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VJCET

MECHANICAL MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

CALIBRATION OF PRESSURE GAUGE


AIM: To calibrate the given Bourdon tube pressure gauge using the dead weight pressure gauge tester, and to obtain the calibration chart by the method of least squares. INSTRUMENTS REQUIRED: Dead weight pressure gauge tester, Test gauge, Dead weight. SPECIFICATION: Dead weight pressure gauge tester: Capacity : Area : Accuracy : Max. Over load : Test Gauge :

1-10kg / cm 0.196 cm 0.5% 150% 14kg/cm, Bourdon pressure gauge.

PRINCIPLE OF PRESSURE GAUGE: Dead weight pressure gauge tester is a testing instrument, which helps to calibrate and test the pressure gauges. Here dead weights are used to build pressure inside the pressure chamber. Oil pump is fitted to the pressure chamber by which oil is pumped to pressure chamber. The pressure chamber has two outlets. One outlet is connected to the oil tank through a control valve. The other outlet is connected to any pressure gauge which has to be tested or calibrated. The pressure chamber is fitted with a plunger chamber also. By closing the control valve and by pumping the oil inside the pressure chamber, the pressure increases inside the chamber and the plunger starts moving out. The dead weight calibrated for known pressure is kept on the plunger which will build pressure, inside the pressure chamber proportion to weight on the plunger. By adding the weight on the plunger, the pressure inside the chamber can be increased accordingly. The plunger is made to lift the weight till the mark on the plunger, by pumping the oil into the pressure chamber by using oil pump. The pressure gauge to be calibrated is a Bourdon tube pressure gauge. The Bourdon tube is the basis of many mechanical pressure gauges and also used in electrical transducers by measuring the output displacement with potentiometers, differential transducers etc. The basic element in the all the various forms is a tube of non circular cross section. A pressure differences between inside and outside of the tube (high pressure inside) causes the tube to attempt to attain circular cross section. This result in distortion which leads to curvilinear translations of the free end in C type and Spiral and Helical types and an angular rotation in the twisted type and these motions are the output. The dead weight pressure gauge tester comprises of the following 1. Hydraulic Pump : The pump fitted is of single cylinder reciprocating type oil pump. 2. Oil Reservoir : Acrylic tank with metal cover to store oil to build the pressure

CALIBRATION OF PRESSURE GAUGE

VJCET

MECHANICAL MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

3. Piston : Piston to load the dead weight. It is of 5mm shaft, so the pressure built can be calculated as follows. P= Where,
W A

P = Pressure built due to weight kg/cm W = Weight in kg. A = Area of cross section of the piston in cm 4. 1/8 BSP Port : Pressure port to connect test gauge to the dead weight tester 5. Control valve : Stainless steel needle valve to control the pressure and to release the pressure. PROCEDURE: 1. Fill the oil tank with sufficient oil. 2. Releases the AIR RELEASE VALVE provided at the bottom till the oil starts dripping continuously about 10 to 12 drops and tighten the release valve. 3. Release the control valve and pump the oil so that the oil circulates through the tubes. Pump for a while so that all the tubes will be filled with oil and any air bubble inside the tube will be removed. 4. Now close the control valve, and pump the oil till the line on the plunger is visible. Rotate the plunger gently. The pressure is built inside the chamber in proportion to the weight on the plunger. The Test Gauge fixed will start showing the pressure. 5. Add dead weight on the plunger and pump till the line on the plunger is visible. The pressure inside the chamber increases by 1 kg/cm. 6. Add another weight on the plunger and pump till the line on the plunger is clearly visible. 7. The bourdon tube pressure gauge will read the pressure corresponding to the dead weight on the plunger. Note down the readings on the pressure gauge and tabulate the readings with the corresponding readings to the dead weight. Plot the graph for actual pressure (Pressure equivalent) vs. pressure gauge reading. Calculate the accuracy, linearity and hysteresis of the pressure gauge. 8. Release the control valve slowly and remove the dead weight from plunger OBSERVATIONS Pressure Pressure Gauge reading Kgf/cm2 Sl equivalent Increasing Decreasing Mean No
( x ) Kgf/cm2 weight weight (y) 1 2 3 4 x = y = Max dev= xy = x2 = Max=

Deviation

xy

x2

yi = mxi+c

Error = yi -y

CALIBRATION OF PRESSURE GAUGE

VJCET

MECHANICAL MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY

SPECIMEN CALCULATION: Weight required for 1 kg / cm d Area of the piston =


4

d = Diameter of the piston = 0.5 cm A = ( * 0.5)/4 = 0.196 cm So weight = 0.196 * 1 = 0.196 kg = 196 gms So the dead weight required for building 1 kg / cm pressure is 196 gms. CALCULATION: 1. Calibration equation For getting the best fit line and calibration equation y = mx+c

m=

x y n xy ( x) n x

y m x n Where,x = Pressure equivalent of weight kgf/cm y = Pressure gauge reading kgf/cm m = slope of best fit line c = y- intercept of best fit line c=
2. Linearity % Linearity = 3. Hysteresis % Hysteresis =
Max.deviation.in. pressure.when.load .applied .and .when.removed 100 Max.load

Max( y i y ) Max.error 100 = x 100 Max.load Max.load

GRAPH:
Pressure qauge reading Vs Pressure equivalent
Pressure gauge reading 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Pres sure equivalent

CALIBRATION OF PRESSURE GAUGE

VJCET

MECHANICAL MEASUREMENTS LABORATORY Fig 1: Pressure Gauge reading Vs Actual Pressure (Pressure equivalent)

RESULT: The given Pressure gauge is calibrated and the calibration equation is obtained as y = mx + c = Also % Linearity = % Hysteresis = INFERENCE:

CALIBRATION OF PRESSURE GAUGE