E3125/2/1 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM

UNIT 2

INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM

OBJECTIVES

General Objective

: To understand the concept of the Fiber-Optic System.

Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to : define the terms optical and light. name six typical communications applications for fiberoptic cable.  draw a basic block diagram of a fiber-optic communications system and tell what each part of it does.  explain how light is propagated through the fiber-optic cable.  name the three basic types of fiber-optic cables, and state the two materials from which they are made.

 

E3125/2/2 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM

INPUT INPUT

2.0

Introduction to Fiber-Optic

Throughout the world, thousands of simultaneous voice conversations are now being transmitted over the fiberoptic cable which has a diameter of less than the diameter of a human hair.

Light wave communication was first considered more than 100 years ago. The implementation of optical communication using light waveguides was restricted to very short distance prior to 1970. Corning Glass Company achieved a breakthrough in 1970 by producing a fused silica (SiO2) fiber with a loss approximately 20 dB/km. The development of semiconductor light source also started to mature at about that time, allowing the feasibility of transmission over a few kilometers to be demonstrated. Since 1970, the rate of technological progress

E3125/2/3 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM

has been phenomenal, and optical fibers are now used in transoceanic service. Besides the long-distance routes, fibers are used in the inter-CO (inter exchange) routes, and the subscriber loop in the final link in what will eventually be the global interconnection chain. Optical fibers are associated with high-capacity communications. A lot of attention is presently being given to optical fibers to provide a very extensive broadband ISDN.

Fiber optics is defined as that branch of optics that deals with the transmission of light through ultrapure fibers of glass, plastic, or some other form of transparent media. From a decorative standpoint, most of us are familiar with the fiber optic lamp, which uses bundles of thin optical fibers illuminated from the base end of the lamp by a light source. The light source is made to vary in color, which can be seen at the opposite ends of the fiber as a tree of illuminating points radiating various colors of the transmitted light. Although the lamp is used for decorative purposes only, it serves as an excellent model of how light can be transmitted through the fiber.

2.1

Light Light is a kind of electromagnetic radiation. The basic characteristic of electromagnetic radiation is its frequency or wavelength. Light frequencies fall between microwaves and xrays, as shown in Figure 2.1.

Infrared : Band of light wavelengths that are too long to be seen by the human eye. Shipboard communications.E3125/2/4 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM Figure 2. Light waves are commonly specified in terms of wavelength instead of frequency.2 Applications of Fiber-Optic Fiber-optic communications systems are being used more and more each day. Secure communications systems at military bases. Below are some applications which use fiber-optic cables :1. the fiber-optic cables replace conventional coaxial or twisted-pair cables. wide area and local area. 3. 4. yet their information-carrying capacity is many times greater. Their primary use is in long-distance telephone systems and cable TV system. 2. Visible : Band of light wavelengths to which the human eye will respond. Closed-circuit TV systems used in buildings for security. 2. Fiber-optic cables are no more expensive or complex to install than standard electrical cables. 5.1 Electromagnetic Frequency Spectrum Light frequency spectrum can be divided into three general bands: 1. Ultraviolet :Band of light wavelengths that are too short to be seen by the 2. . 3. Units typically used are the nanometer or micrometer ( 1 micrometer = 1micron). TV studio to transmitter interconnection eliminating a microwave radio link. Computer networks. human eye. In all cases.

Aircraft communications. 11. 10. for for cable cable operators operators networks. gas. Utilities ( electrical . and so on) station communications.E3125/2/5 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM 6. 7. 13. Aircraft controls. 9. Nuclear plant instrumentation. networks. medicine. Interconnection of measuring and monitoring instruments in plants and laboratories. Television. Data acquisition and control signal communications in industrial process control systems. 12. 8. together together with with coaxial coaxial cable cable is is used used for for the the final final connection connection to to the the subscriber subscriber and and medicine. where where optical optical fiber fiber is is used used . College campus communication. Television. Cable TV systems replacing coaxial cable.

E3125/2/6 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM 2. and a light source.2 Simplified fiber optic communications block diagram The transmitter consists of an analog to digital converter (coder).2 shows a simplified block diagram of an optical fiber communications link. The A/D converter is used to convert continuous analog signals such as . Fiber Coder Coder Light Light Source Source Repeater Repeater (long (long distance) distance) Light pulses Fiber Light Light Detector Detector Decoder Decoder Figure 2. the receiver. The three primary building blocks of the link are the transmitter.3 Fiber-Optic System Block Diagram Figure 2. and the fiber guide.

and acrylates. converts the received light pulses back to pulses of electrical current. 2. transparent material that confines and propagates light waves shown in Figure 2. The light source is either a light-emitting diode (LED) or an injection laser diode (ILD).3 Typical Fiber Optic Cabling .4 Fiber-optic cable construction An optical fiber is a long.E3125/2/7 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM voice or video (TV) signals into a series of digital pulses. cylindrical. Figure 2. silicone. where the original voice or video is recovered. a cladding.4 . the cladding layer covering the core that confines the light to the core. the centre core that carries the light. The light detector is very often either a PIN (p-type-intrinsic-n-type) diode or an APD (avalanche photodiode). The electrical pluses are amplified and reshaped back into digital form that is fed to a decoder such as a D/A converter.3 and Figure 2. It is comprised of three layers. The material composition of these two layers can be any of the following : • • • Glass cladding and glass core Plastic cladding and glass core Plastic cladding and plastic core Coating materials include lacquer. The light detector.The light-beam pulses are then fed into a fiber-optic cable where they are transmitted over long distances. and a protective jacket. and the coating that provides protection for the cladding. The receiver includes a light detector or photocell and a decoder. The fiber itself is generally regarded as the core and its cladding. The digital pulses are then used to flash a powerful light source off and on very rapidly. Repeaters are used to ensure the signals can be transmitted efficiently when the two stations are separated far enough from each other. acting as the receiving element. The optical fiber consists of a glass or plastic fiber core.

5 and the cladding is slightly less. The fiber coating is normally colored using manufacturer’s standard color codes to facilitate the identification of fiber.E3125/2/8 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM The index of refraction in the silica core is about 1. . The index of refraction of air is 1. They are usually less expensive but have higher attenuation (loss) and limited application.003. at about 1.48. Optical fibers can also be made completely from plastic or other materials.

visible and ultraviolet..1 The optical spectrum is made up of three parts. Solution to Example 2. . Let’s have some activity !!! Yeah…. the three parts are infrared..VROO VROOOOM….!!!! VROOOOM….1 In the optical spectrum. Name them.E3125/2/9 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM Example 2.VROO OOM. OOM.

E3125/2/10 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM Activity 2A TEST OUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT INPUT…! Answer the following questions.2 2. a. b.3 The major use of fiber-optic cables is ______________________. True or False. Air Glass Diamond . and stronger than electric cable.5 The core of a fiber-optic cable is made of …. 2. Fiber-optic cable is smaller. lighter. Fiber-optic cable has more loss than electric cable over long distance.1 2.4 Voice and video signals are converted into ____________ before being transmitted by a light beam. Choose the letter which best answers each question. c. True or False. 2. 2.

Infrared Gamma-rays Ultraviolet 2. Cladding Wire braid shield Paper 2. a.6 Which of the following is not a common application of fiber-optic cable? a. Computer networks Telephone systems Consumer TV 2.8 Which of the following is not part of the optical spectrum? a. c. c.9 The speed of light in plastic compared to the speed of light in air is…. Less More The same .E3125/2/11 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM 2. b. c. b.7 The core of a fiber-optic cable is surrounded by … a. b. b. c.

5 2.9 telephone systems false true binary or digital pulses c a b a a II have have done done all all the the questions questions in in activity activity 3A 3A successfully. .E3125/2/12 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM Feedback To Activity 2A 2.3 2. successfully. Well Well done! done! And And now now you you can can proceed proceed to to the the next next input. input.2 .7 2.6 2.4 2.1 2.8 2.

E3125/2/13 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM INPUT INPUT 2. As a result each material has its own Refractive Index which we use to help us calculate the amount of bending which takes place. Refractive index is defined as: n =C Equation 2. This bending of light is called refraction and it depends upon the fact that light travels at one speed in one material and at a different speed in a different material.1 ν where n is the refractive index C is the speed of light in a vacuum .5 Basic Optical Laws When light traveling in a transparent material meets the surface of another transparent material two things happen:a) b) some of the light is reflected some of the light is transmitted into the second transparent material The light which is transmitted usually changes direction when it enters the second material.

2 .4 3.0 1.36 1.1.9 2.0003 ( ≈1.42 3. Medium Vacuum Air Water Ethyl alcohol Fused quartz Glass fiber Diamond Silicon Gallium-arsenide 1.1 Typical Indexes of Refraction How a light ray reacts when it meets the interface of two transmissive materials that have different indexes of refraction can be explained with Snell’s law.5-1.33 1.0 ) 1.46 1.6 Index of Refraction Index of refraction is based on a wavelength of light emitted from a sodium flame (5890 Å) Table 2. Snell’s law simply states n1 sin θ1 = n2 sin θ2 where n1 = refractive index of material 1 (unit less) Equation 2.E3125/2/14 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM ν is the speed of light in the material The indexes of refraction of several common materials are given in Table 2.0-2.

The critical angle can be derived from Snell’s law as follows: n1 sin θ1 = n2 sin θ2 Refracted Ray . as shown in Figure 2. At the interface. This definition pertains only when the light ray is traveling from a more dense medium into a less dense medium.5 Refractive model for Snell’s law 2.1 Critical Angle The critical angle is defined as the minimum angle of incidence at which a light ray may strike the interface of two media and result in an angle of refraction of 90° or greater. Normal θ2 ( n1 < n2 ) ( n1 = n 2 ) Unrefracted Ray ( n1 > n2 ) θ2 Medium n2 Medium n1 θ1 (angle of incidence) Incident ray Figure 2.E3125/2/15 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM n2 = refractive index of material 2 (unit less) θ1 = angle of incidence (degrees) θ2 = angle of refraction (degrees) A refractive index for Snell’s law is shown in figure 2. the incident ray may be refracted toward the normal or away from it.5. depending on whether n1 is less than or greater than n2 .6.5.

2 Total Internal Reflection . −1  n2  Critical Angle : θC = sin  n    1 Equation 2.5. Therefore. then θ1 = θC .3 Normal n2 less dense n1 more dense θ1=θC (minimum) Incident ray θ2 Refracted ray (more to less dense) Figure 2.6 Critical Angle Refraction 2.E3125/2/16 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM sin θ1 = n2 sin θ2 n1 When θ2 = 90° which result to sin θ2 = 1.

θ1. 2. θc The phenomenon of TIR causes 100% reflection. In no other situation in nature. We can define the two conditions necessary for TIR to occur: 1. The angle of incidence. the angle of incidence is equal to or greater than θc Figure 2. is greater than or equal to the critical angle. So TIR is unique and very useful. where light is reflected.E3125/2/17 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM The transmitted ray now tries to travel in both materials simultaneously for various reasons this is physically impossible so there is no transmitted ray and all the light energy is reflected.7 shows the Total Internal Reflection (TIR). does 100% reflection occur. This is true for any value of θ1.7 The Total Internal Reflection Total Internal Reflection of Incident Ray . Normal n2 less dense n1 more dense θ1>θC Incident ray Figure 2. The refractive index of the first medium is greater than the refractive index of the second one.

It lies between 0 and 1. is called the Numerical Aperture. So all the energy in the ray of light is reflected back into the core and none escapes into the cladding. the ray will meet the cladding on the other side at an angle which again causes TIR. The ray is then reflected back across the core again and the same thing . Where NA n1 n2 θA NA = 2 n12 − n2 Equation 2. If light meets the inner surface of the cladding (the core-cladding interface) at greater than or equal to θc then TIR occurs. The ray then crosses to the other side of the core and because the fiber is more or less straight. The numerical aperture is defined as: Equation 2.3 Numerical Aperture One of the properties of a fiber.6 Light Ray Propagation in a Fiber-Optic Cable The angle θA in the Figure 2. which we need to know. A numerical aperture of 0 means that the fiber gathers no light (corresponding to θA = 0o). Any light entering the fiber at less than this angle will meet the cladding at an angle greater than θc.5.5 sin −1 NA = θ A = = = = numerical aperture (unitless) refractive index of the glass core (unitless) refractive index of the cladding (unitless) acceptance angle (degrees) It is a measure of the light gathering power of the fiber.4 and Also. 2. A numerical aperture of 1 means that the fiber gathers all the light that falls onto it (corresponding to θA = 90o).E3125/2/18 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM 2.8 is called the Acceptance Angle.

6.E3125/2/19 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM happens. There are two basic types of index profile: Step and graded. Multimode step-Index Fiber The index of refraction step from the core Multimode Graded-Index down to the cladding Fiber Optical fibers whose index of refraction of the core is manufactured to be . and the refractive index of the core is non-uniform. If there are more paths that can be used in a fiber-optic cable. the word mode can be defined as path.5 Figure 2.8 Propagation of light in a fiber-optic 2. it is called single mode. it is called multimode.47 TIR θ1 θA Core Cladding n=1. If there is only one path for light to take down the cable. Cladding n=1.1 Mode of Propagation and Index profile In fiber-optic terminology. A step-index fiber has a central core with a uniform refractive index less than that of the central core. In a graded-index fiber there is no cladding. Where by the index profile of an optical-fiber is a graphical representation of the value of the refractive index across the fiber. it is highest at the center and decreases gradually with distance toward the outer edge. In this way the light zigzags its way along the fiber. This means that the light will be transmitted to the end of the fiber.

9 Core index profiles: (a) single-mode step index. For short distance Easy to work with. multi-mode step index and multimode graded index.9. LANs For very high pulse rates Figure 2.graded from the center out to the cladding interface E3125/2/20 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM For long distance 2. fiber-optic can be classified into three types of configurations: Phone companies single-mode and CATV step index. LANs Provides more bandwidth than (c) Most common and widely used type For short distance Easy to work with.7 Difficult Classification of Fiber to work with. Essentially. (b) multi-mode step index. as companies shown in figure 2. (c) multi-mode graded index .

E3125/2/21 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM HINTS & HELPThe Example 2. direction of reflected light can be predicted by applying the law of reflection : the angle of incidence is equal to In figure 2. n2 and θ1 gives us .2 and substituting for n1. determine the angle of refraction .5 1. For an angle of incidence of 30° .36 n2 (ethyl alcohol) = Rearranging Equation 2.5 . let medium 1 be glass and medium 2 be ethyl alcohol. n1 (glass) = 1.1.2 The simplest way of manipulating light is to reflect it.2 From Table 2. Solution to Example 2.

Solution to Example 2.5514 = 33.36 θ2 = sin −1 0.5  = 65.2. −1 2 θ C = sin  n    1 n  θC= 1. .5 sin 30 = 0.2.47° Example 2.3 Determine the critical angle for the fiber describe in Example 2.05° Example 2.36  sin −1    1 . Solution to Example 2.4 Determine the numerical aperture for the fiber describe in Example 2.5514 = sin θ2 1.2.4 Using the Equation 2.4.3 Using the Equation 2.E3125/2/22 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM n1 sin θ1 = sin θ2 n2 1.

E3125/2/23 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM 2 2 NA = n1 − n2 = (1.11 The device that converts the light pulses into an electrical signal is a _________________. 2.10 2.633 Activity 2B TEST OUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT INPUT…! Answer the following questions.5) 2 − (1. Less than Greater than Zero .12 Total internal reflection takes place if the incident ray strikes the interface at an angle with what relationship to the critical angle? a. 2.36) 2 = 0. Light is a type of _________________ radiation. c. Choose the letter which best answers each question. b.

17 Which type of fiber-optic cable is the most widely used? a. Speed factor Index of reflection Index of refraction 2. b.E3125/2/24 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM 2.16 Refraction is the a. Reflection of light waves Distortion of light waves Bending of light waves 2. c. c.18 Which type of fiber-optic cable is best for very high-speed data? . b. c Multimode step-index Single-mode step-index Multimode graded-index 2.15 The ratio of the speed of light in air to the speeds of light in another substance is called the a. b.13 The operation of a fiber-optic cable is based on the principle of … a.14 Which of the following is not a common type of fiber-optic cable? a. Reflection Dispersion Absorption 2. c. Single-mode step index Multi-mode graded index Single-mode graded index 2. c. b. b.

10 2.11 2.13 2. c.12 2.18 2.19 light detector or photocell electromagnetic c b a b c c a c CONGRATULATIONS !!! Now you can proceed to the next activity .17 2.16 2.15 2. Multimode step-index Single-mode step-index Multimode graded-index Feedback To Activity 2B 2.E3125/2/25 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM a.14 2. b.

. governing how light rays propagate through a transparent medium by reflecting off its boundaries. Total Internal Reflection is a used in fiber-optics. Fiber-optics is a communications technology using transmission of light over glass or plastic fibers. 3. The multimode step index fiber cable is widely used at short to medium distances at relatively low pulse frequencies. 2.E3125/2/26 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM KEY FACTS 1. This cable is also the easiest to make and the least expensive of the fiber-optic cable.

E3125/2/27 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM .

determine the angle of refraction. Question 2-1 a. Compute the critical angle. For a glass (n = 1. c. Fiber-optic communications system is primary used in _________________________.604. It surrounded by cladding material having an index of refraction of 1. θc. Question 2-3 a.41) interface and an angle incidence of 38°. Compute the critical angle.33.θc . the critical angle and the numerical aperture for the cable. above which total internal reflection occurs in the glass slab. A glass fiber has an index of refraction of 1. e. Outline the primary building blocks of a fiber-optic system.62. Question 2-4 a. Define the following terms : refractive index.55 is surrounded by water whose index of refraction is 1. b.5) / quartz (n=1. Try all the questions in this self-assessment section and check your answers with those given in the Feedback on SelfAssessment given on the next page. b. Question 2-2 a. State Snell’s law for refraction and outline its significant in fiber-optic cables. List three general bands in the light frequency spectrum. d.E3125/2/28 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM SELF-ASSESSMENT You are approaching success. A glass fiber has an index of refraction of 1. . critical angle and total internal reflection. Briefly describe the construction of a fiber-optic cable.

Answer 2-4 a. the cladding layer covering the core that confines the light to the core. visible and ultraviolet. Answer 2-3 a. a. Snell’s law simply states n1 sin θ1 = n2 sin θ2 where n1 = refractive index of material 1 (unit less) . check our answers now.E3125/2/29 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM Feedback To Self-Assessment Have you tried the questions????? If “YES”. Light Light Detector Detector It is comprised of three layers . Infrared. the centre core that carries the light. Long-distance telephone systems and cable TV system. and the coating that provides protection for the cladding. Answer 2-2 Coder Light source Fiber Optic Cable Decoder b. Answer 2-1 a.

d. θ1. θc b.E3125/2/30 INTRODUCTION TO FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM n2 = refractive index of material 2 (unit less) θ1 = angle of incidence (degrees) θ2 = angle of refraction (degrees) Snell’s law is applied in TIR concept when : i. θ2 = 41° θC = 59° θC = 82° θC = 70° NA = 0. The refractive index of the first medium is greater than the refractive index of the second one.512 . : The principle of how light rays propagate through a transparent medium by reflecting off its boundaries. total internal reflaction. refractive index undergoes : Determines the amount of bending that light when entering a different medium. c. is greater than or equal to the critical angle. critical angle : The minimum angle of incidence at which a light ray may strike the interface of two media and result in an angle of refraction of 90° or greater. ii. e. The angle of incidence.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful