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male-headed families in low-income communities on Queretaro, Mexico. This discussion reveals two important factors. Firstly, female-headed families are more desirable in economic welfare, household management and authority patterns than male-headed families. Secondly, single-parent structures are often the outcome of a deliberate and positive choice by low-income women to make them free from the restricting aspects. Despite some major structural constraints such as educating children, struggling for survivals etc; the economic and social potential of female-headed families often fare better than male-headed nuclear households. Because children of female headed families generally do part-time jobs for further studies & also for their survivals. This economic cooperation by children has a great impact on economy & also made socialize the children. Sylvia thought that in almost all urban areas, male-headed family structures are predominant. However, in Latin America and the Caribbean, there are also significant numbers of female-headed households. The proportions of female-headed households vary from one place to another for some reasons. Sylvia thought that the existence of the mother-child household is the result of male instigation. Furthermore, people think that a family without a man is socially & economically ‘worse off’ and ‘lagging behind’. He made a survey in 244 low-income households of Queretaro, to observe how female-headed households survive in comparison with male-headed households and to clarify the various reasons (such as, female initiative) of forming single-parent units. WAGE OF THE HOUSEHOLD HEAD Within the total sample of 244 households, there were 167 male-headed nuclear families and twenty-two female-headed, single-parent units. The disadvantage of singleparent households is that women in Mexico earn less than men. But Sylvia thought that the family head’s wage is not only the indicator of economic well-being, contributions of other household members are also important. In nuclear households, only the male heads earn wages. But in single-parent families, basically in female-headed families, children provide up one-third of the weekly household budget. SPENDING PATTERNS WITHIN HOUSEHOLDS People think that ‘secondary poverty’ remains in female-headed households because the unequal allocation of economic resources often means that women and children are underfed or undernourished. But Sylvia showed that male heads used 50 percent of their wages for their personal use. Alternatively, female heads contributed all their wages to family welfare & they also could plan their budgets more efficiently than the women lived with volatile husbands.
THE SOCIALIZATION OF CHILDREN The most important role of female-headed. probably as a result of early participation in household welfare. So authority patterns of the families are important. Some became widows and others had taken the initiative to leave their husbands when they could no longer cope with a situation of violence. this problem is often solved in two ways. opinions and attitudes. And in female-headed families. female family heads understand the importance of girls’ education. It means. Where as in single-parent structures. According to him. However. single-parent households is socializing the children. In single-parent families.HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT In nuclear families we can see a strict sexual division of labor. man had left home to establish a new family with another woman. women begin the house-works when they return home from their jobs. REASONS OF FORMING SINGLE-PARENT FAMILIES In one case. the man had left ‘in search of work’ and had never returned. Which husbands are responsible towards their spouses. house-works may not get done so efficiently. females are generally full-time housewives. housework is shared by the children and secondly. habits. So children of these families appear to be mature and responsible. female-headed families are economically more efficient and manageable than male-headed families. Sylvia Chant thus made differences between the economic and social welfare of female-headed and male-headed families in low-income communities on Queretaro. women have to take the both role of wage-earner as well as housewife. Firstly. infidelity or a lack of financial commitment. they are given opportunities equal to those of boys. . In other case. Socialization is originated in family because it is the carrier and transmitter of values. It has a major implication for running the households. In fact. this makes the children socialized. Both boy and girl children actively participate in sharing the task of running the household. In these cases women had to move out of their husbands’ house & find alternative accommodation for themselves & their children. women are generally employed. generally they saw their own fathers treat their mothers badly and so they swore not to treat their own wives in a similar fashion. less discrimination shows towards female children.