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Gladiator Reports o Types of gladiators  2000 years  gladius- sword  categorized by style of fighting  26 types  first were POW’s  named according to ethnic roots  solemn oath: Sacramentum gladiatorium  I will endure to be burned bound beaten and killed by the sword  Ave imperator morituri te salutant  Thraex- Thracians  Broad rimmed helms  Two thigh length greaves  Fought mirmillones  Thracian curved sword called sica  Small round or square shield (parmula)  Mirmillones  Type of fish  Fish crested helm and shield  Arm guard from wrist to neck  Loincloth and belt  Gladius (40-50cm sword)  Fought thracians  Retiarius  Trident, dagger, and net  Fought secutores or mirmillones  Metal shoulder guard sometimes  Secutores  The “pursuers”  Same armour as mirmillones  Specifically for retiarius  Provocator  Only type to wear full breastplate  Reflected military origion  Distinct features changed all the time  Hoplomachus  Heavily armed  Fully armed and based on greek hoplites  Helmet with stylized griffin on crest  Woolen quilted leg wrappings  Shin guards  Small round shield (Hoplite style)

with thong for throwing  Unusual gladiators  Bestiarri.no lethal fighting  “burlesque duelers”  Other  Arbelas.skirmishers. spear.dual wield  Laquearius.females  Heavy  Scissor.horsemen  Dimachaerus.dark skinned fighters  fighting gladiators  .beast fighters  Bustuarius.tomb fighters  Andabata.bowmen  Amazons/gladiatrix.boxer  Larius.heavy  light  Equites.visored helmets withough eye holes and charged blindly on horseback  Paegniarius.Elites  Rudiarius (freed but still fighting)  Tertiarus.lasso and dagger  Velites.sub  Sagittarius.crescent shaped knives  Mentioned once in 1st century  Cestus.swords with 2 blades  Samnite.whipped reluctant people into fighting o Mosaics of Gladiators  Mosaics  Stone or glass or stone  Mainly for the rich  Emperor present at the games  Gladiators became famous  Known by the people  Villa dar buc ammera  Northern africa  Place with a famous mosaic  4th century  floor of triclinium  fish in center with border of gladiator mosaics  referee raises hand of victor  musicians in mosaic as well  garamentes.

Italy  4th century  Commudus’ mosaic  2000 years old  at house of commodus  he loved blood and sports  dedicated to montanus (one of commodus’ favorites)  holds trident as he is a victor  gladiator mosaic or villa Borghese gladiator mosaic  first half of 4th century  commemorating death of heroes  important in recognizing names  culture:  everybody big fans. right thraex beast fighting mosaic  torre nuova near rome.murmillo. love blood  main source of entertainment  huge role o Gladiators in the late Republic  Late Republic  147-30 BC  many external and internal wars  slave uprisings  caesars rise to power and assassination  urest and chaos  political use in late republic  way for sponsors to gain popularity  peak of the gladiator games  politicians need votes  became a business for owners and trainers  changes  game called munus  paid for by sponsor (called munerarius)  no longer for funerals  more extravagant shows  schools emerge  gov involvement  emperors put on big shows  gladiator schools under imperial control  restrictions on private games  limited gladiators and money  kept sponsors from going bankrupt  gave emperor more recognition  . left.

10000 gladiators and 11000 animals o . great games  funeral games of caesar’s daughter  300 pairs  titus’ inaugural games 80 AD  verus and priscus  Trajan’s victory games 108 AD  123 days.