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Single Stock and Stock Index Futures are the two significant Products in the Derivative Segment of Pakistani Capital Markets. The potential for derivative segment development is huge. However, the lack of knowledge about existing derivatives, and inexistent liquidity therein, are the two key issues hindering the development of the Derivative Segment in Pakistan. Moreover, a vibrant and liquid ready market is also an essential element of a flourishing derivatives market, which can be accomplished by the active participation of both hedgers and speculators. The term "Derivative" indicates that it has no independent value, i.e. its value is entirely "derived" from the value of the underlying asset. The underlying asset can be securities, commodities, bullion, currency, livestock or anything else. In other words, Derivative means a forward, future, option contract of pre-determined fixed duration, linked for the purpose of contract fulfillment to the value of a specified real or financial asset or to an index of securities. With Leverage Market Rules 2011 (Second Amendment in 2012) the Margin Trading System (hybrid derivative) defined procedures for Extension and maintenance of credit towards purchase of securities, which was earlier prohibited under section 16 of SECP Ordinance 1969. A Derivative includes: A. A security derived from a debt instrument, share, loan, whether secured or unsecured, risk instrument or contract for differences or any other form of security; B. A contract which derives its value from the prices, or index of prices, of underlying securities; Derivative trading is permissible for any stock exchange. The stock exchanges act as frontline regulator whereas SECP acts as apex regulator in Pakistan. The clearing & settlement of all trades of Derivatives is settled through National Clearing Company of Pakistan, which is independent in governance and membership from Stock Exchanges.
Futures & Options
Futures Contract means a legally binding agreement to buy or sell the underlying security on a future date. Future contracts are the organized/standardized contracts in terms of quantity, quality (in case of commodities), delivery time and place for settlement on any date in future. The contract expires on a pre-specified date which is called the expiry date of the contract. On expiry, futures can be settled by delivery of the underlying asset or cash. Cash settlement enables the settlement of obligations arising out of the future/option contract in cash.
Options Contract is a type of Derivatives Contract which gives the buyer/holder of the contract the right (but not the obligation) to buy/sell the underlying asset at a predetermined price within or at end of a specified period. The buyer / holder of the option purchases the right from the seller/writer for a consideration which is called the premium. The seller/writer of an option is obligated to settle the option as per the terms of the contract when the buyer/holder exercises his right. The underlying asset could include securities, an index of prices of securities etc. Under Securities Contracts (Regulations) Act,1956 options on securities has been defined as "option in securities" meaning a contract for the purchase or sale of a right to buy or sell, or a right to buy and sell, securities in future, and includes a teji, a mandi, a teji mandi, a galli, a put, a call or a put and call in securities. An Option to buy is called Call option and option to sell is called Put option. Further, if an option that is exercisable on or before the expiry date is called American option and one that is exercisable only on expiry date, is called European option. The price at which the option is to be exercised is called Strike price or Exercise price. Therefore, in the case of American options the buyer has the right to exercise the option at anytime on or before the expiry date. This request for exercise is submitted to the Exchange, which randomly assigns the exercise request to the sellers of the options, who are obligated to settle the terms of the contract within a specified time frame. As in the case of futures contracts, option contracts can be also be settled by delivery of the underlying asset or cash. However, unlike futures cash settlement in option contract entails paying/receiving the difference between the strike price/exercise price and the price of the underlying asset either at the time of expiry of the contract or at the time of exercise / assignment of the option contract.
Index Future & Index Options
Futures contract based on an index i.e. the underlying asset is the index, are known as Index Futures Contracts. For example, futures contract on KSE-30 Index. These contracts derive their value from the value of the underlying index. Similarly, the options contracts, which are based on some index, are known as Index options contract. However, unlike Index Futures, the buyer of Index Option Contracts has only the right but not the obligation to buy / sell the underlying index on expiry. Index Option Contracts are generally European Style options i.e. they can be exercised /
assigned only on the expiry date. In order to achieve maximum returns with the lowest possible risk it is very important to know. it has become increasingly luring for the average investor to partake in their own financial planning and direction of their future. tape reading and trader's psychology as well as enjoy working in a fast paced competitive environment. Agents are paid a commission for performing the trade. which serve as managed auctions for stock trades. such as the New York Stock Exchange. in turn derives its value from the prices of securities that constitute the index and is created to represent the sentiments of the market as a whole or of a particular sector of the economy. Shares in large publicly-traded companies are bought and sold through one of the major stock exchanges. Agency trading is buying and selling by an agent. sectoral indices were also permitted for derivatives trading subject to fulfilling the eligibility criteria. then derivative contracts on such index would be discontinued. By its very nature. Derivative contracts may be permitted on an index if 80% of the index constituents are individually eligible for derivatives trading. Equity In finance. assets or any other isntrument. they must know what investment products are available as well as understand the potential risks and returns associated with them. How and Where to Invest? Financial investment is the term used to refer to investments made in financial securities. Luxemburg. However. In this case. understand and analyze how and where to invest. If the index does not fulfill the criteria for 3 consecutive months. Proprietary trading is buying and selling for the trader's own profit or loss. Individuals that pursue this non-mainstream career usually will have a knack for technical analysis. on behalf of a client. Equity trading can be performed by the owner of the shares. An index. Over the past 15 years with the popularity of the internet and discount brokerage firms. index cannot be delivered on maturity of the Index futures or Index option contracts therefore. Subsequently. or by an agent authorized to buy and sell on behalf of the share's owner. Sensex. no single ineligible stock in the index shall have a weightage of more than 5% in the index. Hangseng. 1. usually a stock broker. through available financial resources (money or equivalents). money management. with anticipation of profits. Stock shares in smaller public companies are bought and sold in over-the-counter (OTC) markets. Indices that represent the whole market are broad based indices and those that represent a particular sector are sectoral indices. Although trading can be incredibly stressful and dangerous financially. London Stock Exchange or Tokyo Stock Exchange. In the beginning futures and options were permitted only on S&P Nifty and BSE Sensex. The index is required to fulfill the eligibility criteria even after derivatives trading on the index has begun. The following types of securities are most commonly available for investments: Ordinary / preference shares and modaraba certificates of listed companies Mutual funds (open-end and closed end) commodities . How to Invest? It is important that before investors starts investing. the principal is the owner of the shares. Nifty. many people have made it their profession in place of a 9 to 5 job. equity trading is the buying and selling of company stock shares. Major stock exchanges have market makers who help limit price variation (volatility) by buying and selling a particular company's shares on their own behalf and also on behalf of other clients. these contracts are essentially cash settled on Expiry.
fire insurance. 2. Insurance company collects the pool from the premiums of thousands of people.5. the most common product is ordinary shares traded on the Stock Exchange. an investor should pursue an investment strategy (aggressive. moderate or conservative) in accordance with their risk profile.1 Understanding Your Risk Profile A Prudent investor chooses an investment product not only according to their goals and the amount of capital available but also according to their risk appetite. Corporate Bonds/Debt instruments i.5 Long term savings . 2. it is advisable to keep some money in safer liquid investments (e. People exposed to a risk agree to share losses on an equitable bases.e Treasury Bills (T-Bills) and Pakistan investments Bonds (PIBs) From the above.2 Pensions A voluntary pension system (VPS) allow an investor to save for retirement by selecting a suitable investment option. If investors can afford to take some risk and have the ability to endure the market's volatility. Individuals can invest in various types of insurance products which can broadly be categorized as life insurance (insurance against a person's death or a defined event such as critial illness) non-life insurance (insurance such as auto insurance.(Insurance & Pensions) 2. Through this strategy an investor may not to be forced to sell investments at a low price in case of an urgent cash requirements. it must be kept in mind that even in the best of securities. It is advisable not to invest money which is required to meet immediate expenses. Depending upon the extent of risk intended to be taken. Research suggests that timed investments which are based on strong fundaments have proved to be profitable for investors in the longer term. Investing can be rewarding. Sukuks etc Government securities i. there can be losses of short-term fluctuations. depost accounts or money market funds) to meet near term financial obligations. Key components of VPS are given below: .g. Since the price of a security can go up and down. By carefully calculating the probability of losses that will be sustained by members of the pool.e Term finance certificate (TFCs). equity investments may provide them with good returns in the long-term. etc). However. or group sharing of losses. All investment carry a certain degree of risk. spreading the risk of losses across the entire pool. insurance companies can equitably spread the cost of the losses to all members. 1. Investment in any financial instrument does not result in instant yields. It is important to have the capacity to hold on to investments fo longer period of time. however it is not free of risk.5. They transfer the economic risk of loss to an insurance company. travel insurance.1 Insurance Insurance is based on a mechanism called "risk pooling".
2 Lifecycle Consideration for Investment Avenues Lifecycle consideration such as stages of life are important factors in choosing appropriate investment avenues. The Table Below describes the various ways in which this decision may be taken: Conservative Years to Goal Objective Risk Tolerance Target rate of Return Liquidity Needs Examples of Goals 1-3 Liquidity. The diagram below depicts the various assets allocations suitable for different lifecycles. Used to purchase an annuity from a life insurance company. An investor is free to choose when to start saving and how much to save for retirement. Such allocation would impact the net growth (i. Vacation. It is defined as a market in which money is provided for periods longer than a year. and debt or money market instruments respectively. (Please refer to the chart below) Selecting a retirement age (which can be anywhere between the ages of 60 to 70) At the time of retirement. . equity. where business enterprises (companies) and governments can raise longterm funding.3 Capital Market Structure A capital market is a market for securities. Home/college/Funding retirement 1. Investors can decide how they want their money to be allocated (by selecting one of the allocation schemes offered) among the three sub-funds that comprise of pension funds under VPS. Haj Moderate 3-7 Income. 1. Determining the investment profile is imperative. the accumulated balance in the investor's individual pension account build up over all the years of invetment in the pension funds can be: Withdrawn upto 50% of the accumulated balance tax-free Withdrawn 50 % in monthly installments Tax-free over a period of 10 years from an approved income payment plan. Safety Low (little to no Fluctuation) Low High Car. some growth Price Medium (some price fluctuation) Medium Medium Aggressive More than 7 Capital Growth High (greater Price Fluctuation) High Low Child marriages.e real returns) of the contributions over the period.
central depository company (CDC) and a clearing and settlement company. an efficent manner must exist for their resale. Lahore Stock Exchange (LSE) 3. The structure further includes intermediaries or market participant such as brokers and mutual funds which handle the transaction of shares in the capital market on behalf of investors. regulate and control the trading of shares through different measures. 1. In Pakistan there are thee stock exchanges: 1. Secondary markets give investors the means to resell/trade existing securities. Secondary Market: Once new securities have been sold in the primary market. Stock exchanges can also be known as equity markets or shares markets. The major role of the stock exchange is to assist. mercantile exchanges.Primary Market: The market for new shares or securities. Islamabad Stock Exchange (ISE) . three stock exchanges.3. The Capital market structure in Pakistan consists for the apex regulator of the markets. Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE) 2. the securities and exchange of Pakistan (SECP).1 Stock & Commodity Exchanges A Stock exchange is a place where shares of different listed companies are bought and sold through the members of the stock exchange.3.1 Stock & Commodity Exchanges 1. A primary market is one in which a company issues new securities in exchange for cash from an investor (buyer).
In Pakistan the National clearing company of pakistan (NCCPL) is responsible for the settlement of the entire trading executed between the brokers of all three stock exchanges. in this regard plays the role of an institution which deals in the capital markets for its clients. Investors do not deal with the stock or mercantile exchange directly to buy or sell shares or commodities.2 Intermediaries . Transactions executed in the stock exchanges are then registered with clearing and settlement companies where the final execution of the trade takes place. Electronic book entry means that the securities or shares certificates do not physically change hands and the transfer from one client account to another takes place electronically. Mutual Funds are institutions dealing in a collection of pooled securities that invest in various financial product which can be bought by investors.Brokerage Industry The members of the exchange are also knows as brokers. 1. 1. 1.4 Depository Companies A Depository company is primarily responsible for operating and maintaining the depository system.3. In Pakistan the Pakistan Mercantile Exchange (PMEX) is the platform used for trading in commodities.4 Clearing Companies Clearing companies provide clearing and settlement services to the stock exchanges.The stock exchange itself does not indulge in trading of shares. The depository system handles the electronic (paperless) settlement of shares on the stock exchanges. (CDC). hense investors do not need to make transactions through broker themselves. instead they do it through a broker registered with the SECP. Under the law broker are entiled to provide brokerage services to the public at large for buying and selling securities. In this way it reduces the risk of one more or more parties failing to meet the terms of the aggrement. A Commodity Exchange on the other hand is a place for buying and selling commodities for delivery at a future date. In Pakistan the depository company is called the Central Despository Company of Pakistan.3.3. thus providing their clients with a diversifed portoflio.A mutual fund. 1. but it regulates the trading activities of its members. .3.3 Mutual Fund / Collective Investment Schemes A mutual fund is operated by a fund manager who makes investments on behalf of investors.
3. Two common types of orders that can be placed with the brokerage house / broker: Limit order: In a limit order.1. those shares are then traded at the stock exchanges. inviting the public to subscribe. After analyzing their investment needs. it is imperative for investors to choose the right path of investment to receive better returns at lower risk. . These shares can be bought directly from the company at an offer price. In the share application form there is an option available to receive the shares either in physical form or to be credited directly into the account with CDC. Investors can instruct their broke to buy / sell a fixed number of shares of a specific company. 3.2. 3.1. On the declaration of successful application. Shares of a company are offered at the stock market at the following stages. the investor specific the price at which the order is to be executed. Through a stockbroker. it is referred to as a secondary market. Upon completion of account opening requirement. shares are allotted in the name of the investors by the company. It is recommended to opt for shares to be credited directly into the account in order to avoid subsequent processing and additional time and cost of depositing the shares. Investors deal in the secondary market through opening an account with a registered broker. it is known as floatation or an initial public offering (IPO).1 Stock Exchanges The most common way of buyin / selling in the stock market is through trading in the stock market which is also referred to as secondary market.5 Process of Investing Every investor would like to beat the market handily and to pick "great" investments on instinct. Howerever. the investor can trade in the stock market by placing trade orders through his / her designated broker / brokerage house. which may be a par or with premium without paying stockbroker's commission. As shares that have already been issued are transacted at the stock exchange. institution is undoubtedly a part of the process of investing. an investor can buy shares from other investors who wish to sell them and vice versa through matching bid and offer prices.2 Secondary Market Trading After a company issues shares through an IPO. The procedure to subscribe for an IPO is as follows: Fill in the share application form and deposit the form alongwith copy of CNIC duly attested and cheques for application money in a branch of the designated bank(s).1 Initial Public Offering (IPO) When companies offer shares to the general public for the first time. An advertisement or abridged prospectus is published in newspapers from the company issuing shares.
Fund Purchase and Subscription . the exisiting shareholders of the company have the right to subscribe to these new shraes in proportion of their respective shareholdings or they can renounce their rights and sell in the market. form B in case of minor & employment card. confirmation of account opening will be communicated and account number will be allocated for all future investments and transactions. commercial papers and sukuks which represent sharia complaint mode of raising finance in the corporate debt market. Zakat Affidavit in case of zakat exemption. The basic structure for taking exposure in debt markets via BATS is illustrated below: Salient Features. The bond automated trading system (BATS) developed in Pakistan.2 Taking Exposure into Debt Market (BATS) The corporate Debt market in Pakistan consists primarily of term finance certicitates (TFCs). Work Flow Diagram 3. provides a trading interface suited to the needs of debt market participants with appropriate risk management and pricing mechannisma.3 Right Shares Right shares are issued when companies need to raise additional capital to finance their expansion projects or to meet working capital needs etc. Fill-up the application form and attach copies of relevant documents (copy of CNIC. 3.Market order: Also knows as the best order. the order is executed at the prevailing market rate. In case of right issues.3 Taking Exposure through Mutual Funds Open an Account with a Mutual Fund Company Obtain an account opening form from an mutual fund company / a distributor of mutual funds or download the same. KYC form) Submit the application form with all relevant documents either to the distributor or directly to the mutual fund company (AMC) Upon successful verification of the details provided.1. The buyers of "letter of rights" then subscribe the same in their favor and get the shares directly allotted to them 3.
Complete the investment form and provide all necessary information i. Submit the duly files and signed investment form along with the amount to be invested in the form of cheques / PO / Drfat in favour of "trustee Name . Sources: http://stockguide.e account and payment details. Units shall be redeemed at tha applicable NAV-based price for that day on which the form has been received by the fund company.pk . Units of the fund will be allotted on the date of recipt of application at the applicable NAV-based price for that day.name of respective Fund" Take the provisional receipt / acknowledgment as proof that has been invested in the fund. Fund Redemption (to Sell the Units) Complete the redemption form and submit to the mutual fund company. payment will be send within a maximum period of six (6) working days through a cross-cheque or through a bank transfer to the designated bank account. Select the mutual fund scheme that suits the investment objective and choose the dividend distribution option.
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