Atatürk University College of Agriculture Publication Number: 66

INTEGRATED ENGLISH REFERENCE NOTES

Prof. Dr. Ziya YURTTAŞ

ERZURUM - 1999

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To Yasemin, Yalçın and Leyla

No rights reserved. All parts of this reference notes may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, without a prior permission.

FOREWORD This booklet was prepared only as a source of reference for the intermediate level intensive English courses that had been held annually in the College of Agriculture at Atatürk University between 1978 and 1998. The details, explanations and exercises were omitted, on purpose, for they were intended to be taken up during the courses. Generally in schools, different parts of certain subjects are taught at different times in the courses of English as a foreign language. A learner at intermediate level has to integrate and consolidate these parts in order to establish a solid base for improvement. In this booklet, the essentials of English Grammar are integrated by presenting related parts together and simplified by sacrificing some details for the sake of practicality. It is intended to provide a practical guideline for intermediate learners to reach to an advanced level and for the advanced learners to maintain their level of proficiency in English. This integrated approach makes it possible for learners to know what they already know and they need to know. Four basic skills, i.e., reading comprehension, listening comprehension, written expression, and oral expression must be developed in learning a language. These skills are based on Grammar and Vocabulary. A special attention must be given to each one of these six basic components of linguistics in learning a foreign language in an efficient way. This modest booklet has a limited objective of providing guidance for mainly one of them, namely Grammar. The other components need to be dealt with separately to facilitate a systematic learning.

Z.Y. 2004 - ERZURUM

ÖNSÖZ Bu kitapcık, Atatürk Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesinde 1978 yılından beri düzenlenmekte olan orta düzey yoğun İngilizce kursları için, yalnızca bir hatırlatma notu olarak hazırlanmıştır. Kurslar sırasında ele alınacağı düşünülerek, bu kitapçıkta ayrıntılara, açıklamalara ve alıştırmalara yer verilmemiştir. Genellikle, okullarda yabancı dil derslerinde, belirli bir konunun değişik bölümleri değişik zamanlarda verilmektedir. Orta düzeyde bir öğrencinin, ilerleme sağlayacak sağlam bir temel oluşturabilmesi için bu bölümleri birleştirip bütünleştirmesi ve pekiştirmesi gereklidir. Bu kitapcıkta İngilizce gramerinin temel konuları ile ilgili bölümler bir araya getirilerek bütünleştirilmiş ve bazı ayrıntılar ihmal edilerek basitleştirilmiştir. Bu bütünleştirilmiş yaklaşım bir öğrencinin belirli bir konuda neler bildiğini ve daha neler öğrenmesi gerektiğini kolaylıkla gösterebilir. Bir dil öğreniminde dört temel becerinin geliştirilmesi gerekir. Bu beceriler okuma, yazma, anlama ve konuşmadır. Bunlar gramer ve kelime bilgisine dayanır. Yabancı dil öğreniminde etkinlik sağlayabilmek için dil biliminin bu altı temel bölümüne ayrı ayrı çalışmak ve önem vermek gerekir. Sınırlı bir amaç için hazırlanmış olup, geçtiğimiz yıllarda düzenlenen kurslara katılanların da katkıları ile geliştirilmiş olan bu notların yabancı dil öğrenimi ile ilgilenenlere yararlı olmasını dilerim. Z.Y. 2004 - ERZURUM

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page FIRST PART..........................................................................................................................1 ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN SUMMARY..............................................................................1 1. TENSES (Zamanlar)..........................................................................................................1 2. MODALS (Modal Yardımcı Fiiller)...................................................................................6 3. ACTIVE-PASSIVE (Etgen-Edilgen).................................................................................8 4. DIRECT - INDIRECT (Aktarmalı İfadeler)......................................................................9 5. RELATIVE PRONOUNS (İlgi Zamirleri).........................................................................9 6. CAUSATIVE FORM (Ettirgen Yapı)...............................................................................11 7.TAG QUESTIONS (Tag Soruları)....................................................................................11 8. PARTICIPATION (Katılım)..............................................................................................11 9. NOUNS (İsimler).............................................................................................................11 10. PRONOUNS (Zamirler).................................................................................................14 11. VERBS (Fiiller)..............................................................................................................15 12. ADJECTIVES (Sıfatlar)................................................................................................20 13. ADVERBS (Zarflar).......................................................................................................22 14. PREPOSITIONS (Edatlar)............................................................................................25 15. CONJUNCTIONS (Bağlaçlar).......................................................................................27 16. VERBALS (Fiil Kökenli Kelimeler)...............................................................................30 ............................................................................................................................................32 17. PREFIXES (Ön Ekler)...................................................................................................33 18. SUFFIXES (Son Ekler).................................................................................................33 19. MISCELLANEOUS (Muhtelif).....................................................................................34 Odds and Ends.....................................................................................................................36 SECOND PART...................................................................................................................39 IDIOMS...............................................................................................................................39 THIRD PART.......................................................................................................................42 PROVERBS AND TONGUE TWISTERS..........................................................................42 FOURTH PART...................................................................................................................45 QUOTABLE QUOTATIONS..............................................................................................45 SIXTH PART ......................................................................................................................61 VOCABULARY..................................................................................................................61 A Poem................................................................................................................................71

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FIRST PART ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN SUMMARY 1. TENSES (Zamanlar) 1.1. Simple Tenses 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4 Present Tense Past Tense Future Tense Conditional T. I go1 I went I will go I would go Giderim Gittim Gideceğim Gidecektim

1.2. Continuous Tenses (C.T.) 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4 Present C.T. Past C.T. Future C.T. Conditional C.T. I am going I was going I will be going I would be going Gidiyorum Gidiyordum Gidiyor olacağım Gidiyor olacaktım

1.3. Perfect Tenses (P.T.) 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.4 Present P.T. Past P.T. Future P.T. Conditional P.T. I have gone I had gone I will have gone I would have gone. Gitmişim (Gittim) Gitmiştim Gitmiş olacağım Gitmiş olacaktım

1.4. Perfect Continuous Tenses (P.C.T.) I have been going 1.4.1 Present P.C.T. 1.4.2 1.4.3 1.4.4 Past P.C.T. Future P.C.T. Conditional P.C.T. I am going to go I was going to go I used to go I would go I had been going I will have been going I would have been going I am gonna go I was gonna go Giderdim (Alışkanlık) Giderdim (Şarta bağlı)

Gitmekteyim Gitmekteydim Gitmekte olacağım Gitmekte olacaktım I will go I would go

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Other verbs to be conjugated: to do, to be, to see, to have, to make. (to smoke for P.C.T.).

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SAMPLE SENTENCES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. I go to school every day in the morning at 8 o’clock with my friends by bus. I went to school 10 minutes late yesterday. I will go to school at one o’clock this afternoon. I would go to school today, if I had completed my homework in time. I am going to Istanbul now. I was going to Istanbul, when I met him at the airport. I will be going to Istanbul tomorrow afternoon at two o’clock. I would be going to Istanbul at this moment, if had not missed the plane.

9. I have gone to Antalya three times in the past. 10. I had gone to Antalya two months before I met you. 11. I will have gone to Antalya the day after tomorrow. 12. I would have gone to Antalya by now, if I had not had an accident on Sunday. 13. I have been smoking for 3 years now. 14. I had been smoking for 10 years, when I stopped smoking. 15. I will have been smoking for 6 years by the end of this year. 16. I would have been smoking for 15 years now, if I had not stopped smoking 5 years ago.  I’m gonna go to downtown. Are you gonna come with me?  I was gonna go to theatre, if you had come earlier.  I used to go to movies at least three times a week, when I was a student.  I would go to see him and apologize to him, if I were in your place.

If I go to Istanbul, I will see him If I had gone to Istanbul, I would see him If I had gone to Istanbul, I would have seen him.

Istanbul'a gidersem onu göreceğim. Istanbul’a gitmiş olsaydım, onu görürdüm. O zaman Istanbul'a gitmiş olsaydım, Onu görmüs olacaktım.

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CONJUGATION OF TENSES 1.1.1. Simple Present Tense (do, does) (go) (-s) I go. You go. (He, She, It) goes. We go. You go. They go. I do not go. You do not go. - does not go. We do not go. You do not go. They do not go. Do I go? Do you go? Does - go? Do we go? Do you go? Do they go? Do I not go? Do you not go? Does - not go? Do we not go? Do you not go? Do they not go?

1.1.2. Simple Past Tense (did) (go) (went) I went. You went. - went. We went. You went. They went. I did not go. You did not go. - did not go. We did not go. You did not go. They did not go. Did I go? Did you go? Did - go? Did we go? Did you go? Did they go? Did I not go? Did you not go? Did - not go? Did we not go? Did you not go? Did they not go?

1.1.3. Simple Future Tense (will) (go) I will go. You will go. - will go. We will go. You will go. They will go. I will not go. You will not go. Will not go. We will not go. You will not go. They will not go. Will I go? Will you go? Will - go? Will we go? Will you go? Will they go? Will I not go? Will you not go? Will - not go? Will we not go? Will you not go? Will they not go?

1.1.4. Simple Conditional Tense (would) (go) I would go You would go. - would go. We would go. You would go. They would go. Do not Did not I would not go. You would not go. - would not go. We would not go. You would not go. They would not go. Don't Didn't Would I go? Would you go? Would - go? Would we go? Would you go? Would they go? Will not Would not Would I not go? Would you not go? Would - not go? Would we not go? Would you not go? Would they not go? Won't Wouldn't

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1.2.1. Present Continuous Tense (am, are, is) (- ing) I am going

(1) Aren't I going? 1.2.2. Past Continuous Tense (was, were) (- ing) I was going I was not going. Was I going? Was I not going?

1.2.3. Future Continuous Tense (will be) (- ing)
I will be going I will not be going Will I be going? Will I not be going?

1.2.4. Conditional Continuous Tense (would be) (-ing) I would be going I would not be going Would I be going? Would I not be going?

1.3.1. Present Perfect Tense (have, has) (gone)

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I have gone

I have not gone*

Have I gone?

Have I not gone?

*Have not: Haven't 1.3.2. Past Perfect Tense (had) (gone) I had gone I had not gone Had I gone? Had I not gone?

1.3.3. Future Perfect Tense (will have) (gone)
I will have gone I will not have gone Will I have gone? Will I not have gone?

1.3.4. Conditional Perfect Tense (would have) (gone)
I would have gone I would not have gone Would I have gone? Would I not have gone?

1.4.1. Present Perfect Continuous Tense (have been, has been) (- ing)

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I have been going

I have not been going

Have I been going?

Have I not been going?

1.4.2. Past Perfect Continuous Tense (had been) (- ing) I had been going I had not been Had I been going? going

Had I not been going?

1.4.3. Future Perfect Continuous Tense (will have been) (- ing) I will have been I will not have Will I have been Will I not have going been going going? been going?

1.4.4. Conditional Perfect Continuous Tense (would have been) (- ing) I would have been I would not have Would I have been Would I not have going been going going? been going?

2. MODALS (Modal Yardımcı Fiiller) 2.1 2.2 2.3 Can May Must İktidar belirten yardımcı fiil Mezuniyet belirten yardımcı fiil Mecburiyet belirten yardımcı fiil Gidebilirim (Muktedirim) Gidebilirim I could have gone I might have gone Gitmiş olabilirdim Gitmiş olabilirdim

I can go I may go

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(Mezunum) I must go Gitmeliyim (Mecburum) be able to have to, have got to, be obliged to, need to, be to, be compelled to, be supposed to, should, ought to. I must have gone Gitmiş olmalıydım

Can Must

To be able to (muktedir olmak, yapabilmek) I am able to go I was able to go Gidebilirim Gidebildim
(Gitmeye muktedirdim)

I will be able to go

Gidebileceğim

I would be able to go Gidebilecektim

To have to (Mecbur olmak, Zorunda olmak) I have to go Gitmek zorundayım I will have to go I had to go            Gitmek zorundaydım I would have to go

Gitmek zorunda olacağım Gitmek zorunda olacaktım

If I go, I will be able to see him. If I had gone, I would have been able to see him. If you had fallen, you could have broken your leg. If you had started then, you could have finished it by now. If I go, I will have to see him. If I had gone, I would have had to see him. He must have studied really well (his grade is good). He should have studied really well (his grade is bad). I need two hundred dollars so that I can go there. I bought the car so that you would not have to walk. Do you have to go? I may have to go.

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3. ACTIVE-PASSIVE (Etgen-Edilgen) Active Voice2 1 She writes a letter 2 She wrote a letter 3 She will write a letter 4 She would write a letter 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 She is writing a letter She was writing a letter She will be writing a letter She would be writing a letter She has written a letter She had written a letter She will have written a letter She would have written a letter She has been writing a letter She had been writing a letter She will have been writing a letter She would have been writing a letter Passive Voice3 A letter is “ was “ will be would be " " " " " " " " " " " " is being was being will be being would be being has been had been will have been would have been has been being had been being will have been being would have been being

written by her “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “ “

He can write a letter. He may write a letter. He must write a letter.

A letter can be written by him. A letter may be written by him. A letter must be written by him.

Let him write a letter. Let a letter be written by him. Architect Ali has designed it. It has been designed by architect Ali. He had broken a window. A window had been broken by him.4 ______________________________________________________________________ A. Someone gave me a present. P. I was given a present. P. A present was given to me. A. They made him believe that she died. P. He was made to believe that she died.

S+V+O (Subject + verb + object) O+ to be+ V3+ S (Object + to be fiilinin uygun hali + esas fiilin 3. yani past participle hali + subject) 4 Geçişli fiiller (transitive verbs) yani nesne alan fiiller veya neyi ve kimi sorularına cevap alınabilen fiiller için P.V. yapılabilir. Geçişsiz fiiller (intransitive verbs, to go gibi) için P.V. yapılamaz.
2 3

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4. DIRECT - INDIRECT (Aktarmalı İfadeler) Direct Statement 1. "I go".6 2. "I went". 3. "I will go". 4. "I would go". 5. "I am going". 6. "I was going". 7. "I will be going". 8. "I would be going". 9. "I have gone". 10. "I had gone". 11. "I will have gone". 12. "I would have gone". 13. "I have been going". 14. "I had been going". 15. "I will have been going". 16. "I would have been going". "What are you doing”? "Where were you going”? "Can you help me”? "May I come in”? "Will you be able to go”? "Do you have to go”? "Did you have to go”? “Do you go?” “Did you go?” “Go” ! He told me to go today-that day this-that Indirect Statement5 He said that " " " He said that " " " He said that " “ " He said that " " " He asked me what " where " " " " " “ “ if if if if if if if He went. He went. He would go. He would go. He was going. He was going. He would be going. He would be going. He had gone. He had gone. He would have gone. He would have gone. He had been going. He had been going. He would have been going. He would have been going. I was doing. I was going. I could help him. He might come in. I would be able to go. I had to go. I had to go. I went Iwent He told me not to go

“Don’t go”!

if = whether now - then

tomorrow-the next day yesterday-the day before

5. RELATIVE PRONOUNS (İlgi Zamirleri)

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Present tenses become past, past tenses remain the same. Future tenses become conditional, conditional tenses remain the same. When the introductory verb is in present or future tenses, the tense of the narrated part may not change.

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Who Whose Whom Who • • • •

Ki o Ki onun Ki ona (onu)

Which (What, that) Of which To which

Ki o Ki onun Ki ona

Where When Of whom

Ki orada Ki o zaman Ki onun

I saw the man who came to school on Sunday. The man who is coming toward us is a doctor. He who comes late deserves punishment. Those who were late missed the opening ceremony.

Whose • I saw the man whose car was stolen yesterday afternoon. • The man whose car was stolen yesterday afternoon is a lawyer. • Did you see the lady whose car was without a license plate? Whom • I saw the man whom you gave money in the bank. • The man whom I saw yesterday was quite tired and anxious. • The man with whom I played billiards is a champion in... Which (what, that) • I picked up the pen which (that) was on the floor. • I do not understand what you say. • That is not what I want. • This is the knife with which I cut the rope. • The car to which you threw stone is a Cadillac Aldorado. Where This is the place where they had met first. When There will be a time when Turkey will be full a member of the European Union. • He is the man, about whom you were talking = He is the man, whom you were talking about = He is the man, you were talking about.

• • •

He who comes early sits down. Atatürk is to Turkey what Washington is to U.S.A. Those who are coming now will have to go back soon.

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6. CAUSATIVE FORM (Ettirgen Yapı) To have something done To get something done I have my shoes polished... I had my shoes polished... I will have my shoes polished... I would have my shoes polished... I got my shoes polished 7.TAG QUESTIONS (Tag Soruları) You go to school, don't you? You went to school, didn't you? You will go to school, won't you? You would go to school, wouldn't you? 8. PARTICIPATION (Katılım) A. Affirmative Agreements Ali goes to zoo. Ali went to zoo. Ali will go to zoo. Ali would go to zoo. I do too I do too. I did too. I will too. I would too. So do I B. Negative Agreements He does not go to zoo. He did not go to zoo. He will not go to zoo. He wouldn't go to zoo. I don't either Let's go, shall we? Open the door will you? I am going, aren't I? I don't either. I didn't either. I won't either. I wouldn't either. Neither do I You do not go to school, do you? You did not go to school, did you? You will not go to school, will you? You would not go to school, would you? To make somebody do something To get somebody to do something I make Ali study English... I made Ali study English... I will make Ali study English I would make Ali study English... I will get Ali to study English

It is a pen, isn’t it? You have to go, don't you? He may go, may he not? He has to go, doesn't he?    

He was made to study for four hours. She was made to pay for her mistake. I was made to believe that he was innocent. I will get him to accept the conditions

9. NOUNS (İsimler) 9.1. Proper Nouns (Özel İsimler)

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Ali, Mary, January, Ankara, London, Canterbury 9.2. Common Nouns (Cins İsimler) cook, book, sinister, minister 9.3. Countable Nouns (Sayılabilir İsimler) apple, box, ranch, table 9.4. Uncountable Nouns (Sayılamayan İsimler) bread, butter, salt, water 9.5. Masculine Nouns (Eril İsimler) boy, man, prince, king 9.6. Feminine Nouns (Dişil İsimler) girl, woman, princess, queen 9.7. Neuter Nouns (Nötr İsimler) Things and animals whose sexes are not known stone, steel, pots and pans 9.10. Nouns with the Same Form for M. and F. child, parent, artist, painter, cousin 9.11. Nouns with Different Forms for M. and F. father-mother, brother-sister, nephew-niece, bull-cow, horse-mare, cock-hen 9.12 Plural Forms (Çoğul Şekilleri) 9.12.1. Regular Form cat-cats, dog-dogs 9.12.2. Special Forms 9.12.2.1. Nouns Ending in O, ss, sh, ch, X tomatoes, kisses, watches, boxes exceptions: pianos, photos 9.12.2.2. Nouns Ending in fe, f, wife-wives, life-lives, wolf-wolves, self-selves, 9.12.2.3. Nouns Ending in y 9.12.2.3.1. Following a Consonant baby-babies, lady-ladies 9.12.2.3.2. Following a vowel day-days, boy-boys.

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9.12.2.4. Nouns that are in plural form and take singular verbs : Mathematics, Statistics, Athletics, Economics 9.12.2.5. Nouns that are in plural form and take plural verbs: pants, trousers, pajamas, glasses, pliers, shears, scissors, scales, tweezeers 9.12.3. Irregular Forms fish-fish, trout-trout, sheep-sheep news-news, baggage-baggage, information-information man-men, woman-women, foot-feet mouse-mice, louse-lice, ox-oxen tooth-teeth, child-children 9.12.4. Original Latin or Greek Nouns thesis-theses, crisis-crises, alumnus-alumni, phenomenon-phenomena erratum-errata, radius-radii memorandum-memoranda, datum- data basis-bases, axis-axes, nucleus nuclea 9.12.5. Others sister in law-sisters in law man student - men students VIP- VIPs, MP MPs, UFO-UFOs 9.13. Possessive Forms (İyelik Şekilleri) Ahmet's apples, man's fob Jone's house, Jones’s house Shakespeare's plays, the plays of Martha X A week's holiday ; a week holiday A stone's throw, ten dollar gas Three dollars worth of gas For heaven's sake, for goodness sake The keys of the car, the names of the cities 9.14. Articles (Tanıtıcılar7) 9.14.1. The Definite Article (Belirli Tanıtıcı) The The boy, the girl, the sky, the old The rich, the Alps, the U.S.S.R., the Netherlands, the U.S.A. The North Pole, the Smiths 9.14.2. The Indefinite Article (Belgisiz Tanıtıcı) a, an A boy, a girl, an apple, an hour, a university

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Tanıtıcılar özel isimlerden önce kullanılmaz.

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10. PRONOUNS (Zamirler8) (A) I You He She It We You They A. B. C. D. E. F. (B) Me You Him Her It Us You Them (C) My Your His Her Its Our Your Their ( D) Mine Yours His Hers Its Ours Yours Theirs (E) Myself Yourself Himself Herself Itself Ourselves Yourselves Themselves

Personal Pronouns (Şahıs Zamirleri) (Özne) Objective Pronouns (Nesne Zamirleri) Possessive Pronouns (Mülkiyet Zamirleri) Possessive Pronouns (Mülkiyet Zamirleri) Reflexive and Emphatic Pronouns (Dönüştürme ve Pekiştirme Zamirleri) Interrogative Pronouns (Soru Zamirleri) Who? Whose? Whom? Which? What? How? When? G. Relative Pronouns (İlgi Zamirleri) Who, Whose, Whom, Which, What, That. H. Demonstrative Pronouns (İşaret Zamirleri) This, That, These, Those I. Indefinite Pronouns (Belgisiz zamirler) One, Someone, Anyone, Somebody, Anybody, None, No One, Everyone, Everybody, All. ______________________________________________________________________ I want nothing: I don't want anything No: not any Is everybody ready?

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Zamirler özne yerine kullanılan sözcüklerdir

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11. VERBS (Fiiller) 11.1. Infinitive Form 11.2. Present Form 11.3. Past Form 11.4. Past Participle 11.5. Regular Verbs 11.6. Irregular Verbs 11.6.1. Present Bet Cast Cost Hit Hurt Let Set Spread Put Quit Shut 11.6.2. Build Lend Send Spend 11.6.3. Get Go Forget Hang Ring Sing Spring Sit Win Got Went Forgot Hung Rang Sang Sprang Sat Won Got Gone Forgotten Hung Rung Sung Sprung Sat Won Elde Etmek Gitmek Unutmak Asmak (Zil) Çalmak Şarkı Söylemek Sıçramak Oturmak Kazanmak Built Lent Sent Spent Built Lent Sent Spent Inşa Etmek Ödünç Vermek Göndermek Sarfetmek Past Bet Cast Cost Hit Hurt Let Set Spread Put Quit Shut to go go went gone (Düzenli Fiiller) (ask, asked, asked) (Düzensiz Fiiller) Past Participle Bet Cast Cost Hit Hurt Let Set Spread Put Quit Shut Bahse Girmek Atmak Malolmak Vurmak Incitmek Bırakmak Kurmak Yaymak Koymak Terketmek Kapatmak

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11.6.4. Hear Read Pay Say 11.6.5. Feed Lead Hold 11.6.6. Feel Keep Sleep Weep Leave Meet Lose 11.6.7 Bind Find Shine Strike 11.6.8. Bring Buy Fight Think Catch Teach Sell Tell Make Stand Brought Bought Fought Thought Caught Taught Sold Told Made Stood Brought Bought Fought Thought Caught Taught Sold Told Made Stood Getirmek Satın Almak Dövüşmek Düşünmek Yakalamak Öğretmek Satmak Anlatmak Yapmak Durmak Bound Found Shone Struck Bound Found Shone Struck Bağlamak Bulmak Parlamak Vurmak, Grev Yapmak Felt Kept Slept Wept Left Met Lost Felt Kept Slept Wept Left Met Lost Hissetmek Saklamak Uyumak Ağlamak Bırakmak Karşılaşmak Kaybetmek Fed Led Held Fed Led Held Beslemek Yol Göstermek Tutmak Heard Read Paid Said Heard Read Paid Said Duymak Okumak Ödemek Söylemek

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11.6.9.

Ride Write Rise Bite Hide 11.6.10. Bear Swear Tear Wear Break Speak Choose Steal 11.6.11. Grow Know Throw Fly Slay See 11.6.12 Take Shake 11.6.13. Beat Eat Fall Do Go Lie Lay Lie

Rode Wrote Rose Bit Hid Bore Swore Tore Wore Broke Spoke Chose Stole Grew Knew Threw Flew Slew Saw Took Shook Beat Ate Fell Did Went Lay Laid Lied

Ridden Written Risen Bitten Hidden Born Sworn Torn Worn Broken Spoken Chosen Stolen Grown Known Thrown Flown Slain Seen Taken Shaken Beaten Eaten Fallen Done Gone Lain Laid Lied

Binmek Yazmak Kalkmak Isırmak Saklamak Taşımak Yemin Etmek Yırtmak Giymek Kırmak Konuşmak Seçmek Çalmak Büyümek Bilmek Atmak Uçmak Katletmek Görmek Almak Sarsmak Dövmek Yemek Düşmek Yapmak Gitmek Yatmak, Uzanmak Yatırmak, Uzatmak Yalan Söylemek

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11.6.14 Forbid Give Begin Drink Run Forbade Gave Began Drank Ran Forbidden Given Begun Drunk Run Yasaklamak Vermek Başlamak Içmek Koşmak

11.7. Verbs Followed by the Gerund admit, anticipate, appreciate, avoid, consider, defer, deny, dislike, dread, enjoy, escape, excuse, fancy, finish, forgive, imagine, involve, keep, mind, miss, pardon, postpone, prevent, propose, remember, resent, resist,stop, suggest To object to, to confess to, to get used to, to look forward to  He objected to joining the army.  He admitted robbing the bank.  She appreciated receiving letters from her fans.  I enjoy calling her once in a while.  I don't mind walking to my office.  I don't remember seeing her.  I can't help laughing when I think of that joke.  Stop talking, l can't stop loving you.  I am looking forward to hearing from you.  I can't stand listening to a loud music. 11.8. Verbs Followed By the Gerund or Infinitive Start, begin, continue, intend  I started studying. (I started to study!) 11.9. Verbs Followed By That and Verb-1 Suggest, recommend, insist, demand  He suggested that we go.  What do you suggest that we do?  The kidnappers demanded that the father pay the ransom in small dollar bills. 11.10. Verbs Followed by the Gerund or Infinitive Taking a Different Meaning try + gerund try + to infinitive stop + gerund denemek çabalamak bırakmak I tried solving the problem. I tried to pick up the stone. I stopped smoking. I stopped to smoke.

stop + to infinitive için durmak

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12. ADJECTIVES (Sıfatlar) 12.1. Definitive, Comparative and Superlative Forms Of Adjectives 12.1.1. Regular One or Two Syllable Adjectives Long Short Heavy Old Weak Strong Longer Shorter Heavier Older Weaker Stronger The Longest The Shortest The Heaviest The Oldest The Weakest The Strongest

12.1.2. Regular Multi Syllable Adjectives Beautiful Important Eccentric Tiring Tired Boring Bored 12.1.3. Irregular Adjectives Good Bad Much Little 12.2. Comparisons 1. as.............. as 2. more .......... than I am as old as you are. He is twice as old as she is. I am older than you are. I am more important than you are. I am better than you are. 3. The most.... among (in) He is the best runner among students. She is the most beautiful girl in town. (... in the world) Better Worse More Less The Best The Worst The Most The Least More Beautiful More Important More Eccentric More Tiring More Tired More Boring More Bored The Most Beautiful The Most Important The Most Eccentric The Most Tiring The Most Tired The Most Boring The Most Bored

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• • • • • • • • • • •

The sun is one million times as big as the Mars is. The population of Erzurum is about twice as much as that of Kars. The statue of Atatürk in Erzurum is twice as big as the one in Kars. Ahmet spends half as much money as Mehmet does. There are more than twice as many people in the world now as there were 25 years ago. There are as many students in Erzurum as there are people in Kars. I have studied for as many years as you have lived. I am not as tired as you are: I am not tired as much as you are. A is 100 times richer than B. A is as tall as B. A is not as tall as B. A is not so tall as B. I am as generous as you are miser.

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13. ADVERBS (Zarflar9) 13.1. Adverbs of Manner (Hal Zarfları) Slowly Quickly Well Badly Altogether Separately Generally Particularly Deliberately Accidentally Naturally Artificially Similarly Conversely Apparently Certainly Evidently Obviously Presumably Fortunately Especially Actually Mostly Personally Undoubtedly Clearly Surely Definitely Positively Yavaşça Hızlıca Iyice Kötüce Birlikte Ayrıca Genellikle Özellikle Kasden Kazaen Doğal Olarak Yapay Olarak Aynı Şekilde Tersine Olarak Görünüş Olarak Muhakkak Görünüşe Göre Açık Olarak Farazi Olarak Iyiki Özellikle Gerçekten Çoğunlukla Şahsen Şüphesiz Açıkça Emin Olarak Muhakkak Kesin Olarak Smoking kills slowly. ……

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Zarflar, bir fiilin veya sıfatın anlamını belirten veya kuvvetlendiren kelimelerdir

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13.2. Adverbs of Time (Zaman Zarfları) Now Then Earlier Later The day before yesterday The day after tomorrow Every third day All of a sudden A while ago A moment ago A little later Right now Right away At the beginning At the end Until now From now on From then on Sooner or later Eventually Lately Recently Soon Immediately In the meanwhile Every other day Şimdi O zaman, ondan sonar Daha önce Daha sonra Önceki gün Öbür gün Üç günde bir Aniden Biraz önce Biraz önce Biraz sonra Hemen şimdi (önce) Hemen şimdi (sonra) Başlangıçta Sonunda Bu zamana kadar Bundan sonra (artık) Ondan sonra Er veya geç Sonunda (nihayet) Son zamanlarda Son zamanlarda Yakın zamanda Derhal Bu arada Gün aşırı It is time to go now.

He was here right now. He will be here right away.

13.3. Adverbs of Place (Yer Zarfları) Here There Burada, burası, buraya Orada, orası, oraya He is here. It is here. Come here.

13.4. Adverbs of Frequency (Sıklık Zarfları)* Once Twice Three times All the time Always Frequently Occasionally Bir kez Iki kez Üç kez Her zaman Her zaman Sık sık Arada sırada I went there once.

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Periodically Once in a while Rarely Once in a blue moon Repeatedly Continually Intermittently

Periodik olarak Arada bir Nadiren Çok nadir Mükerrer olarak Sürekli olarak Kesintili olarak

* (Sıklık zarfları yardımcı fiillerden sonra, asıl fiillerden önce gelir) (I am always late) 13.5. Adverbs of Degree (Derece Zarfları) Almost Nearly Quite Too Enough Extremely Only Just Hemen hemen Neredeyse Oldukça Haddinden fazla Yeterli Aşırı şekilde Sadece Sadece It is almost completed.

13.6. Words with the Same Adjective and Adverb Forms Fast Late Hard Early Friendly Low Hızlı Geç Sert Erken Dostça Düşük Don’t go too fast.

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14. PREPOSITIONS (Edatlar10) In Out On Off At Over Under In front of At the back of At the bottom of On the top of Around Across Against Along Among After Before Behind Below Between Beyond By Up Down From Into Near Opposite Outside
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Içinde, içine Dışında, dışına Üstünde, üstüne Uzağında, uzağına De, da, e, a Üzerinde, üzerine Altında, altına Önünde, önüne Arkasında, arkasına Dibinde Üstünde Çevresinde, çevresine Karşısında, karşısına Karşısında, karşısına Boyunda, boyuna Arasında, arasına (ikiden fazla şey) Sonra Önce Arkasında, arkasına Altında, altına Arasında, arasına (iki şey) Ötesinde, ötesine Yanında, yanına Yukarıda, yukarıya Aşağıda, aşağıya Den, dan Içine Yakınında, yakınına Karşısında, karşısına Dışında, dışına

It is in the box. Put it in your pocket.

Edatlar bir nesnenin diğer bir nesneye göre konumunu belirten kelimelerdir.

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Past Through Until, till To With Without

Den öteye Içinden, arasından E kadar E doğru Ile Ile olmaksızın

ABOVE OVER ON TO IN FROM OUT

THROUGH

INTO

OUT OF

BY

BELOW UNDER

A diagram of the most commonly used prepositions

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15. CONJUNCTIONS (Bağlaçlar) And Or But For Yet If Although (though) Notwithstanding Nevertheless Because Because of In spite of In stead of Due to Besides Except Like Likewise As Therefore However Whereas In fact As a matter of fact Not to mention the fact that In as much as Since About Ve Veya Fakat Için, den dolayı Henüz, yine de Eğer E rağmen E rağmen Yine de Çünkü Den dolayı E rağmen Yerine Den dolayı Zaten, ayrıca, den başka Den başka, hariç Gibi Aynı şekilde Gibi, ken (giderken) Bunun için Buna rağmen Halbuki Gerçekte, nitekim Aslında, zaten, nitekim Kaldı ki Madem ki, den dolayı Madem ki, den dolayı Hakkında = (pertaining to, regarding, with regard to in connection with, , related to pursuant to, in relation to) George and Jack go to bed at ten.

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Either .......or

Ya ........ya da......

Either you or your friend will have to go there. Neither you noır your friend can pay for that. Both you and your girl friend were seen there. Not only you but also your friends are not wanted here. I don’t know whether or not he is in Erzurum. She will have to go there Whether she wants it or not The more you study the higher grade you get. The more you work, the more you earn. The higher you go, the harder you fall -Just as Kosovo is sacred land to the Serbs, so is Krajina to Croatians. -Just as Chechenia is an internal matter of Russia so is Karabag for Azerbeijan.

Neither.....nor

Ne ........ne de.......

Both ........and

Hem ....hem de......

Not only....but also

Yalnızca ...değil, fakat aynı zamanda .......da …..ip ........mediğini ....se de .....mese de

Whether ....or

The more ....the more

Ne kadar çok .......... O kadar çok ............

Just as ......so

Nasıl ki .......ise, ayni şekilde........

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16. VERBALS (Fiil Kökenli Kelimeler) 16.1. Gerund (İsim Fiil) 16.1.1. Present Swimming is a good exercise. I like swimming in a warm pool. She likes teaching tap dance. I can't stand waiting in lines. Being alone in a trip is boring. I like your speaking with an accent 16.1.2. Past Having been alone on that trip was boring. He denied having been late for work. 16.2. Infinitive (Mastar) 16.2.1. Present To exercise in the morning is good for health. I like to swim in heated pools. She has a lot of work to do. I felt the earth move. He saw him go into the building. 16.2.2. Past To have seen him doesn't mean much. It is unfortunate for him to have met her. I am sorry to have met you. I wish I had never met you. 16.3. Participle (Sıfat ve Zarf Fiiller) 16.3.1. Adjective Participle (Sıfat fiiller) 16.3.1.1. Present The movie is exciting. It is a very exciting movie indeed. People living in the country are lucky. The energy needed by all living things comes from the sun. The lecture was interesting and informing.

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16.3.1.2 Past He is a retired teacher. (tired, disappointed etc.) The broken chair will be repaired. I will borrow the required money from the bank. I am excited. 16.3.2. Adverb Participle (Zarf Fiiller) 16.3.2.1. Zaman Bildiren Adverb Participle 16.3.2.1.1. Present Watching TV, he fell asleep (while...) Entering the room, I saw the burglar (while...) I saw him crossing the street (while) 16.3.2.1.2. Past Having watched the game he left the stadium (... after that.) Having finished his work, he went home (... after that..) 16.3.2.2. Sebep Bildiren Adverb Participle 16.3.2.2.1. Present Being very hungry, I ate a lot. (Because ...) Knowing him well, she did not believe him (Because...) 16.3.2.2.2. Past (Having been) Wrapped in a blanket, he didn't mind spending the night outside. (Because...) Having been very hungry, I had eaten a lot. Having received no letter from her for a long time, he was worried.

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VERBALS

Gerund

Infinitive

Participle

Present

Past

Present

Past

Adjective

Adverb

Present

Past

Time

Cause

Present

Past

Present

Past

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17. PREFIXES (Ön Ekler) Aboard Abroad Archbishop Enrich Impossible Semiofficial Prehistoric Post election Vice-president : (Gemide, gemiye) Welcome aboard. : (Yurt dışında, yurt dışına) I have not been abroad yet. : (Başpiskopos) Archbishop Makarios had been involved in politics. : (Zenginleştirme) Protein can be used to enrich the flour. : (İmkansız) When something is not possible it is impossible. : (Yarı resmi) AA is a semiofficial news agency. : (Tarih öncesi) People did not know much in prehistoric times. : (Seçim sonrası) Post election politics has been quite complicated : (Başkan yardımcısı) Vice-president Johnson had an heart attack.

18. SUFFIXES (Son Ekler) Drinkable Kingdom Enriched Employed Childish Civilized Americanize Booklet Lakelet Payment Careful Careless Carefulness Carelessness Separately Naturally Personally Strong Smoke Simple : (İçilebilir) This water is drinkable. : (Krallık) The United Kingdom is ruled by Elizabeth II. : (Zenginleştirilmiş) This food has been enriched by extra protein. : (İşçi, müstahdem) The employees will strike to raise their wages. : (Çocukça) It is childish to cry over simple things. : (Medenileştirilmiş) The wild tribes are civilized now. : Amerikalılaştırmak : (Kitapçık) That booklet consists of only 30 pages. : (Gölcük) Van is a lake but Küçükçekmece is a lakelet. : (Ödeme) The size of the payment is determined by the purchase power. : (Dikkatli) You have to be careful when you cross the street. : (Dikkatsiz) He fell on the ice because he was careless. : (Dikkatlilik) That job requires complete carefulness. : (Dikkatsizlik) The accident happened as a result of carelessness. : (Ayrı olarak) Place the pieces separately. : (Doğal olarak) Naturally they will refuse the offer. : (Kişisel olarak) Personally, I hate cold weather. : güçlü : duman : basit Strength Smoky Simplify : güç, kuvvet (sıfattan isim) : Dumanlı (isimden sıfat) : Basitleştirmek (sıfattan fiil)

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19. MISCELLANEOUS (Muhtelif) Three lane highway Hundred page book The tea is too hot to drink The tea is hot enough to drink There is no body in the room The movie is not interesting, I would rather (I'd rather) watch TV tonight I had better (I'd better) start studying, or else I will flunk the exam. They talk to each other. They talk to one another. You can go whenever (or wherever) you want You can take whatever (or whichever) you want No matter what, I will go there Sooner or later I'm gonna get you They came here one after another They came here one at a time They came here one by one They came here in a group of two The more you study, the more you learn The more you work, the more you earn Did you happen to meet Mr. President I happened to be passing by the scene when the accident happened. You don't get into this, mind your own business: That is none of your business You have to take a taxi in order to get there in time (... so, as to ..., so as not to...) You have to study hard in order that (so that) you can learn English well Has what happened to you happened to them too Üç şeritli karayolu 100 sayfalık kitap Çay içilmeyecek kadar sıcak Çay içilebilecek kadar sıcak There is not any body in the room …televizyon seyretmeyi tercih ederim. …çalışmaya başlasam iyi olur. Yoksa sınavda çakarım. (2 persons) (More than 2 persons) Her ne zaman istersen… Her ne istersen… Ne olursa olsun... Er veya geç… Onlar buraya birbiri peşine geldiler. Onlar buraya birer birer geldiler. Onlar buraya birer birer geldiler. Onlar buraya ikişer ikişer geldiler. Ne kadar çok çalışırsan o kadar çok… Ne kadar çok çalışırsan o kadar çok… Hiç (tesadüfen) başkanla karşılaştınız mı Kaza olduğunda oradan tesadüfen geçiyordum…. Bu işe karışma. Kendi işine bak. Bu iş seni ilgilendirmez. Oraya zamanında varabilmek için taksi ile gitmen gerekir. İngilizceyi iyi öğrenebilmen için… Senin başına gelen onların başına da geldi mi?

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• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Open the door. Please open the door (open the door please). Will you please open the door? Would you please open the door? Would you be so kind as to open the door please? The cars were travelling bumper to bumper. Put the boxes one on top of the other to save room (on top of one another) The workers put the rails end to end and welded them. The fishermen laid the fish side by side in the market. If it weren't for the umbrella, we would get wet. If it had not been for you, I would not have been able to go there. Had it not been for you, she would have died. (Inversion) Should one day you come here, please stop by my office. Should I hear from him, I will let you know. Did you use to go there? No. I didn't use to go there. Let us (me, him, her, it, , them) go. Shall we? Let's stay here. Let's not stay here. Shall we go? This is the first time I have seen such a thing. If you had not been a stupid, you would not have listened to the same thing every Sunday. You can’t have seen him yesterday, he was with me all day. Someone came here, didn't they? I am a doctor, aren't I? I heard him sing. I heard him singing. You can't go there until you have finished your work. Don't stick your neck out. He suggested that I see the doctor. To arrive in Istanbul. To arrive at the airport. To arrive on the scene.

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• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

We will take turns. Whose turn is it? It is my turn. Sit at the table. Hold it tight, so that you won't fall He held it tight so that he wouldn't fall It is made of gold. It is made from (out of) packing cases. To fall in (out of) love with sb. Would you honorable MPS come to order please? To take a chance: to take a risk. To give a chance: to give an opportunity. Ski slopes in Erzurum are steeper than those in Sarıkamış. The population of Erzurum is twice as much as that of Kars. On behalf of : adına In behalf of : yararına 20 % of the students who passed the exams are girls. Half of those that were sent there were donkeys. I saw Ahmet go to school. (Action completed) I saw Ahmet going to school. (The action may not have been completed.) You have to be a little bit crazy to keep your sanity. Keep your eyes wide open before marriage, half shut afterwards. Don't bite the hand that feeds you. May god give you twice as much as what you want for me! Every body must account for his actions. There are two sides to a coin. There are more to things than meets the eye. There is nothing to it. Every criminal must stand trial, and get a fair trial.

Odds and Ends to rank first - to put someone to shame - council of Higher Education - ICBMs, airborne bombers, submarine based missiles - a duplicate copy of important documents - special thanks are due to those who...

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-

-

his philosophy is moderation in everything Jack of all trades, but master of none Don’t let this chance slip away. boil, grill, bake, fry, pots and pans, garnish extant X extinct poker, bridge, black jack, chess, backgammon heart, club, spade, diamond citius, altius, fortius wrestling, boxing, running, high-jumping, long-jumping, skating, skiing, swimming, diving, riding, hammer-throwing, discus-throwing, javelin, tennis, ping-pong, pole-vaulting, golf, football, voleyball, basketball, soccer, etc. Five Pillars of Islam: praying, fasting, pilgrimage, almsgiving, confirmation of faith. (the sixth one, they say, is knowing your boundries) Mental Abilities : Intelligence, memory, perception, reasoning, orientation, willpower stability, attention, sensitivity. Acrophobia: fear of height. Acrobat: acts in the heights. To pass (fail, flunk) the test To stand the test of time. To chant nursery rhymes. At ease, attention, fire. Open shed barns Honest to God : Vallahi Duplication, multiplication, replication, reproduction. Liberty, equality, fraternity. Dilemma: A difficult situation. Paradox: strange but true. Enigma: Muamma, esrar, şifre To be vulnerable to pressure To take somebody at his word. The theory of Lambrazo on the nature of man On the spur of the moment. To tell a lie To lie ander a tree To lay a wreath, (a foundation stone and a L)

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Addition Subtraction Multiplication Division

2+3=5 5-3 = 2 5 x 6 = 30 30 : 6 = 5

Two plus three equals five. Two plus three is five. Five minus three equals two. Five multiplied by six equals thirty. Five times six is thirty. Thirty divided by six equals five.

62: six squared 63: six to the third power a/b = c a.b = c X = Σ X/N 6 and 36 a2 - b2 : (a+b) (a-b)

ax : a to the power x a-b : a to the power minus b. dividend / divider = quotient multiplied. multiplier = product X bar equals sum X over N (average) 6 is a factor of 36, 36 is a multiple of 6 (çarpan ve kat) The difference of two squared numbers is the product of the sum and the difference of these numbers.

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SECOND PART IDIOMS

All the same As if As soon as possible At first At last At least To be about to To be familiar with To be in charge of To be interested in To be one's turn To be tired of To be used to To break down To break up (with) To bring up By the way To catch cold To catch fire To be fed up (with) To be fond (of) To be in need (of) To be out of question To be through (with) To beat about to bush To change one's mind To come across To come to an end To call for To catch up (with) To charged (with)

yine de sanki, imiş gibi mümkün olan en kısa zamanda ilk önce nihayet en azından üzere olmak aşina olmak sorumlu olmak ilgilenmek sırası olmak bıkmak alışık olmak bozulmak bozuşmak çocuk yetiştirmek sırası gelmişken soğuk almak ateş almak bıkmak usanmak hoşlanmak ihtiyacı olmak söz konusu olmamak bitirmek, ilişiği kesmek lafı uzatmak Fikrini değiştirmek karşılaşmak sona ermek gerektirmek yetişmek ile itham etmek

I was not invited to the conference, but I will attend all the same. He orders me to do things, as if he is my father. Please let me know the result as soon as possible. At first, I thought that he was a student At last, he was able to pay his debt. There were at least 500 people in the theatre. He was about to leave the room when I went there. I am familiar with that subject. He is in charge of this department. I am not interested in politics. Now it is your turn to wash the dishes. They are tired of uninvited guests. People in Erzurum are used to cold. My car broke down on the way. He broke up with his girl friend yesterday. He was brought up in a village. By the way, I had met him in Paris. Take your coat with you, otherwise you will catch cold. The forest caught fire in a dry hot day. I am fed up with all this nonsense. He is fond of Jane Fonda very much. The old man is in need of money and care. A general amnesty is out of question for the coming ten years. I am through with that research for this semester Please don't beat about (around) the bush, come to the point. Did you change your mind? We come across different types of people in the railway and bus stations. Sooner or later, this tragedy will come to an end. The project calls for a million dollar. Turkey has been trying to catch up with the West for the past 100 years. He was charged with murder and robbery.

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To do away with (to get rid of) To do one's best To fall asleep To fall in love (with) To feel like To feel sorry (for) To find out For the time being For nothing To get along To get well To get in touch (with) To get in the house To get on the bus To get up To get used to To give a call To give in To give up Heads or tails To have nothing to do with something In other words To keep in mind To keep in touch (with) To keep up (with) To let someone know To look after To make fun (of) To make up (with) To make up (for) To play a joke (on) To make money To make up one's mind To change one's mind To make use of To mind one's own business Once and for all Out of curiosity Out of date

kurtulmak, başından atmak elinden geleni yapmak uykuya dalmak aşık olmak canı istemek acımak anlamak şimdilik bedava, karşılıksız geçinmek iyileşmek temasa geçmek eve girmek arabaya binmek yataktan kalkmak alışmak telefon etmek taviz vermek vazgeçmek yazı tura Bir şeyle ilgisi olmamak diğer bir deyişle akılda tutmak ilişkiyi devam ettirmek ayak uydurmak birisine bildirmek bakmak (çocuk vs.) alay etmek barışmak telafi etmek şaka yapmak para kazanmak karar vermek karar değiştirmek yararlanmak kendi işine bakmak kesin olarak meraktan demode

She did away with all her old clothes. I will try do my best to accomplish it and save my face. He falls asleep right after he goes to bed. Ferhat had fallen in love with Şirin. I don't feel like drinking tonight. He feels sorry for the poor and gives them money. I'll find out where he was at that time. He will keep his mouth shut for the time being. You can not get anything for nothing. They can’t get along well with each other. I hope you will get well soon. You have to get in touch with the manager. to get out of the house : evden çıkmak to get off the bus : arabadan inmek to wake up : uyanmak You will get used to it soon. Give me a call tonight. I won’t give in any more. He gave up his plan to go to Sakarya Heads or tails? Heads you win, tails I win. I have nothing to do with it. …in other words, he will not pay his debt. please keep in mind that ... Keep in touch with us even if you go far far away. He can't keep up with the rest of the group Please let me know if you run into him. The mother will look after the child. Don't make fun of me sir. He made up with his girl friend today. I will make up for the time I lost… The students played a joke on the teacher. He made a lot of money in gambling. Don't make up your mind without consulting the consultant. Don’t change your mind so often. Turkey can make use of coal for energy. Mind your own bussiness. Don’t stick your nose into this matter. Resolve the matter once and for all. Just out of curiosity, how much money do you make in one month? Your shirts are out of date, keep them up

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Out of order To pay attention to To put out To put off To call off To put on weight To run into To see someone off To set fire to To shake hands To shut up To show up To slow down To stick to the point To take a bus To take a chance To take advantage of To take after To take a seat To take into account To take a break To take apart To take by surprise To take part in To take seriously To take sides To take someone for someone else To take up To turn someone down To wake up

bozuk dikkat etmek söndürmek tehir etmek iptal etmek kilo almak rastlamak birisini uğurlamak ateşe vermek el sıkışmak sesini kesmek çıkagelmek yavaşlamak konuya bağlı kalmak otobüse binmek İşi şansa bırakmak istirmar etmek Birisine çekmek bir yere oturmak hesaba katmak ara vermek parçalamak şaşırtmak katılmak ciddiye almak taraf tutmak birisini birisine benzetmek alışkanlık edinmek birisini reddetmek uyanmak

to date. Don't turn the radio on. It is out of order. Pay attention to what I say. They put the fire out. They had to put off the show because of the bad weather. They called off the show for financial reasons. Some people put on weight fast, no matter what... He ran into his old friend in the street. The honor troop was present when they saw the president off. They set fire to the house on purpose. We shook hands when we broke up. If you don't have to talk, just shut up. He showed up one hour after the show. The car slowed down and pulled over. Do not beat about the bush, come and stick to the point. You must take a bus or a taxi. Study hard. Don’t take a chance. Do not take advantage of his innocence. Who did he take after? He took after his good for nothing uncle. He asked me to take a seat when I entered the room. The teacher should have taken the conditions in his family into account. We took a break after we studied an hour. They took the car apart to repair it. That news took me by surprise. I would like to take a part in the research. Don't take to the movies too seriously. A president should not take sides on political matters. They often take me for my brother. I gave up smoking but took up chewing gum. Don’t take up a harmfull habit. The girl turned the boy down when he asked her for a date. I try to wake up early in the morning.

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THIRD PART PROVERBS AND TONGUE TWISTERS Proverbs  Treat others as you would like to be treated.  Do not do to others, what you do not want others to do to you.  Whatever you wish for yourself wish the same for the others  One is as good as the extent to which he wants for others what he wants for himself  We have two ears but only one tongue, so that we may hear more and speak less.  Birds of a feather flock together.  Rolling stones gather no moss.  Barking dogs do not bite.  A friend exaggerates one's virtues and enemy his faults.                        What is good for one may not always be good for others. One should not judge by appearance. One should not put the cart in front of the horse. Business is business. A lie calls for a hundred more. You can fool some of the people all of the time, all of the people some of the time, but you can not fool all of the people all of the time (Lincoln). People who stay in glass houses should not throw stones (men dakka dukka) When the cats are away, the mice will play. Only the squeaky wheel gets the grease. Too many cooks spoil the soup. Strike while the iron is hot. A penny saved is a penny earned. A friend in need is a friend indeed. A man is known by the company he keeps. A bird in hand is worth two in the bush. Action speaks louder than the words. The more you know, the more you know how much you don't know. Easy come, easy go. Time is money (El vaktu naktun) Out of sight, out of mind God gives nuts to those who don't have teeth. Don't run after a girl or a bus, because there is always another one coming. If a diplomat says yes, it means perhaps.If a diplomat says perhaps, it means no.

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 If a diplomat says no, he is not a real diplomat.

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Tongue Twisters  How much wood would a woodpecker peck, if a woodpecker could peck wood.  Did you see Sally selling sea shells by the sea shores?  Will you buy a rubber baby buggy bumper?  Three hundred and thirty three thousand three hundred and thirty three (333.333).  Peter Piper picked a pack of pickled pepper. How many packs of pickled pepper did Peter Piper pick?  Trouble trouble before trouble troubles you.  The more you know, the more you know how much you don't know.  It lasted from two to two, to two two..  If the sentence that had HAD had had HAD HAD, it would be correct.  Are you one of those whom we have not been able to Americanize?

A Nursery Rhyme Eeney meeney monee moo. Catch a tiger by his toe, If he hollers let him go. Eeney, meeney, monee, moo.

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FOURTH PART QUOTABLE QUOTATIONS The World Geography  The world is one of the 9 planets of the solar system.  The world rotates* on its own axis once every 24 hours.  The Earth revolves* around the sun once a year.  The moon is a satellite of the earth.  The moon revolves around the earth on an orbit once a month.  The moon is a satellite of the earth.  The area of the world is about 510.000.000 km2 (square kilometers).  The area of the world is about 600 times larger than that of Turkey.  3/4 of the world area is covered by the sea (three fourths of the ...)  The distance between the earth and the moon is about 384.000 km. A space craft can cover this distance in less than three days.         History The history of the world dates back around 4 billion years. We are living at a time when machines do work that men used to do. Airplanes can cover a distance in as many hours now, as it used to take days by other means of transportation in the near past. There are twice as many people in the world now as there were 50 years ago. Neil Armstrong, the commander of Apollo 11, is the first man to set foot on the moon on July 21, 1969. America was discovered by Christopher Columbus in 1492. Telephone was invented by A. Graham Bell in 1876. United Nations was established in 1945.

Economy  The richest country in the world, in terms of per capita income, is Kuwait.  According to Malthus, the population of the world increases in geometrical ratio whereas the food production increases in arithmetical ratio. Therefore, the world is bound to face a serious crisis stemming from the shortage of food. Politics  One of the most important problems facing the mankind today is the lack of sense of justice among nations. Power is still the major factor in settling disputes.  Palestinian-Israeli dispute is the most important problem in the World Politics.  Turkey is trying to join the European Union since 1963. * Rotate: to turn on an axis * Revolve: to turn around a point

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Turkey Geography  Turkey is located between two continents, Asia and Europe.  The area of Turkey is about 780.000 km2 (... square kilometers)  Turkey has well defined borders on all sides.  Turkey is surrounded by the sea on three sides. The Black Sea is in the north, Aegean Sea is in the west and the Mediterranean Sea is in the south.  The mountains along the coast are covered with forests whereas the mountains of Central Anatolia is mainly bare.  Due to the differences in climate and the formation of the terrain, Anatolia is divided into a variety of agricultural regions. History  For many thousands of years, because of its unique geographical position, Turkey has been the cradle of many civilizations and the scene of many historical events.  Anatolia was captured and ruled by many nations, including Ionians, Persians, Romans, Arabs, and Turks.  It is not for nothing that Turkey is called as the "cradle of civilization"... Economy  The economy of Turkey is based on free market system.  Monetary unit in Turkey is Turkish Lira.  Per capita income in Turkey is about $5.000.  Turkey is among a few nations in the world that are self- sufficient in food production.  If it weren’t for the waste and and mismanagement in the government in the past 20 years, the per capita income would have more than doubled now. Social and Cultural Structure  The population of Turkey is about 70 million which constitutes approximately % 1 (one per cent) of the world's population.  30 % of the population live in rural areas in Turkey.  Turkey can be considered as a land of contrasts in some ways. For example, some people still live a traditional life while some have adopted a modern way of life.  There is a big gap between the distribution of income both among the individuals and the regions. These disparities need to be mitigated. Politics  Political parties based onreligion, race or class is outlawed in Turkey.  Turkey is a country to be reckoned with.

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Erzurum Geography  Erzurum is located in the north eastern part of Turkey.  It has always been an important center because of its geographical location and topographical position.  A branch of the ancient Silk Road used to pass through the city.  It is located on the skirts of majestic Palandöken Mountains, overlooks a large plain and controls several passes to different directions.  The population of Erzurum is about 400.000.  The altitude of the city is about 1.800 meters.  The city is surrounded by Palandoken Mountains on the south and Kargapazarı Mountains on the north.  The winters in Erzurum last for about six months from mid-November to the end of April. History  Erzurum has a history of 6.000 years dating back to 4.000 B.C.  Erzurum was captured and ruled by many nations such as Urartians, Cimmerians, Persians, Romans, Arabs, Byzantians and Turks (Saltuqs, Ilhans and Ottomans).  The Citadel in the city was built by the Roman Emperor Theodosius in the 5th Century, but the clock tower was built by the Saltuq Turks in 12th Century.  Erzurum has been the capital city of Saltuqian Dynasty in 12th Century.  There are many works of art in the city from the period of Saltuq, Ilhan, and Ottoman Turks such as Grand Mosque, Double Minarets, Yakutiye Medresah and Lala Pasha Mosque.  Ulucami, the grand mosque, was built by Melik Nasrettin of Seljuks in the 12th Century. It is covered by 7 parallel vaults, which provide 7 wide naves for the prayers.  The Double Minarets, a Theological College, was built by Sultan Alaattin Keykubat of saltuqs, a branch of the Seljuks, in the 13th Century. It is the biggest and most elaborately decorated building of its kind in Anatolia. It has a very impressive portal with a highly decorated frame and a huge mukarnas (a decorated arch of the portal). Elaborate stone carvings on the base of the minarets and the reliefs on the walls have symbolic meanings representing the beliefs of the Ilhanits before they adopted Islam. For example, the double headed eagles and the dragons represent masters of the sky and the earth respectively.  Yakutiye Medresah, a theological college, was built by Hodja Cemalettin Yakutin in the 14th Century. The building is being used as a museum now.  Lalapasha Mosque was built by the Governor Lala Mustafa Pasha who later became the conqueror of Cyprus in the 16th Century during the reign of The Suleyman the Magnificent. It is a typical example of classical Ottoman mosques with a central dome supported by 4 main columns. It is the work of the great architect Sinan.  The city was occupied temporarily by the Russians three times in 1829, 1882 and 1916.  Erzurum is the city where the foundation of the Republic of Turkey was laid in Erzurum Congress in July 23rd. 1919 by Atatürk and his friends.  Other points of interest in the city include the Rüstem Pasha Caravanserai which

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is used as a marketplace for black stone jewelry, three tombs and old Erzurum houses. Economy  For thermal and eco- tourism as well as rafting, trekking and mountain biking, the economy of Erzurum depends mainly on three Sectors, namely, agriculture, trade and turizm.  Fodder crops and animal husbandry in Erzurum has a great potential for development.  The Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Erzurum has more than 3.500 members. It is the biggest civil society organization in Erzurum.  Tourism, especially the winter tourism, is becoming a major economical sector in Erzurum. Palandöken Ski Center is one of the most popular ski centers in the Country. When fully developed, the center will have a capacity of 32.000 skiers per day. The center isonly 6 kilometers away from the city. There are four five star luxurious hotels in the center and it has the longest ski runs and the best snow quality in Turkey.  There is an important potential in Erzurum. Social and Cultural Structure  Erzurum has been the center of culture, education and throughout the history.  Double minarets and Yakutiye Medresah are the two important institutions of higher education of 12th and 13th Century.  Ataturk University is one of the biggest and most important institutions of higher education in the Country with about 40.000 Students  The people of Erzurum are called “dadash” which means “man of dignity “. Politics  People of Erzurum are known to be “conservative” in their political and social views.  Local elections will be held next year.  In the political history of Erzrurum, no Mayor has been elected twice.

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Cyprus Problem Cyprus is an island in Eastern Mediterranean, only 40 miles off the cost of Turkey. It is more than 300 miles away from the mainland Greece. Cyprus became a part of the Ottoman Empire in 1571 and remained so, for more than 300 years. In 1923 Turkey relinquished its sovereignty to England in accordance with the Treaty of Lausanne. The population of Cyprus is about 600.000, a quarter of which is Turkish. The essence of Cyprus problem is that the Greeks have, for a long time, wanted to unite the island with Greece and eliminate the Turkish Population. Turkish people on the island had been subjected to continious discrimination, intimidation, oppression harassment and outright massacre for years. In 1974, Turkey intervened militarily in accordance with the Treaty of Guarantee of 1960 to maintain the independence of the island and protect the lives of the Turkish People. If the Turks had not been harassed out of Cyprus, it has been calculated that the number of them would have been equal to that of Greeks by now. The best possible solution to the problem seems to be the establishment of a bicommunal, bi-zonal, non-aligned and independent federal republic. This solution will maintain the independence and integrity of the island, and will provide peace and security to both communities. There are two completely different communities on the island. They have different cultural, social, ethnic, and religious backgrounds. They have different traditions and aspirations. Past events have created a profound mistrust and enmity between them. These communities can not live together at least for the time being. Therefore, they should live side by side if peace and security on the Island are to be maintained. The Greeks seem to maintain the idea of Enosis. Now, they are more interested in mobilizing international pressure against Turkey than in reaching a just and lasting peace through negotiations. There will not be a solution to the problem as long as Greeks follow a policy of tension with Turkey. On the other hand an imposed solution to the question will, almost certainly, lead to another crisis, another tragedy or even a shamefull ethnic clensing like the one witnessed in Bosnia.

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Turkish-Armenian Matter
Some Armenians are trying to win the sympathy of the world public opinion and gain some political advantage at the expense of Turkey by making genocide claims and presenting only one side of the story. The Armenians, like many other communities, lived in total cultural freedom, peace, and prosperity for many Centuries under the Ottoman rule. In late 19th Century those countries that wanted to decimate the Ottoman Empire manipulated the Armenians for their own political aims and encouraged them to fight against the empire and form an independent State. To that end, they formed organizations such as Hinchak in 1987 and Tashnak groups in 1890 with armed units to fight against the Ottoman security forces and harass the Muslim population. They started the first riot and in Sason in 1894 and shed the bloods of many innocent people. In the following years they intensified their violence in Eastern Anatolia. During the First World War, they fought against the Ottoman army along side the Russians and committed mass murders On April 24, 1915, the Ottoman Government decided to relocate or resetle the Armenians of Eastern Anatolia to Syria which was a part of the Ottoman Empire at that time. Many countries in history have relocated some of their citizens during the wars. What Armenians claim to be genocide is in fact the relocation of the Armenians away from the front line as a result of their own acts of violence. Subsequent loss of life due to the inhuman conditions of war is well known to all. Genocide is an act of killing a group of people for what they are, not for what they do. Ermenians were resetled for what they did during the war. Most Armenians who scratch the healing wounds now are the descendents of those who were resetled away from the front line during the War. If there had been a genocide at that time, they would not have been able to make those claims now. It is unfortunate that on the advent of 21st Century, some people are nurturing hatred and violence again, killing innocent people including diplomats and expecting some benefits from creating a biased World public opinion. A group of bipartisan international experts must come together to bring out to light all the facts about this matter and put an end to endless accusations, enmities, misunderstanding and the exploitation of the good will of the international communities. In the final analysis, both the Armenians and the Turks who lost their lives as a result of the fabricated hatret are the victims of the super powers of that time which followed the policy of “divide and rule”. Most of the conflicts in the Middle East of today stems from the same policy. All those who want to tarnish the image of a nation must act responsible and give up creating more hatret, conflict and violence.

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Agriculture  Agriculture can be described as the work of growing crops and raising farm animals.  Agronomy is the work of producing field crops in large and open fields.  Horticulture is the work of producing fruits and vegetables in small and protected areas.  Agricultural extension is a technical service based on an out-of-school educational system and aimed at improving the living conditions of the people who are engaged in Agriculture.  There are eleven Departments in the College of Agriculture at Atatürk University. They are the Departments of: Horticulture, Plant Protection, Food Technology, Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Mechanization, Field Crops, Soil Science and Animal Husbandry, Aquaculture and Landscape Architecture.  Photosynthesis is a process by which chlorophyll containing cells in green plants synthesize carbohydrates from carbodioxide and water in the presence of sun light. In other words, it is a process by which plants make sugar from water and air.  Erosion occurs on sloping surfaces rather than level surfaces.  Some bacteria are beneficial, but some are harmful, causing various diseases.  A plow is an implement to till or turn over the soil.  A roller is used to break up the clods and compact the seed bed.  In general, tillage serves three purposes. It prepares the seed bed, destroys the weeds, and improves the soil.  Rotation is a practice of growing different crops at different times on the same soil.  A tractor can draw a two or more furrow plow.

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Economics  Economics is the study of man's activities aimed at satisfying the unlimited human needs by means of limited resources. These activities include production, distribution, consumption etc.  Supply and demand are among the most important concepts in Economics. Supply refers to the amounts of a commodity that the suppliers are willing to sell at certain price levels in a certain market at a certain time. On the other hand, demand refers to the amounts of a commodity that the consumers are willing to buy at certain price levels in a certain market at a certain time.  In a free market, the price of a commodity is determined at a point where the amounts of supply and demand are equal. , the price of a commodity goes up as the demand goes up, or the supply goes down, or vice versa.  Inflation is an economic phenomenon which appears as a steady and sharp increase in general price level. Inflation, by definition, refers to a high level of increase in money supply in relation to the increase in production. Inflation can also be defined as too much demand in relation to supply. It follows that the solution to inflation is to decrease demand and increase supply by certain measures.  According to the law of diminishing returns, in production when one factor is increased constantly while the others are held constant. the output will show three stages: 1) Increases at an increasing rate. 2) Increases at decreasing rate. 3) Reaches a maximum and there after decrease.  The law of diminishing returns is also called the law of diminishing marginal productivity

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Atatürk Atatürk is the founder and the first president of the Turkish Republic. He was born in 1881 in Salonika which is in Greece now but was a part of the Ottoman Empire at that time. He attended military school and became an officer in the Ottoman Army in 1902. He fought on several fronts in different wars and became a national hero after the Gallipoli War in 1915. Ottoman Empire was invaded by several foreign powers after the First World War. He started the Independence War against the invading powers in Samsun on May 19th, 1919. He led the Nation to victory after a bitter and costly struggle on August 30th, 1922. He established the Turkish Republic, on October 29th, 1923 and was elected as the first President of the Republic. The Turkish Republic was established on the principles of; republicanism, nationalism, statism, secularism, populism, and revolutionism which have become to be known as Kemalism. Atatürk has carried out several bold and broad reforms to create a modern state on the ruins of the six-century old Ottoman Empire. His many reforms include the following:  Abolishing the Sultanate and establishing the Republic.  Abolishing the Caliphate and Religious Code and establishing the secularism and Civil Code.  Closing down the religious orders.  Changing hats and costumes.  Introducing the Latin alphabet.  Establishing several state institutions to promote peace, prosperity, and progress in the Country. Atatürk died on November 10th, 1938, but his memory and his works will live forever. He is one of the greatest leaders of the Twentieth Century. Even if he had achieved only one of his many accomplishments, he would still have deserved to be called as one of the greatest leaders in the world.

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Atatürk’s Address to the Turkish Youth Turkish Youth! Your first duty is to preserve and defend the Turkish independence and the Turkish Republic forever. This is the only foundation of your existence and your future. This foundation is your most valuable treasure. In the future too, you will have enemies both in the country and abroad who will try to deprive you of this treasure. If, one day, you are compelled to defend your independence and the Republic, you shall not hesitate to perform your duty no matter what the circumstances and possibilities may be. These circumstances and possibilities may be extremely unfavorable. The enemies who desire to destroy your independence and your Republic may have won a victory unprecedented in the history of the World. By force or deceit, all the fortresses and shipyards of your homeland may have been seized, all the armies may have been dispersed and all the corners of your homeland may have actually been occupied. What is more tragic and awesome than even these eventualities, those in power may have fallen into ignorance, error, or even treason. Moreover, they may identify their personal interest with the enemies' political claims. The nation may have been completely deprived, destroyed and exhausted. Turkish youth of the future, even under these circumstances, it is your duty to save the Turkish independence and the Turkish Republic. The might that you will need is already present in the noble blood in your veins.

M.K.Atatürk 1927

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FIFTH PART LETTERS AND CERTIFICATES A Letter to a Friend

April 1st, 1986 ERZURUM

Dear A, Thank you very much for your letter of March 8 th. It was very nice to hear from you again. I am sorry for the delay in answering your letter. I was out of town for a twoweek vacation when it arrived. Lots of paper had piled up on my desk when I returned from vacation, and it took me several days to catch up with the work. It is nice to hear that you and your family are all well. I am happy to be able to say that I and my family are all fine too. B had a cold last week. He is about over it and join the football team now. The weather has been unusually warm around here for this time of the year. That is all there is to say for the time being. Please say hi, to C and D for me. Please give my regards to your parents. I am looking forward to hearing from you again.

With all my best wishes

E. F. U

P.S. G. became engaged to H.T. yesterday K will get married to L tomorrow.

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A Letter of Application ______________________________________________________________________ April 2nd, 1986 ERZURUM

I.C.L.S. 1346 Connecticut Ave., 1200 N.W. Washington D.C. 20036 U.S.A.

Dear Sirs I am a member of the teaching staff in the Department of... in the College of Agriculture at Atatürk University in Turkey. I was given a scholarship to study in U.S.A. for a period of one year. I would like to attend your school for three months for language training before I start studying in my field. I would appreciate if you could send me an application form and some information regarding accommodation possibilities-in D.C. Thank you very much in advance for your consideration. I am looking forward to receiving an answer from you. Sincerely yours, K.L.A Department of........... Ataturk University 25240 Erzurum-Turkey

.

Enclosures : 1. A copy of B.S. diploma 2. A letter of financial support

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A Letter of Recommendation ______________________________________________________________________

April 3rd, 1986 ERZURUM

TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN I am pleased to write this letter of recommendation in behalf of Dr. O.P. whom I have known for over ten years and worked with since 1980. He was asked to join the teaching staff in the College because of his distinguished record during his undergraduate years. Mr. P. is a diligent and intelligent person. He has a great sense of duty and responsibility. He is known to be a man of patience and perseverance. It is my belief that Dr. O.P. will be able to benefit greatly from an opportunity to study abroad. I strongly recommend him for such an opportunity.

Very truly yours, Prof. Dr. M. C. A Chairman Department of.................. College of Agriculture Atatürk University Erzurum / TURKEY

Some positive characteristics: careful, considerate, creative, co-operative, diligent, dedicated, energetic, extravert, friendly, hardworking, imaginative, intelligent, meticulous, orderly, punctual, self confident, vigilant,

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A Letter of Confirmation ______________________________________________________________________

April 4th, 1986 ERZURUM

TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN This is to certify that Dr. O.P. has been a member of the teaching staff in the College of Agriculture at Atatürk University for the past five years. He was awarded a scholarship by the Government to study abroad for a period of one year. I would like to confirm that his scholarship covers in full, the travel expenses, perdiem allowances, admission fees and medical expenses.

Prof. Dr. T.K.F Dean College of Agriculture Atatürk University 25240 ERZURUM-TURKEY

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______________________________________________________________________ Translation of a Diploma ______________________________________________________________________ REPUBLIC OF TURKEY ERZURUM Photo ATATURK UNIVERSITY and COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE seal AGRICULTURAL ENGINEER DIPLOMA

Date of Diploma Diploma Number Department

: : :

This is to certify that ...............................................................the son/daughter of .......................born in the year........................ in .........................has been granted the title of AGRICULTURAL ENGINEER on the date of............................. upon completing his/her studies and examinations successfully in compliance with the special laws and regulations of the College of Agriculture of Atatürk University to benefit from all the rights and privileges provided by the laws of the Republic of Turkey.

Rector of Atatürk University .......... Signature

Dean of College of Agriculture ......... Signature

______________________________________________________________________ This is a complete and correct translation of the original Date and confirmation:

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SIXTH PART VOCABULARY  Just as keys are attached to rings, the words should be attached to sentences to prevent them from being lost. English Words English Logic When the English tongue we speak, Why is break not rhymed with freak? Will you tell me why it's true? We say sew, but likewise few And the maker of the verse Can not cap his horse with worse? Beard sounds not the same as heard Cord is different from word Cow is cow, but low is low; Shoe is never rhymed with foe. Think of hose and dose and lose, And of goose and yet of choose. Think of comb and tomb and bomb, Doll and roll, and home and some, And since pay is rhymed with say. Why not paid with said, I pray? We have blood and food and good; Mould is not pronounced like could. Wherefore done, but gone and lone? Is there any reason known? And in short, it seems to me, Sound and letters disagree.

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Homophones Aisle (Ayıl) Be (Bi) Break (Breyk) Die (Day) Cell (Sel) Doe (Do) Hair (Heyr) Flour (Flawr Heal (Hiil) Idol (Aydıl) Mail (Meyl) Our (Avr) Straight (Streyt) Tail (Teyl) Fair American English Baby bottle (nipple) Long distance call Business suit Pants (slacks) Parka Shoestring Intermission Meat grinder Raisins Antenna Closet Faucet Scotch tape Fender Baggage Lost and found Make reservation Subway Koridor Olmak Kırmak Ölmek Hücre Dişi Geyik Saç Un Iyileşmek Put Posta Bizim Doğru (Düz Hat) Kuyruk Doğru Adil Teat Trunk call Lounge suit Trousers Onarak Shoelace Interval Mincer Sultanas Arial Cupboard Tap Cellotape Mud quard Luggage Lost property Book Under ground Isle Bee Brake Dye Sell Dough Hare Flower Heel Idle Male Hour Strait Tale Fare English English Ada Arı Fren Boya Satmak Hamur Tavşan Çiçek Topuk Boş, Aylak Erkek Saat Boğaz (Çanakkale) Masal Ücret (Bilet v.b.) Turkish Biberon Şehirlerarası telefon Resmi elbise Pantolon Mont Ayakkabı bağı Ara (sinemada) Kıyma makinası Kişmiş Anten Dolap Muslık Şeffaf bant Çamurluk Bavul Kayıp eşya bürosu Yer ayırtmak Metro

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Zero

Naught

Sıfır

Agricultural Words and Terms General Agriculture: Tarım Horticulture:Bağcılık, Bahçecilik Viticulture: Üzümcülük Apiculture: Arıcılık Cultivate: Işlemek Plow: Sürmek, Pulluk Sow: Ekmek Plant: Dikmek Mow: Biçmek Reap: Biçmek Harvest: Hasat etmek Trash: Dövmek Wilt: Sararma Thin: Seyreltme Hoe: Çapalama Irrigate: Sulama Sprinkler: Yağmurlama Barn: Samanlık Furrow: Karık Fallow: Nadas To Leave Fallow: Nadasa bırakma Plants Grains: Hububatlar Barley: Arpa Wheat: Buğday Corn: Mısır Millet: Darı Lentils: Mercimek Oat: Yulaf Awned Wheat: Kılçıklı b. Rice: Pirinç Weed: Yabancı ot Winnow: Savurmak Store: Depolamak Germinate: Çimlenme Emerge: Çıkma Flower: Çiçek, Çiçek açma Mature: Olgun, Olgunlaşma Bran: Kepek Stable: Ahır Stem: Gövde (ağaç) Branch: Dal Bark: Kabuk Stalk: Gövde (sap) Seedling : Fide Fingerling: Yavru balık Rotation: Münavebe Smut: Sürme Forage Crops: Yem bitkileri Fodder Crops: Yem Bit. Cover Crops: Örtü bitkileri Bovine : Büyükbaş hayvan Ovine: Küçükbaş Hayvan Leaf: Yaprak Awn: Kılçık Bud: Tomurcuk Field Crops: Tarla bitkileri Cash Crops: Gelir bitkileri Subsistence Crops: Geçimlik Ürünler Grain Crops: Daneliler Cereal Crops: Hububat Root Crops: Kök bitkileri Industrial Crops: End. bit. Oil Crops: Yağ bitkileri Fiber Crops: Lif bitkileri Poultry: Kümes hayvan Feed: Hayvan yemi Trough: Kurun (Su kapları) Saddle Animals: Binek h. Draft Animals: Çeki h. Flora: Tabii Bitki varlığı Fauna:Tabii Hayvan varlığı Farm Manure: Çiftlik gübresi Beef: Sığır eti Mutton: Koyun eti

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Rye: Çavdar

Industrial crops Cotton: Pamuk Hemp: Kenevir Fruits:Meyveler Apple: Elma Pear: Armut Peach: Şeftali Apricot: Kayısı Plum: Erik Cherry: Kiraz Pip: Çekirdek Vegetables: Sebzeler Tomato: Domates Pepper: Biber Egg Plant: Patlıcan Cucumber: Salatalık Lettuce: Marul Carrot: Havuç Nuts: Kuruyemişler Chestnut: Kestane Walnut: Ceviz Peanut : Fıstık Fodder crops: Yem Bitkileri Alfalfa: Yonca Seinfoin: Korunga Flowers: Çiçekler Rose: Gül Tulip: Lale Carnation: Karanfil Violet: Menekşe Daisy: Papatya Lavender: Lavanta Vetch: Fiğ (Küspe) Clover : Üçgül Grass: Çimen Crushed Straw: Saman Coconut: Hindistan Cevizi Almond: Badem Cashew: Cashew Fıstığı Pistachio: Antep Fıstığı Potato: Patates Onion: Soğan Garlic: Sarmısak Bean: Fasulye Melon: Kavun Squash: Kabak (Dolmalık) Pumpkin: Kabak (Bal) Cauliflower: Karnabahar Cabbage: Lahana Mushroom: Mantar Cherry Pip: Kiraz çekirdeği Grape: Üzüm Grapefruit: Greyfurt Date: Hurma Fig: Incir Melon : Kavun Watermelon: Karpuz Strawberry: Çilek Mulberry: Dut Pineapple: Ananas Orange: Portakal Tangerine: Mandalina Lemon: Limon Quince : Ayva Tobacco: Tütün Sugar Beet: Şeker pancarı Flax: Keten, Jute: Kendir

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Jasmine: Yasemin

Lily: Zambak

Trees: Ağaçlar Willow : Söğüt Poplar: Kavak Oak: Meşe Hazelnut: Fındık Pine: Çam Division : Bölüm Maple: Akçaağaç Palm Tree: Palmiye Herbicide:Yabancı Ot Ilacı Pea: Bezelye Chick-Pea: Nohut Class: Sınıf Okra: Bamya Spinach: Ispanak Celery : Kereviz Parsley: Maydanoz Leek: Prasa Family: Familya

Animals and Insects Bovine: Büyükbaş Hayvanlar Cow: Inek Ox: Öküz Calf: Dana Bull: Boğa Buffalo: Manda Pig: Domuz Camel: Deve

Ovine: Küçükbaş Hayvanlar Sheep: Koyun Eve: Koyun Ram: Koç Lamb: Kuzu Goat: Keçi Buch: Teke Doe: Keçi (Dişi), Dişi Geyik

Poultry: Kümes Hayvancılığı Chicken: Tavuk Hen: Tavuk Rooster: Horoz Turkey: Hindi Goose: Kaz Duck: Ördek Duckling: Ördek yavrusu

Saddle Animals: Binek Hayvanları Horse: At Stallion: Aygır Mare: Kısrak Donkey:Eşek Mule: Katır

Domestic Animals Dog: Köpek

: Ev Hayvanlar Puppy: Guduk Kitten: K.Yavrusu

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Bitch: Kancık

Cat: Kedi

Insects: Böcekler Fly: Sinek Bee: Arı Mosquito: Sivrisinek Beetle: A. Böceği Insecticide:Böcek Öldürücü Butterfly: Kelebek Spider: Örümcek Cockroach: Hamam b. Silkworm: Ipek böceği Locust: Çekirge Genus: Cins Species: Tür Variety: Çeşit Strain: Hat

Wild Animals and Others Land Animals: Kara Hayvanları Wolf: Kurt Fox: Tilki Bear: Ayı Lion: Aslan Tiger: Kaplan Leopard: Leopar Monkey: Maymun Zebra: Zebra Giraffe: Zürafa Elephant: Fil Beaver: Kunduz Jackal: Çakal Rabbit: Tavşan Rat: Tarla faresi Mouse: Ev faresi Bat: Yarasa Squirrel: Sincap

Sea Creatures: Deniz Yaratıkları Whale: Balina Shark: Köpek Balığı Dolphin: Yunus Balığı Trout: Alabalık Coral: Mercan Sponge: Sünger Octopus: Ahtapot Mussel: Midye Shrimp: Karides Lobster: Istakos Crab: Yengeç

Birds: Kuşlar Sea Gull: Martı Hawk: Atmaca Dove: Güvercin Falcon: Şahin Canary: Kanarya Parrot: Papağan Crow: Karga Sparrow: Serçe Pigeon: Güvercin Eagle: Kartal Stork: Leylek Crane: Leylek Peacock: Tavus Pheasant: Keklik Vulture: Akbaba Ostrich: Devekuşu Owl: Baykuş

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Reptiles: Sürüngenler Snake: Yılan Scorpion: Akrep Crocodile: Timsah Agricultural Implements Fork: Dirgen Rake: Tırmak Pick: Kazma Shovel: Kürek Spade: Bel Küreği Hoe: Çapa Combine Harvester: Biçer Döver Household Tools Scissors: Makas Tweezers: Cımbız Pliers: Pense Pincers: Kerpeten Axe: Balta Chopper: Satır, Falçata Lever: Levye Drill: Matkap Screw: Vida Driver: Tornavida Bolt: Civata Nut: Somun Spanner: Somun anahtarı Wrench: İng.Anahtar Saw: Testere Hacksaw: Demir testeresi Ripsaw: Ağaç testeresi Dust Pan: Faraş Awl: Biz Strainer: Süzgeç Funnel: Huni Bucket: Kova Nail: Çivi Hammer: Çekiç Brush: Fırça Broom: Süpürge Mop: Paspas Hammer: Çekiç Sickle: Orak Scythe: Tırpan Cart: Araba Plow: Pulluk Roller: Merdane Potato Planter: P. Dikici Seed Drill: Mibzer Tractor: Traktör Trailer: Römork Wheel Barrow: El arabası Harrow: Sürgü Discharrow: Diskaro Alligator: Timsah Turtle: Kaplumbağa Worm: Solucan Snail: Sümüklü böcek Frog: Kurbağa

Parts of a Human Body The Skeleton : İskelet Skull: Kafatası Collar-Bone: Köprücük k. Shoulder-Blade: Kürek k. Breastbone: Göğüş Kemiği Rib: Kaburga Kemiği Backbone/Spine: Omurga Wrist: Bilek Fist: Yumruk Hand: El Palm: Aya, Avuç içi Thumb: Başparmak Finger: Parmak Nail: Tırnak Forehead/Brow: Alın Jaw: Çene Kemiği Mustache: Bıyık Beard: Sakal Tooth: Diş Lip: Dudak Tongue: Dil

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Hip-Bone/: Kalça Kemiği/ Pelvis: Leğen Kemiği Kneecap: Dizkapağı Kemiği Hair: Saç Head: Baş/Kafa Neck: Boyun Throat: Boğaz/Gırtlak Shoulder: Omuz Chest: Göğüs Back: Sırt Waist: Bel Stomach/Tummy:Mide/Karın Hip: Kalça Bottom/Buttocks: Kıç/Kaba Armpit: Koltuk Altı Arm: Kol Upper Arm: Üst kol Forearm: Önkol Elbow: Dirsek Automotive Words and Terms Car: Araba Bus: Otobüs Truck: Kamyon Bumper: Tampon Headlight: Ön Far Signal: Sinyal Fender: Çamurluk Hood: Motor kapağı Windshield: Ön cam Wiper: Silecek Roof: Üst Kaporta Trunk: Bagaj Wheel: Tekerlek Tire: Lastik Rear view mirror: Arkayı görüş aynası Steering Wheel: Direksiyon simidi To sound horn: Korna

Leg: Bacak Thigh: Uyluk Knee: Diz Calf: Baldır Ankle: Ayak bileği Foot: Ayak Heel: Topuk Instep: Taban kemeri Sole: Ayak tabanı Toe: Ayak parmağı The Face: Yüz Eye: Göz Nose: Burun Ear: Kulak Mouth: Ağız Cheek: Yanak, Avurt Chin: Çene Temple: Şakak

Eye: Göz Eyeball: Göz yuvarlağı Eyebrow: Kaş Eyelid: Göz kapağı Eyelashes: Kirpikler Iris: Iris/Iris Tabakası Brain: Beyin Wind Pipe: Soluk borusu Heart: Kalp Yürek Lung: Akciğer Liver: Karaciğer Kidney: Böbrek Intestines: Barsaklar Bladder: Sidik torbası Vein: Toplardamar Artery: Atardamar Muscle: Kas/Adale Vessel: Damar

Gear: Vites Clutch: Debriyaj Brake: Firen Accelerator: Gaz Fan: Pervane Fan Belt: Pervane kayışı Starter: Marş Spark Plug: Buji Distributor: Distribitör Carburetor: Karbüratör Dashboard: Konsol Glove Compartment: Torpido gözü Front Seat: Ön koltuk Back Seat: Arka koltuk Seat Belt: Kemer Horn: Korna To Blow Horn: Korna

Spare Tire: Yedek Lastik Jack: Kriko Lever: Levye Towing Rope: Çekme halat Extinguisher: Yangın sön. Fuel Tank: Depo Pot Hole: Kasis To Start: Çalıştırmak To Speed Up: Hızlanmak To Swerve: Dir. Kırmak Flat Tire: Patlak Lastik To Slow down : Yavaşlamak
To Pull Over: Kenara çekmek

To Stop: Durmak To Repair the flat tire: Lastik tamir etmek A Dent On The Fender: Çamurlukta bir çöküntü

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çalmak

Çalmak

Military Terms Private Corporal Sergeant Lieutenant Second Lieutenant Captain Major Lieutenant colonel Colonel General One Star general Two Star general Three Star general Four Star general Marshal Chief of staff Army Navy Airforce Infantry Er Onbaşı Çavuş Teğmen Üsteğmen Yüzbaşı Binbaşı Yarbay Albay General Tuğ general Tüm general Kor general Or general Mareşal Genel kurmay baş. Kara kuvvetleri Deniz kuvvetleri Hava kuvvetleri Piyade Artillery Cavalry Tank units Military engineering Communication Units Cease- Fire Armistice Machine gun Bullet Artillery round Missile Nuclear warhead Gun powder Combat Booby trap Armored vehicles Trench Front line Topçu Süvari Tankçı İstihkam Muhabere Ateş Kes Mütareke Makinalı tüfek Tabanca mermisi Top mermisi Füze Nükleer başlık Barut Çatışma Bubi tuzağı Zırhlı araçlar Siper Savaş hattı

Latin Words and Abbreviations De facto De jure Phenomenon Phenomena Fait accompli (Or) Vice Versa Vis-A-Vis As Per In Reality In Law Event Events Accomplished Fact Conversely Faceto Face, Compared to In Accordance with Fiili Durum Yasal Olarak Durum Olay Olaylar Emri Vaki, Oldu Bitti (Veya) Tersi Yüz Yüze, E Göre E Uygun Olarak….

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Datum Data Thesis Theses Per Se Per Capita Ad Hoc In Vivo In Vitro Sine Quo Non Ceterus Paribus I.E. (Id Est) E.G. (Exempli Gratia) Etc. (Et Cetera) Et al. Ibid ( Ibidem) C.V. Quid Pro Quo Erratum Errata Criterion Criteria Bona Fide

Information (Sin.) Information (Pl.) Thesis Theses In (By) itself Per Head Specific In living thing Out of living thing Essential Other things being equal That Is For Example And so on And others In the book cited above Curriculum Vitae Something for something Error Errors Criterion Criteria Made in good faith

Veri Veriler Tez Tezler Bizatihi Kişi Başına Özel Canlı içinde Canlı dışında Olmazsa olmaz Diğer şartlar sabit kaldığında Yani Mesela Vesaire Ve diğerleri Y.A.G.E. Özgeçmiş Kısasa kısas Hata Hatalar Ölçüt Ölçütler Iyi niyetle yapılmış

Uni, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta, octa, nona, deca. Onomatopoeic Words (Tabiat sesleri taklidi kelimeler) Bark: Havlama Meow: Miyavlama Hee Haw: Anırma Quack: Vak Vak Roar: Kükreme Weigh: Kişneme Blah-Blah: Dırdır Burb: Geğirme Sneeze: Hapşırma Hum: Mırıldanma (Şarkı) Mırmır: Mırıldanma (Söz) Purr: Mırıldanma (Kedi) Snore: Horlama Piss: Işeme Cough: Öksürme Crack: Çatırtı Crackle: Çıtırtı Crash: Çarpışma Knock: Kapıyı Vurma Clap: Alkış Sesi Chop: Odun Kırma Chip: Kutuya Para Atma Moan: Inleme Crisp: Gevrek Bomb: Bomba lamak Snap: Ipin Kopması Hick-Up: Hıçkırmak

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Hush: Hış!

Splash: Suya Çarpma

A Poem Come, come again. Whatever you are come again. Be you an idol or fire worshipper or an atheist Come again. Our way is not the way of hopelessness; Even if you have broken your oath or penitence a hundred times, Come again, Mevlana

Another Poem Whatever you wish for yourself, wish the same for the others. That is the assence of four Books, and the words of the fathers.

Yunus Emre

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