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**Mohd Faiz Mohd Zin∗
**

West Virginia University (Dated: April 9, 2013) The Hubble’s Law model are being compared with measured redshift z velocity with respect to its distance. The measured redshift z is directly proportional with distance and the measured Hubble constant H0 is 65.341 ± 0.025. Observation of ﬂux density with respect to distance is made.

I.

INTRODUCTION

Two important observations were made with Hubble’s Law. The ﬁrst one is that all intergalactic objects are found to have a redshift and second is that the higher the redshift velocity, the larger the distance it is from Earth. Hubble’s law also depicted a direct proportionality between velocity and distance to the source. Generally, the velocity is assumed to be approximately proportional to the redshift of an object. In this paper, comparison is shown between the measured redshift z velocity and the model of Hubble’s law. It is also known that the ﬂux density of a source is dependent on the distance between the source and the observer. This paper also attempts to correlate between intensity and the distance of intergalactic objects.

There are diﬀerent ways to deﬁne redshift. The one that is related with this paper is by calculating the relative diﬀerence between observed and emitted frequency of an object as follow, z= νemit − νobs νobs (2)

where νemit is the emitted frequency and νobs is the observed frequency. In this paper, emitted frequency, νemit is the rest frequency of a spectral line. The rest frequency for neutral hydrogen (HI) spectrum is 1.420405752 GHz. The observed frequency is measured for each source because this frequency is depending on the relative velocity between the source and the observer. As we are dealing with other galactic source, the redshift, z is approximately to recessional velocity and speed of light, z≈ vr c (3)

II. II.1.

THEORY Hubble’s Law

The linear relationship between recessional velocity and distance in Hubble’s Law can be expressed as, v = H0 d (1)

where vr << c This paper will study between the approximation of recession velocity made by using redshift z with the Hubble’s model of recessional velocity with respect to distance to the galaxy.

II.3. Flux density and Distance

where v is recessional velocity, H0 is Hubble’s constant which current accepted value is 67.80 km/s and d is the distance to the galaxy. This fundamental relation only works for small redshift as for larger redshift, objects recede at a faster rate than speed of light and the proportionality will not be linear anymore.

The relationship between ﬂux density, F with distance, d is expressed as F ∝ 1 d2 (4)

II.2.

Redshift velocity

which is known as inverse-square law where ﬂux density is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source.

III. RESULT AND ANALYSIS

Redshift occurs when the observed frequency from an object that is moving away is proportionally decreasing. This decrease in frequency can be said also as increased in wavelength which then result of the shifted to the red end of the spectrum.

The spectral lines for 13 sources were ﬁt for ﬂux density with recessional velocity and ﬂux density with frequency. Distances to galaxies are then obtained from measured recessional velocity with Hubble’s Law, v = H0 d (5)

∗

Contact: mmohdzin@mix.wvu.edu

3341 70. Redshift.0344 0.0171559 0. 2 compared the value of Hubble constant between the model and the measured redshift z velocity.09668 4599.8684 TABLE II. By equation (3). z 0. z≈ a slight derivation.1830 ± 10.626 ± 3.0153 0.10689 5090.4932 1398.8777 ± 0.6633 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.8401 ± 0.0785 ± 0.0169 0.3652 101. AGC 485 488 489 491 497 499 501 509 511 518 1939 1903 213506 Frequency (MHz) 1395.109485 0. frequency were obtained from the ﬁt and this measured frequency are known to be an observed frequency. z is obtained from frequency of the spectral line. As previously mentioned.87585 5212.0166 0.0165639 0. Distance and recessional velocity is directly proportional with each other and this relationship form an equation of a line which is governed by Hubble’s constant.6915 1396. emitted frequency.0173 0. and FIG 3.4088 ± 2296.561 ± 6. 1.8467 1396.034 0. 3. z can now be calculated from (2) and TABLE II for frequency and redshift.1287 1396.1047 67.0966 153.4609 1398.00508912 0. By using this same distance. H0 is measured at 65.0385 0. Plot in FIG.54831 10385.0572 76.7470 ± 0. Table of recessional velocity and distance are tabulated with respect to observed sources in TABLE I.0817934 0.4546 ± 0.8119 11828. this paper failed to . H0 is Hubble’s constant which current accepted value is 67.414 5140 ± 7.3251 ± 9.0322 ± 0.8112 ± 0. The uncertainties obtained are statistical. III. III. Relation of Flux Density and Distance vr is calculated from this relation and the comparison is made between measured redshift z velocity and with Using distance obtained from previous section.62% from the accepted value of 67. respectively. the measured ﬂux density is tabulated and plotted as in TABLE III.341 ± 0.1152 174.49 ± 24.0471424 0. So.1332 1372. νemit is the rest frequency of the spectrum. z at low redshift. d= v H0 (6) FIG.2603 1397. From the data points in FIG. νobs .1.020 ± 18. Comparing with redshift velocity From spectral lines of sources.1399 155.1803 ± 0.2556 1388.5855 5203.6727 ± 33.2 TABLE I. The Hubble constant.9192 ± 12. the redshift z is plotted as shown in the next section to compare its relation with distance. Theoretically.2 are taken to be a model of Hubble’s Law because the distance was derived from the measured recessional velocity.9429 1372.0534 66. Therefore. is plotted to demonstrate this relation.1514 73.3098 ± 9.1547 ± 0. redshift.0173 0.0357527 0. the redshift.4468 ± 3.6306 ± 7..0158 0.1856 76.2651 4994.2. FIG 1.48735 10519. where v is recessional velocity.0171 0.4071 ± 1. z at lower value is linearly proportional with velocity of an object.7595 6893. The uncertainty for frequency is statistical.0576984 0.0434186 0.0151 0.9529 ± 0.5757 ± 0.8 km/s/Mpc It is interesting to note that the measured redshift z is deviate further away from the model as if to indicate the approximation is collapse as it goes further away. it would change when the value of redshift reach beyond 1.1728 1399.1388 75.28 77.0300946 0.9162 1366.0354305 Redshift. AGC Recessional Velocity(km/s) Distance (km) 485 488 489 491 497 499 501 509 511 518 1939 1903 213506 5259. Linearity between velocity and redshift.0431271 0.6714 ± 0.025 km/s/Mpc which is oﬀ by 3.2190 1396.6526 4748. H0 .0227 which further slightly modiﬁcation.0175 0.0163 75. As mentioned before. The plot of TABLE I data as in FIG. z is tabulated.0324999 0.61866 4539.80 km/s and d is the distance to the galaxy. vr ≈ zc (8) vr c (7) Hubble’s Law model of recessional velocity with respect to distance.

0322 ± 0. 2.518976 Distance (km) 77.693344 0.6714 ± 0.9664 0.498323 0.442723 9. H0 failed to agree with the accepted one.4018758 21.7470 ± 0. This paper also did not manage to show any obvious relation between ﬂux density and distance as in the inversesquare Law. Unfortunately. However. 2.1047 67.579826 231. . TABLE III.762543 0.1803 ± 0.1399 155.4939356 14.34541 13.34541 Jy .0572 76. Attempts have been made to include systematic errors from the ALFALFA survey but failed to get or to interpret information regarding the error and uncertainty to be used in this paper.0534 66.3 FIG. AGC 485 488 489 491 497 499 501 509 511 518 1939 1903 213506 Flux Density (mJy) 27.4522877 5. Insuﬃcient data points because there were many points that seems to be outliers but this possibility cannot be taken into account due to a large scattered of points.0785 ± 0.1856 76. There is no distinct pattern in the plot that could be use as a point to be ﬁt.549620 5.7709102 7. While the measured Hubble’s constant. Inverse-square law can be ﬁt from only three sources in the plot which is of AGC 499 at 231.8112 ± 0.4546 Jy.9529 ± 0. The recessional velocity-distance is a model for accepted value of Hubble constant which is 67.7709572 ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 1.742234 5. and AGC 485 at 174.02186 8.984175 1. Redshift z velocity measured Hubble constant at 65. AGC 518 at 153.0163 75.80 km/s. it doesn’t ﬁt into inverse-square law.341 ± 0.5757 ± 0. to 80 km excluding the outliers at high ﬂux density of 230 Jy.8401 ± 0.0966 153.529667 0.8257628 7. The uncertainty obtained from the measured Hubble’s constant fails to include the range of its accepted value as the range value is from 65. 3. qualitative observation is made and there seems a pattern forming of sources from distance of 60 This paper compared between model of Hubble’s Law with the measured redshift z velocity. this pattern is still vague and furthermore.511537 0. The deviation from the model are only distinguish when it goes farther away the distance and this might hint a relativistic eﬀect of this measured model.1152 174. FIG.316 km/s/Mpc. CONCLUSION establish any quantitative observation with following reasons: 1.118309 29.8684 III. The statistical error from ﬁtting the spectral lines are propagate in further derivation.309765 18. Scattered plot between distance and ﬂux density.6727 ± 33.441794 1.4546 ± 0.1388 75.1547 ± 0.025 km/s which is oﬀ by 3. it can be observe the directly proportional between redshift z and the distance similar with the Hubble’s Law.8777 ± 0.62% from the accepted value.1514 73. Distance and ﬂux density and the uncertainties obtained are statistical.1803 Jy.24251 0.612887 0. Comparing between recessional velocity and redshift z velocity.3.24565 0. IV.3341 70. Error Analysis The error and uncertainty taken account in this paper are only due to random error.367 to 65.3652 101.

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