive towards other group members. Michael is in the early stages of treatment but the work will be ongoing and his progress in treatment will be regularly reviewed at MAPPA level 2 meetings.

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d. MAPPA Offenders
responsibility of the

Violent Offender Management
Although the MAPPA definition of this category is often summarised as violent offenders who receive a sentence of imprisonment of 12 months or more, the legislation is considerably more complex and includes those detained under hospital or guardianship orders and those who have committed specific offences against children. Whilst these offences do not attract any requirement to register with police, all offenders will be under the statutory supervision of the probation service, with the exception of a small number of offenders sentenced prior to the Criminal Justice Act 1991. Within the North Yorkshire area, the Probation Service or where appropriate, Youth Offending Team, has primary responsibility for identifying Category 2 offenders. The Police and Probation Public Protection Unit has developed a good working relationship with the relevant health care trusts responsible for managing the area’s special hospitals and local secure units in order to identify offenders who are relevant MAPPA offenders.

The victims themselves often have an important part to play in their partner’s rehabilitation, and the victim’s needs are always supported first and foremost. If the victim and the offender are still in contact the victim is asked to give regular feedback to help shape the offender’s supervision. The safety of any women or children involved is paramount and the success of IDAP is judged on how far they are protected. IDAP is based on a co-ordinated effort by a number of agencies, including Probation and Police, and requires co-operation between all the Criminal Justice agencies. Often, women’s groups and charities (eg Victim Support) are also involved – this partnership approach allows us to build up a comprehensive picture of the offender’s behaviour, and decide on the most suitable kinds of intervention.

Case Example - pseudonyms have been used in
all case examples contained within the report
Richard has numerous serious convictions relating to Domestic Violence. Prior to his last prison sentence, he had developed a new relationship which continued during his prison sentence. Richard indicated that upon release, he intended to develop the relationship. Whilst in prison, he was subject to a MAPPA Level Three meeting. Information regarding the level of violence from Richard’s previous offences was considered. During the meeting action plans were put in place to ensure the safety of previous victims and to ensure the safety of his new partner and her family. A decision to disclose the risk he posed to his new partner was made and supported by an Assistant Chief Constable. As a result a joint Probation and Police meeting took place and safety plans were agreed. This included, with the consent of the new partner, and with Richard’s knowledge, an alarm being installed at her home. Licence conditions included attendance on an Integrated Domestic Abuse Programme IDAP. Whilst Richard had no direct convictions relating to violence towards children a Child Protection Case Conference was held to consider and manage any risk that Richard posed towards children within the family. Both Richard and his new partner agreed to co-operate fully MAPPA agencies. Regular MAPPP meetings were held to monitor Richard’s behaviour and the risk that he posed to his family. Through close liaison between all agencies and continual contact both with Richard and his partner, potential risks were identified early and action taken to prevent any re-offending.Richard has had his highs and lows, one factor that had triggered Richard to offend was alcohol misuse, he is now engaging with a support group and it would appear that he has not had a drink for a considerable period of time. With this support and that of his family, Richard appears to be putting his life back in order and there have been no reported incidents for over 6 months. 14

Domestic Violence
Tackling domestic abuse requires all agencies to work together. In the North Yorkshire area an Integrated Domestic Abuse Programme (IDAP) was introduced in April 2005. The programme requires close working arrangements between the Police, Probation and other agencies to ensure victim safety, and aims to help men understand and change their behaviour and thereby reduce the risk they present. The overall purpose of IDAP is to prevent re-offending and promote the safety of women and children. North Yorkshire Police provides information to the programme facilitators of any call out information on any of the perpetrators involved. This information, together with reports from the partner/victim will assess the progress the offender is making and will form the basis for risk management plans that are developed and reviewed regularly. The creation of the Police Community Protection Units will be key in developing information sharing between agencies in respect of offender management. IDAP is a group programme for convicted offenders which focuses on concepts like control and misuse of power. Offenders are expected to talk openly about their violence to the group, and listen to others’ experiences – this, along with the educational content of the course has been proven to help violent men recognise the impact of their violence, take responsibility for their actions and eventually stop their violent behaviour. It addresses both physical and psychological violence.

d. MAPPA Offenders
responsibility of the

What is meant by 'domestic violence'?
Domestic violence is any incident of threatening behaviour, violence or abuse of any kind between adults who are or have been in a relationship together, or between family members, regardless of gender or sexuality. The following helpline offers women and children help and practical advice including:· emergency refuge accommodation safety planning advice translation facilities English National Domestic Violence helpline 0808 2000 247 If you are a man experiencing domestic violence or you want to call on behalf of a male friend or relative, you can contact the Male Advice & Enquiry Line 0845 064 6800

Facts & figures
(Taken from the Home Office Website) Although domestic violence is chronically under reported, research estimates that it: accounts for 16% of all violent crime (Source: Crime in England and Wales 2004/2005 report) has more repeat victims than any other crime (on average there will have been 35 assaults before a victim calls the police) claims the lives of two women each week and 30 men per year is the largest cause of morbidity worldwide in women aged 19-44, greater than war, cancer or motor vehicle accidents will affect 1 in 4 women and 1 in 6 men in their lifetime. Whatever form it takes, domestic violence is rarely a one-off incident. More usually it's a pattern of abusive and controlling behaviour through which the abuser seeks power over their victim. Domestic violence occurs across society, regardless of age, gender, race, sexuality, wealth and geography. The figures show, however, that it consists mainly of violence by men against women. Victims of domestic violence suffer on many levels health, housing, education - and lose the freedom to live their lives how they want, and without fear. The Domestic Violence, Crime and Victims Act 2004 was introduced to increase the protection, support and rights of victims and witnesses. It also gives the police and other agencies the tools to get to the heart of domestic violence crimes. The Act is a key part of our aim of putting victims at the heart of the criminal justice system.

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e. Approved Premises
responsibility of the

An Approved Premis offers an enhanced level of supervision. The hostel imposes a night time curfew, provides 24 hour staff, undertakes ongoing assessment of attitudes and behaviour, ensures ongoing supervision, support and monitoring, reinforces compliance with bail or licence conditions and encourages attendance on and supports learning through accredited programmes. There is one approved premise (hostel) in North Yorkshire area, established at Southview in York in 1995. Managed by the Probation Service, the hostel houses up to 22 residents who are on bail, subject to probation supervision or to a statutory licence on release from prison. Potential hostel residents are generally referred by probation, by the prisons or by the courts. In all cases they have to undergo a process of assessment to determine whether or not they are suitable. Any MAPPA individual will additionally be assessed by a MAPPP or RMM meeting to ensure that the risk of harm has been identified and that there are satisfactory public protection arrangements in place to manage that risk. The hostel is intended primarily to accommodate residents from the North Yorkshire area. Hostels in Yorkshire and Humberside also operate a regional policy whereby they will consider accommodating residents from across the region, if there are no vacancies locally. Occasionally it may be impossible for someone released from prison to return to their home area, perhaps, for example, to protect a victim of a previous crime who still resides in the area. If a suitable alternative is not available within that region then other areas of the country may be approached. This is a reciprocal arrangement that operates nationwide. In the North Yorkshire area any request under this arrangement would result in MAPPA agency involvement in the assessment process. The hostel manager keeps in close personal contact with the heads of local schools and with other key people concerned with organisations that look after the needs of children and vulnerable groups within the area. The manager attends all local ward meetings and staff at the hostel are always willing to meet with and discuss any concerns with local residents. There is no evidence that the presence of the hostel has raised the incidents of crime in the area during the past 11 years.

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f. Potentially Dangerous Individuals
responsibility of the

Under the Criminal Justice Act 2003, Multi-agency Public Protection Arrangements were established. However, the 2003 Act is clear that these arrangements only apply to sexual offenders, violent offenders, and other persons who, because of offences they have committed, are con sidered to be persons who may cause serious harm to the public. Within North Yorkshire area it was identified that the legislation was extremely effective at drawing agencies together, identifying and managing risk through multi-agency co-operation. However, the legislation specifies that this relates to those who have a relevant conviction. MAPPA legislation therefore, does not provide for dealing with individuals who may present a danger to the public but have no relevant conviction. Sadly, recent high profile cases, identify that individuals who have no convictions but are known to agencies, can pose a significant threat of harm. In order to “close the gap” North Yorkshire MAPPA agencies have developed a protocol to hold meetings and share information, following the principles of MAPPA, for individuals who may present a danger to the public but who have no relevant conviction. "North Yorkshire Area Public Protection Information Sharing meetings are held where one or more of the MAPPA agencies have grounds to believe that an individual, who has not been convicted of any relevant offence, is believed to pose a serious risk of harm to the public. Referrals are made by either responsible authority agencies (Police, Probation or Prison) or North Yorkshire MAPPA duty to cooperate agencies to the Police and Probation Public Protection Unit. Information Sharing meetings are attended by the core group of MAPPA representatives that deal with MAPPA Level three cases.

Case Example - pseudonyms have been used in
all case examples contained within the report
A North Yorkshire Police Detective contacted the Police Public Protection Manager highlighting concerns regarding an individual he had dealt with. Andy had been investigated for an offence of indecent assault on a young girl and had been found not guilty at court. During the investigation the officer had identified that over a 4 year period, there were a number of complaints of sexual offending towards young children. In all cases, either the reporting party declined to pursue the matter to criminal court, or there was insufficient evidence to proceed. Upon investigation of his previous background, it was identified that Social Services and the Mental Health Services had had involvement with the individual. He had no previous convictions. A referral for an information sharing meeting was made in order to share police concern and identify knowledge of him within MAPPA agencies. Andy was known to other agencies. It was identified that a complaint had been received by Social Services and a further complaint by the Mental Health Team of sexualised behaviour by him towards children but that in both cases, the reporting party had refused involvement with the police. As a result of the information sharing meeting a risk management plan was documented. This included, a request for all relevant information received by any agency regarding Andy to be referred to the police. All known victims were identified to Social Services and risk strategy meetings held to ensure future risk to specified individuals was dealt with. A briefing item was created for local police officers, highlighting all known incidents, concerns and ensuring all information relating to Andy was sought and fully investigated. Within a matter of months, a complaint was made to local police regarding a sexual assault. Police were quickly able to establish from information available that the Andy was a suspect. He was arrested and charged with the offence.

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g. Disclosure
responsibility of the

Everyone living in a democratic and civilised society has individual rights, and civil liberties. These include the right to privacy and the right to live as one chooses, without interference from others. These rights are important, and are safeguarded by domestic legislation and the European Convention on Human Rights. They can be infringed only where it is necessary to do so to protect the rights of others. Sometimes in cases considered through MAPPA, the need to exchange information between agencies is essential to the risk management process and it may be necessary to disclose highly sensitive information regarding a sexual or violent offender to a third party. Disclosing information has to be balanced against the rights of all individuals, including convicted offenders, to have their privacy and confidentiality respected. Sometimes however, the need to protect others conflicts with that right. Protection of the public is paramount and information about an offender is then disclosed in order to protect those at risk. Decisions to disclose are never taken lightly and only taken as part of a carefully managed process which would involve authorisation by an Assistant Chief Constable of North Yorkshire. In the North Yorkshire area, except for urgent cases, all disclosure considerations to a third party, are dealt with by referral to a MAPPP meeting. North Yorkshire Police legal services are involved in the MAPPP process to ensure that all disclosure issues are carefully considered and decisions taken are lawful, fair reasonable and proportionate to the risks the offender presents.

Case Example - pseudonyms have been used in
all case examples contained within the report
Kevin was identified as a Very High Risk sexual offender. He had historic offences of rape and indecent assault on vulnerable women and children. He was sentenced prior to the Sexual Offenders Act 1998 and therefore not subject to registration requirements. However, as a result of MAPPA agency concern, Kevin was subject to regular Level 3 MAPPP meetings. MAPPA agency information identified that Kevin was known to have befriended a female, who had a similar lifestyle to a previous victim. Police development of the information identified that she had daughters and grandchildren and Kevin was known to have been introduced to family members. An emergency MAPPP meeting was held and it was identified that the female and female family members were at considerable risk of harm. The MAPPP meeting recommended that limited disclosure to her should take place so she could assess the risk he posed to her and her family and be in a position to consider precautionary action. The disclosure request was supported by a North Yorkshire Police Assistant Chief Constable and a trained and experienced Detective Sergeant met with her. She was advised of Kevin’s sexual offending and that whilst, there was no specific known risk to her or her family, that MAPPA agencies had considered her welfare and identified that she should be advised in order that she could make an informed decision regarding continued contact with Kevin. She elected to cease contact with him. She was given constructive advice regarding progression of this and provided with support throughout. Kevin continued to be monitored throughout this period and no further offences were reported.

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5. Frequently asked Questions
responsibility of the p

What sort of people pose a risk of harm to others?
Sexual and violent offenders live in all communities and are of no single age, gender, ethnicity or position in society. What is common is that the offences they commit are unacceptable, often resulting in significant physical and emotional damage. Their identification and conviction is therefore a priority. Once convicted not all offenders go on to commit further offences. However, some do. We therefore need to identify those offenders who pose a high and very high risk of further serious harm and to take action to prevent them ruining the lives of others.

Who checks MAPPA is working?
The Strategic Management Board monitors and reviews how these public protection arrangements are working in each local area. The Board has two members of the public appointed by the Secretary of State to act as lay advisers in the review and monitoring of the arrangements and to help improve links with communities.

What should I do if I have particular concerns?
The number of offenders in our communities who pose a risk of serious harm to others is thankfully very small. However, the thought that a known offender may pose a risk of serious harm to you or someone you care about can be very distressing. It may be difficult to know who to speak to. If you believe that you have specific evidence that a serious offence has been or is about to be committed it is important that you share this information by either contacting the Police or Crimestoppers. North Yorkshire Police 0845 6060247 or in cases of emergency by dialling 999 Crimestoppers 0800 555111

Who needs protection?
Sexual and violent offenders often target those within our communities whom they perceive are vulnerable because of their age, gender or social circumstances. The vast majority of sexual offending is committed by people who are known to the victim, either as family members, friends or acquaintances.

Why do high risk individuals live within the community?
Few people, however serious their crime, can be imprisoned indefinitely. Prison sentences are laid down by law and at the end of the sentence most offenders will be released back into the community. MAPPA agencies have considerable influence on ensuring that proactive measures are taken to reduce the risk an offender poses. These include applications for court orders to assist in managing sex offenders, considered disclosure in specific circumstances, licence conditions and careful management of where the offender will reside.

How can I find out more?
Local and national contact details for Victim Support, Domestic Violence Helplines and Police and Probation contact details are contained within this report. You can also access helpful information through the Stop it Now! Website. Stop it Now! Aims to prevent child sexual abuse by challenging all adults to take responsibility to protect children. Helpline 0808 1000 900, www.stopitnow.org.uk

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6. Statistical Information
1. Category 1 MAPPA Offenders - 338 Central Area - 140 Western Area - 83 Eastern Area - 115 1.1 1.2 1.3 Number of Registered Sex Offenders per 100,000 head of population - 45 Number of Registered Sex Offenders cautioned or convicted for breach - 10 Number of : Sexual Offences Prevention Orders (SOPOs) applied for - 7 Interim SOPOs granted - 2 Full SOPOSs imposed - 5 Number of : Notification orders applied for - 0 Interim Notification orders granted - 0 Full Notification orders granted - 0 Number of Foreign Travel Orders : Applied for - 0 Imposed - 0

1.4

1.5

2.

Category 2 MAPPA Offenders - 145

3.

Category 3 MAPPA Offenders - 7

4.

Offenders managed through Level 3, Level 2 & Level 1 :
(living in North Yorkshire & York between April 05 & March 06)

Level 3 Registered Sex Offenders Violent and Other Offenders Other 8 3 6

Level 2 37 43 1

Level 1 293 99 0

4.2

Offenders who breached: Breach of Licence Breach of restraining order or SOPOs Serious sexual or violent offence 4 1 0 17 1 1

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7. Contacts
responsibility of the p

North Yorkshire Probation Area
Chief Officer National Probation Service Thurston House 6 Standard Way Northallerton DL6 2XQ Telephone Number: 01609 778644 Public Relations & Communications Officer National Probation Service Head Office (York) Amy Johnson Way Clifton Moor York YO30 4XT Telephone Number: 01904 698920

North Yorkshire Police and Probation Public Protection Unit
Force Headquarters Newby Wiske Hall Northallerton DL7 9HA Telephone Number: 0845 60 60 24 7

MAPPA Strategic Management Board Lay Members
The Venerable Simon Goulding c/o North Yorkshire Police Newby Wiske Hall Northallerton DL7 9HA Telephone Number: 0845 60 60 24 7

North Yorkshire Police
Chief Constable Force Headquarters Newby Wiske Hall Northallerton DL7 9HA Telephone Number: 0845 60 60 24 7

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MAPPA – the First Five Years : A National Overview of the MultiAgency Public Protection Arrangements 2001 - 2006 Introduction
It is now just over 5 years since the implementation of the Criminal Justice and Courts’ Services Act 2000 that led to the formation of the Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements, commonly known as MAPPA. As the national strategic body overseeing the implementation and development of these arrangements it is important for us to review the progress made, to identify the challenges ahead and set out the national plans for improvement. It is also an opportunity for the first time to provide a national commentary on the MAPPA annual statistics and to explain what they are telling us about the growth and complexity of these arrangements. Much has been achieved in terms of enhancing public safety in the last 5 years and the arrangements are rightly described as world leading. Yet we are acutely conscious that a number of serious case reviews and other reports published this year indicate there is still much to do to ensure that the arrangements are fit for purpose and apply consistently across England and Wales. Unless those operating these arrangements ensure that all reasonable action is taken to reduce the harm caused by sexual and violent offenders they will have failed. While we recognise that it is never possible to eliminate risk entirely the public are entitled to expect the authorities to do their job properly. Making our communities safer and reducing re-offending is our highest priority and one of the greatest challenges facing the agencies and staff involved. Over the last year all agencies responsible for establishing, maintaining or contributing to these public protection arrangements have been extremely busy: the probation service, the prison service, the police service who form the Responsible Authority in each area, plus the range of agencies who have a duty to co-operate in these arrangements and include health, housing, education, social services, youth offending teams, Jobcentre Plus, and electronic monitoring services. In addition to the agencies, each area has this year benefited from the input of lay advisers. These are people recruited locally but appointed by the Secretary of State to offer key support to the strategic management of the MAPPA process. Their role is essentially to ask often fundamental questions of senior practitioners and bring a community perspective to a process that could otherwise lose sight of its main function: to protect members of the public from serious harm. Together, all of those inputting to MAPPA have ensured that more high risk sexual and violent offenders have been identified and proactively managed this year than ever before.

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The National MAPPA Statistics
As the scale and complexity of MAPPA has increased so the analysis of the annual report statistics has become more important in understanding local and national developments in these arrangements. The national analysis offered below, based upon reports from the areas, highlights a number of important trends, particularly in respect of the volume of referrals for multi-agency management at Level 2 and Level 3 (MAPPP), and the outcomes of that management. The individual area MAPPA annual reports are published elsewhere on this web-page and should be consulted for detailed local commentary.

MAPPA Offenders The number of offenders in the community that come within the remit of MAPPA increased this year, as anticipated, although the rate of that increase has slowed from last year (13% to 7%) - see Table 1. A number of factors may have contributed to this slow down. Firstly, the increase of registered sex offenders (RSOs) is much less than in previous years at just over 3%; secondly, fewer offenders than expected have been referred into MAPPA under Category 3. (These are those offenders who are neither registered sex offenders nor currently supervised by the probation service/ youth offending team but do have a history of physical or sexual violence and are considered by the Responsible Authority to pose a current risk of serious harm to the public.) The reasons for these variations from expectation are unclear but the RSO variation may in part be due to a number of areas last year (2004/5) incorporating offenders who were still in prison and to refinements areas have continued to make to referral procedures and the management of risk thresholds. Registered Sex Offenders continue to form by far the largest category – see Chart 1. Table.1 Total number of MAPPA Offenders in the Community by Category (% Change) Category 2002/03 2003/04 2004/05 2005/06 21513 24572 28994 29973 1. Registered Sex 14.22% 18% 3.38% Offenders (RSO) 29594 12754* 12662 14317 2. Violent Offenders and -56.9% -0.72% 13.07% other sex offenders 1802 2166 2936 3363 3. Other offenders 20.2% 35.55% 14.54% Totals 52909 39492 44592 47653 -25.36% 12.91% 6.86% * In 2003/4 the criteria for Violent offenders (Category 2) changed to exclude those offenders held in custody.

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Chart. 1

Total number of MAPPA Offenders in the Community 2005/6

Registered Sex Offenders For the first time this year the MAPPA annual reports include a breakdown of the total RSO population for the basic policing units within each area (see individual area reports). This, together with the density of RSOs per 100,000 of the population, which ranges from 36/100,000 to 81/100,000 across the 42 Areas of England and Wales, illustrates the variable distribution of RSOs within the community. There are no obvious or simple explanations for the distribution of RSOs, which in any case is barely significant statistically. MAPPA management levels It is important to remember that the majority of offenders within MAPPA do not pose a significant risk of serious harm to the public and can therefore be properly managed through the normal supervision arrangements provided by the probation service, youth offending teams and by police sex offender registration. This is described as level 1 management and accounts for about 71% of the MAPPA population. However, for offenders whose risk of serious harm is high or complex and requires active management by more than one agency, referral to Level 2 or Level 3 (MAPPP) meetings is vital. A case will generally only qualify for level 3 management where the intervention of senior agency representatives is required to effect the risk management plan with the authority to release or prioritise exceptional resources. Chart 2 shows the breakdown of management levels this year.
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Chart 2

MAPPA Offenders by Management Level

This is the second year in which both Level 2 and Level 3 (MAPPP) data has been available and Tables 2 and 3 illustrate the number of offenders now subject to collaborative/ multi-agency risk management (29% of the MAPPA total). For each of these 13,783 offenders agencies will be required to meet on a number of occasions and to progress actions that reduce the likelihood of re-offending. The tables also provide a fuller picture of the commitment and resources being provided by the Responsible Authority and other partner agencies within MAPPA. The Level 3 MAPPP, the highest level of risk management, continues to focus on the most complex offenders, sometimes referred to as the ‘critical few’, and involves senior managers within each area. The use of Level 3 MAPPP has been refined over the last 3 years as part of a concerted effort to ensure that resources are focused where they can be most effective in enhancing public protection. This year they have been employed in under 3% of the total MAPPA caseload. At the same time, Level 2 risk management meetings, which are locally based, have increased in number (12,505) and become the engine room for MAPPA. Whilst there is an element of focus on level 3, all Areas have recognized the necessity of ensuring adequate management and administrative support for Level 2; and this is reflected in Business Plans.

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Table 2.

Breakdown of Level 2 and Level 3 MAPPA Offenders for 2005/6 Level 2 (% of MAPPA Total) 6014 12.62% 4280 8.98% 2211 4.64% 12505 26.24% Level 3 (% of MAPPA total) 580 1.22% 506 1.06% 192 0.4% 1278 2.68% Total per Category (% of MAPPA Total) 6594 13.84% 4786 10.04% 2403 5.04% 13783 28.92%

Category of Offender 1. Registered Sex Offenders (RSO) 2. Violent offenders and other sex offenders 3. Other offenders Total per Level

Table 3. Offenders referred to Levels 2 and 3 - Comparison with last year (% Change) Level 2004/05 5381 3615 2 2005/06 6014 11.76% 4280 18.39% 2211 -3.53% 12505 10.78% Level 2004/05 626 547 3 2005/06 580 -7.35% 506 -7.49% 192 -37.05% 1278 -13.53%

Category of MAPPA Offender 1. Registered Sex Offenders (RSO) 2. Violent offenders and other sex offenders 3. Other Offenders Total:

2292 11288

305 1478

Interventions and Outcomes Information about the scale and categories of offender is complemented by information on direct interventions and outcomes for this MAPPA managed group (ie those under Levels 2 and 3). These measures deal with breaches of licence and court order, with sex offender registration requirements and related court orders, and with further offending – see tables 4 and 5. The headline figure is, no doubt, that reflecting the number of offenders who, while managed at levels 2 or 3, are charged with a serious sexual or violent offence. Compared with 2004/5, this year saw a reduction in the number of serious further offences in this

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population from 79 (0.6%) to 61 (0.44%) cases this year. And the biggest impact was where you would want and expect it – with the more intensively managed Level 3 cases. On the face of it the figures are encouraging but they should be treated with caution for 2 reasons. Firstly, we have only collected the data for 2 years; secondly, with such small numbers any change can trigger a wholly disproportionate, misleading percentage variation. What is apparent, however, is that the figure is low and whilst any serious reoffending is a matter of great concern, such a low serious re-offending rate for this particular group of offenders is to be welcomed and supports the view that MAPPA is making a real contribution to the management of dangerousness in communities. The data relating to breach of licence and court orders is positive as this reflects an increase in action taken in level 2 and 3 cases prior to them having opportunity to commit serious further harm; ie to recall offenders to prison. A similarly encouraging picture emerges from a reading of the data on various sex offender provisions – see table 5. Action taken to enforce the sex offender registration requirements through caution and conviction increased by 30% from last year and affected 1295 offenders, 4.3% of the total registered in the community. There was also considerable use made of the range of new civil orders available under the Sex Offences Act 2003(sexual offences prevention orders, notification orders, foreign travel orders). In total 973 orders have been granted this year an increase of 446. Table 4. Outcome measures: Level 2 and Level 3 activity for 2005/6 (% Change) Level 2 Category of MAPPA Offender 1. Breach of License 2. Breach of Orders 3. Charged with SFO 2004/05 1084 55 47 2005/06 1321 21.86% 82 49.09% 50 6.38% Level 3 2004/05 222 18 32 2005/06 219 -1.35% 22 22.22% 11 -65.63% Total of Level 2 & 3 2004/05 2005/06 1306 73 79 1540 17.92% 104 42.47% 61 -22.78%

Table 5. Outcome measures: RSO arrests and Sex Offences Act Civil Orders 2004/5 and 2005/6 (% Change) RSO Enforcement 1. Registered sex offenders (RSO’s) charged/cautioned Number of Offenders (04/05) 993 Number of Offenders (05/06) 1295 30.41%

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Sex Offences Act Orders 2. Sexual offences prevention orders (SOPOs) granted 3. Notification Orders (NOs) granted 4. Foreign Travel Orders (FTOs) granted Total Number of Orders

Number of Orders (04/05) 503

Number of Orders (05/06) 933 85.49% 39 77.27% 1 0% 973 84.98%

22 1 526

A Year of Challenges
The raw data provided in the national statistics is helpful but necessarily quantitative. In order to get a better feel for the quality of MAPPA business it is necessary to work with other forms of analysis and, during the course of this year, a number of inspection reports and a small number of management reviews of specific cases have been published which have both detailed shortcomings in practice and highlighted many positive developments in public protection practice. It is essential that the product of these, and future, reviews and reports shape the development of MAPPA through central guidance and local practice and it is instructive to set out the lessons learned this year. Strengthening Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements (Published in October 2005 and available on www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pubsintro1.html) This research was undertaken by De Montfort University and found evidence of greater effectiveness and efficiency across MAPPA teams in England and Wales, compared to an earlier review of public protection arrangements, which had been conducted before the MAPPA legislation was introduced in 2001. It found that areas were meeting the MAPPA Guidance specification to a large extent. It also found that the arrangements had been strengthened by the inclusion of the Prison Service within the Responsible Authority and by the designation of a number of duty-toco-operate agencies ( a consequence of the Criminal Justice Act 2003). The MAPPA process facilitated effective contributions by agencies so that representatives could make operational decisions and develop risk management plans. The report made a number of recommendations for policy and practice development which are being taken forward through the revision of the MAPPA Guidance and the MAPPA business planning process.

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Managing Sex Offenders in the Community (A joint thematic inspection by Her Majesty’s Inspectorates of Probation and Police published in November 2005 and available on http://inspectorates.homeoffice.gov.uk/hmiprobation ) This inspection found that there was greater focus by police and probation on improving the assessment and management of high risk sex offenders which offered the prospect of improved performance. However it noted a number of deficiencies in relation to MAPPA case management records; police home visits for registered sex offenders and training for both police and probation staff on assessment and management of risk of harm. These deficiencies have been addressed through the National Offender Management Service Risk of Harm Improvement strategy and the development and imminent publication of the Police Public Protection Manual. An Independent Review of a Serious Further Offence case: Damien Hanson and Elliot White published in February 2006 and available on http://inspectorates.homeoffice.gov.uk/hmiprobation ) This was a report by Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector of Probation into the murder of John Monckton and attempted murder of his wife Homeyra in November 2004 by two men under the supervision of the London Probation Area. The report identified overall failures and some specific deficiencies in the way the two cases were managed. Although neither offender was referred to MAPPA Damien Hanson, who was assessed as presenting a high risk of serious harm, should have been. Importantly the report has established a number of principles against which future case management within MAPPA and the National Probation Service will be judged. Key amongst these is that the public is entitled to expect that the authorities will do their job properly i.e. to take all reasonable action to keep risk to a minimum. In response to this report, an action plan was issued to the National Probation Services to ensure delivery of effective implementation of the report’s five ‘key’ recommendations and 31 practice recommendations. An Independent Review of a Serious Further Offence case: Anthony Rice published in May 2006 and available on http://inspectorates.homeoffice.gov.uk/hmiprobation ) This report was completed following the murder of Naomi Bryant in August 2005. The independent review was requested by the Responsible Authority for MAPPA in Hampshire who were concerned by a number of issues that had contributed to the risk management failure. The report details principal findings and recommendations for a range of agencies within and outside MAPPA. Each of which is being taken forward. Importantly it revealed the failure to manage the offender’s risk of harm to the public was not due to any single act of negligence or deficiency. Rather it was a cumulative failure of processes and actions

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throughout his sentence supervision, both in prison and in the community. This is an essential point to grasp and reinforces the importance of having an integrated offender management system from start to end of sentence with clear and consistent practice between the three core MAPPA agencies, prisons, probation and police. The key recommendation for MAPPA was about maintaining a better balance between human rights of offenders and protecting the public, and using existing MAPPA guidance properly. Work is already underway to revise and strengthen national guidance and improve MAPPA’s foundations by way of the national and Area MAPPA business plans.

Joint Police/Probation/Prisons Thematic Inspection Report: Putting Risk of Harm Into Context – published in September 2006 and available on http://inspectorates.homeoffice.gov.uk/hmiprobation This report found that much had been achieved, including that planned interventions were generally effective in containing offending behaviour. There were also many areas for improvement and the report makes recommendations for the more consistent use of MAPPA and sharing of MAPPA good practice, improved risk of harm assessments and sentence planning and greater victim awareness. It is important to note that the fieldwork to support the inspection concluded in the autumn of 2005, prior to the launch of the Risk of Harm Improvement Action plan and other actions referred to in this overview. Nevertheless, the report has been welcomed and will be considered in further detail by the National Offender Management Service (NOMS) Risk of Harm Improvement Board as well as the Responsible Authority National Steering Group (RANSG).

Actions to develop MAPPA
Effecting change to these public protection arrangements requires concerted action from a range of agencies and key stakeholders. MAPPA is not an agency but a set of national arrangements that requires each contributor to ensure that their own agency’s practice is fit for purpose and that the manner of their collaboration is effective in assessing and managing the risk posed by sexual and violent offenders. It is important to note that MAPPA has benefited significantly this year from the work undertaken by individual agencies; work that has a direct bearing on how dangerous offenders are assessed and managed. This includes the OASys Quality Assurance Programme implemented from July 2005; implementation of the offender management model from April 2006; the launch of the NOMS Risk of harm Guidance and Training resource pack June 2006; and the planned roll-out of the Police Public Protection Manual.

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MAPPA will increasingly benefit from the expansion of ViSOR (the Violent and Sex Offenders Register). ViSOR is an integral part of plans to strengthen public protection through improved risk assessment and management and will provide electronic support for MAPPA allowing efficient data sharing between Police, Probation and Prisons. The police have been using ViSOR since April 2005 and the system will be implemented into the prison and the probation service during 2006/7. For the first time the Responsible Authorities will be working together on the same I.T system to Reduce Re-offending. The National MAPPA Business Plan As the national coordinating body for the Responsible Authority, the RANSG, is tasked with exercising oversight of MAPPA and ensuring its continued development. To help meet these aims the RANSG published, in November 2005, a three year National MAPPA Business Plan 2005-8. The plan identifies four broad areas of MAPPA where significant and consistent improvement is necessary. These include the following; MAPPA Development Strategy • Achieve dedicated MAPPA coordination and administration capacity in all areas during 2006/7 (underway) • Develop RANSG to include national representation of Duty to cooperate agencies (achieved) • Revise and publish MAPPA Guidance (by April 2007 – see existing Guidance at: http://www.probation.homeoffice.gov.uk/output/page30.asp) Monitoring and Evaluation • Areas to implement a MAPPA Business Plan for 2006/7 (achieved – see area annual reports) • Development of multi-agency public protection performance indicators (underway) • Improve the recording and collation of data (underway) • Develop guidance for a serious case review process (planned for consultation later this year) Communication and Strategic Partnerships • The publication of the MAPPA Annual report (achieved) • Development of the annual report to improve public understanding and engagement (ongoing) • National MAPPA conference (achieved – November 2005) • Develop a national communication strategy (issued in June, but Child Sex Offender Review may add further impetus) Training • Delivery of lay adviser national training (delivered but also developing so far) • National coordinators conference (delivered – May 2006) • Collate core training material (underway)

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Areas to implement a training strategy for new practitioners, new members of the strategic management board and for coordinators and administrators (underway)

Areas have been asked to produce annual reports on this model and local business plans are attached to area annual reports for the first time. Future reports will record the progress that has been achieved. Conclusion The introduction of MAPPA enables agencies to work more closely than ever before to exchange information and manage offenders collaboratively, ensuring that potentially dangerous offenders are being properly risk assessed and robustly managed in the community. Effective management of high-risk offenders, as a discipline, is still relatively in its infancy. There is continuous development and the standards and good practice of tomorrow are likely to be different from today’s, achieved through experience and research. The challenge therefore is not only to match current practice with what we know, but also to respond rapidly to new learning. The Inspectorate helpfully suggests that what they are describing can be better understood as the identification of stages on a journey rather than a destination reached. Since their introduction in 2001, the 42 MAPPAs covering England and Wales have travelled a great distance in a short time to establish the new arrangements. The vital public protection work of MAPPA is undertaken by skilled and committed staff and everyone engaged in the arrangements acknowledges the need for constant vigilance and improvement. The journey is not easy, but communities are safer because, as this report demonstrates, the Responsible Authorities are travelling together in the right direction.

John Scott Head of the Public Protection and Licensed Release Unit National Offender Management Service Terence Grange Chief Constable of Dyfed Powys Police and ACPO Public Protection Lead Tony Robson Her Majesty’s Prison Service On behalf of the Responsible Authority National Steering Group

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