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: 3.1 SCOPE

CHAPTER 3

WIND ACTIONS

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(1) This Chaptergives rull.~s and methodsfor calculatingwind loadson building structuresup to a height of 200m, their1compc'l1ents and appendages. (2) Wind loads shallbe calculatedfor eachof the loadedareasunderconsideration. Thesemay be: (a) the whole structure (b) parts of the structure, i.e components,claddingunits and their fixings (3) This Chapter alsogivesrules for chimneysand othercantilevered structures. Special requirements for lattice towers are not given. 3.2 CLASSIFICATION OF ACTIONS

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.3.3

(1) Wind action are classified asfree actions,see Chapter1. DESIGN SITUATIONS The relevantwind actions shall be determinedfor eachdesignsituationidentified in accordance with Chapter1. (2) The effect of changesof the form of the construction works which may modify the externaland internalwind pressure(such asdoors normally closedbut left openunder storm conditions)shall be considered. (3) Structuressusceptible to dynamic effect shall be designedfor fatigue loading. 3.4 3.4.1 REPRESENT A TION OF ACTIONS Expansion of the Wind Actions and the Responseof t~1e Structures

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-(1)

(1) Wind actionsare fluctuating with time. They act directly on the externalsurfacesof enclosed structuresand, through porosity of the externalsurface,also act indirectly on the internal surfaces. They may also directly affect the internal surface of openstructures. Pressures act on areasof the surface producing forces normal" to the surface for the structure or for individual cladding components. Additionally, when large areasof structuresare swept by the wind, frictional forces acting tangentiallyto the surface, maybe significant. To achievethe designaims accountshallbe takenof: -(a) turbulentwind acting over part or all of the structure"(seeSection3.5 and 3.6 respectively) (b) fluctuatingpressures inducedby the wake behind the structure(see Section3.9.4) (c) fluctuatingforces inducedby the motion of the structure(see Section3.9.4).

EBC$ -1

1995

51

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General rules for evaluating such situations are provided in Section3.5.2 Modelling of "Vind Actions : l ~ ~ (Ii The wind action is represented either as a wind pressureor a wind force. Slenderstructures such as chimneys.4. It is used asthe characteristic value c~(Z) exposurecoefficient accountingfor the terrain and heightaboveground z given in Section 3.e. z = Zjfor internalpressurecoefficient) Cd dynamic coefficient accountingfor both correlationand dynamic magnification given in Section3.(a) stochasticand resonantresponse(alongwind.. as is normally the case. crosswind and torsional direction) due to turbulenceand wake effects (b) response due to vortex shedding (c) galloping (d) interference (e) divergenceand flutter.4.7. Criteria are also given for aeroelastic instability. 3.9. The action on the structurecausedby the wind pressureis assumed to act normalto the surfaceexceptwhereotherwise specified.9. (2) If a naturalfrequencyof vibration of the surfaceis low (i. These effects are not covered by this Chapter. for tangentialfriction forces. observationtowers. (4) In this Chapter.8.of Application ) i I"' . The coefficient also modifies the meanpressureto a peak pressureallowing for turbulence z referenceheightdefined in Appendix A appropriateto the relevantpressurecoefficient (z = z~) for externalpressure and force coefficient. e.g.' 52 EBCS -1 1995 .and in some caseshigh rise buildings shall be designedto resist the dynamic effect of vortex shedding.3.1:. For the majority of structuresthe resonant components are small and the wind load canbe simplified by considering the backgroundcomponent only. Suchstructurescan be calculatedby a simplified method. thesevibrations may becomesignificant.which acts quasi-statically and "resonant"components due to excitation close to natural frequencies.1. The limits to suchstructuresare set down in Section3.5.the wind action is represented by a set of quasi-static pressures or forces whose effects are equivalentto the extreme effects of the wind. and they shall be taken into account.1 Field . WIND PRESSURE ON SURFACES 3. ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING .5 ~ (1) The representation of the wind pressuregiven in this Sectionis valid for surfaceswhich are sufficiently rigid to neglecttheir resonant vibrationscausedby the wind. (2) The total responseof structuresand their elements may be consideredas the superpositionof a "background" component. componentelementsof open frames and trusses. (3) The dynamiceffectsare divided into different types accordingto the physicaleffect of the wind: . (2) The following parameters are used severaltimes and are definedbelow: q'~f referencemeanwind velocity pressurederived from referencewind velocity as defined in Section3.9. less than5 Hz).

-= -. WIND FORCES Wind Forces from Pressures 3. Examplesare given in Figure 3. . and suction.5. directedtowardsthe surfaceis takenaspositive. --r. 3.~..~ -1 3.1..1) t i 1 J 'j .2) (1) The net wind pressureacrossa wall or an elementis the difference of the pressureson each surfacetakingdue account of their signs. ~. .5.3 Internal Pressure (3.5.tq !~~ (a) (b) -w: X~ ~ = = WeJ == 3[J . (1) The wind forces acting on a structureor a structural component maybe determinedin two ways: (a) by meansof global forces as a summationof pressures acting on surfacesprovided that the structureor the structural component is not sensitiveto dynamic response (Cd < 1. (Pressure.(b) ..1 Pressure on Surfaces 3.6 . 3.4 Net Pressure (3.2 see Section3. directed away from the surfaceasnegative). . "':.2 External Pressure CHAPTER 3: WIND AC770NS~ '! I ~ f "".: r:. .it.9).:. 91' (1) The wind pressureacting on the externalsurfacesof a structure Weshall be obtainedfrom: We= qrt/ ce(ze) Cpt where Cpt is the externalpressurecoefficientderived from AppendixA.1 .. ntg ~-~ " --nl9 -pm- Mg -.6. -"==11 ~ n~ w: (c) ~) - Figure 3.r -. EBCS -1 1995 53~ .. l~ Y (1) The wind pressureactingon the internal surfacesof a structure ~ shall be obtainedfrom: ~ = qre/ ce(z)Cpi where Cpi is the internalpressurecoefficientobtainedfrom AppendixA.

._0_' .10. They shall be obtained from: 54 _4 EBCS.5) 10 where b is the dimension of the cross section transverse to the main axis considered (see Fig.... ~$. large free standing roofs).uAj where . ~-~ I ~ I . 0. (3) For lattice structures and for vertical cantilevered structures with a slenderness ratio heig~t/width > 2 and with nearly constant cross-section (e.3) Cf is the force coefficient derived from Section 3. 3._0_.g. tall buildingis'. chimneys. F fr may be significant.10 Art! is the reference area for Cf (generally the projected area of the structure normal to the wind) as defined in Section 3.11995 EBCS..~).~' f~.10 Aj is the incremental area (4) Torsional effects due to inclined or non correlated wind may be represented on non circular nearly symmetric structures by the force F w acting with the eccentricity e: b e = -(3.4) Zj is the height of the centre of gravity of incremental area Aj C.ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING (2) The global' force F w shall be obtained from the following expression: Fw = qrtf Ct(Zt)Cd Cf Art! where .g. friction forces.~ I . . ~::(. ..10 .11995 . -(3. 'c. towers) the force F wjon the incremental area Aj at the height Zjis: Fwj = qrt! Ct(Zj)Cd C.+.3.6:2 Friction Force I Fw Figure3. '" (1) For structures with large area swept by the wind (e.'.(3..u is the force coefficient for incremental area Aj as defined in Section 3.2 Wind ForceActing on CrossSection (5) More detailed values of the eccentricity for special cross sections are presented in Section 3.

06 1. .7.~ EBCS-1199555. Table 3. The air density is affected by altitude and depends on the temperature and pressure to be expected in the region during wind storms. 1l Ffr = qrt/ ce(Ze)cfr Afr . ~ .:.v CALT (3.10.7.6) where Cfr is the friction coefficient derived from Section 3.0.0.94 (1) The reference wind velocity vrei is defined as the 10 minute mean wind velocity at 10m above ground of terrain category II (see Table 3.11 . .1. A temperature of 20°C has been selected as appropriate for Ethiopia and the variation of mean atmospheric pressure with altitude is given in Table 3.2 Reference Wind Velocity p( kg 1m3 1.0. 'I i J (3) For temporary structures.12 1.2) having an annual probability of exceedence of 0.20 1.1 Values of Air Density p ~t.00 0.:.' CHAPTER 3: WIND ACTIONS I .. (3.0.1 REFERENCE Reference Wind Pressure (1) The reference mean wind velocity pressure qref shall be determined from: p Vrt/ 2 qrt/ = "2 where Vrt/ is the reference wind velocity as defined in Section 3.02 (commonly referred to as having a mean return period of 50 years). (2) It shall be determined from: Vref = CDIR Cn. is the temporary (seasonal) factor to be taken as 1.~ ."." ~' . which are: (a) structures during construction (which may require temporary bracing supports (b) structures whose life time is known and is less than one year t ~ !.7 3.& r' ~1 .2 p is the air density .7) ~ ~:- is the basic value of the reference wind velocity to betaken as 22m/sec is the direction factor to be taken as 1...13 Afr is the area swept by the wind WIND 3. is the altitude factor to be taken as 1. i ~ -.7.500 Site Altitude(m) Above sea level 0 1000 1500 2000 3.v CALT Vreto where Vreto VDIR Cn..

02 (see Section3.5 0.05 I : I I I I 0.:: ".(p)/ /' vref I Figure 3.2 0.7) describesthis redu~tion. 3.8) v fn) ref'l'" where.7. (4) Transportablestructures which may be dismantledand rebuilt at any time in the year are not consideredto be temporarystructures.5 canbe used.98) (3.0 1.6 0. The representative valuen = 0.7.02 (see Section3.005 0.2 vre .2 canbe used. ~ I I I. exponent.1 1.3 Annual Probabilities of Exceedenceother than 0.5 .2 and n = 0.I .2 (1) canbe found usingthe following expression: -V [ l-K1ln[ -In (1-p)] ] n ref l-K1ln(-lnO. (3.02 (1) The referencewind velocity Vref (P)for annualprobabilitiesof exceedence p other thanthe value of 0.7 0.02 p I + 0.ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING ~ a reduction of the referencewind velocity may be allowed depending upon: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) the duration of the situation ) the possibilities of protecting or strengthening of the structureduring wind storms the time neededto protect or strengthen the structure the probability of occurrenceof wind storms the possibilities of forecastingwind storms . 0.9 1. The representative value K] = 0. B~sedon Section3. I 1 EBCS -1 1995 ~ .2) shapeparameter.01 I .v ref k] n is the referencevelocity with an annualprobability of exceedence of 0.3 and/or on special local climate situationthe temporaryfactor CTEM according to Eq.3 Ratio Vrejp) vref for k1 = 0. - 0.1 0.7.8 0.7.5 5iJ.

8.q c.3 Terrain Categories (1) The terrain categoriesare defined in Table 3.(z) c. 3. CHAPTER 3: WINDACTIONS ..9) RoughnessCoefficient (1) The roughness coefficient c.4) (3.10) (3.2. --~ .(z)acCQunts for the variability of meanwind velocity at the site of the structuredue to: (a) the height aboveground level (b) the roughness of the terrain depending on the wind direction. A.(z".11) is the terrain factor is the roughness length is the minimum height Theseparameters dependon the terrain categoryas given in Table 3.(z)V.q where V. 3. (3) At heightsmore than 200m aboveground level specialistadviceis recommended.2.8..J where kT Zo Zmin for for Zmin ~ Z ~ 200m z < Zmin (3.8 andthe wind coefficientsand other parametersof this Chapter.(z)= c.1 Mean Wind Velocity (1) In order to define the Reynoldsnumberin A.2) is the roughness coefficient (Section3.2 is the referencewind velocity (Section3. r 1EBCS -1 !~ 1995 57 [ I .(z) = kT In(zlzo) c.'-" .7..8 WIND PARAMETER 3.(z) = c.8.(z) -cAz) 3.8.the meanwind velocity v". It is definedby: v".8.1 . (2) The roughness coefficient at height z is defined by the logarithmicprofile: -c .2) is the topographycoefficient (Section3.(z)is required.

25 1. (3) In the abovetransitionzonessmall areasof differentroughness shouldbe ignored (less than 10% of the area under consideration).housesor trees III Suburbanor industrial areasand permanent forests .6).57 1.67 30 1.~ 58 EBCS -1 1995 ) . .1.96 0.67 1.5 and 3. (4) Whenthere is any doubt aboutthe choicebetween two categories in the definition of a givenarea. it shall be considered for locationswithin the topographyaffected zone (seeFig.43 1.01 0.94 100 1. zo(m) 0. ~ II Farmland with boundaryhedges. It is definedby: Ct = 1 Ct = 1 + 2 s if! Ct = 1 + 0.3 . (3.11 200 I I 1.2 Terrain Categoriesand Related Parameters Terrain Category I Lakes with at least 5km fetch upwind and smoothflat country without obstacles kr 0.13 0.24 1 16 (2) If the structure is situatedneara changeof terrain roughness at a distance: (a) less than 2km from the smoothercategoryI (b) less than 1km from the smoothercategories II and II the smootherterrain categoryin the upwind directionshouldbe used.17 0. "' ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING Table 3.05< if! < 0. (5) Table 3.14 0.45 1. Terrain Category I II III IV 3. the worse caseshouldbe taken. 2 0. It is relatedto the wind velocity at the base of the hill or escarpment. 3.36 1.3 RoughnessCoefficient c.31 1.3 Zmin(m} 2 4 8 .82 50 1.72 0.68 1.83 0.10 0.05 0.58 1..22 0.67 0.3 gives roughness coefficient c.83 0.12) - -.22 1.05 0.occasional small farm structure.4 z(m) -.6 s for for for if! < 0.72 0.01 0.87 0.72 0.8.27 Topography Coefficient (1) The topographycoefficient CAZ) accountsfor the increaseof meanwind speedover isolatedhills and escarpments (not undulatingand mountainous regions).67 4 8 16 1.(z}for selected values of height Z Table 3.90 0.28 1.19 .IV Urban areasin which at least 15% of the surface is covered with buildings and their average height exceeds15m 0.44 .3 if! > 0.02 1.

75 Le 1. 3.7) is the effective length of the upwind slope.3): Le = L" Steep(If>> 0.5 Le -TOEQ. For structuressituatedwithin steep-sided valleyscare shouldbe takento accountfor any increaseof wind speedcausedby funnelling.4 Values of Le Slope (If>= H/L.3 (2) In valleys.4 is the actuallength of the upwind slope in the wind direction is the actuallength of downwind slope in the wind direction is the effective height of the feature is the horizontaldistanceof the site from the top of the crest is the vertical distancefrom the ground level of the site Table 3.6). (seefigs. cJz) may be setto 1.CHAPTER 3: WIND ACTIONS Where s If> Le L" Ld H x' Z is the factor to be obtainedby interpolationfrom the value of s = 1.0 at the crest of a hill. ridge or escarpment and the value s = 0 at boundary of the topography affectedzone.5 Factor s: Cliffs.-. EBCS -1 1995 59 .05 < If>< 0. 5=0 O. is the upwind slopeH/L" in the wind direction (seefigs.6 and 3. and Escarpments . Interpolationshallbe linear with horizontaldistancefrom crest and with heightabovethe local ground level.. defined in Table 3. : 6 Figure 3. 3.GRAPHY AFFECTED ZONf.5 and 3.) Shallow (0.SLe 5=0 W" ni H X+ 0.0 if no speedup due to funnelling effects is to be expected.3) Le = H/0.

. -' ! I "c-'r:. ...:' i#'4 l' .8.8.6 3. Ce(Z) takes into account the effects of terrain roughness.5 Exposure Coefficient Factor s: Hills and Ridges ". '! (3) The exposure co~fficient c.}. - (1) The exposure coefficient.3 is the topography coefficient as defined in Section 3. '?. .y O.2. topography and height above ground on the mean wind speed and turbulence.I I.8. .(z) c/(z) is the terrain factor as defined in Section 3. 60 EBCS -1 1995 . It is defined by: ce(z) = c2.ach 'terrain category defined in \ Section 3.4 -~ . I r ' '" (3. .(z) = kT C ' (z)' C / (z) (3.754 ~ TOPOGRAPHY AFFECTED ZONE Figure 3."' "..5 for e. '" ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING " - 5= 0 r.(z) c/(z) ] (3..(z) e -- [ 1+ 7k T c.(z)is given in Table 3. given by: .14) ' 'I .(z) c..13) where g Iv (z) is the peak factor is the turbulence intensity.SLeI I i I 0.8.: ~ -'.SL~ $=0 5=0 Wi~ O'~le O.(Z) c2/(z)[1 + 2gIv(z)] :.~ 'ii ." . (2) For codification purposes it has been assumed that the quasi-static gust load is determined from: c(z) = c..8.~~ where kT c.15) . .2 is the roughness coefficient as defined in Section 3.

3. '. 3.4 gives criteria for vonex shedding and galloping. steel. . 3.9.the structure and its breadth.13 are based on typical values of the relevant parameters and simplified equations for natural frequencies of structures.9 CHOICE OF PROCEDURES 3. the simplification in (2) above is not used. and the criteria for choosing between simple and detailed procedures.2.CHAPTER 3: WIND ACTIONS (4) For structures which need to be designed by a detailed dynamic analysis method.1 General (1) Two procedures for calculating wind loads are required.3 sets down the values of Cdfor use with the simple procedure (in-wind response).9.3 Dynamic Coefficient for Gust Wind Response (1) Values of Cdset out in Figs.3) is less than 1. (4) For values of 1.3. the height of .9. (a) the simple procedure of this Code applies to those structures whose structural properties do not make them susceptible to dynamic excitation. (2) The dynamic coefficient Cdtakes into account the reduction effects due to the lack of correlation of pressures over surfaces as well as tIle magnification effects due to the frequency content of turbulence close to the fundamental frequency of the structure. (5) Section 3.0 ~ Cd ~ 1. (3) Section 3. (3) Values of Cdfor chimneys are set out in Figs. (2) Values of Cdfor buildings are set out in Figs. ~ EBCS -7 . composite).9.9 depending on the material of construction.9.9. (4) Section 3.10 to 3.7 to 3. 3.2 Criteria for the Choice (1) The simple procedure may be used for buildings and chimneys less than 200m tall provided the value of Cd(see Section 3. 7 to 3.2 (in-wind response).2 it is recommended that a detailed procedure should be used. 3. This procedure can also be used for the design of mildly dynamic structures by the use of the dynamic coefficient Cd.9.13 depending on the form of construction. The value of this coefficient dependsupon the type of structure (concrete. In all other cases a detailed dynamic analysis is required in accordance with specialist literature. (b) a detailed dynamic analysis procedure is required for those structures which are likely to be susceptible to dynamic excitatiQn and for which the value of the dynamic coefficient Cd is greater than 1.2 defines the field of application of this section.

58 4.4 1.91 CATEGORY IV z(m) cI 1.21 2.53 6.02 4.00 100 3.1 1.89 4.80 2.09 5.24 5.31 5.06 4 1.61 2.72 3'.93 5.86 2.46 2..20 3.43 2.33 2.75 4.92 4.3 1.60 5.0 .22 2.48 3.58 1.3 1.06 30 3.2 1.56 1.59 6.00 100 4.15 4.74 4.2 1..20 2.43 4.1 .47 4.49 7..- 1.33 2.08 3. .3 1.54 100 3.24 3.16 6.39 2.60 5.18 5.38 CATEGORY II z(m) c1 1.07 3.59 50 3.98 2.04 3.43 2.02 6.56 1.Q5 5.61 2.33 2.76 4.57 7. 2 1.42 4.43 2.30 8.11 30 2. .90 5.73 - CATEGORY III z(m) cI 1.78 6.78 6.90 4.51 " " .60 200 4.4 2.39 4.63 1..52 5.09 3.58 5.31 6.20 16 1.5 2.67 2.82 5.82 4.77' 1.63 7.77 .2 1. 4.5 3.09 2.63 16 2.17 4.39 8.95 3.5 ExposureCofficientc.62 4.77 .43 2.35 3.89 5.1 1.01 4.31 9.77 1.64 200 4.75 6.84 3.41 6.44 3.71 5.2 1.33 2.86 2.20 1.20 30 2.16 5.47 4.90 5.4 1.48 200 3.96 4.56 4 1.66 3.94 4.91 4.02 3.88 2.14 4.05 3.76 3.02 3. 1.31 4.0 1.06 4.67 2.22 2.48 3.67 2.91 3.99 5.86 2.96 3.61 5.09 2.55 3. 62 EBCS -1 1995 /- .09 1.59 2.09 2.92 7. Table3.58 1. c1 2 4 8 16 30 50 100 200 1.06 8 2.99 4.7& 7.49 5.CATEGORY I z(m) .80 2.16 2. 1.~ .61 2.31 1.09 6.57 6..5 2. 1.52 3.80 8.67 3.84 2.64 3.32 5.0 1.91 3.73 3.3 2 1.25 2. 2 1.40: 4.4 1.33 3.60 7.33 2.16 3.41 2.91 50 2.58 2.56 8 1.0 1..98 1.94 4.04 2.63 8 1.ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING .36 1.45 6.88 3.57 50 3.80 3.98 2.56 3.54 16 2.07 .45 2.43 4.09 2.25 .1 1.23 3.5 2.98 2.31 2.84 5.35 4.84 2.63 4 1.32 7.84 .77 6.

.adth 10 10 20 b (m) ~ 100 Figure 3. i LD )" fh I 'K)O not of prQcticQt interest .. [! if I 'c .' .1-" . . j.. SO height h ( lira ~ 20 .. WIND ACTIONS it. " It (" i: . CHAPTER 3. : I' I ii' ' .. -. I" .tx-. b ....IN "I 1 ! " "' J"I .f . more detailed procedures should be used.-=-. ~ . -EBCS -1 1995 63 ~ I l I f .7 Cd Values for Concrete and Masonry Buildings Note: The criteria set down in this figure do not address comfort conditions at serviceability. ! t I .5 .i.. If this is likely to be of concern.II c \'1 It .

j 30 I ~ 10 5 10 20 breadth b (m) SO .)" ~rh W SO not of proctlcal Intlrlat 40 height hIm) ~ 20 10 20 brladth b 1m) 100 Figure 3.:.8 CdValues for Steel Buildings b m 150 ~ ~ ~ f m not of proc tical in~erest ~ ..'~:: t . hlighthfm) !:~~~.9 CdValues for Composite (Steel/Concrete)Buildings A 64 EBCS -1 -"995 . './ 100 Figure 3.~.~~. .......~~/AN BUILDING CODE STANDA~~~ADING - ~ ."' Y'.

!!ji!i':C \c:~i. '"a1uesfor Unlined Welded Steel Chimneys 100 'I.ame~r b (m) 10 Figure 3.~ ~ c.2use dynamic metf1od . :~ j EBCS -1 1995 65 .' crlttnJ f or vortex sheddi~ (6.- " -CHAPTER 3.141 SO h!igh. diameter " -Figure b (tn) . 'tONal r~r sl1tddi"9 {6. 0.11 Cd Values for Lined Steel Chimneys C../ >- 2 " ~ 0 . S 1 2 S 10 c' "i.0. WIND ACTIONS .erl....th (m) ~ -.l crl.10 C.1 cO 3..CO For Cd> 1.~. .5 " 1 2 5 di.~) SO height h {mJ 20 -~>- '0 .'ZOO .

-.: CQr'~ of of aa~ . t. 2 10 t ~J .5 1 2 diimet~ 5 b (m) 10 Figure 3./. !./.12 Cd Values for Brick Lined Steel Chimney '- 100 crite-ii sh~lng ."- II "8 10 0.. ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING 200 '100 I criteri~ vortex for sheOdiilg SO height h (m) b '" 20 c 0- -.13 CdVlaues for Reinforced Concrete Chimney . ~or vortex I 4 he~ht h (m) 50 .5 1 2 diimeter 5 b (m) ~ Figure 3.. b . 0.: t..L .

Buildings which do not satisfy these criteria shall be checked for vortex shedding and galloping.4.9. field of ~plication of~x heigh ~ ~ ~"Q" ~ Ir ~ ~ ~ '? ~ .(2) Elongated structures.. Such structures which do not satisfy these criteria shall be checked for these phenomena.9. ? " '\.9.1 General (1) For slender structures the following phenomena of dynamics and instability effects have to be considered: (a) (b) vortex shedding galloping (c) flutter (d) divergence (e) interference galloping (2) Rules for analyzing such phenoIllena may be obtained from specialist literature.)b'~ fl:D Wind/ f--:-{ b 20 no sensitivity to vortex shedding ~ 10 : -Figure 3.Ir ~~/o"'. galloping. 3. flutter and interference galloping. 3.9. whose geometric dimensions satisfy the criteria given in ~ figs."" L. Aeroelastic Instability and Dynamic Interference Effects 3." (1) Buildings whose geometric dimensions satisfy the criteria gi~n in fig.2. (3) Criteria for the field of application of vortex shedding and galloping are given in Section 3. i 3. CHAPTER3: WIND ACTIONS3..13 and need not to be checked for vortex shedding.14 need not be checked for vortex shedding and galloping. .10 to 3.4.4 Vortex Shedding. such as chimneys.14 Ciriteria b for Buildings for Vortex Shedding and Galloping 5 10 20 50 breadth 1m] EBCS -1 1995 67 .2 Field of Application ! .4.

.ETHIOPIAN BUILDING CODE STANDARD FOR LOADING . [TillS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLAl"ll'K] ~ 68 EBCS77995 ..