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MINOR U OCCURRENCES PAKISTAN NUCLEAR ENERGY PROFILE THE KARACHI NUCLEAR POWER PLANT (KANUPP) CHASHMA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT-1 (CHASNUPP-1) CHASHMA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT-2 (CHASNUPP-2) PAKISTAN NUCLEAR ENERGY STATISTICS RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL LOW LEVEL WASTES INTERMEDIATE LEVEL WASTES HIGH LEVEL WASTES NUCLEAR RELATED FACILITIES IN PAKISTAN CONCLUSION REFRENCE 1 1 1 2 2 4 5 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 9 10 10
LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Pakistan, distribution of Tertiary Siwalik Group sediments and location of the Baghal Chur and Qabul Khel U deposits (after Moghal 2001) 2 Figure 2: Dera Ghazi Khan U district, Baghal Chur area, NW-SE cross-sections illustrating a the general litho-stratigraphic position of the U-bearing Baghal Chur Sand, Dhok Pathan Formation, Middle Siwalik Division; and b the distribution of U lenses in the Baghal Chur Sand (after Moghal 1974) 3 Figure 3: Bannu Basin, Qabul Khel deposit, NE-SW cross-sections along drill fences 0 (a) and 10 (b) showing the irregular shape of the main ore body in Qabul Khel Sandstone and its relationship to the Qabul Khel Shale Horizon and the water table (after a Moghal 2001; b Mansoor et al. 2002) 4 Figure4.(A)Source: CANDU http://www.candu.org/paec.html Image @ digital Globe,(B) Source: Google Earth Imagery date, February 1, 2005- February 7, 2008 6 Figure 5. (A) Source: CNNC China Zhongyuan Engineering (B) Source: Google Earth, Image @ Global Eye 6
Unconformity related deposits 2. Metsomatic deposits 9. Research continues apace to develop commercial nuclear fusion of hydrogen isotopes which can be harness for power generation nuclear fission. If we bring fast breeder reacts on stream install safety procedure that will restore public confidence in nuclear reactor and develop safe solution for nuclear waste storage and disposed. hydrothermal and sedimentary geological environments. Quartz pebble conglomerate deposits 4. This will result in steady increase in uranium demand over the coming centuries. Vein deposits 6. URANIUM DEPOSITS These are of various types covering metallicferrious deposits. Lignite deposits 1 . Breccia complex deposits 5. Volcanic and caldera related deposits 7.5% of natural uranium. GEOLOGY OF URANIUM DEPOSITS Uranium occurs in a number of different igneous. Surficial deposits 8. no matter the type of reactor requires supplies of radioactive isotopes 255U which makes up to 0.INTRODUCTION The countries with no fossil fuels constructing nuclear power stations presently 125 nuclear power stations are in planning or construction stage. 1. Collapse breccia pipe deposit 10. Sandstone related deposits 3.
estimates a cumulative production of 970 t U and discovered in 1959. Uranium was found in Siwalik sandstone near Rakhi Munh in the Sulaiman Range. pegmatites. Mianwali District. Geological Setting Baghal Chur is situated in the asymmetrical Baghal Chur syncline. distribution of Tertiary Siwalik Group sediments and location of the Baghal Chur and Qabul Khel U deposits (after Moghal 2001) BAGHAL CHUR The blanket sandstone-type Baghal Chur deposit lies about 40 km NW of Dera Ghazi Khan. Figure 1: Pakistan. Subsequent exploration led to the discovery of about a dozen small U deposits in the Dera Ghazi Khan District in the early 1970s. The deposit was mined from 1971 to 1999 by conventional methods and is depleted. was the latest success.URANIUM RESERVES OF PAKISTAN Uranium deposits and notable occurrences are reported from the Dera Ghazi Khan District. and schists have been discovered in the mountainous northern part of Pakistan.05% U. Host rocks are fluvial lacustrine sediments of the Dhok Pathan Formation. that hosts all U deposit. Sulaiman Range. Pakistan’s former U production was essentially concentrated in the Dera Ghazi Khan District. and from the Kirthar Range in south Pakistan. A number of radioactive localities associated with alkaline igneous rocks. Original resources are not published but are assumed to have been on the order of a few hundred tonnes U at grades of 0. in central Pakistan. discovered in 2000/2001 in this district. Mineralization 2 . Bannu Basin. Taunsa. and Issa Khel.
Oxidized mineralization: Tyuyamunite is the principal U mineral but some carnotite occurs occasionally. bands of yellow U minerals about 1 cm thick follow above or below. biotite. Dhok Pathan Formation. Baghal Chur area. In both environments. Appreciable uranium content is also bound in zeolite (clinoptilolite. It contains the small Qabul Khel. These minerals. heavy mineral bands and cross beds. impregnate the interstices between clasts.Uranium(-vanadium) mineralization occurs above and below the groundwater table. Ore bodies are of strata peneconcordant. Middle Siwalik Division. martite. an eastern marginal hill range of the basin. NW PAKISTAN The Bannu Basin is located in the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan. NW-SE cross-sections illustrating a the general litho-stratigraphic position of the U-bearing Baghal Chur Sand. and Shanawah sandstone U deposits in the Surghar Range. pebbles. hematite. In the latter case. biotite and feldspar predominate. clay minerals. mineralization is out of equilibrium Non-oxidized mineralization: Pitchblende and coffinite are the principal U minerals in the non-oxidized zone. in the form of a greenish-yellow amorphous powder. respectively. elongated to amoeba shape. and plant remains. and locally also associate with crossbeds of heavy minerals. uranium is adsorbed by goethite. U showings hosted by Middle Siwalik molasse also occur intermittently over a strike length of 30 km 3 . primarily magnetite. Shape and Dimension of Deposits The deposit consists of a group of overlapping ore bodies distributed from surface to depths of 150–200 m. coat grains. In addition. or on both sides 5–10 mm thick black. heulandite) that occurs as discrete diagenetic crystals in pore cavities. and b the distribution of U lenses in the Baghal Chur Sand (after Moghal 1974) BANU BASIN SURGHAR RANGE. Figure 2: Dera Ghazi Khan U district. in oxidized and non-oxidized greywacke in which schist fragments. Eagle Hill. and clay pellets.
Grades are about 0. Geological Setting The Qabul Khel deposit is located in the plunging. influx of a high quantity of water. they occur as pore fillings whereas pitchblende also occurs as micro fine globules. The ore minerals are contained in an assemblage of predominant amphibole. QABUL KHEL Qabul Khel (Kubul Khel). An experimental underground mining operation was carried out initially but ISL mining was finally adopted and a semi-commercial scale ISL operation began in mid-1995 on one ore body. A number of small ore bodies were explored in the early 1980s. in the Qabul Khel area. southern part of the Surghar anticline at the eastern margin of the structural Bannu Basin. poorly cemented rocks. 2002) Mineralization Coffinite and pitchblende are the principal U minerals in the unoxidized environment below the water table. are hampered by the shape of the ore body. is located in the southern Surghar Range. Qabul Khel deposit. structural complications.05% U. between 20 and 45° SW. high dip of strata. This basin consists of folded molasse of the Siwalik Group. south of the Kurram River. The Dhok Pathan Formation is a cyclic alternating sand-shale sequence that is variably inclined. calcite. Figure 3: Bannu Basin. Uranophane is typical for the oxidized zone.. a continuation of the Surghar Range. Ore bodies are hosted by the Dhok Pathan Formation that forms the upper unit of the Middle Siwalik Division. respectively.between Kundal and Baggi Qammar in the Khisor Range. absence of bottom shale at places. named aft er a small nearby village. b Mansoor et al. 4 . and a water table cover of only 3 m. Conventional and ISL mining. NE-SW cross-sections along drill fences 0 (a) and 10 (b) showing the irregular shape of the main ore body in Qabul Khel Sandstone and its relationship to the Qabul Khel Shale Horizon and the water table (after a Moghal 2001. high calcium content in water. poor solution confinement.
nuclear power in Pakistan is provided by 3 licensed-commercial nuclear power plants. the Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA) extended the operational life of this plant at reduced capacity. and after the completion of its 30 years design life. 5 . Sind Province. the trace of the water table at the contact of the Qabul Khel Sandstone with underlying\ shale.quartz. largely unconsolidated.17 Currently. there are two nuclear plants operating under the IAEA safeguards. mica. is solely responsible for operating these power plants. and averages 0. one nuclear reactor is under construction and several reactors are proposed to be constructed in the country. ~33% from hydroelectric power and ~0. compared to ~62% from fossil fuel. persists over a depth interval from 68 to 118 m below the surface. As of 2012. and North Korea) that is not a party to the Nuclear NonProliferation Treaty but is a member in good standing of the International Atomic Energy Agency. the scientific and nuclear governmental agency. and clay minerals. south Pakistan. north Pakistan.053% U. Salt Range. The ore follows. The ore is poorly cemented.6% of electricity generated in Pakistan. Pakistan is one of the four nuclear armed states (along with India. it has a NW-SE length of some 200 m. As of 2012. KANUUP started it operation in 1972. Shanawah near Karak. The Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) The Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) is one of the oldest single unit Canada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) with a gross capacity of 137 MW. Israel. a thickness commonly from 2 to 15 m averaging 6. Minor U occurrences Kirthar Range. and fragile Shape and Dimensions of Deposits The ore body is of irregular tape-like configuration. Over the years the safety records of KANUPP have been extremely satisfactory as average personal radiation exposures.3% from Coal electricity. KPK. in NW-SE direction. PAKISTAN NUCLEAR ENERGY PROFILE Pakistan’s interest in nuclear energy dates back to 1956 when Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) was established to promote peaceful use of nuclear energy in the country. Kallar Kahar.5 m. and is owned and operated by PAEC. central-north Pakistan. and release of radioactive material are well within the prescribed international limits and standards. The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). Maraghzar Area. Pakistan is the first Muslim country in the world to construct and operate civil nuclear power plants. the electricity generated by commercial nuclear power plants constitutes roughly ~3.
22 The PNRA regulates the plant by ensuring quality and safety of its operation. The total installed capacity of nuclear power plants. with $350 million of this financed by China).html Image @ digital Globe. A safeguard agreement with the IAEA was signed in 2006 and grid connection is expected in 2011. In December 2005.(B) Source: Google Earth Imagery date. (A) Source: CNNC China Zhongyuan Engineering (B) Source: Google Earth.Figure4. Safety and security was the most important consideration during its design and construction and it became operational in September 2000.candu. as on June 30. The construction of CHASNUPP-1 started in 1992 with the help of China National Nuclear Cooperation (CNNC). 2008 Chashma Nuclear Power Plant-1 (CHASNUPP-1) Chashma Nuclear Power Plant-1 (CHASNUPP-1) is a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with a gross capacity of 325 MW (net output of 300 MW) and with a life span of 40 years.February 7. 2005. Image @ Global Eye Chashma Nuclear Power Plant-2 (CHASNUPP-2) Chashma Nuclear Power Plant-2 (CHASNUPP-2). It is reported to cost PKR 51. The CHASNUPP is owned and operated by PAEC. Although the total share of nuclear energy is very small. 2010. PakistanChina collaboration undertook the construction of PWR CHASNUPP-2 with a net capacity of 300MW.46 billion (US $ 860 million. Figure 5.(A)Source: CANDU http://www.org/paec. but it proves that Pakistan has over 38 years of safe operational experience in the field of nuclear power generation. in the country was 462 MW as 6 . February 1.
during 2009-10. CATEGORIES OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES There are many different jurisdictions that classify radioactive wastes in different categories and to control these different types of wastes by different ways.against the total installed electricity generation capacity of 21593 MW. The share of electricity generated through nuclear power plants in the country. was recorded as 2667 GWh (2. which are combination of many isotopes.24 The electricity generated through nuclear power plant was increased by 79. On the basis of what the radioactive wastes are differentiated is the amount o radioactive material 7 . Other chemicals waste or disposal. These types contain both short lived and long lived isotopes.48% during 2009-10. The general public because their harmful indeed some time poisonous effects are invisible and cannot be detected by human scene. which constitutes a share of nuclear power plant to the total installed generation capacity as 2. PAKISTAN NUCLEAR ENERGY STATISTICS RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL The problem arises because radioactive waste convert be neutralized.57%) in the preceding year. Mostly the radioactive wastes are of such type. They are greatly harmful to human.14%.68%) as against 1486 GWh (1.
mops. processing water at a reactor. High level wastes have even greater radioactivity. Low level wastes Those types of wastes which generally contain short lived radioactive materials which are hazardous for humans and others. Radionuclide with half lives longer than 30 years are regarded as long live wastes and those with half lives less than 30 years are termed as short live wastes. and laboratory animal carcasses and tissues. The intermediate wastes. Longer-term storage beyond a few decades. These wastes are generally generated during mining. medical tubes. syringes. All these particles and rays have great speed and energy. The low level radioactive waste includes protective shoe covers and clothing. These may be discarded into normal waste streams after a short period of storage time sufficient to allow 'complete' radioactive decay. 3. could lead to death or an increased risk of cancer. is often into controlled shallow-burial sites and enclosed concrete vaults. All these particles and rays can damage human tissues. intermediate generates 100 cubic meter and high level wastes 2 cubic meter. wiping rags. filters. they are usually compacted into as low a volume as possible. The solid wastes generated by different power plants are always the bulk of low level wastes. On the basis of amount of radioactive isotopes present. or even into deep geological disposal locations. injection needles. swabs. where required. a lead shielding of several centimeter is required. for alpha particles a few meter of air is required . so to stop these particles and rays many thin sheets of air and other materials are required. reactor water treatment residues. Intermediate level wastes have radioactivity between 1000 and 1000000. not much contains by high level wastes. equipment and tools. those contains significant amount of radioactive material relative to low level wastes. beta particles and gamma rays.present not on the basis of time after which the radioactivity is expected to decay away to background value. 2. Low level wastes have radioactivity up to 1000 time which is acceptable in environment. Mostly -these wastes emit alpha particles. luminous dials. on the other hand. as disposal costs of these wastes are mostly influenced by volume. If possible. Low level waste containing some radioactive materials used in medical research. the radioactive wastes’ are divided into three main categories are: 1. to obsorb the gamma rays . When a power plant of 1MW operates for one year continuously. Low level wastes generates 2000 cubic meter. These sources of these wastes are various nuclear and industrial activities that use the isotopes to get radiations. For 8 .for beta particle a thin sheet of metal or a few meter of air. A very approximate indication of the relative volumes of the major classes of waste from the commercial nuclear cycle. The danger of exposure to radiation in low-level radioactive waste varies widely according to the types and concentration of radioactive material contained in the waste. Only the High Level fraction of these wastes may require consideration for very long-term management.
Technetium-99m. hazardous life of 120-240 years. When uranium fuel has been used in a reactor for a while. It is then called “spent” nuclear fuel. half-life of 12 years. Some elements half life and hazard life is: Tritium. hazardous life of 2. Intermediate-level wastes includes resins. In the case of spent nuclear fuel. The Intermediate level wastes are generated from the used industrial and medical devices and related isotopes. it is no longer as efficient in splitting its atoms and producing heat to make electricity. half life of 28 years. may require management for as little as about 30 years. It may be solidified in concrete or bitumen for disposal. Intermediate level wastes The waste level which cannot be easily distinguished from the low level and high level wastes but differ in their activities and radioactivity. About onefourth to one-third of the total fuel load is spent and is removed from the reactor every 12 to 18 months and replaced with fresh fuel. Intermediate-level waste contains higher amounts of radioactivity and requires shielding. 9 . When intermediate level wastes are disposed off. chemical sludge and metal reactor nuclear fuel cladding. at the initial stage they require water for cooling up to about 10 years to remove the heating effects caused by the radioactivity.5-5 days. the short lived radioactive waste Zr-95. Iodine-131. as well as contaminated materials from reactor decommissioning. These types of wastes are generally stored in special type of containers for disposal at nuclear plant. In high level wastes. some enter to high level wastes and other goes into low level wastes. half-life of 6 hours. hazardous life of 280-560 years. High level wastes High level wastes contain both short lived and long lived radionuclide. These consist of the small tonnage of spent fuel discharged from the reactor. hazardous life of 80-160 days. They contain all of the fission products (about 3 percent of the wastes) and un-fission actinides (about 97 percent).example. To minimize their exposure and heating effects over some defined period of time. Strontium-90. These types of wastes are generally stored in steel drums to prevent leakage before being placed into surface storage or shallow or deep burial. half-life of 8 days. isolation and specific management to control them. those radioactive materials are present which have sufficient radioactivity and can generates higher amount of heat. they require sufficient shielding. which depends upon their half lives and security. They mostly contains spent nuclear fuels and separated fission wastes and medical and industrial devices.
10 . and for a developing country like Pakistan.Figure 6. Map showing nuclear facilities in Pakistan CONCLUSION The arguments clearly establish nuclear power is one of the efficient sources of energy. the decision to generate electricity through nuclear power will continue to play a dominant role .
2002. Baig 1990.b. OECDNEA/ IAEA/IUREP 1978. 1992. Geoscience Austrlai Nuclear Energy: Prospects for Pakistan by Malik Qasim Mustafa 11 .. Basham 1980. Y. 2001. McKay. Mansoor et al. A. Basham and Rice 1974. 2003. (2001) Australia’s Uranium Resources. Moghal 1974a. OECD-NEA/IAEA 1997. and Miezitis. Evans Azhar et al.REFRENCES An Introduction to Economic Geology and Its Environmental Impact byAnthony M. Geology And Development Of Deposits. 1999.