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PTC_CE_BSD_4.2_us_mp.mcdx

Mathcad ® Enabled Content Copyright © 2011 Knovel Corp. Building Structural Design Thomas P. Magner, P.E. © 2011 Parametric Technology Corp. Chapter 4: Reinforced Concrete Columns 4.2 Effective Lengths and Critical Loads Disclaimer While Knovel and PTC have made every effort to ensure that the calculations, engineering solutions, diagrams and other information (collectively “Solution”) presented in this Mathcad worksheet are sound from the engineering standpoint and accurately represent the content of the book on which the Solution is based, Knovel and PTC do not give any warranties or representations, express or implied, including with respect to fitness, intended purpose, use or merchantability and/or correctness or accuracy of this Solution. Array origin:

ORIGIN ≔ 1

Description An ordinary or first order frame analysis does not include either the effects of the lateral sideways deflections of the column ends, or the effects of the deflections of members along their lengths on the axial loads and moments in a frame. The effects of the deflections of the column ends can be evaluated directly by performing a second order analysis or by using approximate methods. In frames where lateral stability is dependent upon the bending stiffness of rigidly connected beams and columns, the effective length of compression members must be determined (unless a second order analysis meeting the requirements of ACI 318, Section 10.10 is performed). In addition, for frames that are braced laterally, effective length factors less than 1 may be used to permit reduction in the amplified moment, which may be required by Section 10.11.5 of ACI 318. The effective length method uses k factors to equate the strength of a framed compression element of length L to an equivalent pin-ended member of length kL subject to axial load only. This application calculates the effective length factors and critical loads for rectangular columns in braced or unbraced frames. A single story, all stories, or selected stories may be entered. Mathcad solve blocks are used to solve the equations for effective length factors. This eliminates the need to use either the alignment charts or the simplified formulas shown in the ACI 318 Commentary. The intermediate variables calculated by this application include the moments of inertia of the gross concrete sections, the relative stiffness of rectangular columns and rectangular or flanged beams, and the ratios of the sum of the column stiffness to the sum of the beam stiffness at each specified joint. This document is divided into four steps: Step 1: The user enters section dimensions, member lengths and moments of inertia, and relative member stiffnesses are calculated Step 2: The user identifies the beams and columns at each joint, and stiffness ratios (values) at the joints are calculated. Step 3: The user identifies the stiffness ratios at each end of the columns and the effective length factors are calculated.

Mathcad ® Enabled Content Copyright © 2011 Knovel Corp. All rights reserved.

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the user should have a basic understanding of matrix notation and Mathcad's vectorize operator to use this application. Page 2 of 13 .PTC_CE_BSD_4. Reference: ACI 318-89 "Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete. the maximum matrix size Mathcad (version 3.1) provides for manual entry of elements. if there are five joints per floor with a unique combination of beam and column stiffnesses.2_us_mp. The number of joints that may be entered at one time is limited to 100." (Revised 1992) Input FLOOR PLAN Mathcad ® Enabled Content Copyright © 2011 Knovel Corp. a 20 story building could be entered.mcdx Step 4: The user enters the "creep" factor d and critical loads are calculated. All rights reserved. For example. Note For entry of more than two floors at a time.

Page 3 of 13 . All rights reserved.2_us_mp. Figure 1 (K values & Pcr. Level 2) Mathcad ® Enabled Content Copyright © 2011 Knovel Corp. Direction Under Consideration The columns above and below each story for which effective lengths and critical loads are being calculated must be entered to calculate the sum of the relative stiffness of all columns at the joint. Levels 1 & 2) Figure 2 (K values & Pcr. Figure 2 shows a case where the effective lengths and critical loads for level 2 are to be calculated.mcdx Step 1 Input Variables The user must enter the section dimensions and clear span or clear height for any member which has a unique combination of section dimensions and clear span or height. The dashed lines indicate that the member properties are not required. The number of column levels to be entered will therefore be one or two more than the number of stories being calculated unless you are entering all stories of the building. and Figure 3 shows the case where all levels of a three story building are to be calculated. Figure 1 below shows the case used in this document where the effective lengths and critical loads for levels 1 and 2 are being calculated. In this example frames in the shorter direction are under consideration.PTC_CE_BSD_4. The column thickness h must be the dimension parallel to the frame under consideration.

& 3) Enter the size and length of each column with a different combination of size and/or length.2_us_mp. 2. All rights reserved. T Width of columns: ⎡ 18 24 12 24 ⎤ ⎢ bcol ≔ 18 24 12 24 ⎥ ⋅ in ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 18 24 12 24 ⎦ ⎡ 18 12 24 12 ⎤ ⎢ hcol ≔ 18 12 24 12 ⎥ ⋅ in ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 18 12 24 12 ⎦ ⎡ 14 14 14 14 ⎤ Lcol ≔ ⎢ 10 10 10 10 ⎥ ⋅ ft ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 10 10 10 10 ⎦ T T T Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Thickness of columns: Clear height of columns: Number of columns at each story with a different combination of size and length (for use in Step 4): Effective width of flanged or rectangular beams: Thickness of beams: Flange thickness: ⎡6 6 4 4⎤ NoCols ≔ ⎢ ⎣6 6 4 4⎥ ⎦ Level 1 Level 2 ⎡ 60 60 21 21 ⎤ bf ≔ ⎢ ⋅ in ⎣ 60 60 21 21 ⎥ ⎦ hbm ≔ 20 in hf ≔ 3 in T Level 1 Level 2 Beam web width of flanged beams. Levels 1.PTC_CE_BSD_4. or width of rectangular beams: ⎡ 18 18 12 12 ⎤ bw ≔ ⎢ ⋅ in ⎣ 18 18 12 12 ⎥ ⎦ Mathcad ® Enabled Content Copyright © 2011 Knovel Corp. T Level 1 Level 2 Page 4 of 13 .mcdx Figure 3 (K values & Pcr.

and avoids additional manipulation required when calculating with arrays of different sizes.1): ‾‾‾‾‾ ⎛ wcol ⎞ 1.5 ⎤ Lbm ≔ ⎢ ⋅ ft ⎣ 18. and 3 Icol Ibm Kcol Kbm ks kb Pc moments of inertia of gross concrete section of columns moments of inertia of gross concrete section of beams relative column stiffness. strong or X axis relative stiffness of beams slenderness factors for unbraced frames slenderness factors for braced frames critical load computed using ACI 318.5 18.PTC_CE_BSD_4.5. (ACI 318. Specified compressive strength of concrete for columns: Specified compressive strength of concrete for beams: Unit weight of column concrete: Unit weight of column concrete: Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement (ACI 318. or as transposed matrices of the same size.5 ⎥ ⎦ T Level 1 Level 2 All variables are entered either as single values. Page 5 of 13 .2_us_mp.5.5 f'c_col Ecol ≔ ⎜―― ⎟ ⋅ 33 ⋅ ――⋅ psi psi ⎝ pcf ⎠ Ecol = 3644 ksi Mathcad ® Enabled Content Copyright © 2011 Knovel Corp.5 18. 8. All rights reserved. 2. with each column representing a joint and each row a framed level. This requires duplicate entries but provides maximum flexibility for changing dimensions. (10-9) Material Properties and Constants Enter compressive strength and unit weight of concrete for columns and beams. 8.2): f'c_col ≔ 4 ksi f'c_bm ≔ 4 ksi wcol ≔ 145 pcf wbm ≔ 145 pcf Es ≔ 29000 ksi Modulus of elasticity of column concrete for values of wc between 90 pcf and 155 pcf.75 18 18.mcdx Clear span of beams: ⎡ 18. Computed Variables for Steps 1.75 18 18. Eq.

14 ⎤ in yt T = ⎢ ⎣ 7.86 10.14 9.86 ⎥ ⎦ Moment of inertia of gross concrete section beams: ――――――――――――――――2 ―――――――→ 2 ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ hf ⎞ hbm 1 ⎛ 3 3⎞ Ibm ≔ ― ⋅ ⎝bw ⋅ hbm + ⎛ − yt⎟ + ⎛ ⎝bf − bw⎞ ⎠ ⋅ hf ⎠ + bw ⋅ hbm ⋅ ⎜―― ⎝bf − bw⎞ ⎠ ⋅ hf ⋅ ⎜―− yt⎟ 12 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎡ 18837.5.204 10.204 10.mcdx Modulus of elasticity of beam concrete for values of wc between 90 pcf and 155 pcf. Page 6 of 13 .73 ⎥ ⎦ Mathcad ® Enabled Content Copyright © 2011 Knovel Corp.204 12.73 9773.86 ⎤ in yb T = ⎢ ⎣ 12.83 9773.83 18837. (ACI 318. 8.73 ⎤ 4 in Ibm T = ⎢ ⎣ 18837.796 7.83 9773.796 9.73 9773.796 7.204 12.83 18837.796 9.14 ⎥ ⎦ Distance from the neutral axis of the gross section to the bottom of the section: yb ≔ hbm − yt ⎡ 12.86 10.1): ⎛ wcol ⎞ 1. All rights reserved.2_us_mp.14 9.5 Ebm ≔ ⎜―― ⎟ ⋅ 33 ⋅ ⎝ pcf ⎠ Solution for Step 1 ‾‾‾‾‾ f'c_bm ――⋅ psi psi Ebm = 3644 ksi Moments of inertia of gross concrete section of columns: ――――→ 1 Icol ≔ ― ⋅ bcol ⋅ hcol 3 12 ⎡ 8748 3456 13824 3456 ⎤ ⎢ = 8748 3456 13824 3456 ⎥ in 4 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 8748 3456 13824 3456 ⎦ Icol T Solution for Moments of Inertia of Beam Sections Distance from the neutral axis of the gross section to the top of the section: ――――――――→ 1 ⎛ 2⎞ ⋅ ⎝bw ⋅ hbm 2 + ⎛ ― ⎝bf − bw⎞ ⎠ ⋅ hf ⎠ 2 yt ≔ ――――――――― bw ⋅ hbm + ⎛ ⎝ bf − bw ⎞ ⎠ ⋅ hf ⎡ 7.PTC_CE_BSD_4.

Page 7 of 13 .11.5 ⋅ ―― Lbm ⎡ 154612 152551 82447 80218 ⎤ kip ⋅ in Kbm T = ⎢ ⎣ 154612 152551 82447 80218 ⎥ ⎦ Beam stiffness is multiplied by 0. EI/L Relative stiffness of columns: ―→ Icol Kcol ≔ Ecol ⋅ ―― Lcol ⎡ 189756 74965 299861 74965 ⎤ Kcol T = ⎢ 265658 104951 419806 104951 ⎥ kip ⋅ in ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 265658 104951 419806 104951 ⎦ Relative stiffness of beams: ―→ Ibm Kbm ≔ Ebm ⋅ 0. which corresponds to the level it supports. Section R10. This is a simple calculation. Input Variables for Step 2 = the ratio of Kcol of compression members to Kbm of flexural members in a plane at one end of a compression member.2 This is the relative stiffness of the column at joint number 1. level 2. and its matrix column number which corresponds to the level it supports.2_us_mp. Step 2 In Step 1 the relative stiffness of columns and beams with unique combinations of cross section dimensions and member length were determined. In this example there are 12 columns and 8 beams. See the Commentary of ACI 318. which matches the beam number shown on the sketch above. All rights reserved.mcdx Solution for Relative Stiffness. A column is specified by its matrix row number. The essential point is to ensure that the correct beam and column stiffnesses for each joint are used. Example: Kcol 1.PTC_CE_BSD_4. The stiffness of a beam at any particular joint is specified by its matrix row number. Mathcad ® Enabled Content Copyright © 2011 Knovel Corp.5 to allow for reduced stiffness due to cracking.2. which corresponds to the joint number. In this section the user must assign the relative column and beam stiffnesses at each joint for calculation of the ratios of the sum of the column stiffness to the sum of the beam stiffnesses. and its matrix column number.

2 + Kcol 3.2 = 1.2 Kbm Kcol + Kcol ψ 2. Level 2: ψ ≔ ――――― 4.2 ψ 4.2 Kbm ψ 4. Level 1: 1.1 Kbm Kcol + Kcol 2.PTC_CE_BSD_4. Level 2: 1.483 Kcol Joint 1.1 Kbm + Kbm 3.2 Kbm + Kbm 3.1 ψ 1.179 3. Level 2: 3.2 2. Page 8 of 13 .243 4.179 2. Level 2: ψ ≔ ――――― 2.2 = 2.1 3.2 ψ ≔ ――――― 2.2 + Kcol 1.2 ψ 2.1 2. The essential point is to assign the correct joint stiffness to the ends of each column.1 2.2 ψ ≔ ――――― 4.1 = 2.1 Kbm + Kbm 1.2 4.1 = 4.2 = 1.617 Step 3 Now the effective length factors for both unbraced and braced frames are calculated.1 = 1.1 2.1 4. Mathcad ® Enabled Content Copyright © 2011 Knovel Corp.1 + Kcol 2.2_us_mp.3 Joint 2.3 ψ ≔ ――――― 1.2 Joint 3.162 Kcol Joint 4.1 Kbm Kcol + Kcol 4.1 = 1.424 Kcol Joint 3.2 Kbm + Kbm 1. Level 1: 4.2 ψ 1.1 + Kcol 4.1 4. Level 1: ψ ≔ ――――― 3. All rights reserved.mcdx Kcol Joint 1.2 ψ ≔ ――――― 1.1 + Kcol 1.3 Joint 4. Level 1: 2.1 ψ 3. Using the joint stiffness ratios calculated in Step 2 the user must assign the stiffness ratio at each end of each column for which effective length factors are to be determined.73 Kcol Joint 2.2 4.3 ψ ≔ ――――― 3.2 ψ 3.2 = 5.

694 ⎥ ⎦ Effective length factors for columns in braced frames: (The equation shown within the Mathcad solve block is the equation solved by the Jackson and Moreland Alignment Chart.) Mathcad ® Enabled Content Copyright © 2011 Knovel Corp. Input joint stiffness values: ⟨⟩ ⟨⟩ ψA⟨1⟩ ≔ ψ⟨1⟩ ⟨1 ⟩ ⟩⎞ ⎛ψ ⟨ [ 1.2 ] ] ⟨⟩ ⟨⟩ ψA⟨2⟩ ≔ ψ⟨2⟩ ⟨⟩ ⟨⟩ ψB⟨2⟩ ≔ ψ⟨1⟩ Solution for Step 3 ⟨2 ⟩ ⟩⎞ ⎛ψ ⟨ [ 1.483 1. The letters A and B represent the two ends of the column.487 1.2 0. The theoretical value for a fixed end is 0.179 4.215 1.162 2.PTC_CE_BSD_4.11.73 1.243 ] ] ⎝ A ⎠ =[ T T ⟨⟩ ψB⟨1⟩ ≔ [ [ 0. All rights reserved. however for this example the value at the lower end of the 1st story is assumed equal to 0.2_us_mp.424 2.511 1.369 2.483 1.187 1.2 0.11.34 ⎤ ks T = ⎢ ⎣ 1.179 5. The first level with the lower ends of the columns fixed against rotation. and the second level with a level of columns above.mcdx In this example two levels will be calculated.243 ] ] ⎝ B ⎠ =[ T Effective length factor for columns in unbraced frames: (The equation shown within the Mathcad solve block is the equation solved by the Jackson and Moreland Alignment Chart.424 2. 10.617 ] ] ⎝ A ⎠ =[ T ⟨2⟩ ⟩⎞ ⎛ψ ⟨ [ 1.179 4. 10.2 (b) of ACI 318. ψB⎞ ⎠ ≔ Find ⎛ ⎝ks⎞ ⎠ ks ≥ 1 Solver Constraints Effective length factors in unbraced frames: ―――→ ks ≔ f ⎛ ⎝ψA . Page 9 of 13 .) Guess Values ks ≔ 1 ⎛ π ⎞2 π ψA ⋅ ψB ⋅ ⎜― ― ⎟ − 36 ks ⎝ ks ⎠ ＝ ――― ―――――― ⎛π⎞ 6⋅⎛ ⎝ψA + ψB⎞ ⎠ tan ⎜― ⎟ ⎝ ks ⎠ f⎛ ⎝ψA .255 1.2 0. Fig. ψB⎞ ⎠ ⎡ 1.2 to allow for small end rotations which may occur unless the foundation is extremely rigid. Fig. top and bottom.2 (a) of ACI 318.

735 The d_b factor for gravity loads which produce no appreciable sidesway is the ratio of the factored dead load to the total factored load on the column under consideration. Icol ⎠ Mathcad ® Enabled Content Copyright © 2011 Knovel Corp.715 ⎤ kb T = ⎢ ⎣ 0. a single value may be entered. This factor reduces the column stiffness to allow for the effect of "creep".697 0.5 kb < 1 Solver f2 ⎛ ⎝ψA .75 ⎛ ⎛ π ⎞ ⎞ π ― ⎟ 2 ⋅ tan ⎜―― ⎜ ⎟ kb ψA ⋅ ψB ⎛ π ⎞ ⎛ ψA + ψB ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ 2 ⋅ kb ⎠ ⎟ 1 − ⋅ ⋅ + + ＝1 ――― ――― ――――― ⎟ ⎜― ⎟ ⎜――― ⎛ π ⎞⎟ 4 2 π ⎠ ⎜ ⎝ kb ⎠ ⎝ tan ⎜― ― ⎜ ⎟⎟ kb ⎝ ⎝ kb ⎠ ⎠ 2 Constraints kb > 0. (10-8) of ACI 318: βd_s ≔ 0 The d_s factor is 0 for wind or seismic loads. as assumed in this example. All rights reserved.735 0. The d_b factor may calculated for each column and entered as a matrix.mcdx Guess Values kb ≔ 0.PTC_CE_BSD_4. and consequentially decreases the critical load. (10-7) of ACI 318: βd_b ≔ 0.927 0.831 0. ψB⎞ ⎠ ⎡ 0.795 0. Enter the ratio of the maximum factored sustained lateral load to the maximum total factored lateral load in that story in the calculation of Pc in Eq.874 ⎥ ⎦ Step 4 Enter the ratio of maximum factored axial dead load to maximum total factored axial load. where the load is due to gravity effects only in the calculation of Pc in Eq.686 0. When there is appreciable sustained load it may be necessary to calculate a value of d_s for each column. 2 and 3: ⟨1 ⟩ ⟩ ⟨2 ⟩ ⟩⎞ ⟨ ⟨ I'col ≔ augment ⎛ ⎝Icol .2_us_mp. with a value for each column to be evaluated. Page 10 of 13 . If the loads are essentially uniform. Solution for Step 4 Separation of the values of Icol and Lcol for levels 1 and 2 from the matrices containing the values of Icol and Lcol for levels 1. Appreciable sustained lateral load may occur due to an unsymmetrical frame or unsymmetrical dead loads. ψB⎞ ⎠ ≔ Find ⎛ ⎝kb⎞ ⎠ Effective length factors for columns in braced frames: ―――→ kb ≔ f2 ⎛ ⎝ψA .

038 ⋅ 10 6 ⎤ kip ⋅ in 2 EIs T = ⎢ 7 6 7 6⎥ 1.038 ⋅ 10 6 2. computed by Eq. (10-11) of ACI 318: ―――――→ Ecol ⋅ I'col 1 EIb ≔ ―――⋅ ――― 1 + βd_b 2.904 ⋅ 10 1.5 ⎡ 1.2_us_mp.038 ⋅ 10 2.161 ⋅ 10 2.35 ⋅ 10 6 2. (10-9)): ―― ―→ π 2 ⋅ EIb Pc_b ≔ ―――― 2 ⎛ ⎝kb ⋅ L'col⎞ ⎠ Mathcad ® Enabled Content Copyright © 2011 Knovel Corp.015 ⋅ 10 7 5. (10-9)): ―― ―→ π 2 ⋅ EIs Pc_s ≔ ―――― 2 ⎛ ⎝ks ⋅ L'col⎞ ⎠ ⎡ 2833 1193 3087 981 ⎤ kip Pc_s T = ⎢ ⎣ 3954 1841 2889 1204 ⎥ ⎦ Critical column loads with sidesway inhibited (ACI 318. (10-11) of ACI 318: ―――――→ Ecol ⋅ I'col 1 EIs ≔ ―――⋅ ――― 1 + βd_s 2. All rights reserved.015 ⋅ 10 5.275 ⋅ 10 7 5. Eq.5 ⎡ 7.mcdx ⎡ 8748 3456 13824 3456 ⎤ 4 in I'col T = ⎢ ⎣ 8748 3456 13824 3456 ⎥ ⎦ ⟨ ⟨ ⟨1 ⟩ ⟩ ⟨2 ⟩ ⟩⎞ L'col ≔ augment ⎛ ⎝Lcol .275 ⋅ 10 5.PTC_CE_BSD_4.904 ⋅ 10 6 1.161 ⋅ 10 7 2. Page 11 of 13 .904 ⋅ 10 ⎣ ⎦ Flexural stiffness for frames subject to loads producing appreciable sidesway.038 ⋅ 10 ⎣ ⎦ Critical column loads for unbraced frames (ACI 318. Eq. Lcol ⎠ ⎡ 14 14 14 14 ⎤ ft L'col T = ⎢ ⎣ 10 10 10 10 ⎥ ⎦ Flexural stiffness for braced frames computed by Eq.35 ⋅ 10 2.904 ⋅ 10 6 ⎤ kip ⋅ in 2 EIb T = ⎢ 6 6 7 6⎥ 7.

3 2156.715 ⎤ kb T = ⎢ ⎣ 0. If any input is entered as a vector.215 1. Mathcad ® Enabled Content Copyright © 2011 Knovel Corp.487 1.511 1.255 1.3 11048.4 1841.2 7158. sidesway permitted: ⟨⟩ ∑ P'c_s⟨1⟩ = 40430 kip ⟨⟩ ∑ P'c_s⟨2⟩ = 51145 kip Level 1 Level 2 Summary Effective length factors ks. unbraced frame: Critical column loads. at each level.6 11554.3 3923 ⎤ kip P'c_s T = ⎢ ⎣ 23726.PTC_CE_BSD_4.6 12349.3 7521 1987. braced frame: ⎡ 1.795 0.6 ⎥ ⎦ Summation of critical loads at each level.9 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ 5284. the vectors must be "transposed" for horizontal display.2_us_mp.187 1.369 2.831 0.6 9258 2604.927 0. unbraced frame: Level 1 Level 2 Moments of inertia are calculated using the gross concrete section neglecting reinforcement.7 1203.735 0. with sidesway permitted: ――――→⎞ P'c_s ≔ ⎛ (NoCols) ) ⋅ Pc_s⎠ ⎝( ⎡ 16999. sidesway inhibited: Critical column loads.694 ⎥ ⎦ Level 1 Level 2 ⎡ 0.34 ⎤ ks T = ⎢ ⎣ 1. All rights reserved.9 4815.mcdx ⎡ 5284 2156 7521 1988 ⎤ kip Pc_b T = ⎢ ⎣ 7295 3150 9258 2605 ⎥ ⎦ Sum of critical loads for all columns with a unique combination of size and length.3 980.697 0.874 ⎥ ⎦ ⎡ 2833. sidesway permitted: Effective length factors kb.7 ⎤ kip Pc_s T = ⎢ ⎣ 3954.3 3149.1 3087.4 2888.686 0.6 ⎥ ⎦ ⟨⟩ ∑ P'c_s⟨1⟩ = 40430 kip ⟨⟩ ∑ P'c_s⟨2⟩ = 51145 kip Sum of the critical loads for each level.2 1193. Page 12 of 13 .7 ⎤ kip Pc_b T = ⎢ ⎣ 7295.

ORIGIN. For this Mathcad worksheet. geometries and spans. is set as specified in the beginning of the worksheet. you need to ensure that your worksheet is using the same ORIGIN. materials and other input parameters beyond the intended range may make some equations no longer applicable. Page 13 of 13 . All rights reserved. to either 1 or 0. Modify the equations as appropriate if your parameters fall outside of the intended range. boundary condition or case presented in the book. changing variables such as loads. If ORIGIN is set to 1 and you copy any of the formulae from this worksheet into your own. Although a reasonable effort was made to generalize these equations.mcdx User Notices Equations and numeric solutions presented in this Mathcad worksheet are applicable to the specific example.2_us_mp.PTC_CE_BSD_4. Mathcad ® Enabled Content Copyright © 2011 Knovel Corp. the global variable defining the beginning index identifier for vectors and arrays.

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