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Development of advanced technology for biomass combustion—CFD as an essential tool
T.F. Dixon*, A.P. Mann, F. Plaza, W.N. Gilﬁllan
Sugar Research Institute, Box 5611, Mackay MC 4741, Australia Received 13 November 2003; received in revised form 7 September 2004; accepted 14 September 2004 Available online 18 November 2004
Abstract Major advances have been made in the development of bagasse combustion technologies and understanding the many processes involved in bagasse combustion and steam generation. CFD modeling has come to form an integral and critical part of this progression. The experience with CFD in the sugar industry through Sugar Research Institute has encompassed the full range of applications from fundamental code development, through the generation and commercialization of new ideas and technologies, to the resolution of practical plant problems. The paper summarises the numerous applications where SRI has achieved successful results utilizing CFD. It is demonstrated that the full beneﬁts of CFD in the delivery of commercial outcomes, for new technologies and the solution of operating plant problems, are achieved through the close interaction between the code development and validation via full scale plant simulation. This two-way interaction enhances the code fundamentals by focusing on practical issues and similarly increases the conﬁdence in the capabilities and accuracy of the CFD predictions, to an extent that justiﬁes ﬁrm engineering decisions on commercial plant based solely on the characteristics predicted by the code. q 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Biomass combustion; CFD; Bagasse; Steam generation technology
1. Introduction The sugar industry in Australia has an evolving and developmental culture that strives to advance its wide range of technologies in order to remain internationally competitive. In recent years particular emphasis has been directed to the areas of bagasse (biomass) combustion and steam generation, and more recently gasiﬁcation, as these processes command by far the single largest investment in capital plant for sugar manufacture. The operating and maintenance costs associated with steam generation also demand attention to increase performance and proﬁtability. Sugar Research Institute has maintained for over 15 years an integrated program of research and development, full-scale plant demonstration and commercial proving of a range of plant improvements and advanced combustion technologies. It has emerged that a critical component of this development sequence has been the application of CFD modeling. SRI’s involvement with CFD speciﬁcally for
* Corresponding author. E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org (T.F. Dixon). 0016-2361/$ - see front matter q 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2004.09.024
combustion and boiler applications has embraced the full range of activities from fundamental research into components processes and CFD code development, through to commercial engineering design and problem solving on operational plant. The CFD code has undergone a sequence of progressive enhancement as the focus of application has shifted. CFD modeling has established itself as a critical tool for the development of new ideas and advanced technologies. It has been SRI’s experience that CFD modeling is capable of predicting qualitative information (trends), and in many cases quantitative information, to within sufﬁcient accuracy to justify engineering design changes on commercial boiler plant. The focus of this presentation is the applications aspects of CFD modeling for combustion and steam generation technology in the sugar industry. The modeled systems that are described are highly complex and thus model ‘valivalidation’ is typically in the form of agreement with qualitative, historical knowledge obtained from plant operators and supervisory personnel. Where available, comparisons with quantitative plant data are included and used extensively. Overall, the modeling has been shown to
F. Fig. etc. Enhancement of the code is in progress for Conditional Moment Closure (CMC) modeling of CO and NOx generation and dispersion/reaction speciﬁcally for bagasse combustion. Some comments are pertinent. Depending on the particular design of the boiler under investigation. for the prediction of heat transfer coefﬁcients within porous regions that are used to represent the ﬂow through tube bundles . Turbulent dispersion of the particles is modelled using the technique of Gosman and Ioannides . Model applications In this section a range of CFD modeling applications are presented. particle drying. The code has been modiﬁed over a number of years to model the ﬂow and combustion processes in bagasse ﬁred boilers [2–4]. combustion and radiation in utility and industrial boilers ﬁring a range of fuels. and the accurate simulation of global convective heat transfer within tube bundles. 2. These include the dynamic simulation of the pile burning characteristics of bagasse that has deposited out of suspension on the boiler grate [5. The code has been modiﬁed to take into account the shape and aerodynamic behaviour of bagasse particles. Information about particle impacts with individual tubes (particle velocity.7].) to a user deﬁned local region within the boiler recorded by the model. Lagrangian particle tracking is used to predict the motion of particles (bagasse and ash) through the boiler. This overcomes the computer processing and storage limitations that prevent detailed modeling of the ﬂow patterns around individual tubes. 1. 3. 1 shows a typical grid conﬁguration for a bagasse ﬁred boiler incorporating a single stage superheater. Fig. . particle size.6]. The standard k-3 turbulence model is used for all simulations. It has been found in practice that speciﬁc tube erosion areas can be differentiated according to the different ash particle size fractions that occur in the gas circuit. FURNACE simulations of the more intractable problems typically use a dual particle size distribution consisting of representative ‘large’ size/variable density particles for bagasse and ‘small’ dense particles for the ash fraction.1. Bagasse combustion is modelled as a four-stage process: particle heat-up. The code also has time stepping capability.8]. a much ﬁner grid resolution (with improved accuracy) can be used for this simulation. the modeling grid is assembled with appropriate porous regions relevant to the problem. asymmetrical multiple pass convection tube bank and large gas transfer duct to the vertical airheater/economiser passage. a FURNACE simulation of the whole boiler is performed but with the inlet conditions (particle velocity. 3. FURNACE is a three dimensional. Several novel features of the code have been developed in recent years. / Fuel 84 (2005) 1303–1311 have good agreement with qualitative trends and acceptable agreement with quantitative data. incorporating empirical correlations . Basis of CFD model SRI’s workhorse for CFD modeling in the combustion and boiler ﬁelds is the FURNACE code originally developed for pulverized coal ﬁred boilers at the University of Sydney . structured grid CFD code that can predict the standard gas and particle ﬂow patterns.1304 T. The tendency of these designs to erode is accentuated by the gas ﬂow dynamics that differentially concentrate the ash particle streams and alter the angle of impact onto tubes into directions that further increase erosion rates. sub-grid modeling capability has been added to the FURNACE code. the simulation of tube erosion processes in individual tubes of heat transfer tube bundles including the incorporation of porous regions [4. This takes into account the pressure and temperature drop and ﬂow area restriction caused by the presence of the tube banks. Details of a more recent version of the FURNACE code are described elsewhere [5. devolatilisation and char burnout. To use this approach. Use is also made of the CFX code for speciﬁc applications where an unstructured grid conﬁguration is required for adequate problem representation. Dixon et al. gas turbine exhaust injection in combined cycle conﬁguration (unpublished work). Side elevation view of the ﬂow grid used to model the Union Saint Aubin boiler (Mauritius) showing the positions of the superheater and convection bank porous regions. For tube erosion work. These inlet conditions are then used in a subsequent FURNACE simulation of the ﬂow patterns in this local region. Tube erosion Bagasse ﬁred boilers have convection bank tube conﬁgurations that can be susceptible to excessive tube erosion. As the physical size of the local region is small. particle concentration and impact angle) can be predicted and erosion rates estimated using the empirical tube wear correlation.
T. (b) particle trajectory. In most cases the heat transfer of a tube bank will be decreased (less degree of crossﬂow) in order to achieve improved ﬂow conditions that reduce tube erosion. Dixon et al. Only in difﬁcult ﬂow conditions is use made of the FURNACE capability to simulate gas and particle ﬂows and calculate erosion rates at speciﬁc locations on individual tubes . These adjustments usually involve only relatively small changes to a bafﬂe geometry or size to achieve the required erosion reduction. 3). 3. 2) and the modiﬁed design (Fig. (a) Gas velocity. It has been necessary to include in FURNACE the simulation of global convective heat transfer across tube bundles. altered angles of impact and gas velocity distributions. 2 and 3 show a typical CFD erosion application in a tube bank for an Australian boiler. For several boilers. This approach has been taken to reduce computational effort rather than to attempt the simulation of heat transfer to each individual tube in the bundle. These are applied in a framework that utilizes the predictive capability of FURNACE to specify the point values of gas velocity and orientation throughout the porous region that deﬁnes the tube bundle. . Figs. The global convective heat transfer in the tube bundle is matched to measured data by the use of a matching coefﬁcient or scaling factor that is applied throughout Fig.F. Flow simulations for the as-constructed design. Both the geometry of the tube rows in the bank and the conﬁguration of ﬂow deﬂection bafﬂes have been manipulated to arrive at a reasonable resolution of the problem. It is rare that improvements in both processes can be achieved simultaneously. Flow simulations for the modiﬁed design. It has been found that satisfactory improvements in boiler tube erosion performance can be deduced by visual assessment alone of the predicted ﬂow and trajectory patterns. 3. 2. (b) particle trajectory. A summary of several tube erosion investigations can be found in . Gas velocity contours (a) and trajectories for several particle fractions (b) are shown for the as-constructed design (Fig. (a) Gas velocity. Convection bank heat transfer A difﬁculty that has emerged with tube erosion simulations has been the conﬂict between reduced erosion and reduced convective heat transfer. second stage bafﬂe adjustments have been undertaken to reﬁne ﬂow patterns based on observed changes in erosion patterns. Standard correlations for relevant correction factors for heat transfer to tube bundles have been incorporated . / Fuel 84 (2005) 1303–1311 1305 Fig. Particular attention is given to particle concentration effects.2.
Table 1 shows the results of heat transfer simulations for several bagasse ﬁred boilers. Two points are signiﬁcant.35 the whole porous region. The conventional secondary air and spreader ﬂow pattern generates a predominant upﬂow column positioned towards the rear-centre of the furnace. Predicted temperature differences of less than 5 8C are considered to be an excellent result. Negligible corrosion occurs during the start-up phase. which ultimately determines the residence time for burnout.32 1. Measurements of airheater tube temperatures have shown that wall temperatures close to 60 8C.18 1. the ﬂow Saint Aubin original Saint Aubin modiﬁed Kalamia #1 original Kalamia #1 modiﬁed Fairymead #7 original Fairymead 7 modiﬁed Kalamia #5 original Kalamia #5 modiﬁed 0. Radiation is not modeled speciﬁcally within the tube arrays. The same factor is then applied for simulations of the modiﬁed tube bundles. Note that included within the ‘convection’ match is the radiant heat transfer that also occurs within the tube bundle. Secondary air injection for furnace ﬂame manipulation All biomass ﬁred furnaces have secondary air or overﬁre air injection primarily for CO removal. The trajectory of the fuel particles through the furnace space. However. Fig. Dixon et al. which can act to accentuate the gas ﬂow deﬁciencies. With the advanced secondary air pattern (b). There may be a low strength recirculation ﬂow adjacent to the furnace front wall. increase fuel–air mixing and reduce unburnt fuel particle carryover from the furnace. The scaling factor for each boiler has been selected to provide an ‘exact’ match between the measured and predicted gas temperatures for the original convection bank arrangement. The concentration of particles towards the rear of the gas duct allows extraction into an ash sluice for removal. The tabulated gas temperatures are representative values that are the ‘mean’ values for the exit of the tube bundle but are in reality point measurements. is generally vertically upward with a small ﬂow deﬂection around the nose at the furnace exit ahead of the superheater section. which has been the traditional explanation for the problem. can occur in airheaters where the mean gas exit temperature was greater than 260 8C. 5 shows one such conﬁguration being developed. However.1306 T. / Fuel 84 (2005) 1303–1311 Table 1 Measured and predicted convection bank gas exit temperatures (8C) for several boilers before and after convection bank modiﬁcations Convection bank arrangement Measured convection bank gas exit temperature (8C) 362 398 440 532 461 454 271 313 Predicted convection bank gas exit temperature (8C) 363 396 440 516 461 454 272 312 Scaling factor 3. it has been observed that for boilers where the scaling factor departs more from unity. It has been determined that the uniformity of the gas ﬂow distribution at the airheater inlet is critical for preventing dew point condensation inside some airheater tubes. Fig. . This is demonstrated in Fig. In all cases the convection tube bundles and/or the ﬂow bafﬂes have been manipulated to reduce tube erosion.F. That factors have been found to depart (in some cases) signiﬁcantly from 1 is an indication that (i) the global simulation technique for heat transfer across tube bundles is approximate. these units have more ‘abnormal’ ﬂow patterns through the tube banks (less clearly deﬁned cross ﬂow segments).0. In combination with the swirl spreader development (Section 3. the use of the global scaling factor does produce very accurate predictions of the overall heat transfer variations in a tube bank after internal ﬂow modiﬁcations have been implemented. The partial segregation of the ash particle stream in the gas transfer duct provides an opportunity for extraction of some particles prior to the airheater/economiser to reduce downstream erosion effects. and (ii) the neglected radiation heat transfer can be masking predictive deﬁciencies for the convective heat transfer. Global modeling of airheater performance has shown that the overall heat transfer of a tubular airheater (exit gas temperature) can be improved (gas temperature reduced) in the order of 15–20 8C by appropriate correction of the gas and air ﬂow non-uniformities. 4 which shows the gas ﬂow distributions at the airheater inlet before (a) and after (b) the installation of ﬂow bafﬂes. The matched coefﬁcient is then used unaltered in all subsequent simulations. 3. less than the dew point temperature. Research  has demonstrated that the problem has its origin in gas and air ﬂow distribution patterns and occurs while a boiler is operating. downstream heat extraction plant (airheater and economiser) mostly recovers the ‘lost’ energy such that the overall thermal efﬁciency of the boiler is not altered signiﬁcantly.3. Airheater corrosion Airheater tube corrosion has existed as a major maintenance cost for many years on most boilers.6) a novel secondary air injection conﬁguration is being investigated as a means of substantially increasing the bagasse ﬁring density within the furnace space. The secondary air jet curtains also serve to interact with the main ﬂame column generated by the bagasse injection spreaders to maneuver the ﬂame pattern. Ideally the matching factors should be close to 1.4.98 1. This is coupled with the matching air ﬂow distribution. 6 shows one of the several variants of the upper furnace secondary air injection that has been investigated to date. The simulations show that in most cases the thermal performance of the convection bank has been downgraded (increased gas exit temperature after modiﬁcation). Both simulations have swirl spreader ﬁring. Second.
4. Advanced secondary air injection for furnace uprating. Gas ﬂow distribution patterns at an airheater inlet before (a) and after (b) modiﬁcations. (b) new conﬁguration. Fig. This is intended to achieve three objectives. recirculation within the furnace is deliberately enhanced. Dixon et al. (ii) accelerate the gas ﬂow around the tip of the furnace exit bafﬂe.F. Particle concentration distribution (kg/m3)—segregation and removal of ash particles from the gas stream. (b) particle extraction. 6. 5.T. (a) Original design. / Fuel 84 (2005) 1303–1311 1307 Fig. Fig. and (iii) establish the large. (i) stabilize and anchor the main ﬂow column in the rear 25% of the furnace adjacent to the rear wall. . (a) Conventional conﬁguration. high strength recirculation ﬂow adjacent to the front wall. centrifuging the larger partially burnt fuel particles into the recirculation ﬂow adjacent to the front wall.
Ideally the segment of the code incorporating the ‘CO factor’ should be developed separately based on well controlled laboratory scale experiments. Fig. Secondary air distribution for CO minimisation Carbon monoxide (and NOx) emissions are emerging as pollutants of concern for boiler design and operations in the Australian sugar industry. injection velocities and mass ﬂows of the overﬁre air system on a boiler design. the authors are not aware of any published data on mean CO concentrations in the offgas from bagasse devolatilization and char burnout experiments of any type on which to base this validation. The ﬂow velocity contours for a vertical cross-section through the upper furnace are shown as well as the companion CO concentration contours for the whole furnace. orientation. 7. This is especially the case for simulations involving previously untried plant conﬁgurations. the variations in the CO contours within the furnace and the mean concentration of CO present in the boiler discharge ﬂue gas. (b) furnace carbon monoxide (ppm). the manipulation of the main ﬂame column up through the furnace. The CO modeling has been focused on the mean residual levels of CO that are ejected from a furnace and the distribution of CO in the upper furnace region in the area where urea injection for NOx control is typically implemented. Investigations have focused on examination of the number.5. (a) Upper furnace velocity (m/s). The ‘CO fraction’ factor has been selected by comparing the predicted value of the mean CO concentration at the boiler convection bank exit plane with operating plant measurements. Incorporation of the CO dynamics in the FURNACE code has been implemented by assigning a fraction of the off-gas produced during both devolatilization and char burnout to be CO. The code modiﬁcations associated with this work are a companion to the CMC development mentioned earlier.1. location.F. Predicted contours for a particular overﬁre air conﬁguration on a bagasse ﬁred boiler. Dixon et al. The CO contours show high levels of CO in the devolatilization and ignition region in the lower section of the furnace (O12. full scale plant measurements are the only means available to calibrate the model. Recent investigations with FURNACE have been directed to quantifying the generation and removal characteristics of carbon monoxide and how these can be manipulated by the use of secondary air or overﬁre air injection. 3. The ‘CO fraction’ factor used in these simulations was 0. The four rows of overﬁre air nozzles of varying size and injection velocity are evident (two rows each on the front and rear furnace walls). 7 shows a typical result for a CO investigation. . The assessment of the success of a particular overﬁre air conﬁguration is based on the visual evaluation of the ﬂow and mixing patterns of the overﬁre air jets with the bulk furnace gases.000 ppm) consistent with in-furnace ﬂame zone measurements. The CO is oxidized rapidly within the main ﬂame zone and a residual column of low concentration CO ﬂows up the centre of the furnace where the ﬂame column is positioned. The modiﬁed eddy break up model helps represent the behaviour of ‘parcels’ of CO that are much smaller than the computational cell size used in three dimensional models of full scale boilers. However. Typical CO fraction values of 0. This modiﬁed version takes into account the kinetic limitations of the CO oxidation reaction at low temperatures and the mixing limitations of the reaction at higher temperatures.1 have been used in the simulations. The reaction between CO and O2 to form CO2 was approximated by a modiﬁed version of the eddy break up model .1308 T. It is emphasised that global code validation against operating plant data (where available) is always undertaken by the authors as a rigorous procedure to ensure realism and commercial accuracy of the model predictions. In the absence of suitable laboratory scale data. The overﬁre air jets act in Fig. size. / Fuel 84 (2005) 1303–1311 This ﬂow serves a dual purpose of returning the separated unburnt particles to the main ﬂame zone and supplying higher temperature gases to the entrainment ﬂow of the bagasse spreaders to increase the particle drying rate and improve ignition stability.
8. furnace pressure. including particle segregation. It is considered that the conditions of particle drying and ignition in the near burner ﬁeld will Fig. 3. air duct separation. There is no sudden extinction of the ﬂame. For comparison. Fig. Under these conditions the combustion intensity within and surrounding the central recirculation zone progressively decreases. Ignition stability and swirl burner technology Recent designs of boilers installed in several Australian sugar mills have experienced a combustion instability that is manifest as a periodic oscillation of the combustion rate of bagasse deposited on the grate at the bottom of the furnace. expansion joint fracture) and boiler safety is compromised. moisture removal from the accumulated pile and surface combustion. However. The instability is observed as oscillations of the quantity of bagasse deposited combined with matching variations of ﬂame luminosity. Schematic of advanced combustion technologies for bagasse ﬁring.F. The code is able to simulate the oscillation dynamics with sufﬁcient accuracy to explore the boiler design and operating factors that impact the process . Due to the proximity of adjacent ﬂames. 9(a) shows a schematic of the swirl burner developed for bagasse ﬁring. Simulation of grate combustion instability on a bagasse ﬁred boiler—comparison of measured and predicted ﬂue gas oxygen variations for boiler operating at high load (C measurements. The cause of the instability appears to be excessive energy extraction from the bagasse ignition region above the grate resulting from water cooling of the grate structure. the upper half of the furnace region. ﬂame luminosity reduces and the near ﬂame ﬁeld becomes visibly transparent with weak ﬂame pockets attempting to remain alight. The technology allows the variation of the moisture content of the fuel such that the burner ﬂame can become unstable and exhibit partial detachment. An area of continuing CFD enhancement is the application to the ignition stability issues of the high intensity swirl burner technology developed by SRI . if the swirl burner ﬂame does become fully extinguished and the bagasse moisture content is then reduced. the mean CO concentration at the superheater zone exit (start of dark blue region) was 131 ppm with the optimized overﬁre air conﬁguration and 427 ppm when ﬁring with zero overﬁre air injection. deposition on the grate surface.6. K predictions). It is necessary that a more complete understanding of the ignition dynamics of the swirl burner is gained so that appropriate design and operating parameters can be determined. . Dixon et al. 9. the burner exhibits interesting stability behaviour that requires further investigation and is well suited to CFD exploration. (b) advanced swirl spreader. ﬂue gas oxygen and carbon monoxide concentrations and steam pressure. reignition occurs via a reversal of the process just described.T. 8 shows the simulation of one such instability sequence and the comparison with measured oxygen data on the boiler. The FURNACE code has been modiﬁed by the modeling of the bagasse deposition and burning process on the grate. The magnitude of the instability can be such that physical damage to the boiler structure occurs (failure of airheater walls. Fig. CFD was not used during the development sequence for the swirl burner technology but is needed to reﬁne the burner design. (a) SRI swirl burner. It is the manipulation of this residual CO stream that is the focus of the overﬁre air jet variations. / Fuel 84 (2005) 1303–1311 1309 Fig.
(b) swirl numberw1. / Fuel 84 (2005) 1303–1311 Fig. It has been illustrative for SRI that the full beneﬁts of CFD in the delivery of commercial outcomes. Increasing the swirl level draws the ﬂame column progressively closer to the front wall of the furnace. The modeling also forms an integral stage of the engineering design of the advanced boiler conﬁguration of which the swirl spreaders are a signiﬁcant component. be it in new technologies or the solution of operating plant problems. Predicted furnace temperature characteristics for two settings of the swirl spreaders. It is being applied to quantify the full operating envelope of the spreaders that includes not only parameters speciﬁc to the device itself but also the interactive effects that derive from spreader integration with the host furnace. provide an interesting challenge when the CFD modelling is undertaken. Conclusions Major advances have been made in the development of bagasse combustion technologies and understanding of the many processes involved in bagasse combustion and steam generation over 20 years. It is also being used to examine the integration of the swirl spreader technology with the boiler furnace. Dixon et al. 4.0.7.000 kg/h steam output). The experience with CFD in the sugar industry through SRI has encompassed the full range of applications from fundamental code development. through the generation and commercialization of new ideas and technologies. The swirl intensity for the two predictions is (a) zero and (b) swirl numberw1. This notwithstanding.0. CFD is a critical element in the full development sequence for the swirl spreader technology. to the resolution of practical plant problems. Two of the signiﬁcant boiler design factors associated with the swirl spreaders (compared to conventional technology) are a 50% reduction in the number of spreader units required for a given ﬁring capacity. The enhanced mixing and lateral spreading of the fuel generated by the swirl action provides opportunities for boiler design reﬁnements that could result in signiﬁcant capital cost reductions for boiler plant. to the extent that ﬁrm engineering decisions are made based solely on the characteristics predicted by the code. 3. have emerged through the close interaction between the code development and the validation via full scale plant simulation.1310 T. The two-way interaction between development and application enhances the code fundamentals by focusing on practical issues and the need to resolve these effectively. Similarly the conﬁdence in the capabilities and ‘truth’ of the CFD predictions at the commercial scale is enhanced. The swirl spreader technology has been developed to the stage of large scale application on an operating boiler. Exploration of the design consequences of swirl spreader integration in a furnace is in progress. A process of simulation matching of the observed ﬂame characteristics of the swirl spreaders has been completed for measurements on the test boiler at Proserpine mill. It is fundamental to the applicability of CFD that regular and routine validation with full scale plant data is undertaken. Advanced swirl spreader technology Development is progressing at SRI for an advanced swirl spreader device for enhanced bagasse combustion. and increased drying and burning rates leading to increased bagasse ﬁring rates within a given furnace volume. 10. Fig. it has been surprising to SRI that . within a commercial plant environment. CFD has been used to optimize the internal aerodynamics of the spreader design and to resolve erosion problems due to unwanted particle recirculation in a critical area. The swirl spreader (Fig. CFD modeling has come to form an integral and critical part of this progression. SRI now regularly applies CFD modeling to a wide variety of ﬂow and combustion related areas as routine a routine investigation by and design tool. 9(b)) is designed to replace the current technology linear pneumatic fuel spreader. can be very small. 10 shows the modeling of four swirl spreaders in a large furnace (330. demonstrating the sensitivity of the ﬂame pattern to changes in the swirl intensity. In some cases the physical size of the problem areas that are being investigated. (a) Zero swirl level.F. The paper has summarized many of these applications where SRI has achieved successful results.
Dixon TF. Proc Aust Soc Sugar Cane Technol 2001. Plaza F. 1981. J Inst Energy 2001. Dixon TF.  Zhukauskas AA. 813 June 1999. Zhang L. Combustion of bagasse in a sugar mill boiler. Turkey. Kent JH. et al. Computational ﬂuid dynamics modeling of tube erosion rates in bagasse ﬁred boilers. Sazonov V. Three-dimensional furnace computer modelling. Proc Aust Soc Sugar Cane Technol 1997. Dixon TF. 81-0234. Dixon TF. Mediterranean combustion symposium.  Woodﬁeld PL. Computational modeling of combustion instability in bagasse ﬁred furnaces.F.  Mann AP. et al. Kent JH. Plaza F.16:719–29.  Plaza F. Ulinskas R. Dixon et al. Pennisi SN. / Fuel 84 (2005) 1303–1311 1311 there remains a continuing suspicion of the capabilities and value of CFD modeling to plant design and process understanding in the sugar industry by both plant operators and equipment vendors. Martel H. Owens M. Mann A. .  Gosman AD. Improving the prediction of convection bank heat transfer. On mathematical modelling of turbulent combustion with special emphasis on soot formation and combustion.  Luo MC. Performance of bafﬂed boilers with redesigned convection banks.  Woodﬁeld PL. Fitzmaurice AL. 1993. Dixon TF. Proc Aust Soc Sugar Cane Technol 1998. Kirkpatrick M. PhD Thesis. 21:265–74. 21st Symposium (International) on Combustion. Combust Inst 1986. Australia: University of Quensland. Proc Aust Soc Sugar Cane Technol 1999. Thermal Energy Systems are acknowledged for permission to publish the CO modeling predictions. Aspects of computer simulation of liquidfueled combusters.  Dixon TF. Mann AP.74:57.21:432–7. New York: Springer. Dickenson NL.  Mann AP. Kent JH. Commercial applications of the SRI swirl burner combustion system.  Novozhilov V. Hjertager BW.  Magnussen BF. Ioamides J.  Dixon TF. Heat transfer in tube banks in cross-ﬂow.23:369–75. Australia: University of Sydney. Combustion instability in bagasse-ﬁred furnaces. 16th Symp (Int) Combust 1976.25. Prevention of airheater corrosion. Proc Aust Soc Sugar Cane Technol 2003. Novozhilov V. References  Boyd RK.19: 456–65. AIAA. Antalya. 1988.22:491–7.  Woodﬁeld PL. Kent JH. Acknowledgements Funding for the advanced swirl spreader and secondary air technologies was provided in part by the Australian Greenhouse Ofﬁce (through RECP) and the Sugar Research and Development Corporation. PhD Thesis. Proc Aust Soc Sugar Cane Technol 2000. Paper No. 2001. Computational modeling of a bagasse-ﬁred furnace—effects of fuel moisture. Kent JH. Kirkpatrick M. Modeling of boiler tube erosion.20:458–64.T.
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