Chapter 5

Ratio and Proportion
In mathematics we often compare numbers. Imagine a factory where there are 150 men and 100 women working. One way to compare these facts is to subtract. There are 50 more men than women working in the factory. (150 - 100 = 50) Another way to compare these facts is to write a ratio. The ratio of men to women working in the factory is 150 to 100 or, in reduced form, 3 to 2. In other words, for every three men working in the factory, there are two women. Ratio and proportion are useful tools for solving many word problems.

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A ratio is a comparison of numbers by division. A ratio can be written with the word to, with a colon (:), or as a fraction. Like a fraction, a ratio always should be reduced. Reducing a ratio is sometimes called simplifying. Following are the three ways to write the ratio of the number of men to the number of women working in the factory. 150 to 100

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= 3 to 2 or 150:100 = 3:2 or ~ = 1. 100 2

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The numbers in a ratio must be written in the Iorder the problem asks for. For the example of the factory workers, the ratio 1ofmen to women is 3 to 2, not 2 to 3. Example Evelyn earns $2400 a month. She pays $600 a month in rent. What is the ratio of her income to her rent? Make a ratio with her income first (in the numerator) and her rent second. Then reduce.
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The ratio of Evelyn's income to her rent is 4 to 1 or 4:1 or

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Always.reduce a ratio to I()west terms. However, when a ratio is
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What of problems he got right to the total Step 1 Find the number of problems he got right. Read the next example carefully.. in problem 3. 20 .20 10 .. What is the ratio of the distance she drove to the number of gallons of gas she used? Two-Step Ratio Problems A problem may not directly state both numbers that you need to set up a ratio. Make a ratio of thenumber of problems he got right. was the ratio of the number number of problems? Maceo got 2 problems wrong.. Subtract the number he got wrong.' . Anna drove 110 miles on 22 gallons of gas. from the total number of problems on the test... Then reduce. 3. 1. c: :-- EXERCISE 1 Directions: For problems 1 and 2.2 = 18 Step 2 right total ~ = .. 20. simplify each ratio.4_ 1. What is the ratio of the amount he makes to the amount he saves? For Alvaro.7 200:125 = 4 to 1000 = 28 21 $560 to $320 = Solve each problem below. 18.138 I Mathematics ...'l.- . You may have to determine one of the numbers. Alvaro makes $600 a week and saves $60 each week. Four of the students speak Armenian as a first language. What is the ratio of Armenian speakers to the total number of students in the class? 6. 5. There are 24 students in Sam's English class. 20. 24:30 = 2. 3. what is the ratio of the amount to the amount he makes? he saves 4. to the total number of problems..J. Example On a test with 20 problems.. 2.

. During the last election 887 people actually voted. What is the men? ratio of the number of women to the total number ratio of the number of men to the total number of ratio of the number of men to the number of ratio of the number of women to the number of 2.000. There are 1213 registered voters in Paul's village. What is the ratio of the number of union workers to the total number of workers? b. A math test of 50 questions included 15 fraction problems and 5 decimal problems. What is the ratio of the total number of workers to the number of union workers? 3. the city of McHenry \. What is the women? d. a. What is the of students? b.000 on education.1 \ ( 5. At Baxter Electronics there are 105 union workers and 45 nonunion workers. spends $3.000. A G ED class of 20 students has' 12 women. 1. What is the ratio of the amount spent on education to the amount not spent on education? 4. Which of the following is approximately the ratio of the number of people who voted to the total number of registered voters in the village? \ \ \ \ (1) 1 to 2 (2) 2 to 3 (3) 3 to 4 I \ \\ \ (4) 5 to 6 t i i 1 I t \ .Chapter 5 . What is the students? c. From a total yearly budget of $18. What is the ratio of the number of union workers to the number of nonunion workers? d.000. What is the ratio of the number of nonunion workers to the total number of workers? c.Ratio and Proportion 1 139 Directions: Solve each problem. a. What is the ratio of the total number of fraction and decimal problems to the number of questions on the test? ---.

The statement 1. If a missing term in a proportion is represented by the letter n and the other term that makes the cross product with n is 12.42 proportion. that the cross products by 12. then the cross product of 12 X n is 12n. -- To solve a proportion. A letter usually represents the missing term. Step 1 The cross product The cross product Write a statement 3c are equal. = 1.. that the cross products by 3. - = 56 Step 2 Divide both sides of the statement The missing term is 181.is also a . R U L E -. of 3 and c is 3c. 3c 3 _ -- 56 3 3 c= 18~ . in front of Note: This is an example of writing in the language of algebra. follow these steps: 1. Divide both sides of the statement by the number the missing term. Example 1 Find the missing term in The cross product The cross product Write a statement i= 9 1 2' Step 1 of nand 12 is 12n. of 7 and 8 is 56.140 I Mathematics Proportion A proportion is a statement that says two ratios (or two fractions) are equal. the cross products are 2 X 2 = 4 and 4 X 1 = 4. For example._ •. Write a statement with two equal cross products. --12 = 72 Step 2 Divide both sides of the statement The missing term is 6. 12n are equal.. You learned that the cross products of equal fractions are equal. The statement 2:4 = 1:2 is a proportion. In many proportion problems one term is missing. of 8 and 9 is 72.----------. ~ X+ Each of the four numbers in a proportion is called an element or a term. 2. 12n _ 72 12 n=6 Example 2 Solve for c in t = ~.

Ratio and Proportion 1141 Example 3 Step 1 Solve for y in the proportion 5:y = 2:8. 4:e = 6:8 3:7 = 4:y 15:40 = x:60 30:a = 12:16 i i I· I I 1 For problems 4 and 5. Divide both sides of the statement The missing term is 20. =± then x = 4. find the missing term in each proportion. 1 _ s 3 5 --- 2 _ 4 11 P 2 _ 9 8 x 3. The cross product of 5 and 8 is 40. y= 20 5 _ 2 y 8 Step 2 2y= 40 Step 3 EXERCISE 3 Directions: For problems 1-3. --6 10 15 3 _ 5 a 6 3 _ w 6 5 ±=.Chapter 5 . If ~ 12 (1) 12 (2)~ 5x3 . choose the answer that is set up correctly. I . Write a statement that the cross products are equal. If ~ 7 9' (1) 4 x 9 9 7 f.£ 3' X then c = 5 X 3 (3) 5 x 12 3 12 (4) 3 x 5 1 I -1 I i .Y 9 3 ~=± 7 x 2. The cross product of y and 2 is 2y. Rewrite the proportion with fractions. m 1. The first term in each ratio becomes a numerator. by 2. \ i (2) 4 + 7 (3) 4(9 X 7) (4) 4(9 + 7) = 5.

The letter c represents cost in the lastexample. yards cost Step 1 E= 40 30 c Step 2 ---- 12c _ 12 1200 12 Step 3 Divide both sides of 12c = 1200 by 12. Divide both sides of 3m = 960 by 3. how many men work there? This problem compares men to women. how much do 30 yards of lumber cost? This problem compares yards to cost. Set up two ratios of yards to cost.142 I Mathematics Proportion Word Problems Proportion is a useful tool for solving many word problems. In these examples. Example 1 If 12 yards of lumber cost $40.first letter of the quantity you are looking for represents the unknown. Here c represents the cost you are looking for. Example 2 The ratio of the number of men to the number of women working in the county hospital is 2:3. The key to setting up a proportion is making sure that the amounts being compared are in the same position on either side of the = sign. Study the examples carefully. Here m represents the number of men. Example 3 Carlos got 2 problems wrong for every 5 problems right on a test. T'lP c = $100 . If 480 women work in the hospital. How many problems did Carlos get wrong if there were 35 problems on the test? . The cost of 30 yards of lumber is $100. There are 320 men working in the hospital. The letter m represents menin the next example: ' . Find both cross products. Ariy letter can represent the unknown you. men Step 1 women --- 2 _ m 3 480 Step 2 Step 3 --3 3m _ 960 3 m = 320 Be sure that the parts in a proportion correspond to the question that is asked. Set up two ratios of men to women. the. Read the next example carefully. Find both cross products.are looking for in a -proportlon.

Chapter 5 . Altogether. Choice (3) is correct. Here m represents miles. For every $13 that Helen earns. she takes home $10. notice that choice (4) is wrong because it shows the sum of 110 and 5 rather than the product. --7 7w _ 70 7 w= 10 Some problems may ask you to choose the correct set-up for a proportion problem. (2 wrong + 5 right = 7 total) Set up two ratios of wrong to total. Here w represents problems wrong. 3. Which expression shows the distance he can travel in 5 hours if he drives at the same speed? (1) 5 x 2 (2) 110 x 2 5 (3) 110X5 2 (4) 110+5 2 miles hours 110 Step 1 Set up two ratios of miles to hours.Ratio and Proportion 1 143 Step 1 The ratio in the question is problems wrong to total problems.. . but write the cross product of 110 and 5 as a set-up. s . i I { . 110 _ m 2 5 Step 2 2m = 110 X 5 Step 3 . How many games did they win? The ratio of the number of men to the number of women working at Apex. How much does she take home each month? Pat's softball team won 5 games for every 3 games they lost. I . Helen's gross pay each month is $1950. 1.. Inc. Divide both sides of 7w Carlos got 10 problems wrong 2 total 7 Step 2 --- 2 _ 7 w 35 Step 3 Step 4 7w= 70 = 70 by 7. there are 360 workers at the company. How many of the workers are women? ~ \ { I i \ i I 1 . The ratio of wrong to total is 2:7.i ! 2. m=110X5 2 In the last example. the team played 32 games. EXERCISE 4 Directions: Solve each problem. Carlos got 2 wrong for every 5 right. Write both cross products. Divide both sides by 2. Example 4 Manny drove 110 miles in 2 hours. Find both cross products. wrong. Altogether. is 7:2.

The illustration below shows the ratio of blue paint to gray paint in a special color mix. Recently 300 people in Central County took a civil service examination. The short side will measure 20 inches.500 parts. How many gallons of gray paint are needed to make a total of 30 gallons of mix? 9. 6 in. 8. The picture shown at the right is to be enlarged. Every day the factory produces 10. Apples cost 90 cents a dozen.. 4 in. Find the measurement of the long side. of 8 apples? (1) (12 x 8) x 90 (2) 90 x 8 12 (3) 129~ 8 (4) 90 x 12 8 (5) 90+12 8 . how many voted to strike? 6. Inc. in cents. Which expression below represents the cost.1441 Mathematics 4. How many of these parts are defective? 5. Which expression below shows the number of cups of sugar a cook needs with 12 cups of flour? (1) 2 x 12 2 3 (2) 3 + 12 (3) 3x12 2 (4) 2 x 12 3 (5) 2+12 3 10. A recipe calls for 2 cups of sugar for every 3 cups of flour. How many people passed the exam? 7. The ratio of the number of workers who voted to strike to the number of workers who voted not to strike at Apex was 3:2.S people passed. is 20:1. The ratio of good parts to defective parts coming off the assembly line at Apex. For every 6 people who took the exam. If 360 workers voted.

For problems 9 and 10.Ratio and Proportion 1 145 Ratio and Proportion PART I Directions: Use a calculator to solve problems 1-10. Among the seniors at Cripple Creek High School. 9.6 to 6. Express the ratio 75:35 in reduced form. 4. Solve for s in the proportion 6. How many seats were empty at the meeting? (1) 21 (2) 28 (3) 35 (4) 42 = 12:36. 2 students said that they planned to leave Cripple Creek within 2 years for every 3 students who said that they planned to stay. 1. (5) 49 f= Find the value of n in 8:n = 5:18. Write the ratio 1. 3. The meeting room in the town hall can seat 140 people. 7.Chapter 5 . At the same rate. Review One seat was empty for every 4 that were occupied at an open meeting in the town hall about a proposal to build a new firehouse. Simplify the ratio 48:60. how many acres would they need to produce 1890 bushels? Choose the correct answer for problems 7 and 8. The Towsons planted a 35-acre field that yielded 3150 bushels of wheat.4 in simplest terms. How many of them said that they plan to leave within 2 years? (1) 22 (2) 33 (3) 44 (4) 55 (5) 66 . 2. There are 110 seniors at the school. x:9 8. Solve for x in the proportion 5. 25°. mark each answer on the corresponding number grid.

What is the ratio of the number of families who rent their homes to the total number of families on Maple Avenue? ! . What is the ratio of the number of families who own their homes to the number who rent? I I I 12. For problems 11-13. At the Central County Municipal Airport the ratio of delayed flights to flights that leave on time is 2:7. Write each answer in fraction form and mark your answer on the corresponding number grid. 11.146 I Mathematics 10. During a normal week there are 108 scheduled flights leaving the Central County Airport. refer to the following information. A survey shows that 42 families on Maple Avenue own their homes and 28 families rent their homes. How many of those flights are likely to be delayed? PART II Solve problems 11-20 without a Directions: calculator.

How many gallons of green paint are required to mix with 14 gallons of white paint? (1) 14 (2) 21 (3) 28 (4) 35 (5) 42 \ \ .10 18.! 3 (3) 5 Z 8 (4) 7 (5) 15 17.! 3 / f (4) 9 (5) 12 I (2) 5:15 (3) 9:36 (4) 10:30 (5) 16:48 15. 16. Find the ratio of the number of families who own their homes to the total number who live on Maple Avenue. Which of the following ratios is not equal to the ratio 12:36? (1) 3:9 (3) 5. If 6 feet of wire cost $3.70 (2) $2. To make a certain color of paint. how many inches apart will they be on the map? (1) 3.40.Chapter 5 . The scale on a map says that 2 inches = 150 miles.40 (4) $4. the ratio of green paint to white paint is 5:2.! 4 (2) 4. How many hours will a plane take to go 1200 miles if it travels 450 miles in 2 hours? (1) 2 ~ Choose the correct answer for each of the following problems. .60 (5)$5.! 2 1 J 14. how much do 9 feet of wire cost? (1)$1.55 (3) $3. I I 4 (2) 4. If two cities are actually 325 miles apart.Ratio and Proportion 1147 13.

• """. If you got 16 or more right.• . Which expression represents the time the worker needs to make 100 parts? (1)2X100 15 (2) 15x100 2 (3) 15x2 100 (4) 15 + 2 100 2 (5) 15 x 100 (5) 5+12 3 '. "" . correct any problem you got wrong.Q._ . -" ••••. ..!Jea9.er~p~:." -s-r=» •. If you did not get 16 right. Which expression represents the width of the enlargement? (1)3+12 5 (2) 5 x 12 3 (3) 3 x 12 5 (4) 3 x 5 12 20. A snapshot that wfs 3 inches wide and 5 inches long was enlarged to be 12 inches long.. review your ratio and proportion skills before you go on. r<. .... Then go on to the next chapter.. You should have gotten at least 16 problems right on this exercise..• .i>···~4'ftiVt(}~rsiu~e.~ .148 I Mathematics 19. . A worker can make 15 motor parts in 2 hours.

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