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Computing temperature among small number of galaxies based on Planck function

Mohd Faiz Mohd Zin

West Virginia University (Dated: April 24, 2013) The spectral energy distribution in the form of intensity against wavelength for small number of galaxies observed by IRAS cataloged galaxies and quasars is tted based on Planck function. The brightness temperature was computed from energy distribution and the they are at the range of 2702.15K to 1769.15K. Then they were being compared with actual temperature of red giant star which is at 2700K, the coldest red giant star. Keywords Planck function, Plancks Law, temperature of galaxies, black-body radiation, giant star



reaches a peak at some wavelength, then falls gradually at longer wavelengths.

Physical body spontaneously and continuously emits electromagnetic radiation. So, galaxies also can be approximately treated as a black body which emits a radiation to measure their emitted energy. A black body in thermal equilibrium emits electromagnetic radiation at certain temperature. The radiation showed a specic spectrum and intensity that depends only on the temperature of the body. This specic spectrum is also known as Planck function. In this paper, eight dierent intensity of galaxies observed by IRAS (Cataloged Galaxies and Quasars) were computed according to the Planck function. With that, eight dierent brightness temperatures were observed and then were compared with other similar objects in that range of temperature which is at the lower temperature of spectral type among red giant stars. The measured brightness temperature and the comparison between temperature of red giant stars can open another study to understand the features of that certain galaxy.



General formula for Planck function is used to determine its intensity either from the measured frequency or wavelength. To obtain temperature from a certain intensity coming from an object required the inversion of the Planck function which yield, T = 1 hc ( ) k ln((2hc2 5)/Iwavelength + 1) (2)

It should be noted that this method will only yield the brightness temperature. So, temperature of red giant stars can be used as a main scaling factor for the temperature of that observed galaxy to determine other features such as mass and size.

II. II.1.





Planck function is used to compute the radiance emitted from objects that radiate like a perfect blackbody. A blackbody is an object which absorbs all the light which hits it and at the same time it also emits radiation. Planck function that depends on per unit wavelength basis is given as, B ( T ) = 2hc2 5 e kT 1

The main sequence star will transforms into a Red Giant which is a luminous giant star of low or intermediate mass. Stars that exhaust their hydrogen and are medium mass stars become Red Giants. They have a temperature range of 2700K to 4500K. Stars become red giants when they are running out of the hydrogen. When the hydrogen is used up, the helium core collapses and the outer layer expands and cools. The star is now known as Red Giant.


where h is Plancks constant, k is Boltzmanns constant, c is speed of light in vacuum and T is the object temperature in Kelvins. The Planck function has a distinctive shape where it rises very sharply at short wavelengths. This is due to the exponential in the formula above and the function


To obtain Planck function for eight dierent galaxies, their ux density against wavelength is plotted as shown in FIG. 1. The temperature of those galaxies are measured by obtaining its t and each points of dierent intensities are computed into equation (2) to obtain their brightness temperature as shown in TABLE I.

TABLE I. Temperature of eight dierent galaxies with their uncertainty which is obtained through the t. Gal. Name 13370-3123 05059-3734 23134-4251 10257-4338 03317-3618 03419+6756 11257+5850 17584+6638A Temperature (K) Intensity (Jy) 2702.15 2731.20 2711.19 2715.95 2715.76 2726.02 2724.69 2769.15 117.56 150.83 25.46 81.85 50.83 20.7 111.87 102.36 21.02 86.05 94.75 8.34 147.16 95.30 28.7 99.45 74.39 25.01 119.89 81.19 4.76 143.35 35.1 13.94 TABLE II. Varying temperature of eight dierent ts for eight dierent galaxies. Gal. Name Temperature (K) 13370-3123 2599.5334 2762.4 2769.62 2772.03 2819.71 2756.24 2818.34 2770.26 05059-3734 2794.77 2732.35 2791.84 2729.22 2805.33 2740.52 2714.04 2813.05 23134-4251 2815.84 2690.43 2844.78 2742.82 2803.65 2823.07 2718.36 2725.12 10257-4338 2803.43 2802 2796.95 2753.14 2781.88 2737.42 2787.28 2785.33 03317-3618 2760 2754.14 2862.92 2802.72 2763.49 2768.59 2784.18 2797.89 03419+6756 2855.53 2825.47 2789.22 2789.56 2734.95 2758.51 2801.78 2814.92

FIG. 1. Planck function are tted in these eight dierent galaxies of four dierent intensity (Jy) at four dierent wavelength (12, 25, 60, 200 m). Eight dierent temperature are then computed based on that tting.

Then, this eight dierent galaxies were repeatedly tted using monte-carlo method by varying its uxes based on 10% uncertainties. The plot for variations in temperature are shown in FIG. 2, 3, and 4 respectively and their temperature were being recorded in TABLE II and TABLE III.



The range of temperature measured for eight dierent galaxies is from 2702.15K to 2769.15K. As mentioned previously, the lowest range of temperature for giant star is 2700K. Therefore, the brightness temperature of our measured galaxies is the same as the temperature of the coldest giant star. Supergiant such as Antares and Betelgeuse are known its temperature for 3400K and 3500K respectively. On the sky, it would be observed that these eight galaxies would have a dimmer brightness than the those supergiants.

TABLE III. Varying temperature of ten dierent ts for eight dierent galaxies. Gal. Name 11257+5850 Temperature (K) FIG. 2. Plot for variations in temperature for a specic galaxy

2799.31 2803.39 2844.58 2799.98 2825.01 2798.08 2792.32 2806.11 17584+6638A 2866.13 2897.22 2847.83 2873.15 2878.26 2871.83 2878.31 2912.51



The error and uncertainty taken account in this paper are obtained from tting the energy distribution and then propagate in further derivation. The error to obtain the intensity by measuring the peak were taken from the tting process. Then from that error it propagate to measure temperature. In addition to that is the error arise from Monte-Carlo t, which is taken from the average of 8 dierent temperature obtained for each galaxy. The percentage error for the measured temperatures are not larger than 5%.



The Planck function has been described and plotted for eight dierent galaxies with large ux density. The brightness temperature then being computed from that. To increase accuracy for our measurement, Monte-Carlo method to t was used. The temperature obtained is from 2702.15K to 2769.15K which obeys Plancks law. This range of temperature also showed that they have lesser brightness temperature than the actual temperature of cold supergiants such as Betelgeuse and Antares. On the sky, it can be observed as the coldest giant stars which is at range of 2700K.

FIG. 3. Plot for variations in temperature for a specic galaxy