This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Tending toward large commissions for corporate and institutional clients, late modernism is not avant-garde. Nor could it be. While the heroic modernism of the 1920s and 1930s argued for an imminent, Utopian (or, in Freudian terms, oceanic) future and the high modernism of the postwar era announced its arrival, in concert with American liberal democracy, late modernism d i operated t d after ft modernism d i h had db begun t to t take k d damage i in th the court of public opinion. Unsure of its position, between high modernism and postmodernism, late modernism is an uncomfortable period. Faced with the stark knowledge that after the victory of modernism modernism, the battle of the avant-garde was over, late modernists attempted to find ways of practicing in an era in which innovation had seemingly come to an end. Because of its relation to capital and post-avant-garde post avant garde stance, stance late modernist architecture is often deeply compromised, but in those failures, there are also lessons, and—just perhaps—a key to our current condition. Among the architects we will consider are Philip Johnson, Paul Rudolph, Kevin Roche, Marcel Breuer, Skidmore Owings, and Merrill (the Chicago Office), Minoru Yamasaki, John Portman, and Cesar Pelli. Some of the topics covered will include phenomenology, minimalism, resistance, seriality, and the appropriation of cultural forms.
Late Modernism, also known as Hightech architecture or Structural Expressionism, is an architectural style that emerged in the late 80s, this style became a bridge between modernisms d i and d post-modernism. t d i Architecture in which the images, ideas and motifs of the Modern ideas, Movement were taken to extremes, structure, technology, and services being grossly overstated at a time when Modernism was being questioned. (see Pompidou)
In the year 1980s the high tech architecture started to look different from the post modern architecture. architecture Many of the themes and ideas which originated during the post modern times were added to the high tech architecture.
and concrete for the floors and interior supports Example is the I. Pei's B k of Bank f China Chi T Tower i Hong in H Kong. d steel t l for f exterior support. Buildings designed in this style usually consist of glass f for th the f facade.M. and it is true that the availability of new building materials such as iron.They say that Modern architecture is primarily driven by technological and engineering developments. . steel. and glass drove the invention of new building techniques as part of the Industrial Revolution.
Pompidou Center Centre National d’Art et de Culture Georges P Pompidou. id P Paris i 1971-1977 1971 1977 Little effort made to adapt the building to its historical neighbourhood. . neighbourhood Permeated with the spirit of time. Show the guts of the building.
Late Modernism .
Late Modernism .
Late Modernism .
INDIANA (1963-1969 is a simple rectangular block of brick with asymmetrically placed areas of glass at the entrance. Inside. a balcony level overlooks the main reading area where natural colors of materials and simple p forms g generate a sense of calm and order. .THE COUNTY LIBRARY AT COLUMBUS.
. DC. based on triangular forms. The color scheme is neutral but is enlivened by the bright red of the mobile by Alexander Calder (1898-1976) . makes for complex. where a skylight roof floods the space with light light. 1968-1978 1968 1978 An atrium space l d t leads to exhibition hibiti galleries on several levels. NATIONAL GALLERY OF ART. p Balconies overlook the atrium. WASHINGTON DC WASHINGTON.EAST WING. The plan of the building. interesting spatial relationships.
the skylight roof is formed by a triangular structural t t l grid. A giant mobile by Alexander Calder introduces brilliant red color into the otherwise neutral tonality of the space established by its marble wall surfaces. The building g is based on triangular forms that dominate the main atrium space. id B Balconies l i on several levels overlook the main open space and give access to galleries and other secondary spaces on seven levels. .
LOUVRE MUSEUM.PYRAMID. the glass and metal structure has come to be recognized as a great success. 1983-1989 The public space acts as a new entrance to the many traditional spaces that make up the famous museum. . Glimpses of the surrounding di R Renaissance i architecture are set off by the pyramidal geometry and the flow of the great winding stair that leads to the lower level entrance concourse. g it inspired p much Although doubt and controversy. PARIS.
giving access to stairs and an elevator leading to a vast lower concourse that acts as an entrance foyer and location for shops. The building g recalls the Crystal y Palace of 1851 with its glassy overhead grid braced with triangulation along its edges. and a café. Although the introduction of the modern structure into the court of the historic Louvre raised much controversy . the completed projects has come to be recognized as a major success. Triangulation is a central theme for the pyramid structure in the court The steel and g glass py pyramid forms a new entrance to the Louvre. shops exhibits. .
. The concrete surfaces of a warm beige g color are surprisingly pleasant despite their vast areas. Texas (1977) the vast public space flooded with natural light is overlooked by balconies that give access to the various city offices.MUNICIPAL CENTER (CITY HALL) Dallas. it is one of the most successful of American governmental public buildings.
.500 seat auditorium and acres of exhibition halls and meeting rooms. Inside. the structure is supported by tubular steel pillars that resemble chunky champagne glasses. five-block long building is an assemblage of rectilinear forms. . Also housed within the center's 1. NEW YORK (1979-1986) Its lass and steel also form the structure of the huge exhibition areas The exterior of this mammoth.8 million square feet: a 2. palace. At its south end there's a spectacular 150-foot-high lobby dubbed the crystal lobby. all shaped p by a framework of prefabricated steel modules fitted with clear glass.JAVITS CONVENTION CENTER.
and stylistic references. while postmodernism is a rejection of strict rules set by the early modernists and seeks exuberance in the use of building techniques. High Tech architecture is rooted in minimal and true use of material as well as absence of ornament. It is the simplification of form and the elimination of ornament. . high-tech architecture hit t b became more difficult to distinguish from post-modern architecture.In the 1980s. angles.
A vivid example of this new approach was that Postmodernism saw the comeback of pillars and other elements of premodern d i designs. or masked completely by y curtain wall façades. the pillar (as a design feature) was either replaced by other technological means such as cantilevers. necessity. sometimes ti adapting d ti classical Greek and Roman examples. in Modernism. . ç The revival of the pillar was an aesthetic. For example. rather than a technological.
The Venice Beach House has an assembly of circular logs which exist mostly for decoration. g on top p do have a minor The logs purpose of holding up the window covers. anthropomorphism and materials. built in 1986. ornaments returned. Hightech architecture’s characteristics include the use of sculptural forms. ornaments.By mid 80s. is littered with small ornamental details that would have been considered excessive and needless in Modernism. t i l Th These physical h i l characteristics are combined with conceptual characteristics of meaning. Ancient ruyi symbol adorning Taipei 101 Like in Frank Gehry’s Venice Beach house. .
Arose from the design of industrial premises.High Tech interiors The typical High Tech building symbolizes and represents technology rather than simply using it in the most efficient way possible. th complex l structuring of space. inclusion in the visual series i of f pipes. tech . concrete . This style in the form in the last third of the 20th century.all these characteristics of style high tech. i fitti fittings. d t the ducts. glass. favorite materials: metal. where all elements of the situation subordinate functions. Designed openness.
For interior design there was a trend of using formerly industrial appliances as household objects.g. chemical beakers as vases for flowers. . e. This was because of an aim to use an industrial aesthetic.
They included the prominent display of the building's technical and functional components. spurred on by the renewed faith in the progression of technology. yet all have accentuated technical elements. technology Characteristics of high-tech architecture have varied somewhat. and an orderly arrangement and use of pre-fabricated elements Glass walls and steel frames elements.High-tech Hi h t h architecture hit t aimed i d to t achieve hi a new industrial aesthetic. were also immensely popular. .
High Hi hT Tech h style t l d during i 80s 80 and d 90s 90 (even ( now) )i is popularized l i d and d commonly practiced by: Richard Rogers Santiago Calatrava Norman Foster Gunter Behnisch .
Examples of High Tech Architecture During 80s .
it remains a unique architectural achievement and a small wonder of the modern age. by: Norman Foster Built 1979 to 1986 steel frame and glass The Hong Th H K Kong and d Shanghai Sh h i Bank B k by Norman Foster is probably the best known.Hongkong and Shanghai Bank. erect Not withstanding that kind of publicity p y and the building's g subsequent overshadowing by far inferior competitors. decade largely because it was claimed to have cost more money than any other building to erect. and most widely publicized building of the decade. .
Experimental Research Center. glass . Center by Gunter Behnisch: Built 1986 to 1987 stainless steel.
by Richard Rogers: Built 1979 to 1984 steel frame with glass curtain wall Whereas the Wh th frame f of f the th building b ildi has a long life expectancy. and replaceable in the case of obsolescence. mechanical services. . . and lobbies. lifts. kitchens. life especially in this energy-critical period. fire stairs. the servant areas. toilets.Lloyds Building Building. filled with mechanical equipment have a relatively short life. sit loosely y in the tower framework. The servant equipment. . easily accessible for maintenance.