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LONDON.l . LANCASHIRE COURT.Mus. (London) PRICE 13/6 NET.THE EXAMINATION FUGUE BY WILLIAM LOVELOCK D. NEW BOND STREET. W. 11 HAMMOND & CO. A.

.CONTENTS Section.

. in a maximum time of three hours a Fugue which is likely to present problems which were rarely. Burrows for much invaluable criticism and advice. for my strictures on the kind of trap subject sometimes set might be construed as being uncomplimentary to the devisers of such subjects. is not always the case. . 914 3 . L. unfortunately. envisaged by Bach who. and to give him some idea of appropriate style and construction. While I am in no way opposed to the setting of problems of legitimate difficulty. quote numerous examples of subjects which seem to be designed to find out what sort of a second-rate best the harassed candidate can make of what is in any case bound to be a musically bad job. W. only apology for adding to the existing number of books on Fugue is the fact that I have felt the This some My need for some such compilation in my own teaching. I feel that it should be a sine qua non that such problems be capable of a This. and one could really musical solution.FOREWORD is a purely utilitarian book. The historical and traditional aspects of Fugue may be (and should be) studied in many other books I am not herein concerned with anything but the kind of Fugue which has to be produced. despite the speed at which he obviously had to work. under conditions which generally involve a certain amount of nervous strain. B. was not labouring under the handicap of a rigid time-limit. designed entirely to help the candidate over of the pitfalls he will encounter in dealing with the examination Fugue. —strictures which I make no apology My thanks are due to Dr. if ever.

f think that because they have managed to scrape through some relatively elementary examination they can go straight ahead to such a complex matter as Fugue.I.S. can be cleared up once and for all. 2. harmonic basis is always of prime importance. In any case. even in a So many students seem to book which deals with quite advanced technique. adopted since the principles are the same whether the answerj be real or tonal. whatever the number of voices (or parts) involved at any given point. S. in the examination room. since is desirable that the student should gain experience as early as possible in the laying out of complete expositions. foundations — — . This enables the harmonic aspect to be more clearly grasped. in adding a countersubject to a subject. of course. even The student and though their harmonic foundations may be far from strong. and it may here be remarked that the student is urged to extend his study of Fugue to include that aspect." . both vocal and instrumental. or a complete Fugue. All too often the teacher is faced with the problem of trying to prepare a student for an examination which involves some such advanced work as Fugue or Canon. there are far too many who cannot harmonize a moderately difficult melody or bass with certainty and effectiveness. It is taken for granted that the student using this book is already conversant with the general principles of fijgal construction. The Exposition has not been problems of tonal answers have been considered. PRELIMINARY 1. Bach.S. discussion of two-part writing. which is not infrequently submitted by students and examinees. The rather unusual plan of dealing first with the Countersubject has been 3. whether in Fugue or anything else. but to discuss all possibilities by reference to his practice would increase the size of the book far beyond what is intended. should put aside any thought of tackling fugal work until he is properly competent." and " S.). Full appreciation of this is especially to be stressed in writing for two voices only. as is usually the felt the it case. no apology is offered for drawing attention to it. e. three.S." respectively.* and in view of the harmonically feeble kind of two-part writing. and has also an adequate understanding of what constitutes good style in two-. and A. and simultaneously patching up harmonic this is a hopeless task. the historical aspect has already been amply dealt with by other writers.and four-part contrapuntal It is necessary to realize from the very start writing. Moreover.g. and to help him to solve these problems in a way which will be reasonably certain to satisfy the examiner." will in future Part X I (Hammond & Co. and the ability to evolve a harmonically satisfactory invertible C. * t These terms For a full be abbreviated to " C. The final authority in all matters fugal is. whatever the kind of answer. see my " Free Counterpoint. and the main difficulties attendajit on the construction of an invertible C. this book is designed merely to elucidate some of the problems which frequently face the candidate who has to write an exposition. J. to " Normally abbreviated A. that a sound and logical harmonic structure is always essential. As stated in the Foreword. is a prerequisite when dealing with the more recondite left until all and complicated types of S.

. . In any case. This may appear to be unmusical advice maybe it is but it does lead to success. and the solution of. what kind of a plan he used for the fugue. And in any case the discipline of working to a set scheme is beneficial. It would be quite easy to add another four chapters dealing with further specific examples. . I just write as I feel." He failed to complete his fugue he also failed the examination. The answer was: " Oh.Mus. there is only one thing which ultimately matters that the answer should be musical. while the more gifted should be able to introduce any desired degree of flexibility into the various proposed schemes. . in order that the student may not have too much to There are so many possible complications that to deal with them digest at once. all in one chapter is felt to be asking too much. — 5. I don't have a plan. Even so. The writer remembers asking a fellow-candidate for D. it is not suggested that the four chapters on the tonal answer cover every single possibihty everj' subject has to be considered individually and all that can be done in a book of the size of the present one is to deal with as representative a selection of cases as is possible. . . The procedures suggested for the middle and final sections of a fugue do not pretend to be exhaustive they merely show some useful possibilities which experience has proved to be workable by the average student within the allotted time. its own exercises. the answer is that little more can be expected of an average student. as any competent examination coach knows. If it be suggested that they are rigid and lacking flexibility. Some such scheme is essential when working to a time-limit it is useless to leave the question of design to the inspiration (if any) of the moment. The most realistic attitude to adopt is to decide on one set plan for the 6. fugue and to practise working to it. one particular problem before tackling another. each with stand the approach to.— The problems of the tonal answer are treated in four separate sections. It is necessary thoroughly to under4.

and so on.S.S. and every S. should not be too far removed from that of the S.S..1. — S. should not . . But the rhythmic details will be contrasted. two prime essentials must always be borne in mind: — (a) (6) 2. the examination room. : be overdone.S. stress has already been laid on (a) in Chapter I. or there may be an inartistic mixture of styles. there are far too many notes to be written in any examination the time-factor has always to be considered.S. The harmonic basis must be entirely satisfactory The C. A vigorous S. monotonous in As indicated above. being consistent Ex. pastorale. to (b). and in style shows an inappropriate C. but this advice must not be intereverything depends on the style of the S. 1 (a) in the S. the general rhythmic style of the C. In adding a C. (6) is better. needs a vigorous C. a flowing C. preted too literally own individuality. Adequate 3.S. should be countered by more vice versa. a flowing S.. With regard should be realized that while contrast is essential (otherwise the significance of the prefix " counter " is largely negated). running passages steadily moving ones .S. and C. it . and Moreover.S. allowing for the limited (&) flows easily. in Ex. Ex. to a given S. . contrast of movement between Consider the following vigorous type of S. 1 is obviously quiet and flowing in the C. has its The style of the S.— II. the contrast should be within reasonable limits. THE COUNTERSUBJECT (i) Style 1. should be rhythmically contrasted with . though contrasted in detail. Andante piacevole UlJ (a) is '' P fussy and time available in (a) 4. . Broadly speaking. the S.

-^'*^ Allegro Qs Note the vigour of the staccato bowing and the " notes in bars 4 and 5. It a thoroughly bad habit to evolve a C.S. In instrumental writing. Ex. crisp style of phrasing in the S. to put a shake over a leading note which is of any length . also the type of bowing. Refer back to Ex.S. not as something to be stuck on afterwards. the ornamental resolution which breaks the shake on the leading note. The following examples further illustrate the above points and should be carefully studied. back up Ex. or any other part.. 3 (6) shows this basis elaborated into something more apt. and note the style. (iii) the extra vigour obtained by the rhythmic and melodic modifications as compared with Note {a).n The C.3. especially the use of staccato. but lacks the rhythmic drive Ex. 5. the S.Ex. Vigorous. from the rhythmic point of view. punch " given by the repeated * Phrasing should always be inserted as the notes themselves are written. 1 (6) on this point. - 1^ The points to be noted are: (i) (ii) ss — up the long minim . is . Phrasing is such a vital matter that it must be considered as an integral part of every voice.S.2.4. details of phrasing as expressed by the contrasts of legato and staccato must* always be carefully considered. 3 [a] forms a good basis.* The snappy. n mrij ip= to at Ex. merely as a series of notes and then to add the phrasing as a kind of afterthought. Allegro s TO/^ PT3i. must be matched by that in the C. both as to their appropriateness and their rhythmic effect. In instrumental writing it is often most useful. m i^u'^'o^y L (iii. ^.

itself The Ex.Sturdy and forceful. ^urm ' "L^ f use of rests in the C. ^ J' '^^^^IJl . If the S.. the beginning is effective ^ ^ (c) Andante c.^Jf^g**'-^ ^r"^^™^?-^^ ^. it is well to consider the possibility of introducing some into the C." Quiet and flowing. Mod era to u T I 5 ij tr. 4 (a) shows effective use of short. contains no rests. J T I V iv • y.S. bar 4 Andante '^ IJ^ 6.S.S. giving consistency. depends on appropriateness to the style indicated. always allowing for the risk of implied harmonic clashes. The fact that a note followed by a rest within the bar lasts in effect to the next accent must never be overlooked. 5 is another instance. will be encountered which definitely seems to suggest some riests in the C.i^Lj ' ^p ^^ JLl. Occasionally a S. point. The cross-rhythm bowing at Easy-going.s.S. Kj 1^ r' r^irr i n^ K^'c^ n / 1 m J -J J | r r The rest in The use of the figure r— is a good makes a neat " breathing place. pointed phrases in the C..S. Ex. Ex. but care must always be taken that such rests do not induce an inappropriate " chopped up " effect. separated by short rests. -..

is neither possible nor desirable. " Butting up " may be part of the art of paperhanging. and C.6. While uninterrupted contrary motion between S.Where rests occur in both S. 9. invited. too much parallel motion and too much parallel rhythm is a the C. Imitation of the S. however momentary. Compare the is undesirable even following : — if the S. is such that it Ex.8 j'. — Ex.. Ex. must be avoided.S.S. the end of a phrase in one should 7. . ends on the 3rd quaver of the bar resumes on the 4th. as with it. but it is not conducive to good part-writing. seems almost to be by the C. At (fc) there is a complete hiatus on the 3rd quaver of the bar.S. — — .S. and C.S. always overlap the beginning of a phrase in the other gaps involving complete The following is bad: silence. is weakness. no overlap of phrases the C. 7 shows overmuch melodic and rhythmic parallelism not so much " against " the S.rrT^i|iV^ w . 8. At (a) there is — and the S.

Mention of these two points might seem. care is any necessary word-repetitions make is and (b) that the accentuation correct. 9 sequentially would be useless. distressing.S. Vocal The fugues are taken to be for a normal chorus. 12. there is no real contrast. 9 seems almost to demand imitation but such imitation is to be avoided (Ex. In vocal writing tne compass of each voice must be kept in mind. It is necessary to be guided by what seems most effective in each individual case. Even such nonsense as Ex. rule a sequence in the S. This example also shows a good style of phrasing when writing for organ or piano. but care must be taken to achieve a truly vocal style. Students quite frequently expect. 13.. 10 is hardly beyond the bounds of possibility. 10 . When needed (a) that words are given (as. To try to treat Ex.S. but it is surprising. obviously. not one composed of virtuosi. 8 (a). Naturally.S. whether in fugal writing or anything else.S. superfluous. 10. (a). (b)). must match it. not to say how many quite well-educated students produce utterly ridiculous results when handling words. by the > •»' q ^ i'. (6) shows good contrast. As a general is in the C.. (Ex. they always should be) especial sense. like Ex. 9 (a)) subject such as that in Ex.At (a) the C. and a good stretto possibility is used up. should be harmonized sequentially not to be considered absolutely essential except in the case 11. A C. a S. •> H l ti^r '^^Lj y- C. e. and its value is enhanced by the rhythmic imitation indicated by the brackets. 9. general basic principles are similar to those explained above in connection with instrumental work. . . a soprano to take a top B or C. is practically in free canon with the S. set for vocal treatment will be in a vocal style.S.g. is too nearly in stretto to be desirable. but this of a modulating sequence. and the C.

is effective.S. it is simplest to start tne C.) would perforce need to be continuous. 11 shows two contrasting cases. while at (6) the words cannot be satisfactorily split up and the rests are avoided " In order to make these words " spin out laithin the sentence " I shall not want. it is not by any means essential this has already been shown that the C. since the lower is already sufficiently broken up.S. No exact guidance is possible here. the upper (as C. C. 6 must never be overlooked. to the Lord. The introduction of rests into a vocal C. Whether writing for voices or instruments. in Chapter 5. though the reminder in para.Sing ye Sing- ye t?v — the Lord. (bj The S Lord is my J shep - - herd 11^ j~7Tj U^^ H m rWrTrx^^Wf J C. ^ rn ye to Sing the.10.S. It is simply a case of commonsense and an elementary appreciation of the meaning of the words.s. the whole sentence is to the breathing-place before the repetition. proper after the beginning of the S.S. 15." objection is obviously no and there repeated against the S. needs special care in order that the sense of the words be not destroyed. Note also that if the lower part were given as the S.S. In many cases. Note how the phrasing and shape of the C. but where words are concerned This point will be fully considered it is sometimes necessary to start C.. as will be seen later. . I shall not want shall not -Want. At {a) the introduction of rests into the C.^ Ex.S. 11 .S. the Lord. Ex.. 14.. help to enforce the spirit of the words. begin at exactly the same point as the S. in many of the examples.S. before S.

(e) j- i J ^^^-^ - : 7T^-J^ VOICES Serioso ^ff ^M^^ rjrp Ky-ri - ^ J i *s^ 1 e e - le - son Use the same words (f) for C.S. Add a C.S. below each of the foUowing:- (a) STRINGS Andante '' 1 f (b) .^)! r ^ [^ p c i r } ^ 1 ^ ^ c r ^-^'^i^ ^ STRINGS Alleifro vi^oroso (c) ORGAN m (d) i Allegretto^ fcj PIANO Allegro i'.rr_rir- n . dothmag^-ni-fy the Lord. VOICES Allegro pi ±1 J irnrr soul My — rjr r ^^ dothmag-nify the Lord. C.S. to the words 'And my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour' 12 .- EXERCISES 1.j i" ' ^ f ^ if .

S. . ^ (b) STRINGS Pastorale (c) ORGAN Modern to (d) PIANO Andante iij^^[j. 13 . above each of the foUowing:- STRINGS Mode ra to I lit II .S. in - ex - eel SIS Use the same words for C. -n^.\>'ii X)o JT^ - na. Keep some movement (mainly in quavers) against the penultimate long note. Add (a) a CS. VOICES Mode ra to ^^ f Glo p - fHr - ri a in-cx-cel M r - r si De - o.2. do - - aa no - bis pa - cem Use (f) the same >\'ords for C.ij^_^WT^n^ (e) VOICES Andante J - 9\.

2. and C. they should be so combined that each forms a good bass to the other.S. 12 (a) the C.e.S. At (ii) in C. Invertibility at the 15th implies that S. Invertibility may be at either the octave or the fifteenth. 12 {a) S. is again above the S. and that to show the inversion one of the voices must be transposed two octaves.III. where practicable. Ex. At (i) —1 in in the inversion. may be anything up to two octaves apart (but not more) at any given point.S.^ ^ ¥ 14 .S. 12 (b). may not cross .. 2. is in many cases to be preferred. the C. though for reasons which will appear later the former.S. J^. At occurred. This involves . Ex. Invertibility at the octave means that the original lower part on being transposed up an octave shall lie entirely above the other part or that the higher part transposed down an octave shall lie entirely below the other. i. C. and C.S. 12 shows what happens if these points are disregarded.S.S. is again above the C. For the purposes of the examination fugue the S. being above has inversion y.S Inversion C. is crossed above the S.e. 13 shows two countersubjects applied to the same subject. and C. 12 (6) the S. the relative positions of the two voices remain unchanged and there is no inversion. with satisfactory harmonic implications either way up. {b) at the 15th.. are more than an octave apart. THE COUNTERSUBJECT (ii) Invertibility 1. ^OT^f^'.S.S- m 1 i ^m. (6) S. and C. Ex. should always be in invertible counterpoint. At the same place Ex.S. and C. Ex. i. should at no point be more than one octave apart. attention to two points: (a) — S. (a) is invertible at the octave. and no S. (ii) in Ex.

. 15 . i. a properly managed nothing to be criticized but unfortunately necessary to examine the possibilities in some is is . detail.lS. That at (c).e. ^. 4 cadential. — Ex. Cii) #— rj-if . is not good. nfU^ (ii) (iiO » (ft) ^ P (c) ^^ is (a) ^^ ^. off the accent.14. Root and 5th of a chord should only occur together being taken in arpeggio as a short-value note. in any other way. F B t? momentary. Owing to the slower speed the bareness of the 4th is unduly noticeable. The 5th at (a) implies is VI produces a 4th which — quite acceptable harmony . ^ m . the inversion will naturally imply a If such a 1 . the 5th Ex. at 4. l The 5th above the bass at {a) inverts satisfactorily as at (6) the 4th. however. The main difficulties in connection with invertibility arise from the \ If any given point the 5th of the impHed chord is in the upper part. and a legitimate one. 15 shows the undesirability of root and 5th taken ix. but its inversion at (6) harmonically meaningless. 5. passing or arpeggio this is there it is not always the case.M !Hiii' I mn 4.. r ' I'.

16 . is a suspension or appoggiatura. If the lower note of an accented bare 5th the progression is. In two-part writing this involves the sounding together of the 3rd and 5th degrees of the scale. to quote the apt phrase of the late Prof. off the accent. es m * ^ "ML? (a) (b) p ' IVb V\ I IV Vd lb The diminished are to be avoided. is The 5th of a chord taken in arpeggio 8. viz.16 . The small The diminished 5th above the leading note is always safe 7. against the 3rd. ^ Ex. 7 1 rt 1^'^ ^ ^ IV V u u lb r^j-] fi „ ^ U^ w 1 jS V IVb V Vb (OlV has been well grounded in ideas of harmonic progresThe biggest difficulty in merely commonsense. is an edged tool.^f|Lffr nrf if II fff i f The bass at (a) is a suspension and inverts at (6) into a good 4-3. all the above should be quite well aware of its possibilities and limitations. 5th above the supertonic of the minor key. implying I (Ex. The inversion implies Vb— VM—lb provided it (6).17. I or III. Ill. of course. and its inversion. 9.>i r. and the student who has reached the stage of tackling fugal problems should be the student To who sion. These two notes are bound to imply one of two chords.6. Ex. both satisfactory and useful. satisfactory. Kitson. 17 (a)). connection with invertibility arises over the implied cadential \ on the dominant (Ic). resolves inwards. notes are inserted to make the harmony clear.18. Ex.

melodically speaking. implying Ic V^d. At (a) the Ic —Vd progression is the only really satisfactory solution but the inversion might equally well be har- monized thus: Ex. 20. 19 shows what happens when an apparently safe implied Ex.— ^ . Another point arises from Ex. ^'i n. is inverted. — of the scale fall simultaneously to Ex.S.. at * is From we deduce an important An implied I I progression as a factor of the second chord. and C.19. this is j- i j r ' "^^^ prohibition: ^ — 2nd The 4th 10. or C.S. roots as those at corresponding points in the original. ^^ O r^ impossible. (a) :^j—r^. The only safe solution is to make 3rd and 5th and 4th respectively. never possible if the supertonic occurs in S. 17 . but the harmonic implications may be varied as seems desirable.j-j J—r--^ ^ ^ tr li n Lffff f same This shows that the actual chords in the inversion need not necessarily be on the The S.20. remain unchanged. \ I Ex.21.j-'j F » V'd lb s lb rTfr-f i rLf i r IV IVb Ic 11. .

it can do so (Ex. an inner part being harmonic clarity.S.22. 24 (a)). Particularly at cadences. 22 covers the points dealt with in paras.s. 'f I I fr r r- ^ Note : ^^f I * I I Vb_ Vd lb iVb Ic V''d lb IVb IV ^ lb Vllb I — (i) 4ths. upper notes unessential. i r 1-=^ r r r r . is below. 4 to 11. The E and C sharp (iv) in S. (iii) (ii) into 6ths. Ic 20. I IV IV b Ic V'd ? lb ^iv) C.23 rj^^Ji^'i i gg (i) In (fl) V harmony is obvious for the high D and it looks as if the following A could also take this chord. No account has been taken of whether invertibihty is fifteenth.S ^ — ^ (vi. 13. If the C. The —VM progression inverts into lb Vllb at (vi). (b) r r Kz: c. and C. lower notes notes. added to for Ex. 24 (c) and {d)). 18 . Compare Ex. into a 4 trap.S. "^ (i) ^^ "> I ^ Inversion. Vllb being merely an incomplete dominant 7th. inverting at unessential. respectively treated as passing At (v) they must be factors of VM in order to resolve correctly the preced- ing Ic. passages are apt to occur where Consider the following: — it is easy to fall Ex. but if this be inverted we get a bad 4th. be at octave or Ex. This A must therefore be harmonized so that when in the lower part its chord is Vllb (Ex. IV V''b I IV lb.— 12.

of course. so the V in place of V Vllb. (iii) is possible. since the leap A The whole bar value notes that it would be inartistic to use two separate chords. and when this is to occur (ii) unwary student might decide — — in the bass the safest harmony is II (or IT) — V.^ cs. In Ex. only the trap A—D is downwards. z^-^ ^ :. Hence: — lb Vb_ 1 1 Ibll'dVb is At {a) either of the indicated harmonizations the only satisfactory one. resolving to B across the barline. but at (6) that shown Hence : — Ex. (The student should by now understand this without detailed explanation. — Hence: — 19 . the latter.y Or P s. for himself. 26.) The only possible notes agamst this A are F sharp (3rd of chord) or C (7th).Ex 24 C. 23 {b) the ending appears to be the reverse of that at (a). D.S. being the 5th of the chord and on the accent may not have the root. D is in such short(iv) Ex. 23 (c) ends similarly to (6). forgetting that to use Vllb (again to quote Prof. Ex." In this case we have a melodic progression from the 2nd to the 5th of the scale (A to D). 23 {d) introduces a new angle. against it. . must he based on dominant harmony. Kitson) " one kills the other. (e) ^r-p The student may write out the inversion shows (c) decorated by a suspension. and the A.

V^b I {a) inverts to (b) at the octave . the choice depending on which treatment gives the better melodic and rhythmic flow in the added part. must have either A sharp or E against it.Ex.. last note but two of the S. E is obviously to be preferred. (6) has obviously more point than (a). for 15. 20 . allowing. (c) to (d) at the 15th. 14.28. ^ ^ Vb v''c VIbVb . of course. V Vb Vd lb V.27. Since A sharp will have to get out of the way to avoid a doubled leading note. V V lb The C sharp. Another case on similar lines: — '^^^-JTjjl i ^ ^ Ex. considerations of context. may Remember that a note tied or repeated weak to strong and falling a step be either a suspension or a 7th.

is improved.= "ir • ' ^ f f p TC^-JK.|'iJTJ ill BpI J IP V lib III'' ^ ff?T VI F: lllb e Vlb Vb Uv) m At (b) ^ Bt>:l (i) ^ I^ M W c. and the melodic such a S. —the latter is definitely stronger.s. weak. (ii) ^ _ r (ii? *=g. were given as an upper part.30 ^—ry m Ex. 30. becomes a suspension on the accented 3rd beat (iv) . This applies especially if the second of the two notes is syncopated into a suspension or a 7th as in Ex.When a given bass subject leaps up a 4th or down a 5th from strong to 16. 31 in detail. Ex. 31 tr. the ciue 21 .S. the possibility of a 7th chord in root position followed by its resolution on root a 4th higher is always to be considered. can is the 4th leaps followed by syncopations. Ex. be either suspensions or 7ths.S. . at (ii) it becomes a strong line of the If Note the modification of (iii) at C. yi. ^ • p p i r J If r p7f^ Illb U' V V^d lib IIP VI Vll'd F: Vlb UliVb the syncopated bass 7th. (6) is if Two effective treatments are possible — examine anything rather stronger. such treatment would be less obvious The tied notes in the C.

# ^n i ' J. it must be accepted if there is no way out. Vb_ yV vib_vu' F. syncopated.s. thus: — So Ex. £ 111 !>ti'i Bb:! ^ ^ 1 =^ II ^ V 'ir. Occasionally a S. (W ^ f r f fp i^ m P n^ IP 5* r 'r I r ^ 1 ^ * . Consider the following: — 22 . chords have to be taken across the bcirline. and care must be taken not to use syncopated inappropriately. fa) The tied notes at [a] can only be harmony notes. Although this be found in which the harmony is deliberately unusual.32. and not even 7ths at that. 34 The student may harmony write out the inversion for himself. (a) Ex.Ex.s.33. p i r g vP may is ^ 11 i ^ vihvir F: B^I ird Vb m''d in VI ip v. Such cases as this are exceptional. ^^ J. ^ f"> f^r ^'~^-tfi "tr^ d^ 1^ c. lb VI I ^^^ c. lb 17.

23 . 38 (a) is correct.S.38 aJ. and C. 33 a misguided be based on V^ harmony. similar to the cases in Ex.Ex. the student should work out the original and inverted versions of S.jJ|J- |J-J^JfJ-||J-jH | |J. 35. The 9-8 suspension between it S. Ex. Hence : — — V I IV V'' lb The important doubt that the 18.37. t^^ n . is all Ex.S. since when inverted gives " resolution above suspension " (Ex. so as to show without latter is the 7th of the chord. Amend as at (c). 20.[| f-fr ^ rff ^ This fault is r^^ especially likely to occur at cadences.S. Never forget that the harmonic implications are of the utmost importance in both — versions. To avoid falling into the various traps dealt with in this chapter. hVit\:yi^^ At first diagnosis. point is to put B flat against the tied A flat. available. and C. 19. and must. simultaneously. and C. This trap too easily overlooked unless the inversion is written out simultaneously with the working of the original. but its inversion at (6) is not. on two separate scores. > r-r r Care is needed to avoid an exposed octave between S. sight it might seem that (a) is The whole bar can.^ (a) r. 37 Ex. so as to be able to see how the latter is shaping. is not (a)).

ORGAN Andante f (e) i ijjji Allegro.S.jj' i gr5!riui D2 jj PIANO U (f) j""3 J J I J J J i j ^ i ^E£EiE^ Theei VOICES ^m C. i'ij_!. STRINGS Brisk ^^^m (b) STRINGS Allegretto^ (c) STRINGS Mode ra to M ^^m (d) rrrrir ^a^ j ^ 1k^ . (a) Shew the inversions. Adagio ¥ff if deep have I "^''g - Out of the call ed un-to Lord to"Lord. hear my cry!' 24 . Add countersubjects invertible at the octave to the following subjects.EXERCISES I.

r-ynJjih li fy (b) STRINGS Alleg-ro (c) STRINGS (d) PIANO Pastorale >)= }( .^Cnff Andante Ff^^ (e) ORGAN (f) STRINGS Allegro ¥> (g) ! > ^rj!JH^vM i •> Mr:^fr:g :^± STRINGS Moderaio r iiHiLT r r I f r f > 25 .^ F^^rl. (a) STRINGS Andantino i .2. Add countersubjects invertible at the 15th to the following subjects. Shew the inversions.

tonic to dominant. The initial leap C to G. scale.-Always be careful to insert all Hence. so the answering dominant-tonic leap at (6) must be followed by the subdominant of the dominant key. Ex. 40 exactly the same principles apply. THE ANSWER (I) 1. " tonal. Ex... the answer is known of the dominant. will be a 4th . and continue with an exact transposition. the step of a 2nd at (i) accidentals needed for a correct trans- position. note-for-note. the A. For the present we confine ourselves to a consideration of modifications Note that " tonic " and in respect of tonic and dominant degrees of the scale. the answering leap while a downward leap of a 4th will be answered by one of a 5th. will begin with a leap G to C. at the beginning of the S. a 5th." 2. whether these terms refer to degrees of the scale or to keys. (fl) 26 . is automatically " real. " dominant " are always taken as referring to those degrees of the tonic scale also that modifications in respect of them are needed only when they occur prominently . as " real.IV. as far as it appears in the exposition is. The answer. merely the Subject transposed up a perfect 5th or down a perfect 4th into the key If the transposition is exact.40. " Tonal " modifications in the A. (b)k^ at In Ex. i. as compared with the S. arise from the general rule that tonic must answer dominant and vice versa. 3.e. G is minor. in which case the A. Initial leap from tonic to dominant. in its simplest form. and will then proceed to the submediant (E flat) of the dominant key.B. If the leap is upwards. therefore. answered by a 3rd at (ii). which involves compliance with is known as these rules. D major." But in accordance with rules now to be considered.. N." If there is nothing in the S. this leap must be answered by one from dominant to tonic. dominant to tonic of C minor. If the latter note implies dominant harmony. certain modifications sometimes have to be made in the A. 39. is followed by the submediant of the The A. The initial tonic-dominant leap is followed by the subdominant of the scale.

beginning. this dominant (apart from a few exceptional cases to be considered later) must be answered by the tonic. against such types of If the A. The cases so far considered are of a simple character a number of more complicated possibilities are dealt with in Chapter 6. : We — similarly. Whatever may be the next note...S.S. now have to consider the handling of the C. In initial 5.S..e. 41 {d) il would not begin before the second quaver after the barline. But if this is impossible without either bad distortion of the melodic shape of the C. as it can. in Ex. 40. until bar 2 Ex. it is well to adopt the following rule Begin the C. ajter this point. 41 '(a) D T. rbj (0) # U^^'[A ^'\(jJ^^ \ —H* IIL^CJ all the above it will be observed that starting on the dominant causes the interval to be modified. 6.S.S. can begin imth the A. after the " change. however. The following openings of subjects should make things clear: — Ex. 42 shows how this may be done. The augmented 4th G to C sharp at (/) would appear to be unavoidable if we are to comply with the rule. 15 of Chapter 2.4. But see Chapter 6." The C. otherwise he is likely to find more advanced problems difficult to follow. in in Ex.S. and A. In view of the fact that an examination fugue has to be written under the handicap of a time-limit. but from the second note in each case the transposition to the dominant key is exact. it is always permissible to begin the C. . Subject beginning on the dominant. has to work against both S. 39 one would not attempt to begin the C. For the present it is desirable that the student should have practice in applying the principles so far explained. proper must be delayed.S. But the procedure is far from being essential.S.. i. following the rules given. para. the C. after the " change " unless a tonally answered dominant proceeds to the mediant or subdominant of the tonic key. 41 {a) and (c). or some harmonic impropriety. has a tonal adjustment at its tonal answer.S. Hence . and in most cases the adjustment in the latter will involve a corresponding one in the C. whether the rhythm be weak to strong or strong to weak. In Ex. 27 . as indicated in para. 7. the start of the C. and Ex. 2. also.

A further example of tonal adjustment in the C. Note that if the S. be the 7th of see (6) above. :>^.44. ^ tU (a) S. Otherwise an adjustment is needed in the C. 42 {b) is the small that the 7th amount of adjustment required.r^^ The brackets show noted in Ex.43 .S. V— : — Ex. begins with a leap from dominant to tonic the C. make Ex. at (i) The point to be at (il). f^^ fch^m^ A. should help to things clearer. can be preserved intact proviaed its first note.. against the first note of the S. against the A.S. above the root becomes a doubled root 8.J-^:'^ yte^.S. 28 .D: 1 V'b V'c 1 IV lb U V''b 1 Vb V lb.

Hence. ^^\Hnr^ r^ ^ c s. In 3rd at (i) becomes a 2nd at (iii). chord of G).S. So invertibility at the 15th is essential. Movement initial dotted crotchet is essential.S. is 10. 44 a C. CS." starts with a long note. answered by tonic harmony in the A. The exercises which follow have been specially designed for the C. invertible at the octave.S.S. e. 9. must begin during it. But since the S.g. and it should be evident that the harmony at the beginning of the S. both appearing as (c) against the A. the C. Ex. especially those containing wide leaps. See Ex. The latter is to be avoided by invertibility at the 16th. 43 it will be seen that dominant harmony at the beginning of the S. to be invertible at the octave where demanded. I V (in It above the A flat). while in (6) the 3rd at (ii) becomes a 4th at {a) the (iv). (chord of D.should be obvious that (6) is the only correct answer to (a).46. and that in the A. where dominant harmony of the tonic key is answered by dominant harmony of the dominant key.: — — — C.(ivVui) Either (a) or {b) is acceptable. can only be V I. But this is not essential. To delay it until after the middle of the bar could be considered " shirking. need not begin exactly with the S. The former is never admissible. In Ex. If we try to evolve against Ex. But it must be realized that some subjects. Here again the C. overlapping is found to be unavoidable. will not allow of this without either weakening the harmony or falling into some grammatical error such as overlapping.S- 29 . 42 (c).

S. 5..ii\i PIANO Hoderuto } f=^=^ 3 ^ ^ (At the octave) STRINGS (At the 15th.) m^ Alia Menuetto J^ij (Atthu octave) nn m 3. VOICES (At the octave) &^ ^v^. t0:-'If the bowl had been stronger my son^ had been ^ r -I ThteeMisemen froraGoth-am ^ ' d ^ E i in a bowl. STRINGS 'At the octave) Moderato^ m M^ r Lf STRINGS (At the 15th.S. 4. looker!' PIANO (At the octave) AUeg-retto ^ n i 9.) g ii¥ !!^ rLrj-N^^ ^ j'f i!t*fir | 30 .to both Invertibility as directed. PIANO ORGAN (At the 15th. ^^ 2. STRINGS at the Vivo 15th. and A.) A ndunte \. 8- Serioso Went to sea CS.Exercises Find the correct answers to the following and add a C.) Vivace 1. shewing the inversions. 1. 6.

Free C. 3. or S. or S. C. enter in the exposition be an outside one. Tenor Bass (It A. or ascending from the bottom upwards. Tenor Bass . A. If an inner part leads off. Having stated the C. A. as it were.S. and A. this requirement is automatically fulfilled the voices enter either in descending order from the top downwards. I Bass 'Soprano Four parts Alto S.S. Free etc. Note that each voice in turn must proceed from its statement of S. " C. THE EXPOSITION (I) 1. the writing of complete expositions is dealt with at this point since it is essential for the student to be able to see how his attempts at writing countersubjects will work out in a complete context and not merely. to the C. Free alto. the plans are as follows : — Soprano Alto S.S. obviously makes no difference whether the or violin. or anything else. Free C. A. Bass Free For a four-part one: — Free C.S.S. or A. it then becomes a free part whose functions are (a) to help to complete the harmony and (6) to add to the rhythmic effect.. S. A. Soprano Alto S. S. C. C. C.S. C. Although there are many further complications yet to be considered in connection with tonal answers. alternating in tonic and dominant keys respectively.) voices " are soprano. S.S. viola and 'cello. C. — Soprano Alto S. S.S. in isolation.V. s.S. For examination purposes it is considered desirable that the last voice to 2.S. If the voice which leads off is itself an outside one.S.S. A. The plan for a three-part exposition is thus: . A.

from which it proceeds. Ex. ^^^ tt)4_( J = 5 etc. begins thus: — A Ex. ^jj ij^y j^.- ExA^Caj (Viola) CCello) The entry in first violin must be a 5th above that in Vln. Ex. 2 (b)yia. m 5. The successive entries must be : — (c) Cello Ex. as it is plete exposition should make this point clear. ^ X.(b) f ^ ^ ^ C.j-jijii^'jjrM-ia i i The entries on an octave too high. or A.l. The begintaken over by each successive voice must always bear the same pitch-relationship to the S. i. 2.S ^ 32 Frci .50. in the proper octave.(a) y> s.51. first violin and 'cello may quite possibly be (incorrectly) written needed to place the C.52.e.S. (a) Via. The following comSimilar care is ning of the C.49 ^ — -N w Now suppose the S.S.

but this may be changed to a semiquaver. . according to the needs of the context.S. and a link. begins and ends on the tonic..S. * But if the S. can immediately follow on the S. the same following on the second violin's statement of the A. the of the S. owing to its high register." Much depends on the rhythmic style of S. on the viola. th\n^ f^ Ex. \ E the to Here the S. in the 'cello. 7.S. at (a). In given as a quaver. in the viola. Ex. is necessary. is in quadruple time. and in some cases such development is impracticable. the viola from bar 5 in Ex. 33 . lying a 4th below of the S. simple or compound. This would be permissible with a S. 52 not much can be done. simultaneously with Since the S. The A. but should also be of such a character that its figure can be used. 53 it is (ii) Codetta must have both both rhythmic and melodic point it should not only make the necessary join. a codetta may be needed when there is a time-gap between the beat on which the S. The C. it. begins on the fourth quaver of the bar and ends on the first. must begin. if desired. .. ends and that on which the A. C. Note also the initial statement 6. but the two instruments concerned at least attempt some independent rhythmical movement. for further development in the course of the fugue. The temptation.immediately below the last note of the S. 8. In Ex. and C. such as Ex. not merely " fill in the harmony. in Ex. begins . and vice versa without any harmonic jolt and without the need for any linking passage. where the A.* (6) It is essential when the S. that at (6) must do Similarly at (c). 52 shows the simplest possible type of exposition. 86. known {a) as a Codetta. The time-value Ex. When a part becomes " free..g. 54 shows a suitable working. in the viola. In a non-modulating S. we shall not Ex. 57 and the second violin from bar 7. Two points are be noted : — A (i) of the last note of the S. a codetta may legitimately be avoided by bringing in the A. and on the same beat of the bar. Regarding (a).53. etc. try to begin the C. But in many cases this is not possible. at the half bar. and gap must be filled in before the entry of the A. in the first violin begins immediately below the last note the pitch of the entry of the A. and ends in the middle of the bar. could enter on the 6th quaver of bar 3. may be varied as desired. 53 begins with a leap from dominant to tonic. it should as far as possible develop some figure of its own.S. crotchet. would be to place the 'cello entry an octave lower." e.

Ex. ^rs . r^ i^ i J?t?|/S>i EaBfij \f l ji The codetta is marked episode. 56 (fc)). r— and it is obvious that it would develop fruitfully in an Regarding (b). Even if the A. and if its first note (on the viola) is made to coincide with the last note of the S. will begin on C sharp.57. is the tonic chord of C sharp minor (Ex.. i ^ ^ ^W ^' -' The A.54. while the 5th at (ii) C sharp minor far is from being needed: — Ex.55. 56 (a)). ) ! ^m 34 ^ . Ex. there would still be a harmonic jolt. there will be an impossible bare 4th (Ex. were to enter above the S. J r ' I > -^ J w tvii LL^ (i) i etc r a/*^) sh i The i r r '^cifTf ^r^ is 4tli at (i) is really satisfactory. is F sharp minor while the initial implication of the A. i a SWs. u Wi ^ £. since the implied final chord of the S. Ex.56. 9. ^ ^b. So a codetta leading towards obviously impossible. later in the fugue.

which does not arise in the major key. Refer to Ex. on E sharp . (^ 35 . The A.s. the dominant key is minor. enough to make the modulation with no ill (c) make C use of transition from the chord of sharp major. The same motif could be used yet again for a codetta between the third and fourth entries in a four-part exposition. and it is fatally easy to get a feeling of bad false relation since to effect the return to F sharp minor the dominant major triad must be introduced. But this is not always too simple a matter. (6) introduce a codetta long effect .58. so a modulation back to this latter key has to be made.) is obviously needed to make a neat join. Consider this continuation of Ex. since whereas the dominant chord of a minor key is major. C sharp minor to that of Ei. the dominant key.10. and the ensuing entry of the S.S.59. must be in F sharp minor. 57. (c. ends in C sharp minor. with the Tierce de Picardie. Care 11. In the minor key there is one difficulty with a non-modulating S. A codetta between the second and third entries may quite well be based on the same motif as that between the first and second. There are three possible solutions to the problem : — (a) end the C. 54: — Ex.

In Ex. i. ending on the third of the tonic chord may have this third made major in the A. whether the key be major or minor. effective provided the harmony is suitable. Ex.) ^ rr OlJ . a touch of the subdominant is useful. that marked t—u is This always It is to be noted that a minor-key S.S.S.j fiJJIJj.e. (/.fe ^ jJ 36 .60.^ C. is C (at {a)). 57) but the slide from E to E sharp is rather obvious in effect. 60 the last note of the S. never very easy to Nvrite quickly.. the same in F sharp. ^M (a) is to be recommended as saving time and trouble.^inijX' '^^ IJJ I \ § etc. ^h^hJ:iJ (C. the major 3rd. but the last note of the A. is G sharp. -^ (a) rfji i r [?r r r ^ ^. The progression '"77' ^^ V— I harmony in C is sharp .) For examination purposes is (a) demonstrates a very useful method of managing a short codetta. and it is to be noted that in order to cancel out the effect of the domineUit key. with the parts ivverted. roots rising in 4ths. at (6).JnJ | J. ^ ^ •M^ m - ^ J r trr*r i l ^ t™. the minor 3rd. (c) is acceptable (note the viola's reference to the codetta figure in bar 4 of Ex.

beginning at bar 6 : — Ex.g. as in the cases just dealt with. the obvious against the beginning of the A.S.61. Even if a codetta is not essential.) 'C. : O come. let us sing unto the Lord . but if there is a time-gap between the end of the S. in the exposition. Starting the C. it is desirable to use a codetta in order that the condensation may not go too far. : Let us heartily rejoice in the strength of our salvation. 37 . This is exemplified in Ex.g. to begin simultaneously with the A. and reaching C major too soon. is apt to be necessary in dealing with words.S. and used consistently so throughout In this particular case the tonal adjustment of the C. f l c j^ i ^ i r^ A. presents no difficulty.. with only one group of middle entries. a good codetta provides possible material for use in episodes. If it should. or A. CEad of S. and The incidentally shows the examiner that the candidate knows " how to do it. from Ex.S.S. there . Besides which.S the whole fugue. is no objection to introducing one simply for the sake of variety and if the fugue is planned to be short and condensed." best place for such an " unessential " codetta is before the final entry of S..S. where the passages taken as codettas might equally well be taken as beginning the C. are different from those for the S.S.S. 52. 13. e.S. : — S. . e. should not start before the A. C. and the first note of the A. It has already been mentioned that it is not essential for the C. The reference to of avoiding monotony. before the A. there is no reason why the C.12. ^ The Ri- H^ C/ l J. later. especially if those for the C. D minor is codetta a simple r— i is way based on the figure at the end of the S. 61 shows this possibility applied to the S. 54 and 58. Ex. thing is to start the C.

i^ s i ' i \ \ V rf come.< come.^ Ex. let Ub heart-i-ly re-joice inthe ^ ^i=* ^ coniy. the CS V. ^ ^ let a? ub sing i un - ^ to HI Lord. ^ ^A^' ^ (^pn cume. let 1^^^ un-tothe Lord. the Lord. us sing 38 . let i r^'^j^nr ub sing u&to the Lord. . let us heart-i-ly re-joice inthe strength of our va-tion. \ Kr'r^r | [! pTr ri ^^ \ ^ P sal - Lord.62. come let us ^^Hf-fn^ ^rrf^ ^3E come let f i pr rj| sal- us heartily re-joice iuthestrengthof our Ui--^ us &iug mt unto the # [f'v rsing FPff — let us e: sing * un to untotheLord. r2 va(-tion. ^ let us W-^ fe^ ^^ ^^ ^ ^ sing ^^^ streogthof our ^ sal-va-tion uatothe Lord let 5E come.

EXERCISES Using your corrected C. 63 shows the kind of thing that happens.S. but in four or more come complications in the lie it above the violin. 1. para. As long as the interval between S. 6 and 9 8 in in three parts.S. at the octave — — . Nos. it was suggested that invertibility of S. and C. so that inversion of S.In Chapter 3. (Codetta) From (a) the viola must trouble. is generally to be preferred. four parts. 5. 1. this will mean that the outside parts will be at (or almost at) the same pitch. When the inversion appears. as at (c) in Ex. Nos.63. so considerable crossing by the free parts cannot be There is. 3. work up the exercises from Chapter 4 into complete expositions. is initially stated in an inner part. 4. is obvious that the average student accurate management In three parts this gives no great may find unwelof the part-writing. T. Ex. is not much more than an octave at any given point say up there is no great difficulty but if they are. though it is admitted that this is not always practicable. The trouble arises it the S. of course. a 14th or 15th apart. Ex.'s.S. 2. say. to a tenth the inversion will bring them together at a 2nd. 52. complicate matters for the student. is bound to occur in the exposition. 14. and C. no objection to such crossing.S. or on the unison. but it does tend to avoided. 39 . and C.

there are occasional exceptions. (c) answered tonally as at [d) produces another unpleasant augmented 4th. and must have a real A. In the same way. ^ __ S Similarly with regard to awkward melodic Ex. concerned with {a) melodic propriety.65. On the other hand. given to (a) above in Ex. (b) »=^ The B 4. 41 (/) is unmusical.icj'j:^. allowing for the altered note values. (6) harmonic implications. normally adhered to with considerable strictness. 2. Ex. (^ into account. (c). 64 the two semiquavers are a kind of anacrusic decoration of the accented quaver after the barline. (a) dominant and vice Ex. At (a) in Ex. THE ANSWER (II) Although the rule that an initial dominant must be answered by tonic is 1.67. (b) ^ ^ .'iiiijTiiJ ^g ^ 40 . rectly given a tonal A.^^ i rr rJ ^^ intervals.66. 3. If a dominant is an appoggiatura it will have a real answer —the implied harmony must be taken £>X. ^ 'b> (c) ¥ n - i lur ^ i f ii "^^^^^Ji^-iisr m (e) i P> ^ '^ ^ r ^ [. as at {e). is cor(c) is correct.64. Ex. and to answer as at (6) would be unmusical.) .OO.VI. as at (e). fe ^. ^ (b) Y^m tJ^^\^ ^m \ The A. (d).''4f r (d. which involves also the matter of speed . flat at (i) is ^s ^m is an obvious appoggiatura and so not answered to by the tonic. G to C sharp. A versa which are concealed watch must be kept for initial leaps from tonic by melodic decoration. and therefore must be discarded in favour of [h).

(a) ^ : tb) ^ r^^ dominant F. S A BSESBBS With Ex. ^i) (f. is answered musical grounds (c) is — 41 . it is always well to consider answering only the first by tonic. this suggestion in mind. 69. Ex. examine the following: — 71. 68 (a) and (6) respectively.S. by a similar a rather tautologous effect. If the first and third notes of a S. 72: and (6) there undue — be not really satisfactory.68.^ (c) iK"ffi:j ^1' To answer interval rr/^ (i) {a) as at (b) adheres literally to rule.Harmonically these are equivalent must be answered as at (c) and (d). and it is the musical effect which must always receive prime consideration. answered by The E t| G at (a) are a double appoggiatura to the similar decoration of the tonic B flat at (6).70. and so T D 3e: T D The decorative harmony note : — notes may not even lie within the same beat or bar as the Ex. is shown in Ex. A suitable C. ^^ fan. ^b) to Ex. and then proceeding with a real A. The " 48 " provide sound authority — 3Ex. are the dominant. - etc. but for (a) the semitone appoggiatura at is demands to On insistence on the note E the only possibility. (a. This applies especially when the intervening note is either tonic or submediant. — 4.

S. and is impossible as a bass. the A. The version of the A.S.74. is a bad one. Ex.73.75 The A. 42 . A similar case with altered rhythm : — Ex. ra) C. 4 above. Consider Ex.5. 75 : — Ex. Such a change of function is legitimate. l/'lh rCJ^ rjL j \'n all write out the inversion for himself in the above and Note: At natural is treated as an accented auxiliary note within the chord the corresponding note G can be taken either as a harmony note in the chord of E minor or as an appoggiatura to the root of of B minor. 74 shows a tonic intervening between two dominants. 4. ^tU-J^D^^^ The student should similar cases. at {b) V 6. again applying para. is good. is likelv to occur in the bass. (b)C. And if there is no way out. Ex. the obvious comment is that the S. at (6) is none too good melodically. It cannot be too strongly stressed that harmonic implications enter very largely into these matters. but is by no means as musical as (c) which applies the suggestion in para. and that in deciding on a suitable tonal answer this fact must be borne in mind. (a) the . Anything which leads to poor harmony is to be avoided unless there appears to be absolutely no way out. It must be remembered that sooner or later in a fugue. at (6) interprets the dominant-tonic rule literally. (c). C of B.

If the S. provided that the harmonic implication is a single chord see Ex. which should be clear from Ex. ^'^jgjQrj i fl l ^ tonally. 76 (c) 7. But if there is an implied change of chord on the dominant note.— If the S. the answer will normally be tonal. the A. The melodic progression in the A. despite the altered rhythm. is unmusical on account of the major 7th in two leaps. he is always at liberty to indicate an alternative answer to show the examiner that he has ^iven full consideration to all the possibilities. 78. But para. as at (6). 76 and 77. begins with the tonic chord in arpeggio from the tonic. Similarly with the S. real answer as at (c) is needed. as in Ex. beginning with the dominant chord in arpeggio. 1 of this chapter must not be overlooked. will — — and (d). 8. 70.— — —— f^l^ 1 n bat |*^j f'^j' i r^ Whether the crucial dominant is a factor of tonic or dominant harmony depends mainly on rhythm and speed. (a) To answer G to F sharp being taken is A at (e) still unmusical. Should the examination candidate have any doubts. 76 {a) and (6). be real. Ex. is needed Ex. must be born in mind. a tonal A. -^ This principle applies in whatever order the notes of the chord appear deciding factor is chord-change or the absence of it. at {d). 43 . the But Ex. begins on the dominant with some arpeggio form of the tonic chord. Hence : — . s . This point.77.

. would seem to be unjustified." At (c) in Ex. Despite all with. 4. i:* ^S the complications so far considered. and the writer frankly admits that he would not care to have to say which version is the more " correct. At the same time. a real A. |ijj r r^nrw The rather prominent tritone C to F sh^p must be accepted. h ^ (a) (b) r II P r c!r I At (a) the C-F sharp tritone is again prominent. if we disregard what may happen to it as a bass. and those yet to be dealt take heart from the fact that an incorrect but musical answer never yet failed an otherwise good fugue. if it is in the bass. (aj (a) ^ l ^b) ^ i fc) |^iiiJj^ r i i/jJ^ r i i j i J-J'J^ (fl) tonal : — begins with a straightforward tonic-dominant leap. 80. A 79. the student may 44 .81. Hence : — Ex. this G must imply a change to dominant harmony so as to avoid a bad J a real A. A comparison of three rather similar openings may well conclude this chapter. Since. This is definitely a case where the wise candidate would submit an alternative answer. hence: — Ex. can be justified on the grounds of tonic chord in arpeggio being answered by dominant chord. 79 we apply an extension of the suggestion in para. 9. In (6) the third note (G) can be answered by either C or D. 82. * 10. Ex. so the answer must be Ex.

EXERCISES. (a) \ LSi^^ ^^=rw STRINGS (2nd violin) Moderato p\%i^^?]\.igandthe ."AUmimsy were the borogroves. C. p ^' ^ slith-y toves did gyre and jim iim bleinth bleinthewabc. And the inoine raths outgrabe'.' ^PedaU Serioso (c) ORGAN (d) STRINGS Moderato m^=^ i'J?cjcJi^^^Cri^--J^'^'i^t'r^drN 45 . Alletrretto (c) PIANO (top voice) Allegro (d) STRINGS A ndantino (e) STRINGS Vivace -Mh\\^i^\[_£{lU 2.^\r^)\l^ (b) ^ E - VOICES Andante jOpr^Hp IP'M 'Twasbrili. Introduce In three parts. Write expositions on the following subjects.S. In four parts. occasional unessential codettas. 1. (a) PIAKO (middle voice.

VII.83. modulating from tonic to dominant will have moved to a key a perfect 5th higher. which modulates necessary to ask oneself : 2. so that at some point a " change " will have to be made. i can be nothing but G major and Here the point of change is obvious. but this alteration need not be at exactly the same spot as that in the A. able in anything like a " correct " answer... must never be overlooked. whereas its A. In the C. In deciding on the A.. begin1. : — Ex. { 1 J ^ i r^^r^_ m 46 ^^ ^fe ^^il'r — In the A. {a) —-I nothing but D major. only one interval may be altered. and if such a case is encountered it must. A S. between the third and fourth quavers of between the second and third see the brackets. to be answered by the leading note of G. to jolts 3. wiH have moved to a key a perfect 4th higher. if the S. Hence — (b) . unfortunately. but in the C. Remember that in making a tonal adjustment on account of modulation.S. (6) the earliest point from which could be considered as being dominant key? Ca) Ex. as in the A. The B at the beginning of bar 2 is the mediant of G and will be answered by the mediant of D the following C sharp is the leading note of D. only one interval should be tonally adjusted. be decided largely on harmonic grounds. modulating from dominant to tonic. it lies. It has to be admitted that subjects are occasionally set in such a way that a jolt is unavoid-..S. modulates to the dominant. in the tonic it is (a) up to what point must the and what in the is S. THE ANSWER (III) We now turn to a consideration of modulation in the S. be considered as being it key. then the A. be accepted. must modulate back to the tonic. . beginning in the dominant.. is ultimately. the change the bar.84. The position of the change has and the necessity of avoiding harmonic — to the dominant. ning in the tonic key. to a S.

but since (&) is the Ex.i L obvious. of course. Here again the change the brackets. ^bJA.87.S.) leap it In such a case the C. MVrj-rnv r^Eg^-Jmi f - ^ ^rJJUt:^r}\U-ti more musical crucial point. should be arranged so that the upper note of the octave becomes a 7th or an appoggiatura. .— sec The change not infrequently comes Ex. Ex. . Ex. 89. as in Ex. * J' ^ ^n ^' ^J^ 47 ' '^in Q j rr ^' ^ ^ cjjj' ' ^iLr ^-^^1 (or 7th in the A. across an octave leap. Mechanically there is nothing to choose between the above. 89. does not coincide with that in the A. 88 shows the adjustment in the C. while from (6) it is obviously in between the two A's. that resolves correctly. 4.S. 88. at the it is to be preferred. is a little less ('f) 'bj ]}'] '_'^iii-i r T^j'^inpr F major. far as (a) this can only be in So the change will be either quaver A and the quaver G. or between the semi- As C major.S. Ex. 86 Ex. 86. provided. in the C. 5.

s. Note that change of the quality of an interval. 91. 1 V Examine 7. becomes a semitone E D Jj in the A. ^P [? ^ ir=.S. j{ A free part against the A. Ex. Q.91. 89 E must be an appoggiatura : — in which for harmonic (b^ h'^ Sl i r C. and the minor . reasons the top Ex. p IV LT lib r 1 Vb I b:IV V lb e. tl lib ^ w^K b: . would naturally need progression to avoid false relation. not only of its number.5rd G E becomes a major 3rd Dj(— B.jjff e:Vb |f 1 .L-^ rJ — • bj I^Cj ^^m — But according to strict rule this is unacceptable.92.c. closely the chord-indications. — 48 . 89 The most musically would be: — m Ex. | ^.s. The whole tone A G in the S. c. Similarly with Ex. 6. . satisfactory solution to Ex. since two intervals have been modified. The the D t| —D asterisks indicate the 7ths. 91 shows a modification of the ending of Ex. counts as a modification.

* This gives an impossible augmented 4th at the bracket. 83. so (c) is preferable. the It may even come immediately after at the earliest possible point. It is all too easy to overlook concentrating on solving the problem of modulation. Hence: — In (fl) and change coming Ihe beginning : — {b) the two E's in bar 3 weaken each other. Here only the student is first note of the S. this S. possible answers and Ex. another satisfactory A.93. Quite frequently a of the scale will require a tonal A. when 49 . careful thought is needed 8. advised to try to find The is considered as being in the tonic key. At first glance this might seem to be of a similar type to Ex. and to criticize the result of his efforts.Sometimes a S. hence: — Ex. and of dominant modulation towards the end. will appear to offer two or three to assess their relative values. 94. on account of both tonic and dominant degrees the beginning. at Note the tonal modification at the beginning. so the change must come later.

etc. the change again coming at the earliest possible point. So (c) is 10.. 97. bowing. Always allow Ex. Ex.98. A ^m (aj r V ^T . Some subjects will allow of two. choose the one which is felt to be the more easily manageable and also show an alternative. Note that slurs. In such a case. usually considered undesirable. equally safe and musical answers. the right choice. XiTJ^JJI^ 11. have nothing to do with fixing the point of change. for what will happen if the A.9. (6) is an impossible bass at the asterisk. 50 . 99. is in the bass — this is of vital importance. In all the above there has been no case of a jolt or any particular awkwardThe following exemplify the forced employment of procedures ness in the A. \ r\\^ \ 'i \ r pr if ^m (fl) r P r / l fi ^ i ^ If^ ^ is ruled out by the unmusical and unharmonizable chromatic progression Afcl— At?. ^ Ufl^i-' 1 1 jjTJTj J uTxS possible To the incautious student three answers may seem Ex. or even more.

^fc^L^ ' G lit which Against the A. ^ « •V ' '^u^-m 3iM m (b) ^^ p . but since both parts arc moving by no " bump. J C. At (i) there step there is — Ex.101 (a) s. involves the augmented 2nd C — — 51 . causes a sHght " bump. the C." as very short-value chord-changes frequently do.Ex..S. The construction of this C. no other solution is possible. This must be accepted.. cannot avoid the chromatic transition G t| D Jf against the S. is a semiquaver chord-change. But since the change can only be made here." At (ii) the leap in the A.S. is to be noted the second half is the inversion of the tirst halt.S. W ^a.S. This possibility was not envisaged when the subject was written.100 (a) C.

with tonal modifications at two points. considered. which apparently 13. The positions of these changes ar* normally clear enough to give no trouble. which ends on the dominant bat not in it.104 ^ ^^ — B flat This appears to modulate to there are two possible answers: with a feminine cadence. which is merely the supcrtonic chromatic of F. 12. and a single example should suffice. will Ex. Ex. The S. Assuming this. The student should work out an invertible C. 102. S2 .S. (a) S Beware of the S. bracket. makes the doubU- modulation just a modulation to C minor under the possible in that key and no modulation is possible without one. The A. The portion under the bracket can only be the chord of G major. but which actually does not. to this S. modulate to the dominant and then return then take dominant-tonic-dominant. The unwary student promptly deduces But no cadence is — 14. Beware also of the S. resolving correctly to V" in that key on the last beat of bar 4.begin in the tonic. may to the tonic.

i J2<i -''^ ' 1 other problematical type of S. 106 might (erroneously) be taken as finishing with a plagal cadence in B flat. viz. is again real. pv-i^'r 15. that One which begins Ex. but actually it ends with a half -close in E flat and the A. with the usual modulatory plan reversed. ^m Hence : can only be in A major. (a) (b). The essential point is to realize that such an arrangement is possible. "^>U]^^ 53 . must be included in this chapter. 106.e. in the dominant and ends in the tonic.The student should by now be able to understand why neither of these iS The S. ^^^i^'l^^P {a) 4 ^l D major. actually possible. i r Jjij. In this connection remember also that modulation is not effected by a piagai cadence. is real. 108. i. and to be on the look-out for it. (6) in — Ex. ends with a half-close in the tonic and the A. Ex.107. Ex.

EXERCISES.
Find the correct ansvser to each of the following,
invertible C.S. to both S.and A.

and add an

^
1.

VOICES
Maestoso

P

r

f

i

r^r
ho
-

"r
I

^
name.

Praise Je - hov-ah praiseRis CS. to same words

-

ly

2.

PIANO
Vivave

3.

VIOLA
Vii{orosu

V^At^m
4.

f fr

rrTi^^rT^r ^fr

m iS
Li
'kJ
I

V

ORGAN
Pastorale

f !i;^jj]
5.

j

jjJ.i:^jjjij.J^J7

] ^J^^JM^-^ f

PIANO
Moderato

^n'
6. 2nd.

p
I

rrjr^oii^

^

:

f^d^^::^ m
tr^.

VIOLIN
Alltgretto

54

^

7.

VIOLA
Allei(retto

^^
8.

^=P=
I

ii;;

l

ed

^"Elr

»##
leave

VOICES
Allegro

Come

lass

-

es

and

lads,

take

of your

CS.to same words

^
dads, and

^
a
-

If
way

P
to

the

may

-

pole

hi^h.

9.

1st.

VIOLIN
Andante

j¥<tstrirt'r^
VIOLA
Allegro

i

''r'P

2ZZ

10.

li

^''

•'E/C/

I'

g

fcjE

L—

^ij-

11.

VIOLA
Allcgrttio

\i\\\Ai

f

r

1

^

^

^r-M
?

^^

f

W^ ^
55

VIII.

THE EXPOSITION

(II)

The student who has conscientiously ploughed through the intricacies of 1. the two preceding chapters will doubtless be relieved to know that this one will be short and, it is hoped, relatively simple. The only matter to be dealt with is the question of the codetta.
2. If the S. ends in the dominant on the same beat of the bar as it begins, a codetta will not actually be essential unless some awkward interval such as a bare 4th occurs with the first note of the A. and similarly with the ensuing entry of the S. at the end of the A.
;

^mE^
^ ^

^^
Ex. W9.
^
(i)

rj^ j^jij-j
i

^
(ii)

(i;.

etc.

:i

'LLr'rJ

r 'r'":
zz:

LaLSm.

The
Ex. 110.

joins at

and

(ii)

are

quite

simple

and

satisfactory.

But

consider

Ex. 110.

4^
Here the
as

*
I I

3te

M'cffQ^V^*r^
is

join at *

an appoggiatura.

So a codetta

not satisfactory since the is needed.

G

is

too long to function musically

If there is a time-gap between the end of the S. and the entry of the A., or 3. vice versa, a codetta may or may not be essential. (Refer back to Chapter 5, para. 7.) The point to be watched, if one is used, is harmonic tautology. In

Ex. Ill the S.

is

given as ending at

*,

56

the of end the between is needed But this m 'cello.111.Ex.112 an element even with the quick chord-changes interpolated. 57 . eliminates the melodic weakness: — Modification ot the beginning of the Ex. 4*' r~^ ^ ^ t^ ^'^' ' ' ^'' ' ^ u ^?^ Vgt^^Vb 1 F: Vb 1 The brackets show the bad tautology. A. still leaves codetta longer this.g. e. a avoid To brackets. C. the by of harmonic'tautology as shown tne in the viohn and the entry of the b.S.

more especially if the S. 109 is distinctly unpromising for episodical development the codetta in Ex. Note that this codetta is based on the figure at (a) in Ex. ^ mm -^ —m #=^==F=^ 58 . The modulation to minor eliminates any trace of tautology. the method shown in Ex. is most useful. as in Ex. 7 (E [? major) of the " 48 " offers a classic example of episodes derived from an independent codetta. In Chapter 5. No. of Ex. there is no need harmonic or other reasons. 12. Ex. thus increasing coherence. 112. m ^ ^^ 114. the question requires the writing of an exposition only. But. If D to introduce a codetta unless essential for . an example was given in which the codetta was derived from a figure in the S. Even if the S. 113 is sometimes to be preferred. in writing a complete fugue a " voluntary " codetta has its uses. itself does not appear to contain material with good developmental possibilities. an independent codetta may well be used between the last two entries in the exposition^ The S. while not essential. para. In such a case as this. as has already been noted. 113. begins and ends on the same beat of the bar. itself compare also Ex. With a view to material for the construction of episodes. 4. . modulation. 59 (a). 114 obviously provides useful material.Ex. 109.

115. In such a case it is obviously more musical to risk the mild — V— stretto shown at Ex.A warning is necessary in connection with a S. . As a general rule the A. is all D . at the end of No. beginning with I harmony in the tonic and ending with V I in the dominant often leads to harmonic tautology if this rule is strictly observed (Ex.S.'s. 6. begins in notes are dominant to tonic in G. 114. write expositions on the subjects Chapter 7. but a S. candidate is better advised to adhere to academic rule. 5.e. in the tonic key.Ub. in the exposition. Ex. should not enter before the end of the S. Admitted that Bach does this often enough the examination i. 116 {a)). The temptation is to harmonize as in Ex. such as that of Ex. since its first two too easy to overlook the fact that the A. WWf EXERCISES Using your corrected C. 116 (6). It major.

D minor. Watch for the possibility of implied (as opposed to expressed) modulation of this kind.118 Some kind of a working could be managed entirely in G major. B \) major. is real. ^^ Real difficulty may arise over the point of change in a S. f^'iimj^j^ij^p^OTiji Ji i] At {a) there is an obvious modulation to B flat. A S.U7. will therefore correspond.S. — is an obvious modulation to the relative C major. both harmonically and melodically. with the key-sequence D minor. or as the submediant of E minor? At (fl) there move to E 60 . _ ^^ : — . THE ANSWER (IV) A subject may begin and end in the tonic but may pass through some key 1. Remember that the change may come either before or after the key which is taken en mute. 2. is evident. but if the student will take the trouble to try it. may be found difficult if not impossible in the one key. through some related key en route from tonic to dominant. C.119. Modulation to E minor under the bracket gives an easy and effective solution Ex. is C major to be regarded as the relative of A minor. In all such cases the A. G minor.S. but not in the course oj that key. he will find that bars 2 and 3 present a more than tricky problem. The A. the relative major the keysequence is G minor. which passes 3. Ex. (a. EX. may appear superficially to be entirely in the tonic and yet a satisfactory working of the C. Is the change to be made before or after the modulation to C major? In other words. F major. Detailed consideration of a suitable S. other than the dominant in its course. the dominant. ._ . The only ultimate guide is musical effect or otherwise.IX. while from (6) a minor. should clarify the principles.

e. Ex.n f^ . [ 1t±lS^ m^^ ^ a- ^. i. this leads examine carefully the chord indications. = I m ft. the C major section of the S. All to an entirely satisfactory solution that now has to be done is to evolve a good C. 122. being regarded as the submediant of E minor.*r^r i ^ 6: P: IVb IV 11 a:Ub Vb r-^fF. or A. in either C — S. /a) S. As can be seen. to be answered by the relative of E minor.lllb III VI VIb IV I ^ ^ lb a: V'd lb V 1 i^s Vd lb V I Vb At (a) the change is made after the internal modulation. But what is to be done at the query mark? However we harmonize this note there is bound to be a bad harmonic jolt. on the indicated chord basis. has been regarded as the relative of A minor. 121. major section At (6) the change is made before the internal modulation. taking care that there is no melodic weakness at the point of change.Brir4^^^^^^ r} JTrj (a) Ex. the of the S.S.j 1 hPb p m IVb IV F. nrLLljQJ^ 61 .

made before the internal Ex. 118. ^ ^ C.— From the above it should be still more clearly realized how vitally har4. — Ex. \^h\\ bf:UTU!:\[£j to fTi r2 Make the r i^ ^ it. 126. This appears to make and the student should try to — 5. modulation. As in the case of Ex.^. 02 . he can devise with this key-scheme. but In the two preceding subjects the change has to be it is equally possible for it to occur after it. to it and to whatever sort of A. using the indicated modulation to B flat. an internal modulation may not be clearly expressed.124. change before as in the Ex. 125. lh?^r>\^^_i\hhn-i C S - p^ etc. ^^^-'-' ng L ^ ' i. add a C.-V 1 B.V lb III UlbV 1 The chord indications should make things perfectly clear. v.e.V' I a straightforward modulation from C minor to G minor. monic considerations enter into the decision on the point of change. 124. He may or may not be surprised at his lack of success. Hence : is is musically finished. N:. which is the only practicable solution. The change must come at (a) and again the student is urged to try the effect of making it elsewhere.S. 123.t^Tt^>rtt:T lb D: I f?. He may then try again. Ex. s. at (6) in Ex. Modulation previous cases : B minor at (a) is obvious.H'd h"j^ f7r rrj ^r^j i— i The juxtaposition of the chords of E major and E minor at impossible. so the change can only occur after the internal modulation i.

Even more deceptive than : following type — the subjects considered above one of the The student should his efforts with respect to making the change at any point but (a). after which he will realize try that a modulation through musical solution Hence: D — major immediately after {a) is the only possible Ex. 8.129 i^a) S. but nevertheless Consider the following: — not unknown — need a 63 . He should then try to add a good C. as bass must be watched below S.S. is effect of 7. and the cadence is weakened by being immediately preceded by its own final bass note. Some subjects — rare sub-dominant answer. Hence the be stressed : — solution in Exx. and A.S. using only the obvious keys of B minor and F sharp minor. It is all too easy to overlook melodic weakness in the C. (ii) C. is being worked out S. it gives tautology. the and vice versa. If the basis must be worked out initially . Arising out of this two points must against (i) The harmonic simultaneously. 127 (a) would be satisfactory. and then criticize both melodic and harmonic propriety. ensuring satisfactory invertibihty. or A.S. to both S.6. in such a case as the above. and A.. both S. or A.." enough.. Against the end of the S. 124 and 126. Ex. but against the end of the A.

(>^''nkpivM vr I \ 1^ g: V m . 130.Ex.

D minor. however strictly we may adhere to the " rules. 136. as rigidity of the rule that has already been stressed. 131 and 134 both modulate from tonic problem consider Ex. There is never any excuse for unmusical effects. 135." Purely musical considerations. 65 . 137: — dominant. Hence: the need of a subdominant answer will be well impressed on his mind. not man for rules." Rules are made for man. what ultimately matters most is an A. iyifhifr^^rkTr J^trnrJlWf satisfactorily. let it be once again pointed out that 11. Ex.Ex. But the whole tones at {a) in the S. and give a real answer : — Ex. As a final Ex. so an A. As his attempts will inevitably be abortive. entirely in G minor would appear to be of doubtful accuracy. so for once we disregard the usual dominant degree must be answered by tonic. tJ ^^ ^^ ::z^ " ^^ ' This remains entirely in the tonic. — Ex.138. quite destroy the original answering the semitones at the corresponding points " flavour. 138 would seem possible : — Ex. as in the case of Ex.137. At the risk of monotonous repetition. which is musical and which will harmonize without awkward jolts.139. 134. But the pedal does not persist throughout as in Bach's example. This is a complete transposition up a 4th. Exx. Any disregard of the two-bar pedal will result in something quite unharmonizable. to 10. The student may expend some time and ingenuity in trying to harmonize this both as melody and bass. must receive priority.

(a) STRINGS E"ar ^b) i r>>f/ r^r>riirJ>r/ -gJVfJJi^ i ! ^ i Vivo II PIANO ctop voice Allegretto i Jj2i^ ^^75j>^ rV--^ h | (0 VIOLA Allei^relto (d) VIOLIN ^ r_2r i yjnPf-^4^ HfIfV^ ^ [^Mji^ppu^ (e) ^ ^^ 'cello Vigoroso (f) ORGAN Pnco adag'io 66 . In three parts.j EXERCISES. Write expositions on the following subjects:1.

VIOLIN Alleirro (i) 'CELLO Allegro vivace l)'-^ Ei:4f"^^ rff tif f f — P f tH- fr^ (>7 .S.(a) ORGAN (Tenor part) Serioso (b) WIND QUARTET Vivo (Oboe) (c) VIOLA mmn (d) * Andu nte ^U. our C.'ijgm **- VOICES Mode rata B * 'God. Be Thou our Guide while troubles And our eternal home. ^ come.: ^ *^ past. (e) 1st. t=m help in a-^es Our hupe for years to last.

clock. Episode leading to (v) " final " entry or group in the tonic. itself will also affect the decision time. especially craftsmanship in the construction of episodes and their Even though the question may introduce the linking with entries of S. to be considered. the part which pitch and compass. in the middle section. it is not so much length that matters as craftsmanship. 68 . but the relative is preferable as requiring some amount of extra ingenuity to show the S. be well to deal with the treatment of the S. The middle (i) (ii) section of a " complete " fugue is laid out thus : — Episode leading from end of exposition to First group of middle entries. may be either the second or the third part. for which the a factor to be taken into account. and A. So that in a three-part fugue this first middle entry In a four-part fugue it will be in the part that entered second in the exposition. the choice depending on convenience of As stated above. almost entirely in semiquavers (such an one has been set not infrequently) will naturally necessitate condensation of the design of the fugue as a whole. if the working out of new counterpoints is found to be too lengthy a process. especially in vocal work. or A. The first entry (normally in the relative) should preferably not be in the part which began the exposition. the quickest of workers. (iii) Episode leading to (iv) Second middle group based on the subdominant. in any convenient part. It is usual to have a pair of middle entries. of four bars of J S. (Stretto is considered in detail in Chapter 14." the slow worker may well be content to attempt the traditional " short " one. or alternatively to use the " complete " lay-out but with only a single entry in the relative and the subdominant respectively. automatically excludes any possibility of stretto. words " complete fugue. In any case. may have been designed a S. — . viz.S. THE MIDDLE SECTION Since an examination fugue has always to be written with one eye on the essential to have a definite plan clearly in mind and to practise working Admitted that the lay-out of a fugue by Bach (or any other master) is to it. and A. also 4.S. Before proceeding to a consideration of methods of writing episodes. This gives the opportunity for the display of ingenuity in inventing new counterpoints to go against the S. based on the relative.S. This latter procedure. 3. it is . The second entry of this pair will be normally in the dominant of the relative. one dominant. the implication presumably being that candidates were expected to submit a finished exercise.X. of course. There is. say.). it will 5. nor should it be in the part which entered last in that section (since this part will be taking the C. albeit condensed as to length.) There is no objection to the middle entries being based on the subdominant key. no objection to retaining the C. which consists. 2. in the opposite mode from that of the exposition. infinitely variable Bach was not limited to a maximum of three hours. the " short " fugue In the " short " fugue the middle section (i) (ii) (iii) is laid out as follows: — Episode leading from end of exposition to Middle entries of in the tonic. 1. and it is suggested that here the C. The length of the S. based on the to the Second episode leading " final relative and its dominant. except for . Only two possible plans need and the " complete " fugue. entered last in the exposition will now have the C. however. may be dispensed with. " entry or group of entries of S.S. Present-day examination papers do not always draw clearly the traditional academic distinction between " short " and " complete " fugues one has encountered a paper asking for a " short complete " fugue. against every entry of S. S. but there is no objection to both being in the relative and if one in its in the relative a good stretto thus becomes available.

but (6). 10. the iirst of the pair. contains modulation. or A. is good. _ ' Vie ' ^ rJT"w =r^'Y"p W?f r% '.S. omitted and further new counterpoints devised. Risking an (c) (fe) is awkward interval. For which reason it is advisable when the original C. with a total of four middle entries.S. 140 (a). Its " answer " in B minor could be either (b) or (c). original version of S. whether as essential or as unessential notes.. care being taken to avoid awkward intervals such as augmented 2nds. in the subdominant. The modification at (c). .S. will (apart of stretto) follow the first as closely as possible and will act as an " Considerable freedom in the treatment of middle entries is permissible and " opposite mode " ones is often essential. whatever its key. is present against a middle entry. however. each part in turn should have an entry of S.S. and C. Whether or not the C. (a) must the best plan. (a) is (c) does not weaken the harmony. from questions answer " but if the original answer is tonal. The first middle entry. care is needed never to overlook the correct treatment of the 6th smd 7th degrees of the minor scale.S. be in a part which has so far not had a middle entry. preferably avoided. Refer back to Ex. Note that in the case of a four-part fugue. has been evolved. especially when the S. contains a badly quitted diminished 5th and an awkward augmented 2nd in the Especial C.S. it is always good for free parts to work some rhythmical figure of their own. would begin as at Ex. to check it against the opposite mode version of the S.S. provided that such modification lie at the student's musical discretion. If there is a second middle group. transposes satisfactorily at {d). If a major-key S. UO. 8. examples will appear in later chapters.S. will 7. appearing in some Against the second of this pair. to suit both modes. but leaving the original form in the exposition.S. 4ths and 5ths.^^ ' (a). it is not essential that one in a middle group also be strictly tonal. and this applies particularly in the case of a major-key S. modulates to the dominant. all that needs to be watched is that the C. the C. when it appears mode. also will change its mode without anything undesirable occurring. care minor-key version of the A. is absent . may again be other convenient part. which have to be changed to the minor. This naturally is more likely to be possible when the C. the C.. whichever were the more convenient harmonically. but it is preferable to avoid this " get out " if possible.S. against opposite-mode entries of the S. In a non-modulating S.S. in E minor.. Ex. and C. the choice is likely to lie between 9. The second of a pair of entries. In a case of extreme difficulty the obvious solution is to omit the C.S.141. Consider Ex. 41 (a). Consider the following : — is needed over the 69 . Ex. in the opposite {b) Altering a note or two in the C. If something doubtful arises.6. in the case of : — (a) Modifying the C. 141. transposed to the relative.

It is sometimes possible to make what may be called " parallel " modulation in the opposite mode.g. this internal modulation may or may not be paralleled by a corresponding one in the opposite-mode version. were C major A minor G major. 11.Ex. might not be used against this entry is immaterial the adjustment to avoid false relation would be needed in . E is a step below F. intervals is immaterial. G is a step below A.S. Ex. The deciding factor is. whether en route to the dominant or not. giving a Tierce de Picardie at the end of the F sharp minor section. 14.S. any case. 142 r^^^r cs. If the S. Now transpose to the relative and dominant : — Ex. soundness of harmonic progression. as they appear in the exposition. if the key-scheme of the S. A is a 3rd below C. as always. . F is The quality of the a 3rd below A. 144 shows an instructive and complicated case: — — — — — 70 .00 s ^q^g%^=}tj ^^ - i trr tiff (a) is unexceptionable but in (b) there is a bad false relation in bar 2. with C. . ^^ its These may be taken as S. makes an internal modulation to some key other than the dominant. r ^zzr^lOyt^^^^ Xb) A. This is avoided by sharpening the A in the top part. e. the minor-key scheme might be A minor F major E minor. The fact that the C. and A.3.

This is immaterial. while that of the second one alters C major. S. the move back to C major is not as smooth as could be wished and we may — — legitimately introduce a further adjustment with an additional modulation. S- A minor D major P ^m e^ c. J' a ^^ m w Mr^ C majqr r r 1^ ^CTLric^r- ^CJ^j E minor i UK =p* r3r*5 :^=T a£|T ^ jO ^ f m » f :::m. E minor.Ex.145.s. C major^ F major ^ ir^u\ c.s. mode : Hence — the " parallel " key-scheme to A — D — C —A would be Ex. i kjI r r i f^ -'r/cr i c!^f ^ pig [ *i *j (> rF C major A minor ^ ^ ^J ' ^TjJJiTTr jiTp JTJ^T^ C— F —E — C In the major . Even so.144. tf^3E The mode of the first modulation remains unchanged D major becoming F major. 71 .

also a tone lower. It is never wise to go far outside the circle of related keys. might be tempted in Ex. The .S. fi'i ^ ^^\^r "H P'' in ^j'CjTTTr WttK^r to ' W # f=m This takes us to C major. is much more 13. 146.148 72 . 14. entirely without modulation. advisability of " parallel " modulations must not be over-estimated Refer back to Ex. is best disregarded entirely. individual finally. a tone lower.Ex. and keen insight into the possibilities and can only be attained by experience. produces meaningless harmony Ex. at times the possibility musical. t(. A at quick case is essential. 147 [a] which is. {a). and would then be faced with the impossible task of making a return to C major. possible. indeed. But (6). 117. It ear. but the C. Ex. The unwary student noting that in Ex. 129. of each Refer. E is major instead of obvious that E minor and then into D minor en route back such a case as this the only uhimate guide is a good 12. " Parallel " modulation in the major key version gives something like Ex. This transposes easily into D major. 144 D major is followed by C major. 145 to move from F major to E flat major.

Ex. 129 has the key-sequence B minor D major F sharp minor, which would be " paralleled " by D major F sharp minor A major. But this will end on E sharp at (a), giving a debatable augmented 2nd D to E sharp. A musical solution is nevertheless possible and should be discoverable by a student of adequate musicianship

:

Ex. 149

The only ultimate advice is always to adopt the course which produces the most musically satisfactory result, remembering that " musically satisfactory " must imply " harmonically satisfactory."

EXERCISES
Write out opposite-mode versions of the exercises
that your countersubjects will
to

Chapters 8 and

9,

ensuring

work

in all cases.

73

!

XI.

EPISODES

(I)

1. .Apart from two possible exceptions, to be considered later, it is taken for granted that an episode will be based on material from S., C.S. or codetta.

2.

The following general
(i)

points must first be noted episode should follow on immediately from the end of the preceding entry of S. or A. To allow a " spare " half bar or so before getting down to the real business of the episode proper shows poor craftsmanship.*
:

An

(ii)

Whenever

possible it is desirable to " interlock " the beginning of an episode with the end of the preceding section. Examples will be » given in due course.
;

(iii)

Episodes should never ramble there should be close and consistent development of the chosen material. In other words, stick to the
point.

(iv)

Free use should be made of modulation so as to effect smooth and easy progression to the key of the ensuing entry of the S, It is not, however, advisable to modulate too widely. Fugue-writing under a time-limit is sufficiently troublesome without voluntarily adding to
its

difficulties.

(v)

direct perfect cadence in the key of the ensuing entry of the S. It is a common fault to usher in every entry with a flourish of trumpets, as it were. An inverted cadence is generally to be preferred, though it is obvious that if a S. begins dominant to tonic {e.g. Ex. 41 {a)) and is to enter in the bass, a direct cadence
is

Avoid ending an episode with a

unavoidable.

(vi)

Care is needed not to reach the key of the next entry until the very end of the episode, otherwise much of the effectiveness of that entry
is

lost.

(vii)

Desirable subtlety is achieved if the S. can be expected pitch but in an unexpected key, or chord. Examples will be given later.

made
on

to enter at

its

an

unexpected

(viii)

In four or more parts it is well to allow the part which is to have the next entry to rest from the beginning, or near the beginning, of the episode. This thins out the texture, gives variety, and increases In three-part work this procedure is the effectiveness of the entry. less advisable, since reducing to two-part writing for any length of time thins out the texture over-much. But a short rest before the entry may be possible.

It must be realized that it is not possible to lay down categorical rules in 3. Everything depends on the character of the the matters now to be dealt with. material available, and each individual case must be treated on its own merits. The student must be prepared to exercise a good deal of musical discretion.
I. The simplest harmonic scheme for an episode and it is 4. necessary to work out a suitable chord-progression as the first step is based on sequential treatment of the inverted perfect cadence. In its most elementary form the episode would consist of statement and one repetition of the progression, with Slow-moving chords are needed and it suitable melodic and rhythmic decoration. is best to work to some such scheme as the following

METHOD

:

it is, perhaps, a Admitted that not every teacher would agree with this matter of taste. Nevertheless, the author contends that the " spare " passage does tend to weaken the tautness of the structure, and should only occur when it seems absolutely essential so as to arrive at a suitable chord for the beginning of the episode proper. Admitted that " spare " bars occur in Bach fugues but, to quote the author's own coach. Bach had all his life to prove that he could write a good fugue the exammation candidate has three hours
; ; :

74

(i)
(ii)

I

time

—whole-bar

chords.

\
I
4

(iii)

(iv)

(v)
(vi)
(vii)
(viii)

4
8

8

— whole-bar chords, — half-bar chords, time with quaver texture — whole-bar chords, time with semiquaver texture — chords in rhythm time with semiquaver texture — half-bar chords, time with quaver texture — whole-bar chords,
time with quaver texture time with semiquaver texture

\J

J

8

and

\^

similar to

I

and

J

respectively.

Before working out the basic chord-progression it is obviously necessary on the chord with which the ensuing entry of the S. will begin, and then Refer back to Ex. 63. The first middle entry will be to decide how to get there. in E minor, on the violin, with C.S. on 'cello, and the first note, being the tonic, may be harmonized by the tonic chord. Hence
5.

to decide

:

Ex.150. End

of C.S

selected
last

step is to decide on the material to be used, and this must be necessary adapted to fit the cadential progression comfortably. The few notes of the S. give something to work on
6.

The next
if

and

:

Ex.151

i''^f7^^^k

m
into

-w^

^
This
is

35z:

*^
:

^
Vh— I

ar

V — V'b — I.

Note the simple and convenient modification
easily elaborated into

of the plain

in

Ex. 150

75

of the basic melodic . When working imitations between two of the parts. four times consecutively. viz. note that a figure should not be used without modification more than twice consecutively. of course. — (a) the unvaried repetition. With regard — Vb — Hence : — 76 . Ex. designed the simplest possible method of procedure and to demonstrate : two common weaknesses. every opportunity should be taken of giving the remaining one some connection rhythmic or melodic or both with subject-matter.Ex. 152. 154 inverts the figure in the violin and so saves the . 153 as this. by using V"d lb as the basis of the sequence instead of need to be watched. Ex. The two progressions by the brackets are far too close together. figure (^) and harmonic tautology. 152. 152. and at from its last bar. But care must be taken to avoid rhythmic monotony. Note how the independent bass at {a) derives from the start of the C. (6) — — — Ex. if that. deliberately to show actually not more than a barely passable effort. but is poor the same shape and rhythm four times consecutively.S. at least so closely as in Ex. The harmonic tautology is avoided This point would I. Ex.situation. 153 could be substituted for the bass of Ex. With any sequential kind of episode it is all too easy to fall into such weakness It is avoided by spreading the bass pattern over two chords instead of one. 152 is 7. in first working out the skeleton chord-basis. Vb — I in E minor shown to (a).

fa jH ^g l u ^ts ^ ^' I ^ . iKi'iiP r mmrJ a: h P V -" V'd S. is based on the same figure as above. l UJ S i -w=- e/c IK Np'fftir j^ ^^ e. There is no reason why one of the upper parts should not be independent. ciosely-knit but it helps to make the texture even more CjlOS Ex.'I Qi^ "^ ^ 77 . of the bass in bar 4 as compared with bar 2 . 155 the viola especially since the bass is connected with thematic material. ip Vb 5C= IV 1 Note the modification of the direction this is a further improvement. In Ex. but the violin is modified and there is some This imitation was not originally envisaged. 8.s.Ex. V Vd ^ ^ ^" lb rfflrf'rff^^ ».155. imitation between viola and 'cello.154. lb ^ -hliii^ r^ r ^W^ -* I U c.

'cj (bJ. ^ #— — : -^^±fi -» (a) — iK»siP r- l:f: fei 78 . be sure that it will not be ineffective. 157 (a). 155. further variety 9. as in Ex. care being taken to avoid undesirable 5 's. interchanging them in the repetition : — is obtained by Ex.^ Where two figures are used. 156 t'l^'LMKI^ A Compare the 'cello's change of direction at (c) with that in Ex. It is also effective for the bass to take part in the interchange. If the 5th of the chord is in the part which it is proposed to transfer to the bass. 154. Ex.

10. 156: — Ex.This. be made less elementary thus : — The sequential build-up so far dealt with Ex. ^"^V~iU. c. 2 (vii). 159. may Refer back to para.s. for example. ii f "" rrn ' ^^ fc a: if i-i s etc.158.'«bi:. V m IV -w^ Here we have a tonal sequence entirely in A minor. of course. in that key instead of the " official " key of E minor. the following modification of Ex. which leads to entry of the This is an improvement S. on the original effort and would produce.^ r ^- '"L^ ^^j i ^jj^ 79 . is half-way to being triple counterpoint.

C jlJ/M (a) (c) ^^ ^ (a) . referred to in para. 52. first note of the C. the S. In some cases it is definitely necessary for the episode to modulate to some key other than the " official " one for the next entry of the S.11. from F to G is quite legitimate. entering in that key. 161 i' IKi-i . episode. ^^r^^^^ HO . 161 shows how the above might be worked up into a satisfactory by middle entries in the relative and its dominant.r^iijfF^=^ lL . 160 (a).S. must be further stressed. To arrange for the episode to end in D minor. The necessity of avoiding harmonic tautology. 7. Ur M The changing of the 12. Refer back to Ex. dominant-tonic progressions. — — ^^ ^iTii ± ^ ? . the key of the first middle entry. will inevitably produce harmonic tautology of a worse kind than that in Ex. 160 (b). Ex. the weakness is avoided see Ex. followed Ex. By working to G minor. 152 There is no chord intervening between the two see Ex.

It so happens that there is no chance here of working a new rhythmic figure against either of the middle entries." (v) The first note of the C. (iv) so The viola carries on as far as (e) before resting. is particularly promising at first sight. nor C. sequence. in the relative. In each case proceed to an entry of the S. since neither S. The 2nd violin. accompanied by C. (a) from the end of the C.. It may EXERCISES Take a number of the corrected expositions you have already written and continue them with episodes on the lines indicated in this chapter.S. is again modified for melodic reasons.S.S. To rest the viola from the moment the 2nd violin re-enters would be too " obvious. so every effort had to be made to keep the added parts as interesting as possible without such working.r Note : (i) The episode is based on beginning of the S. G in the 'cello throughout the bar would be dull. its its phrase to the accented beat long rest. the end of its phrase being interlocked with the re-entry of the 2nd violin. Confine your efforts for the present to string or wood-wind work. selection be added that this episode shows some amount of ingenuity in the and management of material. and its (6) from the (ii) To enable the 'cello to carry out intervene at (c).S. carries on as to end satisfactorily before (iii) which is to have the {d). followed by an entry in the dominant of the relative with new counterpoints in the added parts. an extra chord has to first middle entry. 81 .

of the diminished triad on E natural. Ex. Refer back to Ex.XII. and a chord-progression for the episode. 82 . chords with roots rising in 4ths. circle of related keys. EPISODES (2) 1. 162 shows the completion 2. — Ex. is Movement to the Neapolitan and always fluent in effect. 113. Do not move too far at all) beyond the Selection of material and general principles of treatment are similar to those outlined in the preceding chapter. In a first episode is avoid to (if stressing the subdominant side unduly. In this the harmonic scheme is based on a progression of 2. Watch the following points : METHOD (i) (ii) — Avoid the tonic key except en passant. of the exposition Note the bracketed accidentals.163 W^ ^ '^ etc. chord of a minor key is often helpful Sketch the imitations: The progression is to the chord of E flat. though there (iii) no need eschew it entirely. instead quite sound.

{d) is derived from (a) in Ex. The texture Ex. entries.S. enters in the middle of the bar the last quaver.. which has hitherto had no share in the imitation.S.) Note also that the A. 164 shows the complete episode and a and management of rests should be closely Note that the A. enters just before the end of the S. It so the basic material for the episode is all closely connected with S. When a begins with dominant-tonic harmony and ends in the dominant key. group of middle Ex. (As will be seen later. 83 . In the in the instance it involves the quite allowable alteration of the end of the C. step is to fill in the gaps. while (/) is obviously related to (c). Thus (e) is a slight modification of {b). too. and C. as is The pattern and one indicated by the long brackets below the bass of Ex. The next studied.S. takes over the cello's figure. the leading figure {d) beginning with the end of the Such close interlocking is obviously not likely to be possible in every case. is permissible. 2 (ii). 162— the beginn"ng of the C. 163. as in Method 1. such an present overlap is frequently possible in the relative group of middle entries. repetition being finished. in Chapter 11. stretto mstead of on be discarded. happens that this gives an excellent example of the interlocking process mentioned S. is also in evidence. the middle part. in mild stretto. S. as in the exposition. Note also that the sequential element. 164. the of part that means generally 'cello. to has C. This. para.S.

164. Ex. and the canon is at the 5th below or METHOD 4th above. Such modifications are needed because of the change in the rate of chord-movement. In this the basic idea is a sequence as in Method 1. but roots rise continuously in 4ths and the imitation is canonic. (a) C. This. (c) is a modification of {a) and {d) of (6). consists of pattern and one repetition.(b) (End The derivation of the basic figures (a) and {b) should be obvious. being a modification of that in Ex.In order to bring in the S. in any case. 166 shows the 84 . The sequence. 165. 3. consequent being one chord behind antecedent. material of Ex. Ex. is something of an improvement on the method so far outHned since it Ex. Ex.) 1r (bj. at the proper part of the bar it is sometimes 2. s fei •"Endof S. possibility. 164 adapted to this treatment. the S. necessary to increase the rate of chord-change towards the end of an episode. 165 shows a simple application of this introduces an element of variety. 3.s- ' Pr^T^J^-^ra I ^=^ ^S etc. as before. 165.) I of CS.

(Eiid of Ex positio n) ^ i ^ tial wrJ [j ic:. It is all too easy to allow it to do so.Ex. The bass can take part Ex.:. in the canon. as already pointed out. is modified to allow the viola to complete as much as possible of its canonic part. The start of the C. IBT 85 .S. ur vCiji'ci^L/ r:.167.s. either of the upper parts being free : — ^^^^^^ M ^t' ^r i ^ i i t r^ ^^ ^ \ J'\>%^ I Li^ ^•TO J C^ ^ etc. producing rhythmic monotony.l66. ]^v¥rit^y L^^ A tfiT] I rrr- m 4. Note that the rhythmic scheme of the bass does not fall mto a half-bar sequenpattern. e^c. j"^ -w- c.

each to achieve with any frequency it depends on the choice of material. in tonic is due.168. 6. i. Here the last statement of the basic figure on the a good example of interlocking. an episode leading to the final entry of the S. . from the tonic or the dominant Similar simple procedures are possible for a second episode. — 'cello is also the beginning of 5. increasing the rate of chord-movement towards the end. For this it is always simplest to carry on with roots rising in 4ths as far as possible. which may or may not permit of such a working. from to the relative.the C. With regard effective 86 . the basic figure or figures of imitation. not merely to repeat. So far we have dealt with episodes of a simple character leading from the end of the exposition to the first middle entry.e. Care is also needed to avoid touching the tonic key en route it should not appear — until the entry of the S. tailed. and no detailed discussion is needed. in the tonic may well be rather longer. so some method of extension is necessary. it is generally simplest and is always (disregarding for the moment any question of stretto) to place it in the top part with the C. But the relative group to the subdominant.S. 7. The episode should be contrived so as to lead to a climax point at the entry of the S. up to four bars of 4 time or eight of I or 4. By In both the above examples the repetition of the canonic pattern the exercise of a little ingenuity' this can be avoided : — is cur- Ex. admittedly.S. to the final entry itself. in the bass. Such interlocking as this is not. and being careful to develop.

" The piling-up effect is naturally best if it works from the bass upwards. to the violin at (t). derived and C.. 169 ." of the S. Ex. is slightly modified so as to give an effective 87 . being which so far has not had it. (c) is a whole bar after (a). (. and (g) the same distance after (e). (A) is only half a bar after (g) and (t) the same after {h). METHOD 4. It is then passed to the viola at (h) and then. ^ cj) -> c. Ex. (g) the first more to the 'cello (iv) From (g) the imitations come at increasingly closer distances. is developed. (v) This gradual closing up is a device always to be aimed at in working up to a climax a kind of pseudo-stretto effect. which (e) derived from and (/). ^. from the beginning of (ii) (a) and (b).s. in modified form.— 8. (j) and {k) follow at only one beat's distance.) overlapping (i) and (k) overlapping (/). — (vi) The opening " lead-in.S. is The bass has a figures in the S. worked sequentially at (c) and {d). 169 shows a final episode leading from the end of Ex. (iii) From passed active of the two figures. " piling up. sequential pattern against this.-^ Note the following: (i) — starts The episode with two contrasted figures S. (a). 164.

and are used as a basis for the following first episode. quaver runs would be out of the picture. seem fairly promising. Admitted that not every S. or which uses recondite forms of decoration. However.. 169. Tranquillo S.S. The simpler the better.. the relative group. note (iii)). or codetta is clear enough.S.170. The handling of more troublesome material is shown in the following examples. was borne in mind when devising the C. final episode is normally the simplest and of extensjon can be applied to a canonic At the end of the canonic sequence the figure to be developed is passed episode. This method of building up a most satisfactory. 10. ease in working or the lack of it depends on choice and.S. had to be apt to that of the S. 9. will automatically offer such easilyhandled figures as those in the preceding examples but careful adaptation will always provide something suitable.S. When working to a time-limit it is useless to select material with a complicated melodic outline. to what has hitherto been a free part (compare para. The knack of such adaptation can only be acquired by practice and experience. if necessary. 8. Ex. C. or C. adaptation of material.. Ei-^J^- End of C. the rhythmic anything in the nature of semistyle of the C. The same method — — . As with any episode.S. bars 2 and 4 of the C. provided that its derivation from S. leading to The and this . 3e: 88 .S. is distinctly unpromising from the point of view of material for episodes. At the same time. and the episode is completed on the lines indicated above in connection with Ex.

S. The student should discover (6). Again confine your efforts to strings and wood-wind. 172. (Endof last niid-entr>'i(rt) - ->''""> i"B^] ^a^j r j-Lf^^XrV 1^ rhythm /^ /> fpi"^ and closer to S. and then build longer episodes thence. and C. 89 . Ex. to a final entry in the tonic. culminating in the little flurry of semiquavers which lead into the EXERCISES Continue any of your corrected expositions with episodes on the lines explained leading to middle entries based on the relative.Detailed analysis should not be needed. for himself the derivation of the figures {a) Note how the appearances of the come gradually each other. The longer final episode needs a good deal of cogitation. but a satisfactory build up from B major back to the tonic is possible by using a combination of fragments from S. in this chapter.

METHOD 2. -^^p Ji* f TE. Taking the S. — Ex. It should hardly need to be mentioned that this method should not be attempted. 5 involves the use of triple counterpoint and is obviously only applicable in a " complete " fugue in which there are three episodes.XIII. unless the student is already proficient in triple counterpoint. and C. 173 shows a complete middle section with episodes in triple counterpoint. 162 as our material.S. Ex.j^tJ =9=i ^^ 1 rrnrr f U^a^f 1»i' 90 . EPISODES (3) 1. 3 t ^\. of Ex. despite its time-saving possibilities. and sequential construction pattern and one repetition— is the simplest and quickest method. The chord-scheme will be based on roots rising in 4ths.173 S. enabling each part to be shown in turn in the bass.

^=3 91 .

or codetta. This could. If the student has been thoroughly well grounded in contrapuntal writing.174. in bar 8 is modified slightly at to avoid a bald repeated A. which modulates from tonic to dominant. to lead into the tonic key. respectively. (x) Smce this instrument is not given S. to base a second episode on some new figure which should have occurred prominently at the end of the preceding statement of the S. (ix) From the end of bar 14 the episode is expanded on the usual closely imitative lines. to begin the triple counterpoint at the pitch arranged in bar 12 leads without complications to the final statement of the S. in the '6. It will be realized that although from one point of view episodes in triple counterpoint save trouble. and using the same mild stretto as in bar 4 : — Ex. (b). or C. and should now appear in the violin.. Strand (c) of the triple counterpoint begins with the last three notes of the S. which ends with a Tierce de Picardie so as to give 'cello (v) The rhythmic purposes. second middle group. (viii) In bar 12 there is a one-beat link between end of S. (c). (vi) entry of S. however. but this strand has already appeared in the viola in bar 6. 1. it is nevertheless necessary to spend a good deal of time in working out neat joins. 6) is interlocked with the end of the A minor statement of the A. (ii) shown bv y the ic and is (c) are interlocked with the end of C. This point must always be watched when introducing a subdominant statement of a S. he will not infrequently find that a free part will suddenly produce something really fruitful. be easily avoided.S. not being based on material from S. owing to dearth of variety of suitable material. and S. (iii) (6) independent. if desired. In a " complete " fugue it is sometimes useful.. its opening for The end of this entry is made to remain in B flat major so as to avoid a return to the tonic key. not derived from S. or A. in that key.. (iv) The second episode (bar an easier harmonic flow. and this expansion also introduces some desirable variety. Further.S. In Chapter 11.Note : (i) The interchange (fl) of parts in the triple ^ counterpoint f is letters [a).S. the viola taking strand {a). the final entry is to be on the violin. 9'J . para. in bar 15. and beginning of the triple counterpoint.. by modifying the end of the S. (vii) A codetta is needed in bar 10 to make an easy transition to G minor for the entry of the A. C. mention was made of the possibility of an episode 4.

Ex. in the exposition should) be a tendency for the texture to become rather more comolex. there is no objection to a really short first episode. 175 shows how a new figure. but distinctly terse first episode.176. and the student must always be on the alert for possibilities. 172. Ex. with adequate rhythmic and melodic point. In view of the serioso character of the S. pa ^ End of S. or for that matter in a " complete " fourpart fugue. might arise and be used.S. KhriU^^^m ^^^^^^ 6. In a " complete " fugue the B major entry (of 5. EXERCISES Continue any of your corrected expositions on through middle sections with episodes in triple counterpoint. Ex. 176 shows a perfectly satisfactory. such a vigorous figure would hardly be appropriate in but by this stage in the fugue there would (and generally the C. 93 . A. In a fugue with a very long S. Strings or wood-wind only. which the last bar is given at the beginning of the example) would be followed by an episode leading towards F sharp minor. 175.Refer back to Ex. Ex. .

tu r IM at . to be capable of stretto. 3. i.^ ^ILUTIB ^ — u etc. If an examiner has devised a S. of a good stretto there is no objection to a pair of middle entries same key.177 Any attempt at stretto between an entry in the dominant is useless see Ex. Consider the following S. merely a misfit.178 WW etc. Every S.XIV. should be tested for its stretto possibilities before the first middle entry is approached. ^/nriT^j. he naturally expects or at least hopes that candidates will discover and use the but he does not expect to be faced with an alleged stretto which is possibilities 1. in an inner part and A. — — . necessary to begin with a warning. the entries in the first group instead of being in the a second group relative and its dominant respectively may be both in the relative may consist of two entries in the subdominant. STRETTO Stretto should never be forced. proceeding with the middle section. It is is If a S. But a bar 3 works excellently see (c). above it would be safe: 94 . but this is not to be considered as essential. 178 (a) and {b). 2. Note that the S. " intended to work in stretto it will do so without harmonic " jamming and without distortion. : — Ex. — relative stretto in (E major) and its — E major starting in Ex. instead of one in the subdominant It is essential to test all these possibilities before followed by one in its relative.e. To allow in the being both . In the case of a " complete " fugue it is desirable that stretto in the second middle group should be closer than in the first. could not be in the bass since there there would be a bad 4th S.

(b) shows necesS. Ex. originally in F major transposed exactly into the subdominant sary modifications by accidentals to give good harmonic flow for a stretto with . The C sharp at (iii) is optional. In such a matter as this the student has to use his harmonic discretion. when there is a difference of mode between S. It was stated in para. or A. Ex. provided that the entry is not altered out of all recognition. is in a suitable part. 4. This needs especial care when working a stretto between the subdominant and its Ex.^ m jfc^ The leap of a 7th at (i) in the original version of the S. becomes an octave at (ii) and a good stretto is thus available. ^V^nurfjJim (a) ^g u^u% '^nt. it is not essential that it be harmonized in that key. (a) is the original S. in stretto is legitimate. or A. according to the needs of each individual case.Ex. Examine Ex. Modulation should be used. so as to ensure that each entry of S. (6) shows a stretto in the relative — and its dominant. 1 that " jamming " and distortion are to be entirely avoided. 95 . Fluency and ease of harmonic progression are the prime essentials. Although the stretto entry in the viola is " officially " in D major. 180. And all this testing must be done before proceeding beyond the end of the exposition. 181 (a) shows a relative. and to allow for either or both being upper parts.180. G minor. 179- It is thus obvious that in testing for stretto it is necessary to try the A. and A. student would ever submit. 178 {b) shows bad jamming of a type which it is hoped no sensible The modification of one or two intervals in either S. both above and below the S. or not used.

There is. 96 . Ex. the author sticks to his point of view. however. 182 is poor there is an overlap of a mere four quavers and the second half of the leading entry is entirely discarded. This S. of Ex. . and then lopping off about half of it to make way for an alleged stretto which may last no more than two or three notes. The use of partial entries in pseudo-stretto is not desirable except in one instance which will be dealt with later.g.Ex.* Refer back to the S. * Here again some teachers disagree . 182 6.181 <aj ij'^ unj''liii i g^j"^i^j.ij I 5. The kind of treatment shown in Ex. no objection end of the leading entry in a close stretto. 120. to lopping off just a note or two at the very e. There is no real justification for the practice of beginning an entry of the S. will not give a satisfactory stretto.

9. if hitherto . et it 10. The same advice applies regarding three-part strettos. effective of them. it will be easily discovered. The brackets show how is overlap . If no stretto is found after a very few minutes' consideration..Ex. A 7. when a part enters have to be discarded. The alternative. is modified. will Almost invariably. Even if it will " go.S. i t: While it r^ ^uf^ Tl to mind if the more normal stretto valuable time in trying to discover whether it will or will in any given instance.185. 97 in stretto the C. They are enough when they will work. as in Ex. Stretto in cross-rhythm (related to the mediaeval " Canon per arsin ihesin" ) is again to be avoided in the examination room. but the average S.. discard the idea and get ahead with the fugue." has a habit of unduly complicating the management of the harmony. though the reverse procedure is sometimes useful see Ex. is desirable to keep this possibility in is is not available. 184 (6). 185. 183 (a) S. j. keeping the characteristic anacrusis in the A. Note that it is generally preferable to modify the end of the leading entry rather than the beginning of the answering one. there no need not work spend much 8. present. comfortable stretto is possible from {a) so the anacrusis of the A. would be Ex. and since the strettoconsiderable this is acceptable. Ex. 184 (a). is not designed to allow and time may be wasted in trying to find something which is impossible. If a stretto is intended to work. Stretto at an unusual interval is occasionally possible.¥iir r^p i £rir>r r7r r7 rr i i ^ ^ the leading entry is modified.

EXERCISES. Discover the stretti >\hich apply to the following subjects and shew them as middle entries in appropriate keys. ir^^Cf ^ r' ^ _^ ^ Allegro ^ ^ Q- 1 J^^ijfg^e ^^ Moderato 98 . Alleg^retto ' i\>in[^'^'^u^^\r Allegretto ^^i m m »r Tw yi'i{ Andante ij^jjj^if g'ig'a p^u j^^ fWrf i /^ritr I f Alia Ki-Mir p^jj Vigoroso '- ^ i ht-^fftl^' ^ Allegro Anegr u @m# S & .

THE FINAL SECTION least The final section If should contain at is in the tonic key. In a three-part fugue the question of prea direct perfect cadence To thin out the ceding the final entry by a rest must depend on circumstances. Ex. it is well to avoid ushering in the S. 2. In such a case. climactic final entry. 186 shows this procedure applied to the S. " piling up " from bottom part to top i: obviously the most method. though there is no need to indulge in too many leger-lines. 120. note the effectiveness of the contexture just before the climax is generally weak tinuous viohn part in Ex. 169. the simplest one complete statement of the S.XV. no stretto possible. end of Ex. 1. 99 . The pitch at which the actual final entry appears is a matter of discretion. It is desirable that the final entry should be climactic. and in this connection there is no objection to them. but at the end of a " pile up " a high pitch is obviously best. — . with see Ex. 186. 186.S. The actual pitch of the partial entries depends on harmonic convenience they need not necessarily be based on the tonic as they are in Ex. effective — 4. 173. 186. of Ex. — Partial entries in pseudo-stretto often make a satisfactory lead-up to a 3. arrangement in a three-part in the bass. towards the end of the episode see Ex. As in the case of middle entries. in the top part and the C. as indicated at the fugue is to put the S. The latter part of the preceding episode should therefore work up to a climax-point at the beginning This working-up is helped if the rate of chord-movement is increased of the entry.

186.. quit the pedal with a direct perfect cadence Apart from the inverted and interrupted cadences. being based on the same S. is not to be despised.t87. 6.In a four-part fugue a dominant pedal below the final entry is good. with a working-up to a still bigger climax. as Ex. in a fugue for organ. The 5. preferably. is by no means essential. avoid having the same rhythm more than twice and do not. to quit the pedal on to V'd of the subdominant. though it . pedal should always begin on a strong accent and should be rhythmically decorated. 187 demonstrates all the points mentioned in the three preceding paragraphs. 186 and it is a procedure always to be kept in mind the pedal may well start with the first of the It may also well continue for a bar or more after the actual end of partial entries. in the part immediately above the pedal saves much trouble. of course. Remember that the part next above a pedal must act as a good bass harmonically the pedal is not the bass. 7. Ex. a useful ending is in the tonic. Ex. in succession. as in Ex.S. End of Episode cresa * Except. 100 . If a pseudo-stretto lead-in is being used. — — In decorating the pedal. and some connection with a rhythmic figure from the S. In this cormection it is obvious that the use of the C. 8. the S.* This decoration should be arranged so as to increase the excitement towards the end.

. is possible. Time permitting. The possibility of a final stretto must be explored before the last episode attempted. stand out clearly in letting the final entry the clinching of the argument. at one or a half bar's distance. e. Care implying the V— I of : is entry e.188. If a close stretto. A effective to stretto can be between any two (or more) parts.Coda. it should be used.g. will not necessarily be present. entering only just before the end of the S. so as to ensure leading to the right chord in the right key. but it is generally most have the final entry at the top. is being treated vigorously. begins with an anacrusis harmony. but ensure that one of the entries is complete. Ex. A mild stretto. but if it has not been used up in the middle section it may well be used here.: — 101 . Even though stretto may have been used in the middle There is adequate effectiveness section. is 12. Hence. two entries in the final section are better than one. it is not a sine qua non in the Imal section. otherwise a bad harmonic progression is unavoidable. the A. End of Episode -m . as it were and simply. — needed over the start of a pedal if the S. The stretto can be at any interval but should be arranged so that the final entry is in tonic or dominant. In such cases it is necessary to establish the pedal before the S.g. The C. — — 11. is naturally not so effective at this climax-point of the fugue. 9. such a work-up over the pedal after the end of the entry is always effective. Consider this S. End of S mpf-f f-HTg Where the S.^_ ^-N _ #- S.- t)H^in n u 10. without complications..S.

192. u ^ii^m ^/i^W^ of 1 l^^Uit 1^0.189. The S. C major. a 4th - — : A Ex. So we shall arrange for the final episode to lead to an entry in the dominant. v^ g^Lj* ^'-^-L-J" l i p^ m ». ends at (a) on the 'cello. entry in the viola. Ex.J Bar 4 may be based equally well on the chord point is G major or G minor —the immaterial. 13.191. 102 . however. is ^M ? above : Stretto possible at one bar's distance. >F !^^y^^^^r But this practically is r. ^ 190. thus putting the stretto entry in the tonic " wrong. which becomes free at (6). in the subdominant key which. 192 shows an almost complete three-part stretto of a useful type. so that there is a complete stretto between 'ceilo and This.^ Ex." : — ^^^ ^•j^^ ^^ ^ i Ex. ^ ^ Ex. with or without stretto. though not not as satisfactory as if it were in the tonic..Jtt fT i ^i^i [>ir£ puts the A. final r-"^ p :rir r i ^ J ^J i m ^ — fe*s ^rs i H l^S^ y *=» * -^ («) ^^ m \^ EXERCISES Continue any of the exercises you have already worked as far as the end of the entry of the S. is covered up by an almost complete violin at two bars' distance. ^ m.

free as to interval. given in Ex. after which some convenient rhythmic figure is developed so as to lead to a final climax at the cadence. 4. one or two useful procedures which may be 3. 2. Ex. nevertheless. It is neither possible nor desirable to lay down any definite rules of construction since to the musical student each individual S.. Imitations will be entirely and inversion of the figure is often useful. a " spectacular " pseudo-stretto after the end of the Close imitation of the first two or three notes of the S. work in any case. 181. illustrated. since the main business of the over. be treated as freely as may be desired. The Coda. THE CODA 1. A tendency to the subdominant side to eight bars after the final entry or is also generally desirable. which fugue there may is is like the rest of the fugue. final entry often effective. There is no need for the coda to be overlong (most students will find no time. With regard to often most effective to arrange for the last part to enter with the same accentuation as the original S.) There are. will suggest its own (The unmusical student should not be attempting fugal appropriate treatment. anyway ) but it must sound like an effective rounding-off of the ! whole fugue.m' HjiH ' ^cJ^r^r 103 . With a vigorous is S.XVI. some four entries will suffice. but this is not essential. should be based on thematic material. is piled up from bottom to top. "^•'- r kcii. it is rhythm. 193 shows a final section and coda based on the S. As a general rule.

5. Ex. contains a second strongly-marked figure. spectacular " Sometimes. but is The main point is no undue mere repetition of figures. thing there to observe is that with the possible exception of bar 8. 194 shows the same S. Even bar 8 derives from the bass of bar 7 which itself accompanies figures based on the S. 104 . keeping up continuous semiquaver movement. Double stopping on the viola end gives a fuller effect. which pseudo-canon between violin and viola in bar 7. everybased on S. The first will " pile up " from the bass. movement which is is (vi) (vii) The final reference to the opening of the S. This is simply (iv) Bar 6 continues imitation of the figure. is further developed (v) In bar 7 the 'cello carries a busy semiquaver passed over to the violin in bar 8. the second will " tumble down " from the top. a " double is possible.Note : — (i) (ii) In bar 3 the end of the C.S. (iii) In bar 5 the viola inverts the opening figure of the a matter of harmonic convenience. To introduce the " spectacular " stretto effectively the upper parts rest as the 'cello begins it. or C. treated thus for quartet. in 'cello is imitated by the viola and then passed to the violin. in S. at the in bar 9 effective.S. when a S. The whole texture is very closely-knit.

p i r^ i> ^^=^^ . l K . g ^^ gl ffr^'T?^ f-'-^^ffed i il r'>^:^Jrff f ^^ 5^ ff-^-^i: 105 .f/murc.

practically everything being related to the S. i rrfT ii^'^ 106 i 1 '-^ ^:ti . 194 might be modified thus : — Note the effective augmentation p—n in first violin. 196 shows a shorter style of coda. as Ex. 6.Note : — (i) The first " spectacular " stretto begins immediately the S. Here again. — la in the tonic in is bars 3-4. this (ii) The first violin enters in cross rhythm and inverted first in bar 4 quite effectively. as is also violin in bar 5. Ex. to conclude the final section begun Ex. ends saves valuable time. 187. based on is (iv) The continuation of the 'cello entry in bar 6 as a descending scale in (v) (vi) The marcato reference The avoidance of Va in an inner part to the opening of the S.196. In contrast to the ending of Exx. 193 and 194 it is sometimes useful to conclude with a reference to the end of the S. Ex. in 7. in bar 7. (iii) The second " spectacular " begins on the the second bar of the S. #%La'r fr^ntixi 'f> ^ i-^r^ -^ ' ' ' l'- ''!J i'^rr~f. The conclusion of Ex. effective. 193 the texture very closely-knit. .

e.rTr e!f: fOCOf g focof ^ jf ^ _ focof 107 .Andante esPressito iranquillo S.197. e Ex. to the S. (a) r p ±=3 ^ ^^^ end of the 1* m 1 1 i ^ Note the effective cross-rhythm reference two bars. account must be taken of the and also of the occasional directions given in the wording of the Ex. section based on the S. :^ ^ .g. 197 {b) shows a quiet final question.t ^j - i li jml (El! m^^^^tii 1 1 t ^ in the last 8.." style of the S. in augmentation Not every fugue needs to end fortissimo . " a quiet and expressive fugue. given at (a).-m. " it lr 4 mf | P ^^ ijo^ i^^ ^mi 1 l- 'i 0^Mf R "ff LJ^U " "^ ^J w <*^ :^=F Mr mz'.

and write music. | J Note : — (i) (ii) The slight modification of the S. 10 ^^I. in appro- 108 ." EXERCISES Complete a number of the fugues you have worked by adding codas priate styles. e rail. best ultimate advice 9. of passed from one instrument to (iii) (iv) In bars 8 and 9 the violin and viola develop the semiquaver figure which has persisted on the 'cello to some extent from bar 1.^JmJ''P >^J. in bar 3 for easy stretto.— semi re dim. The : which can be given let is that of the writer's own coach " When you come to the Coda. yourself go.'I. The " flat side " tendency in bars 5 to 8. Imitation the opening of the S. another in bars 5 to 8.

it may turn out to be a time-saving arrangement. Before dealing with possible plans for a complete fugue. but not every S. there are a few general points to which reference must be made. The warning given in Chapter 13. THE FUGUE AS A WHOLE 1. para. and its two attendant C. If use is made of it.S. is designed for it. In a complete " fugue the lay-out might be as follows : — EXPOSITION. 1. and the average student will be well advised to leave it alone rather than to expend valuable time in attempting what may prove to be impossible. regarding the use of triple counterpoint in episodes applies equally in connection with its employment against the S. If the student can devise triple counterpoint against the S.'s in as many different arrangements as possible.XVII. care must be taken to show the S. SECOND MIDDLE GROUP. Violin FIRST MIDDLE GROUP. quickly and musically. 2. FINAL ENTRY . TRIPLE COUNTERPOINT.

F^ir fttn. introducing diminution. 198. as Ex. The reverse procedure. the coda beginning as at (6). 199. etc. M areata ed alleg-ro ^''ii'rr?rTrri"rrf-f^+ f i — > ^-^ 1? ii. as S. Jf yalL at W¥^ ^ I I fine i . 199 (a). Ex. 110 .Ex.> ^ i Lj // \> 1 ^ ^Elj-^^SJ E ^S jy ^ i £ ^ K I- Lj // g (a) ^ would be useful with such 5.

the shorter the episodes and vice versa. 4 (a). able to work . Variety in the construction of episodes is desirable. and even here variation In a " short " fugue the first episode may be. a far from easy one is appended in Ex. but there is always the risk that a S. in ink on fair copy. to fair copy To the musical student this procedure should ultimately present no difficulty.S. A S. with C. like Ex. to reduce the first " middle group to a single entry in the relative. is as . Inversion of the S. time can be gained by working to some extent in ink straight on to the fair copy to make a complete pencil sketch of the fugue and then to copy it out in ink is bad policy. The examiners want to see the candidate's ideas on the writing of the fugue as a whole. . e. and A. With a S. the second on method 3 or 4. much 8.^. such as that given in Ex. etc. Occasionbe possible in the middle section. adding free parts in ink. — 10.. but must nevertheless show development of subject matter. the episodes might be : — (i) (ii) (iii) Method Method Method S.is another device which is better left alone. . in such a case. paras.. as in the example quoted. : 1 or 2 . in ink. based on method 1 or 2. (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Middle entries (with or without C. so that any attempt at lengthy This episodes will probably result in the submission of an uncompleted working. 6) An " independent " episode (see Chapter 13. A " short " episode (see Chap. which varies widely.S. possible stretti. " working student may do well. apart from natural facility. With a long (i) (ii) (iii) — . With regard to (a). 9. appropriate keys. Sketch imitative basis of episodes on rough paper. but it is essential not to overlook the necessary thinking-out in advance over such matters as order of parts in the middle entries. 3 4.) Final entry with attendant parts in ink. Even if some of the free parts in the middle section are incomplete. of length is often essential. 200. Regarding (6). takes a not inconsiderable time to write out at each appearance. Sketch imitative basis of coda on rough paper. 4 {a) episodes and coda will naturally be drastically conThe slowerdensed. or the coda is presented merely as an outline pencil sketch.S. say. no — — analytical comments will be added. plus free parts. and add (iii) free parts in ink. but examiners naturally prefer a finished exercise. The (a) length and general lay-out of an examination fugue depend mainly on two factors: — (6) The speed with which the candidate is The length and complexity of the S. follows : — (i) (ii) Sketch C. also in their length. especially when. except. . Write exposition entries of S. para. the beginning of the final section. of course. transfer and add remaining parts in ink. on rough paper. stretto ally an inverse may 7. the quality of what is submitted is of the chief is not necessarily a failing matter importance. including all the necessary bowing. which should be constantly practised. Transfer to fair copy. the longer the S. 4 and 5) Method 3 or 4. change As an example of of mode presents some tricky problems of harmonization. thorough condensation a working of this S. In a " complete " fugue with a short or moderately short S. The method of procedure. 6. 13. if they are based on triple counterpoint. In order that the student may exercise his intelligence adequately. it is preferable to a fugue which stops short at. in inverse movement may not harmonize satisfactorily.

l.Ex. 200. ^ m Alleg-ro jHj ip^ ^ t ^ mC jjij^iJ^^ i i '«/ ^ t ^-''[^" sir I Q Cr C^Q i i i ^^^c^^"' K i .^ ^1^^ 112 .^\^ ^ '^'•^u i^ri^t. i 1 .p 4g ^ ^^.

i 113 . »<' ffi^ ^ "^ ij ^SyTOlJ^^/JSij diwt.i ^ m^ ^ i \ ^ ^^ ^ dim.

^i.IK^l^' ^^ i» ^ - *^^ cresc.^ s ^ ^J^l ^5 /oco tranquillo f'tn am i.ji ji i j]^j ^. smA n iRiJ ?H o mcj m^\.r. P ^ ^ prrif ^ ^ 114 .ir ^«^^- ^^ OJ J? | 1 1 'Tr^r Q- ^J i QiiJ ^ s mp in r^'r\^.:^ lh \ ^ 1 ^j^^ji^ ^.

ynj^ ^j*-^^ l IJJJJ M ilJJJj J JJJiJ JJ J-JJrt: .- ^L-n J-j i Jj i Mr^ i rjjjrj *^ ^^ J J 115 cresc f—Ta 1^.

Expression marks should always be added. and then observing how they are handled in the working. as regards dynamics and general style of treatment.S. and each individual subject must. ^=^ fe: m -^^'^ s 'P^gj^ / l ^ F ^ I C/ Q »T The student difficulties is urged to study the above in great detail. however roughly. 11. and C. climaxes and advanced contrapuntal writing. which is an essential element of style. noting first the various presented by the S.4' iKi. is a bad one. 116 ample material is available in the .^ i i i ^'M^ ^ ^ ^ ^^^^{2:^1 E m ^M. since No exercises are given to this chapter since past papers of the various examining bodies.. be considered as a piece of music. It may be nicntioned that this fugue makes no claim to perfection. The habit of writing a whole fugue or any other exercise.S. Bowing (or phrasing) should always be inserted as each part is written. so that it could serve as an example of what can be achieved when working at high pressure and top speed. It also wastes time. even in the examination room. A fugue should. and then going over it again to add slurs. — — it shows that the student is not thinking of phrasing. It was deliberately written straight away in ink and (even allowing for the ready-made C. p Qji^ /f ^"te ^^ cj aria. be considered on its own merits.) was finished in considerably less than three hours. points of repose. for that matter as a mere string of notes. etc. not merely as a mechanical exercise in It should have light and shade.

62. The fragment in the last two bars of the tenor. Refer back to Ex. by the arrangement Again on account of words. but any other subdivision will sound foolish. the simplest plan is either to use a fragment from In Ex.. Care must be taken to give every voice the chance to draw breath an 6. The final section will follow the same general plan as that in an instrumental fugue. In the above-quoted sentence the sections " up mine eyes " and " unto the mountains bear unlimited repetition. is often ruled out on this account. whether stretto is present or not. Such a ludicrous statement as: 2.. At the same time. are available. or to use an independent new figure. 62 it the beginning of S. Admitted that when word repetition is needed it is not always easy to avoid the nonsenical but there is I will lift . unto. The same devices of pseudo-stretto. 62. the alto's phrase to " let us sing unto the Lord " in the last three bars of the exposition could well be employed.S. " I will lift In the construction of episodes the choice of material is apt to be limited of the words. but to go on repeating They cannot be isolated from this incomplete phrase of words would be ridiculous. but two matters need special attention. " is not by any means beyond the capacity of some students. apart from places where a voice may be silent for a few bars in preparation for an entry of the S. The general plan of the middle section. 7.S. 201 shows the completion of a " short " fugue from the end of Ex. no apology is offered for this very trite and obvious remark. is likely to be impossible it is essential to think in terms of word-phrases. THE VOCAL FUGUE ment In the preceding eight chapters no reference has been mide to the treatof voices. Sense permitting. 117 . adequate amount of rests must occur. or C.S. etc. subject to the requirements of verbal sense. 3. viz. Ex. as in the 4. The use of a melodic fragment from the end of S. (i) (ii) — The arrangement The construction of the words . or the beginning of the C. The sense. and in — up mine. . of episodes. up mine eyes unto the." Alternatively. : instrumental fugue. their context. last — 5. is similar to that of an 1. or C. 169.XVIII. two bars of Ex. to the words " strength of our salvation " would serve well enough as the basis of an instrumental episode. unto the mountains. some stretto of the imitations may be possible. would be possible to use the well-marked figure of "O come " with crotchet /quaver movement against it in the other parts. " no need will to indulge in sheer idiocy. chief thing to remember about words is that they must always make view of (to put it mildly) the peculiar things that students are apt to do in handling the word-repetitions which are inevitable in a fugue. to the words " let us heartily rejoice. any curtailment of a basic fragment. since the vocal fugue presents its own problems.

let us mir^T (come) let f=¥=f^ US fe^ E ic=:=fi gf i us sin^ un-to theLo^d. mrsinff pip iMr T^^ ua-to the Lord. N'. let usbin^unto the ^m come. jJ ^^ un to the let sing- > i ^^ r— come. let sii 118 . ^^ us Lord. let r let g us singiuQto us \ J^ J' ^ m ^ let sing'un-to us m m sing^.un - ih^r(re)-joice pr|F iathe p r our rr sal - r i streng-thof va-tion. to the Lord.201 S End of exposition sm^ to ^m the the I i Lord. let %K»:> ^B r g 3 sal - ^S us p irheart. cs. let us sin^ un-to Lord. ' ^ sinjf. \ i r let hJ us A. g Let us sing-) sinffi let us heart ily i re-joice I siriff.Ex. in the strength of our va-t.ion. . come. let m us in the im~ Lord. S^ * the Lord.i-ly re-joice feg us .^et sing'un-to ^ the ^^ 'K i jn^ Let ^ us the Lord.

B,j
Lord)

i|J.
let

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|

;4^r
us sinj Uh sin^'

pk^
-

\

[

un

to the

Lord. L*

5^
sing
UQ-to the

Lord.

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ii

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i I

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1

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^

stren^h of our

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us
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to

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Lord,

J

f]

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sinff

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-

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to

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the

un

the

let

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Or
Let
us

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P

w
-

s
ly
re
-

heart-i

joice

in

the

p

r

f- f
|

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f
the

I

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p

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t^
sal

heart-i -ly

re

-

joice

strength of our

m
joice
in

the

strength

p r ofoursal-va
I

"H
us

'^
tion.

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j

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r
Lord,

M
oresc

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1.'

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sal
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rrrrrirrrrmrr'fi
va
tion,

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oruc
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tion,

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let

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ii
let

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nrj
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us
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the

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119

s
come,
>

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let

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r

^

sing

uu-tothe Lord, let

us

gr i^TTf
i

ff

p

1 |

^
i

>

i

S
yi."i.

us

sing, let

us

singr un-to.

the Lord.

^ f r cr
siog:

p
to the Lord, let us
sing-

fef
un
0.
-

un
J
let

-

to the Lord.

M
'

^^
-

us

sing"

un

to the Lord) let

us

i
1

i

>

p

p r-

I?

i

f

r

M>
Let
ub
re
-

^S
heart- i-ly

sing un-to

the

Lordi

re

Let us

heart i-ly

joice

in

the

strength of our sal-

i

\i

jyr
Let us

n
heart-i-ly

re

-

joice

%K
i''
i

^

P

U rj^
re
-

m
in

heart-i-ly

joice

the

strength of oursal-va
rail.

-

tion,

re

^
r r
sal
I

.

T'
joice

p r
inthe

I

f
strength

nih|
i

rrrrffirr
va
-

^^

of

our

-

rva

I

n
tion.

S
bal
-

tion, inthe strength

iKi.^^

r
in

r
the


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&
of

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tion.

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strength

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strength
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va

120

I

Note

:

(i)
(ii)

Brackets

r—

show
is

points of imitation.

The

first

episode

based on the alto

figure

at

the

end

of

the

exposition,
(iii)

The second episode

is

based on the beginning of the C.S.

(iv)

In both episodes there are modifications of the shape of the figures concerned, but they remain recognizable.

(v)

Some
entry.

use of the episode figure

is

continued against the
is

first

middle

(vi)

The ending
final entry.

of the second episode

free

and leads

to a climax at the

(vii)

The coda has uninterrupted quaver movement shared between
parts until the last four bars.

the

(viii)

The words were added

as the notes were written. It is bad policy to write the notes in a part and then to " juggle " the words to fit. The movement of a part and the words to fit it must he worked out simultaneously.
is

(ix)

Despite the word-repetition, there arrangement.

nothing nonsensical about the

Like Ex. 200, this fugue does not claim to be perfect. It was written at top speed and is admittedly academic in style. But again it shows what can be managed under examination conditions.

EXERCISES
Write fugues on any of the vocal subjects given
in previous sets of exercises.

XIX.

GENERALITIES
;

In writing a fugue for piano or organ care must be taken that it is playable 1. not desirable to assume the technique of a Horowitz or a Dupre. Practicability All too often students space the parts in a manner effective enough on, is essential. say, strings, but quite unmanageable by ten fingers. Such a passage as the following is obviously ridiculous for a keyboard instrument:
it is

121

In a four-part piano fugue the management of a pedal under the final entry apt to present difficulty. 2. while unadventurous.H.It is venturesome and widespread as when each thus evident that as a general rule individual parts cannot be so melodically is on a separate instrument. Merely to hold the pedal-note.^ ^m ^m j>. such a student would do well not 4. . Ex. The pedal-note must be rhythmically broken up. is at least Ex. is obviously ineffective the sound will have vanished after a few beats. but it must be pianistic. All too often a so-called " free " coda is quite the opposite of pianistic. s W^^^w ^ ^ ^^ moito ralL 122 . 203 demonstrates briefly what could be done with the adequately pianistic. tied through several bars. This. final section of a four-part fugue on Ex. and the student who lacks a real feeling for keyboard style will be well advised to continue with straightforward part-writing to the end.^ _ . with the 5th finger of the L. For the same reason.203. 3. is — There is no objection to free writing in the coda. 123. to attempt a pedal-point.

Ex. Ex. of Ex. A useful method of ending is to anchor the pedal on a tonic pedal-point. 203.5. with some reference to the subdominant key in the upper parts. especially in a four-part fugue. as well as playability. should be " solo'd " and it is also desirable that the pedals should rest for a not inconsiderable period. [T^ n%^ ij ^_^ Gt/ nn ^ ^ LYir *? -)^iaf /LT ^^F S ^ 7 V 7 ^m a ^^m ^ Jtgpt ff ^%|'i/K s ^p nm ^ Tubi E=Z ^'^U ^ ' imf -h ^m fJlUlLl^ // S 123 ^ m \ ^ ^ . In the middle section at least one entry of the S. In an organ fugue. pedal-point A under the final entry will naturally be a long sustained note and the coda may again be free. 204 shows what might be done with the S.204. some appreciation of the fact that there are at least two manuals is essential.

parts over a pedal-point in the coda. an example of a quiet ending. pp ^^ Vi/ 124 .In a three-part organ fugue there is no objection to using three manual 6. 205. 197. being that of Ex. Ex. the S. shows this device. Ex.205.

even one written in the examination room. and so also must the medium for which the fugue is to be written. 203 could be treated in a quiet and tranquil fashion. Acton Lane. Printed in England by Aufener Ltd. a whole fugue may be " correct " and yet add up to nothing but mere note-spinning. of Ex. though it can produce an equally strong rhythmic drive. The S. Such a S. manner and a complicated " free " coda would be out of place. 205 can only be dealt with on quiet and restrained lines. An answer to a subject may be " correct " and yet be condemned on purely musical grounds. London. has yet a reasonable amount of musical value. 8. as exercise 2 of Chapter 7 would need a light style throughout. and double stopping can. of Ex. while piano and organ can bear any style that may seem appropriate to the S. The aim should be always to produce something which. it must again be stressed that a fugue. must be conceived primarily as a piece of music. also stand treatment on bigger lines leading up to the heavy coda suggested. " thicken the gravy " at a final climax. W4 125 . as it happens. But heavy fortissimos and dramatic working-up to climaxes are not possible and should — — therefore not be envisaged in writing a fugue for such a combination. 7. Similarly. With regard to the medium. however limited in scope. to use a convenient colloquialism. but it will..As already mentioned. The S. A trio or quartet of wind instruments will naturally tend to be light in effect and it must be remembered that in view of the contrasting tone-colours each melodic line will tend to stand out extra clearly. quiet or noisy a string trio cannot be expected to give the fullness of a quartet. light or heavy. the styk of the individual subject will condition its of treatment. In conclusion.

.

conjunction with the author's " 200 Questions on Form. LANCASHIRE COURT. all the groundwork It needed for diploma examinations (for which it has been primarily designed) and contains some short but useful notes on Vocal Forms. 1 CO. covers. but there are copious references to music which is easily accessible to any student. A. concisely. NEW BOND STREET. . W. (London) (Professor and Examiner at Trinity College of Music) an attempt to condense the essentials of Form in such a way as to give a basis for further more detailed study of the subject. Examples in music type have perforce been This book is kept to a minimum." it will provide a solid and Used in useful grounding on the subject.FORM IN BRIEF BY WILLIAM LOVELOCK D. 11 HAMMOND & LONDON.Mus.

and great of laid on the most practical and logical method approach to varjring types of questions. 11 HAMMOND Street.) FREE COUNTERPOINT ( In two parts BY WILLIAM LOVELOCK. A. Counterpoint in two. Many examples are given showing how a complete working may be gradually built up. three and four parts is dealt with in stress great detail. of is A realistic view if is taken of the harmonic so often neglected.) Price 5/6 net each part. 10/-. Complete D. (Lond. book provides a thorough grounding in a wide range of contrapuntal writing. while the later ones deal with work up to the standard required in the First Mus. The earlier chapters are designed largely to assist the candi- date for the A. and similar examinations. this Although designed primarily for the examination candidate. with copious examples is and exercises. which of work. & CO. New Bond London. and also form a good preparation for that in the Final. including a comprehensive chapter on the writing of the simpler type of Chorale Prelude. W. .R.O. 1 Lancashire Court.B.C.Mus. aspect. Altogether an invaluable book for all candidates in Paper- work examinations. not overlooked in this kind and the writer begins by assuming an adequate knowledge harmony on the part of the student.

# .

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