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6 August 2004
• To provide information about CJIP IMPLEMENTATION DATE:
• To provide guidance on the funding of substance misuse partnerships
• To advise areas about the role of the Probation Service in CJIP
31 March 2006
Chief Officers and Assistant Chief Officers (substance misuse) to note the
contents and distribute to all relevant staff.
Chairs of Probation Boards
CJIP is key to the delivery of the Government’s drug strategy and probation Chief Officers of Probation
areas have an important role to play in the development of local CJIP plans Secretaries of Probation Boards
and implementation of the programme. New funding has been provided for Lead ACOs – Substance Misuse
CJIP, initially for three years, to fund an intensive package of interventions in
47 Drug Action Team (DAT) areas with high levels of acquisitive crime. In CC:
addition, from April 2004, throughcare and aftercare funding has been made Board Treasurers
available to all DATs in England and Wales. This additional money should Regional Managers
not replace probation mainstream investment in effective partnerships for Regional What Works Managers
drug users. There will be links between CJIP and the new Prolific and Other
DTTO SPOs/Managers
Priority Offenders Scheme (PPO) and this will be the subject of another
circular. This guidance has been agreed between NPD, the National
Treatment Agency (NTA) and Home Office Drug Strategy Directorate (DSD).
Claire Wiggins, Head of Intensive
Anne Williams, NPD Drug & Alcohol Performance and Interventions Manager ATTACHED:
Tel: 020 7217 0768 email N/A
Shereen Sadiq, CJIP Policy Lead (Through & Aftercare)
Tel: 020 7273 2277 email

National Probation Directorate

Horseferry House, Dean Ryle Street, London, SW1P 2AW General Enquiries: 020 7217 0659 Fax: 020 7217 0660

Enforcement, rehabilitation and public protection

1. Background to CJIP
This guidance has been agreed between the NPD, the National Treatment Agency (NTA) and the Home Office Drug
Strategy Directorate (DSD). It sets out the background to CJIP, the importance of probation involvement and the
approach that should be taken by areas in any review of partnership funding.

A partnership approach to tackling drugs was at the heart of the Government drug strategy ‘Tackling Drugs to Build a
Better Britain’ (1998). At a local level, DATs became responsible for commissioning services for drug users according to
local need. In April 2001 DAT boundaries became co-terminus with local authorities to ensure more effective co-
ordination with services such as housing, social services and education.

The Updated Drug Strategy (2002) set out plans to break the link between drug use and crime by extending and
integrating a range of criminal justice interventions which aim to get drug users into treatment and provide appropriate
aftercare. The Criminal Justice Interventions Programme (CJIP) is a critical part of the strategy.

There will be links between CJIP and the new Prolific and Other Priority Offenders Scheme (PPO). Probation areas will
need to engage with both these initiatives. Partnership guidance for Criminal Justice Integrated Teams (CJITs) and PPOs
schemes will be issued to DATs shortly and will be the subject of another PC.

2. CJIP – an integrated approach to delivering criminal justice based drug interventions

The Criminal Justice Interventions Programme (CJIP) aims to reduce drug-related crime by engaging problematic drug
users, moving them into appropriate treatment, retaining them in treatment and supporting them through and after
treatment and sentence. CJIP aims to break the cycle of drug misuse and crime by making every stage in the criminal
justice system an opportunity for drug misusing offenders to engage in treatment.

The first phase of CJIP, which started in April 2003 focused on those areas with the highest levels of acquisitive crime
such as burglary, shoplifting, and robbery. 25 Drug Action Team partnerships covering 30 police Basic Command Units
(BCU) were identified and started an intensive package of interventions, including drug testing on charge. Those DATs
also received funding for throughcare and aftercare. “Throughcare” is the term used to describe arrangements for
managing the continuity of care provided to a drug misuser. “Aftercare” is the package of support that needs to be in
place after a drug misusing offender reaches the end of prison-based treatment, completes a community sentence or
leaves treatment. The 25 DATs were also required to establish an integrated approach to working with drug misusing
offenders in the Criminal Justice System and those leaving treatment, through the development of Criminal Justice
Integrated Teams (CJITs).

From April 2004, the second phase of CJIP was started and included extension of drug testing on charge to a further 36
police Basic Command Units covering 22 DAT partnerships. It also included piloting of Restrictions on Bail and
interventions for young offenders. Funding for the Throughcare and Aftercare elements of CJIP was, however, made
available to all DAT partnerships in England and partnerships in Wales. This funding is in addition to existing funding for
enhanced arrest referral.

In summary, from April 2004, 47 DAT partnerships with high acquisitive crime are introducing a package of intensive
interventions, which include drug testing on charge, enhanced arrest referral and throughcare and aftercare. This means
that 14 probation areas are involved in intensive CJIP areas.

All probation areas will work with a DAT funded to deliver throughcare and aftercare as well as enhanced arrest referral.
Funding for Wales is being allocated by the Welsh Assembly. CJIP developments are therefore taking place in all
probation areas.

Key partners in the programme with the Home Office are the Department of Health, the National Treatment Agency
(NTA), police, the Prison Service, the National Probation Service, treatment service providers and those who provide
linked services such as housing and job-seeker support.

Information relating to CJIP is predominately distributed via the DATs, although NPD are currently considering what
additional information needs to be distributed directly from NPD. Probation areas have received a video and leaflets about
CJIP for distribution to all relevant staff. Information, including copies of guidance relating to the various elements of the
programmes, is also available via the CJIP link from the drugs website at
PC47/2004 - Guidance on Funding of Substance Misuse Partnerships and the Criminal Justice Interventions
Programme (CJIP) 2
3. CJIP and arrangements for Probation Service funding of substance misuse partnerships
The National Probation Service is a key partner in delivery of the drug strategy. As a statutory member of the DAT and its
Joint Commissioning Group (JCG) the service has a duty to co-operate with the responsible authorities as a member of
Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnerships (CDRPs) which were created under 1998 Crime and Disorder Act. CDRPs
and DATs are now working as one partnership in unitary authorities. Where this merger has not taken place e.g. in two
tier authorities the CDRPs and DATs should be working very closely.

CDRPs are currently undertaking crime and drugs audits in preparation for the development of their three year strategies.
Where the DAT and CDRP have not already merged, the audit and strategy should form part of the planning and
commissioning by the DATs.

Historically probation areas have provided a range of services for drug users both directly and through their funding of
partnership agencies. With the move towards a pooling of resources for drug users through the work of the DATs, JCGs
and CDRPs, it is anticipated more efficient and effective services can be provided for drug users to meet local need. The
creation of the pooled treatment budget (PTB) aimed to progress this approach. It was always intended that the PTB
should be an additional resource and should not be used to replace agencies’ mainstream spending on drug treatment.
Similarly, new monies from the CJIP initiative are intended to improve and develop services for drug misusing offenders
and must not be used to replace funding which was previously provided by other agencies.

Cuts to drug service partner agencies by probation areas have raised concern by key partners about the impact this may
have on the provision of treatment for drug misusing offenders.

NPD acknowledges that probation areas will need to review partnership spending in order to ensure value for money, but
supports the position outlined above that agencies should not disinvest their mainstream spending on drug treatment
provision. All areas have received additional money for 2004/5 and any reduced spending on partnerships should be
revisited in light of this additional money.

4.Principles for probation areas when reviewing funding of drug treatment partnerships

The following principles should be taken into account when reviewing funding of drug treatment partnerships in order to
ensure the quality or quantity of drug treatment provision locally is not reduced.

• Probation areas are a statutory member of the DAT and its Joint Commissioning Group (JCG). Representation on the
DAT and JCG should be at senior management level and areas should have mechanisms for ensuring DAT/JCG
business is consistent with probation area plans.

• The pooling of resources to provide drug treatment services which meet local need is an approach endorsed by NPD.
Probation managers should therefore be involved in all DAT/JCG business relating to the provision of treatment and
must not restrict their involvement to the delivery of DTTOs.

• Probation Boards have a duty to co-operate with the responsible authorities of the CDRP in the delivery of their
strategies. Probation contribution to the CDRP is one way of ensuring there are sufficient partnerships to meet local
need regardless of individual probation areas funding situation. CDRPs can hold probation areas to account for their
co- operation with the CDRP strategy.

• Where a probation area is reviewing its funding to drug services, either directly or through its contribution to the DAT,
discussion must be held with the DAT/JCG, NTA regional manager and probation regional manager at the earliest
opportunity. The NPD Drugs and Alcohol Performance & Interventions Manager should also be informed.

• Discussion should focus on whether existing expenditure is providing the best value for money and whether the same
output could be achieved by alternative funding arrangements.

• At a more general level, the JCG will monitor existing contracts with treatment providers and advise on whether they
are delivering the required outputs at the most efficient cost. Probation managers have an active role in this process
which should reduce the need for unilateral decisions regarding funding of specific services.

PC47/2004 - Guidance on Funding of Substance Misuse Partnerships and the Criminal Justice Interventions
Programme (CJIP) 3
• All parties should try to agree an acceptable way forward which maintains the quality and quantity of services to drug

• Where funding is being reviewed sufficient notice must be given to treatment providers and agencies who will be
affected by this.

• Probation areas or regions should hold regular meetings with the relevant NTA regional manager to review progress
and ensure early identification of any difficulties relating to drug treatment provision locally/ regionally.

The above process requires full co-operation of all parties. There have been examples of this approach working to
resolve problems to all agencies’ satisfaction.

5. The role of probation in CJIP

CJIP draws together and builds on best practice to offer treatment and support from an offender’s first point of contact
with the criminal justice system. CJIP will continue to address the support needs of drug misusing offenders when they
finish their sentence or treatment, including by identifying and brokering access to “wrap-around” services. Offenders may
come into contact with the programme on a number of occasions.

CJIP is about the whole process of managing offenders in drug treatment and probation need to play a full role in
planning, implementation and delivery of the programme.

The Home Office and NPD

The Home Office Drug Strategy Directorate (DSD) has responsibility for the delivery of CJIP. A key aspect in the
successful delivery of CJIP is communication, both externally and internally within probation areas. The supporting CJIP
communication team provides up to date information about the initiative and its progress. NPD fully supports the
programme and are actively involved at different levels in the planning and monitoring of the programme. CJIP are also
working closely with colleagues in the NOMS implementation team. The new Regional Offender Managers (ROMs) will
be responsible for ensuring proper links are established within their region between offender managers and CJITs. This
will avoid duplication of roles and ensure a fully integrated package of support and management to drug misusing
offenders before, during and after sentence.

Probation regional managers (RMs) play a key role in ensuring area’s strategic planning takes account of CJIP
developments. RMs also have a role in overseeing arrangements that are put in place by their areas to link probation into
CJIP delivery.

Senior managers who represent areas on DATs need to be fully engaged in the planning and commissioning process and
ensure that delivery of DTTOs and access to aftercare provision is fully integrated into local treatment provision.
Probation areas should ensure they are involved in the process of signing off CJIP plans and should assess whether
there are any gaps in the end to end process that could result in offenders falling through the system.

Areas should develop local stakeholder and communication action plans for engaging internal partners and external
audiences which are consistent with the central CJIP communication strategy.


Using a case management approach, the Criminal Justice Integrated Teams (CJITs) in the intensive areas will deliver an
end-to-end service and make the right links to ensure appropriate aftercare provision is available to support those leaving
treatment, community sentences and prison. Where an offender is subject to statutory supervision, the probation service
will retain overall case management responsibility but will work with the CJIT. DTTOs/DRRs are likely to continue to be
commissioned and funded via the DAT from the pooled treatment budget.

CJITs will allocate a worker after a drug misusing offender has been assessed and it has been agreed that he/she will be
taken onto the CJIT caseload. This can happen at any point in the criminal justice system or on leaving treatment. The
CJIT worker will develop a care plan with the offender and link with appropriate interventions. At pre-sentence stage this
may include identifying offenders as possible candidates for DTTOs.

PC47/2004 - Guidance on Funding of Substance Misuse Partnerships and the Criminal Justice Interventions
Programme (CJIP) 4
CJIP, NTA, prisons and probation have developed a national framework which sets out arrangements for continuity of
care between community (CJIT) and custody. These arrangements are currently operational in 47 intensive DAT areas
and will be extended to the remaining 102 DATs by the end of October 2004. Arrangements for Wales are to be

Local arrangements for the development of CJITs may mean that in some areas probation staff will become part of the
CJIT. Whatever model is established, probation areas need to ensure that local protocols are in place to ensure the
probation service is integrated into the local CJIP structure and that these are communicated to staff.

With all prison establishments in England and Wales becoming part of the Through and Aftercare CJIP initiative from April
2004 and the number of offenders who are given DTTOs set to increase, a significant number of probation offenders will
have contact with a CJIT. All probation staff who are engaged in PSR assessment, case management of offenders who
have drug related problems, hostel or resettlement work need to have a good knowledge of:
• the local CJIP arrangements
• the role of CJITs
• what is required of them to work collaboratively with their local CJIT

6. Summary of CJIP messages

• CJIP is an opportunity to get more drug misusing offenders into treatment
• CJIP funding should not replace mainstream funding but partnership funding should be reviewed to avoid duplication
and ensure there is value for money
• CJIP is an integrated approach and probation is a major player at the DAT, JCG and CDRP
• Probation areas need to keep fully informed about local progress and national CJIP development
• Further information about CJIP is available via the CJIP link at the website

PC47/2004 - Guidance on Funding of Substance Misuse Partnerships and the Criminal Justice Interventions
Programme (CJIP) 5