norton, thevenin, node and mesh analysis

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norton, thevenin, node and mesh analysis

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Using Thevenins theorem find the current load between points A and B All resistor values are in

JAMES FLOUNDERS

6 A

4 9 10V B According to Tooley and Dingle (2012) Thevenins theorem states that: Any two-terminal network can be replaced by an equivalent circuit consisting of a voltage source and a series resistance (or impedance if the source of voltage is an a.c source) equal to the internal resistance (or internal impedance) see looking into the two terminals. Using Thevenins theorem to find the current load across A and B we need to take three steps 1. Find the open circuit voltage of A and B (Vth) 2. Replace the voltage source with a short circuit, or the current source with an open circuit. 3. Find the resistance or impedance seen by the load. Step 1. To make things easier I first need to re-draw the circuit to show AB open, this also completes step 2. I can now then mark some new points on the diagram for I1, I2, I3, VX and X and use these values within Node analysis to work out Vth. 5.5

I1

Vx

I3

SOUD1219

2 I2 6 4 9 10v Vth 6

Using node analysis at point X, I1 = I2 + I3 The voltage dropped between the 4 resistor and the 2 resistor = I1 = 10 Vx 6 I1 = I2 + I3 So 10 Vx = Vx + Vx 6 6 15 as Vx is still unknown we need to rearrange the equation to get Vx on its own, we choose a number thats a factor of all our current values and times out the equation. Using 30 as the figure to times out by, this equates to 50 5Vx = 5Vx + 2Vx => 50 = 5Vx + 5Vx + 2Vx = 12Vx => Vx = 50 = 4.16v so Vx = 4.16v 12 and I3 = Vx = 0.27 so I3 = 0.27 15 so Vth = I3 (0.27) X 9 = 2.5v To complete the final step we once again re-draw the circuit diagram, just for clarification.

6 2 6 4

We now need to calculate the impedance of the load, we start with working out the resistors in parallel so 6//6 = 6x6 = 36 = 3 6+6 12

SOUD1219 Now we add the parallel value up with the first series resistor value 3 +6 = 9 now we can work out Rth 9//9 = 9x9 = 81 = 4.5 Rth 9+9 18 Now we have Values for Vth and Rth we can find the current between points A and B

IL

A ------

4.5

IL = Vth = 2.5 = 0.25a 5.5+4.5 10 So the load between A and B is 0.25 amps.

SOUD1219 Q2. Using Nortons theorem find the current in the load between points A and B A 60 130

300 60v 100 600 1000v B All resistor values are in ohms () Nortons Theorem states: The current that flows in any branch of a network is the same as that which would flow in the branch if it were connected across a source of electrical energy, the short-circuit current of which is equal to the current that would flow in a short-circuit across the branch, and the internal resistance of which is equal to the resistance which appears across the open-circuited branch terminals. John Bird (2001) Firstly we need to find the short circuit current, putting a short across points A and B leaves us with 170 180

100 1000v

300 600 60

Now we can work out the resistance (Rsc) 100 + 300 = 400 + 600//60 = 400 + 600 x 60 = 454.54 600 + 60 Now using Ohms law we can work out the short circuit current 1000 = 2.2a 454.54

SOUD1219 We now need to replace the voltage source with a short circuit and a current source to create an open circuit, then we can find the Internal resistance Rin

170 B

Rin = (130+170)// 60 +(600//[300+100]) = 300//(60+600//400) = 300//(60 + 600x400) 600+400 = 300//(60+240000) = 300 = 300//300 = 150 We can now find the current between points A and B

IL

A ----------

2.2a

150

180 --------B

IL =

150 x 2.2 = 1 amp (180+150) So the current in the load between points A and B is 1 amp

SOUD1219 Q3. Using the principle of superposition, determine the voltage across the 10 resistor in the circuit below, all resistor values are in

20

100v 3.4v

10

According to Tooley and Dingle (2012), superposition theorem states that: In any network containing more than one voltage source, the current in, or potential difference developed across, any branch can be found by considering the effects of each source separately and adding their effects. During this process, any temporarily omitted source must be replaced by its internal resistance (or a short circuit if its a perfect voltage source).

20 5 I1 V1 3.4v

x I2 1 10 V2

Vx I3 Vout

100v

We now short out V2 so we can work out the current using node analysis I1 = I2 + I3 I1 = 100Vx = Vx + V 25 1 10 as Vx is still unknown we need to rearrange the equation to get Vx on its own, we choose a number thats a factor of all our current values and times out the equation. Using 50 as the figure to times out by, this equates to

SOUD1219 200 2Vx = 50Vx + 5Vx =>200 = 57Vx =>Vx = 200 = 3.5v 57 So Vx = 3.5v now we can work out the current I3 using ohms law 3.5v = 0.35amps 10 We now repeat the process but this time short out V1 so I2 = I1 + I3 => 3.4 Vx = Vx + Vx 1 25 10 We rearrange and times by 50 again leaving us with 170 50Vx = 2vx + 5Vx => 170 = 57Vx => Vx = 170 = 2.98v 57 so Vx = 2.98v Now we can work out the current I3 using Ohms law I3 = 2.98 = 0.298 amps 10 Using superposition the resultant current through the 10 resistor is 0.35 amps + 0.298 amps = 0.648amps *The question states that we are to determine the voltage across the 10 resistor, I am not certain on the method, my first thoughts are to add the two values of Vx 3.5 + 2.98 = 6.48v. If we are supposed to be looking for the volt drop across the 10 resistor then using ohms law 10 x 0.648a = 6.48v.

Q4. An inductor having an inductance of 0.1 henrys is connected in parallel with an 8 resistor. The frequency of the supply is 30/ hertz calculate: I. The inductive reactance To make things more clear I will draw out the circuit

f 30/ ~

0.1H

Inductive reactance = XL = 2FL => 2 x 30 x 0.1 = 6 So XL = 6 or (J6) we use a J to indicate an angle of phase shift. II. Find the impedance (Z) Z= R+JX (8)x(J6) x (8)-(J6) (8)+(J6) (8)-(J6) 8x J6 = J48 J48x8= J384 J48 x J6 = 288 64(-J48+J48-J36) => J384+288 = J384 + 288 = 2.88 + J3.84 so Z = 2.88+J3.84 (64+J36) 100 III. Find the magnitude of Z (IzI) (2.88) + (3.84) =4.8 IV. Find the inductive susceptance (B) B = 1 => 1 x by J => -J XL J3.84 J 3.84 siemens V. Find the conductance (G) 1 = 1 = 0.347 siemens R 2.88 VI. Find the admittance (Y) This is the inverse of the impedance 1 = 1 Z 2.88 + j384 4.8 tan-1(3.84) = 4.8 53.13 (2.88) Y= 1 4.8 53.13 = 0.208 -53.13 VII. Find the magnitude of the admittance 1 = 0.283 4.8

SOUD1219 Q5. A parallel R-LC circuit consists of a coil of inductance 0.05H and a resistance of 5 in parallel with a capacitor of 0.1uF. find the circuits resonant frequency, Q-factor and dynamic impedance. I. resonant frequency

0.05

0.1

F=

1 2

R/L =

1 2 (0.05x0.1x10-6)

= 2250khz

II. Find the Q-factor Q = 2foL = 141.4 R III. Find the dynamic impedance ZD = L = 0.05 = 100k CR 0.1x10-6 x5

SOUD1219 Q6. A series tunes circuit has C= 100nf, L=100uH and R=0.5. the circuit is required to have a bandwidth of 4khz. Calculate the extra series resistance required to achieve this. Fo = 2 1 ( 100x 10-6 x 100x10-9) = 50329.2 2 Bandwidth = Fw = Fo/Q = 50329.2 = 12.6 4000 Using Q = 2FoL R = 250329.2 = 2.5 12.6 So the extra series resistance needed is 2 1

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