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NIFT-Hyderabad 2010-2014

Preface ................................................................................................................................ 3 Acknowledgement ............................................................................................................. 4 Introduction To Organisation.......................................................................................... 5 Raymond Ltd Textile Division ......................................................................................... 8 Organizational Chart...................................................................................................... 12 Process Flow of Department .......................................................................................... 13 Lead Period for Production Departments .................................................................... 14 Plant Layout .................................................................................................................... 15 Raw Material Godown ................................................................................................... 16 Wool Scouring .................................................................................................................. 50 Grey Combing Department .............................................................................................. 50 Dyeing Department .......................................................................................................... 50 Recombing Department ................................................................................................... 50 P/V Spinning Department ................................................................................................ 51 Worsted Spinning Department ........................................................................................ 59 Weaving Department ....................................................................................................... 59 Finishing Department....................................................................................................... 59


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As a part of our course curriculum, we were supposed to undertake an extensive study of the textile production in a textile industry to know the technical as well as aesthetic know how of the textile procedures. We undertook the same at the Raymond Limited, textile division at Chhindwara. The division specializes in the manufacturing of the worsted polywool and poly-viscose fabric and is a renowned name in its field.

The document has been framed in such a way so as to cover each and every aspect related to the company. The document gives the overview about the Raymond Group, general information about the division. It also spans comprehensively the various procedures that take for the production of the worsted fabric that the division specializes in. The processes have been explained in detail according to their incidence in the manufacturing process.


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Then we would like to thank our Mentor MR. We are grateful to MR. NARESH KADU (Placement Officer) who gave us the wonderful opportunity to learn about a textile industry as esteemed as Raymond’s. Our training at RAYMOND gave us the precious knowledge and insight in the study of textile background. We are highly indebted to the Raymond’s family. Last but not least we thank all the people who have somehow been a reason for completion of this onerous task NIFT HYDERABAD Page 4 .PHANI who was always there to guide us through this tedious task. A. This acknowledgement is a petite endeavor to thank all those who were directly / indirectly involved in this project and bestowed their kind co-operation in pursuit of the same.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It is a highly reverent privilege for having got the illuminating opportunity to work under RAYMOND LIMITED (TEXTILE DIVISION) Limited for the fulfillment of our textile internship. without his support this project would have never been what it is today. CHHINDWARA who gave us a wonderful experience in industry that not only enriched our knowledge bank but also gave us larger than life lessons and work ethics.

Hailed as a pioneer and innovator.1. This unwavering attention to innovation has enabled it to introduce path.of. the growth graph continues to rise higher and higher NIFT HYDERABAD Page 5 . Raymond Ltd has raised the performance and product standards of the entire Indian textile industry. but its mantra for continuous growth has remained the same: pursuit of excellence. Raymond Limited rightfully recognized as the most respected Textile Company of Indian in January 2003 by “Business World”. Manufacturing facilities include Four world. 1400 Crores conglomerate. Europe. INTRODUCTION TO THE ORGANIZATION Incorporated in 1925. its products have set a benchmark in that genre.breaking new products in the market. and prophylactics and toiletries. Raymond Ltd has laid great emphasis on developing strong in house skill for research & development since its inception. Raymond Limited presently has five divisions comprising of textiles. recreation and spiritual support system for the employees and connected townships.class fully integrated plants in India. Japan and the Middle East. housing. Canada. employing state. The company exports its suiting fabrics to more than 50 countries including USA.velvet furnishing fabric in a wide array of designs and colors including carpeting for the niche markets of India and Middle East.the art technology from wool scouring to finishing stage and modern techniques of quality management. The woolen mill by the creek in 1925 is presently transformed into a Rs. All the plants are self-sufficient in terms of providing educational. designer wear. With a capacity of million meters of wool & wool-blended fabrics making it the third largest integrated manufacturer in the world. Engineering file & tools. Raymond Limited (Textile Division) has more than 60% market share of the Indian market for worsted suiting fabrics. also produces and markets plush. Promoted as an essential accessory for “the Complete Man”. And happily. to achieve enhanced customer satisfaction through ongoing innovation. aviation.

Files & Tools Files & Tools division manufactures complete range of Engineer's steel files & drills and is the world’s largest producer of steel files. Denim The Denim division produces high quality ring denims and ranks among the top 3 producers in India.wool blended. blankets. ethnic and fusion styles. Aviation Million Air was launched in 1996 to provide air charter services and enjoys a reputation for high quality reliable services.Cottons. Be An exclusive prêt-a-porter line of ready-to-wear designer clothing for women and men in western. . J. NIFT HYDERABAD Page 6 . fashionable and comfortable clothing segment. Helene Curtis Ltd. It has three highly regarded men’s wear brands in its folio: Park Avenue. blends and denim wear catering to the smart. and ranks among the top 3 integrated producers in the world. Raymond Apparel Ltd.K. DIVISIONS Textiles Produces world-class pure wool. polyester viscose fabrics. Also produces a wide range of furnishing fabrics. Parx and Manzoni.

Color Plus Fashions Pvt. BRANDS Raymond The largest and most respected textile brand in India for 'The Complete Man' addressing the innate need of men to look good and at the same time possess strength of character. Park Avenue Formal readymade garments & accessories for men it has recently bagged the "Most Admired Brand" and "Most Admired Trouser Brand" awards. Established in 1993 Color Plus is one of the leading domestic brands for premium casual wear in the country. deodorants. Be An exclusive prêt-a-porter line of ready-to-wear designer clothing for women and men in western. shampoos. blends and denim wear catering to the smart. NIFT HYDERABAD Page 7 . shaving cream. soaps. Ltd. etc. room fresheners. ethnic and fusion styles. fashionable and comfortable clothing segment. Premium The range of cosmetics & toiletries including after shaves. cologne. Parx The semi formal and casual range of cottons. Manzoni The luxury range of men’s shirts and ties acknowledged for its high quality and international styling.It is the marketers of the Park Avenue and Premium brands of men’s toiletries.

strive for excellence. is it customer or is it the people they have perhaps it is an amalgamation of all this that spurs them on. This plot stands as a pioneer in the socio-economics development of this region. and To provide additional sources of employment to people in & around Chhindwara district. In short span of four years they have achieved stupendous success. These facts open to the possibility of carrying out finishing for other plants. It is spread over a total area of 100 acres. To catalyze the nascent industrial potential potential of smaller towns of the country. operation at the plant commenced in July 1990. Quite frankly they have exceeded all expectation. As of now they process the complete production of Jalgaon. situated at distance of 57 km from Orange city Nagpur. is 45. RAYMOND LTD. The vision for setting up the unit at CHHINDWARA has been:      To manufacture world –class polyester -wool and polyester-viscose blended suiting and furnishing fabrics at competitive prices. NIFT HYDERABAD Page 8 . which is a part of the JK group (western zone). is it production. The present capacity of the plant after expansion. 1991. To establish a large-scale unit in a backward area. To ensure all.2. But then what are the parameter of performance. TEXTILE DIVISION (CHHINDWARA) Raymond Chhindwara. The plants were in full swing by 1st April. is it quality. which needed accelerated development. They have rapidly improved upon the efficiency figure.round socio-economic progress of the region and its hinterland. which has been concluded recently. with a capacity of 40000 mtrs per day. Thus approximately 153 lacs meters is produced per annum at Chhindwara.000 mtrs per day. The finishing department is the largest of its kinds in Asia. The spinning and weaving department have charged ahead of 90% efficiency levels in all over the world.

of India     1999.40000 sq meters and a green belt area of 65%.First position 2002. 5. The mechanical engineering department ensures the fullest compliance with all applicable regulatory requirements. The company has pledged itself to the protection of environment. The unit has a work force of more than 2900.The installed capacity of chhindwara unit is 128 looms and 33528 spindles as against the license capacity of 1500 looms and 50000 spindles. prevention of pollution and conservation of nature resources. Safety Award from National Safety Council M P Chapter for excellent work in Industrial Heath and Safety in the year 1994-96. 6.Certificate of merit 2004. ICMF’S Birla Economic & Textile Research Foundation for Energy Conservation in Textile Industry – First prize for the year 2003-04. Golden peacock Environmental Management Award. The plant is well equipped with the most modern machinery. 2. The work force is adequately skilled. The in-house environmental laboratory helps the operational staff to improve the environmental performance by providing monitoring and measurement services. ACCOMPLISHMENTS 1.Second position 2003. National Energy Conservation Award from Ministry of Power Govt. National Safety Award for year 2007.Certificate of merit 3. 4. ensuring high efficiency and productivity. well trained and competent. World Environment Foundationfor the year 2000. MP State Level Award from MPPCB for excellence in Environment Performance for the Year 2004-2005. The plant is located on a 100 acre plot with a built-up area of 1. This unit became operational in the year 1991. NIFT HYDERABAD Page 9 . 7.

Five percentage subsidy in electric charges (Rs.V. of person working all around the three shifts (Including official staff) are 3626.VITAL STATISTICS MANPOWER : Per day the no. Road and Air.K. Cheap land 2. CHHINDWARA : B-1 BOREGOAN INDUSTRIAL GROWTH CENTER A.000 mtrs fabric per day : Rs. POWER CONSUMPTION WATER REQUIREMENT COAL REQUIRED OUT PUT UNITS TURN OVER : 1. Site is near to Nagpur which is well connected with all places of the country by Rail. MP Government gives 15% subsidy on total cost of project (Rs. 5.N.10 lacs) GENERAL INFORMATION MILL ADDRESS : RAYMOND LTD (TEXTILE DIVISION). BLLARD ESTATE. 430 crores approx p. KAILASH NAGAR TEHSIL – SAUNSAR HEAD OFFICE NIFT HYDERABAD : J.15 lacs) 6.a THE LIST OF FACTORS LEADING TO SELECTION OF PLANT LOCATION IS AS FOLLOWS: 1. 67.000 Unit per day : 43 Lacs liter per day : 58 Metric tones per day : 50. fuel and water 3. Availability of man power on cheaper rate 4. The staff strength is 415. BOMBAY-400038 Page 10 . Availability of power.



PROCESS FLOW OF DEPARTMENT PV-FD Dyeing Spinning Yarn Room Warping – Weaving Mending Finishing Finish Mending Folding Warehouse PV-PD Spinning / O/s Yarn Yarn Room Warping – Weaving Mending Finishing ( Pretreatment) Dyeing Finishing (Post treatment) Folding Warehouse PW-TD Grey Combing Dyeing Recombing Spinning Yarn Room Warping – Weaving Mending Finishing * Finish Mending Folding Warehouse PW-PD Grey Combing Recombing Spinning Yarn Room Warping – Weaving Mending Finishing ( Pretreatment) Dyeing Finishing (Post treatment) Folding Warehouse NIFT HYDERABAD Page 13 .4.

LEAD PERIOD FOR PRODUCTION DEPARTMENTS Polywool Fabric Department Dyeing Recombing Spinning Yarn Room Weaving Mending Grey Room Finishing & Folding Contigency Total PolyViscose Fabric Lead Period(Days) 05 06 14 07 11 03 04 16 04 70 Department Dyeing Spinning Yarn Room Weaving Mending Grey Room Finishing & Folding Contigency Total Lead Period(Days) 05 20 07 11 03 04 16 04 70 NIFT HYDERABAD Page 14 .5.


M. It stores the raw material with proper order. DEPARTMENTAL HIERARCHY PLANT IN CHARGE G. matching soft waste and also white separately according to the shade chart. Segregation Machine Erection & Shifting work Page 16 . The raw material go down is connected to the wool scouring department. Sorting. RAW MATERIAL GODOWN The Purpose of the raw material godown is to receive Raw material from outside party and also from inside departments and deliver as per the requirement with care. The waste materials are sorted color wise. and dispatches the waste material. receives waste from various departments. Delivery. & GM. And the wool scouring department provides scoured wool to the top go down through pipelines which are further processed for carding and combing. WORKS DEPUTY MANAGER (RMG) ASSISTANT (RMG-1) ASSISTANT (RMG-2) ASSISTANT Waste Department FORK LIFT OPERATOR Raw material Unloading. While the non moving wastes are sorted out in six month and are inform to commercial department. Dispatch and WORK MAN PSF/VSF/ GREASY Wool Receipt & Issue and Despatch NIFT HYDERABAD WORK MAN TOPS Receipt and Issue Work WORK MAN Waste packing.7.

6. Wool top (10 kg) The other top that are retained in the top go down are:1. Raw material godown (RMG) 2.7.viscose staple fibers 3. NIFT HYDERABAD Page 17 . TOW. Waste godown 7. 3. 10. 4. PSF. Two types of top are prepared in the industry itself others are obtained in top form already. Polyester top (8.Polyester continuous filament 4. New Zealand and South Africa. 7.3.tow is converted top. Raw material norms 1.5 kg) 2. Top godown 3. 5. Merino wool is considered to be the finest and best quality wool in the world. 2. VSF.Scoured wool 7.2. Process material Top is a bundles of sliver conversion of wool/polyester. SWL. The two kinds of top that are prepared are: 1. GWL. Flax top(linen top) Viscose top Silk top Cashmere top Acrylic top Blended top Camel hair top Angora top Mohair top Lenzing top Merino wool is imported from Australia.1.Greasy wool 5. 9.Polyester staple fibers 2. 8. Godown has three sections:1.

7. 3. Its cross sectional view is round. POLYESTER STAPLE FIBERS ARE USED IN THREE FORMS: is highly brittle and breaks easily.7.its cross sectional view is tri-lobal 2. SUPPLIER NAME S no 1.P VSF top 4. Low pill. DAL Australia Dewavrin CDDL Compagnte impirtion de lafned BEAPL Australia Bwk elders Australia private limited RSA Uruguay Rantex SA NV NV jos vannestesa Belgium Greasy wool Greasy wool Greasy wool Greasy wool 8.5. The polyester material has the type or merge no. 6. 5. PSF top 3. which is maintained in such a way that two different type or merge no should be mixed together while in process because of the dyeing affinity 7. Flax top greasy wool and NIFT HYDERABAD Page 18 . Sparkle. Industry RIL Reliance industries FFL Futura fibers limited GIL Grasim industries limited Industry address Patalganga (ms) Surat gujarat Chennai Material Tow of PSF 2. weak they break off easily during twisting hence the speed of machine should not be too high therefore the productivity is less and the cost of manufacturing low pill fibers is high. Since they are. Low pill fibers are weaker because their strength is reduced by 70% during the manufacturing stage itself so that the pills do not cling to the fabric surface and fall off easily.4. Nagda of has good luster properties .it is little dull in nature. Normal.

5 ton) 3 7.tow 4.7.7 NIFT HYDERABAD Page 19 .gwl 5.7. BALE SPECIFICATIONS:FIBRE TYPE 1. OF OBJECTIVE MACHINES 2 To pack the textile waste 2 Used to unload. White sparkle and normal 2.swl Total CAPACITY (IN TON) 80 70 180 120 80 530 TOTAL STOCK 54. Black sparkle and normal 3. Viscose 4.12. top WEIGHT( IN KG) 700 350 250 200 200 *3=600 150 120. greige wool 5. Raw material stock as on date (27. MACHINES MACHINE BALE PRESS FORK LIFT(diesel) BRAND Godrej Godrej (capacity=2 ton) NO.2010) CATEGORY 1.0 78.9.vsf 3. 96 7. shift and dispatch materials and machines Used to unload.4 185. tetra wool 6.5 65.9 236.psf 2.6. shift and dispatch materials and machines FORK LIFT(battery Macknell operated) (capacity=1.9 560. scoured wool` 7.

3) LOADING:A. 54 mm etc. By Hydraulic pallet & hand trolley. 7. It is merino wool which is suitable for making cloth greasy wool is supposed to be washed or scoured for the combing process which makes the wool top. 44 mm.10. 2. South Africa in various micron value. In tow it is possible to get variable length needed from converter machine it is converted to polyester top. 0. There they mix it in a certain ratio % for the pv fabric. By forklift with good condition rope. C.5 d. PROCESS PARAMETERS 1) UNLOADING:A. Tow. By tractor.tow is a continuous filament purchased for making blend with wool.4 d.the greasy wool which is received from Australia. 1. 2 staff and one officer.viscose staple fibre is a regenerated cellulosic fiber which is made from pulp generally it is doped by suppliers and is in fibrous form vsf are supplied from Grasim industries only. . Use psf/vsf. By Battery or Diesel forklift. 2) DELIVERY:A.2.for grey dyed fabric vsf is directly purchased from Grasim industries(dope dyed) and psf is delivered to dyeing department for fiber dyeing mainly for vsf and psf pv / spinning . Daily average consumption of vsf -1. Done by Battery Forklift or Diesel Forklift. C. 1. South America.0 d. All the polyester and viscous received are in 2.5 d. B. Gwl. Denier( it is making 9000 m yarn weight in gms) The polyester materials have a type or merge no which are maintained in such a way that two different types or merge should not be mixed together while in process because of the dyeing affinity. By manual.9 tons Department is having 21 workers. B.8 tons Daily average consumption of psf . Systematic arrangements manually wherever necessary. Using polythene sheet & Nylon bag. NIFT HYDERABAD Page 20 . By battery or diesel forklift.8 d and lengthwise like 92 mm.VSF. B.

86 2. Dept. Inform to Commercial department.11.9kg 17. Sorted out nonmoving waste of six month. As per the dispatch list loading the bale by forklift and arranging in line manually .96Kg 105.62kg 352.47 16.55 3.40 21.84kg Waste percentage 1.47kg 65.1631. Category wise B.C.52kg 267.28 3.77kg Department Converter Designing Dyeing Plush PW spinning Finishing QC.16 0. Bale press using polypropylene sheet.69 1.26kg 95.62 NIFT HYDERABAD Page 21 . Party wise C.99 5. B. Folding Weaving Grey combing Weight of waste 18.63kg 43. Undesired material should not be mixed up with textile waste.04kg 53. 7) NON MOVING WASTE:A. 5) SORTING OF WASTE:Color wise matching soft waste and also white separately according to the shade chart 6) SEGREGATION A.88kg 9. WASTE DAILY RECEIPT Total waste . 4) WASTE PACKING:A. & GM 7.01 6.

11kg PROCESSBFLOWCHART 11.44kg 152.32 7.12 9.13.12.PV spinning Recombing 7. WASTE GODOWN Few Waste items are kept at the back of raw material godown and the rest are stored outside the company premises . The following waste items are received from all the departments regularly DEPARTMENT P/V spinning WASTE P/ V Soft P/V Hard P/V Sweeping T/W Soft P/W Hard P/W Sweeping T/W Soft Page 22 P/W Spinning W/spinning Recombing NIFT HYDERABAD . 181.

Waste material was not conglomerated properly and were seen lying randomly. Sorting and packing is done in bale press machine of all other category and sold to outside party. tools used for opening the compressed bales should be kept at a particular fixed place which would avoid any confusion or ineffective time. SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT Housekeeping department should be conduct periodic visits to check the hygiene and working conditions of raw material department.Techniques of motion economy can be applied to improve the productivity and efficiency for ex. 7.Converter Plush Dyeing Grey Combing Weaving (old and new) R/C Noil R/C Sweeping All Wool Soft Tow sparkle soft Tow NP soft Tow BLK soft Tow Sweeping Reging flock Dyeing Soft All Wool Soft G/C first Noil G/C second Noil G/C first burr G/C second burr Shoddy Defective W/G selvedge W/G mix hard W/G Sweeping Plush Chhindies Raising flock Plush After receiving various wastes from the entire department it is segregated according to its category. Raw material being one of the less tedious and less effort involving department was neglected in many regards 7. NIFT HYDERABAD Page 23 . Even the segregation of buffer stock was not properly done according to specified rules and regulations.15.14. PROBLEMATIC AREA OBSERVED After much surveillance and deep analysis we felt that the housekeeping of raw material godown was not satisfactory.

Generally there are three types of impurities present in raw wool (a) Natural .Applied impurities are the impurities which are added to the coat of the sheep for identification of their own sheep. After the fiber opening machine has total 6 bowls & their functions are as below 1. burrs.1. seed and grass. The fat of the wool forms emulsion with alkali and is removing during emulsion scouring. dust. These are wool grease. oil etc 8. (c) Applied. Kemps may be regarded as impurities in fine wool (b) Acquired-Acquired impurities are picking up by sheep such as sand. FIBER OPENING AND SCOURING PROCESS FLOWCHART OBJECTICE  To open the wool for better cleaning  To avoid lumps formation.Natural impurities are produced by sheep itself. lint and the ex-creation stains caused by the dung and urine. The dirt and sand in the wool are removed during scouring by mechanical agitation. The suint is soluble in water and can be removed by a preliminary wash with hot water. of the bowl is 280 0 C. NIFT HYDERABAD Page 24 .2. The grass and insoluble impurities are removed by carding. 8.8. soil. Gilling or combing process.1 : To remove mud & impurities other than grease temp. OBJECTIVE OF SCOURING To remove all these impurities without damaging the fiber. In scouring there is loss in weight amounting to about 40%. Bowl No. WOOL SCOURING Raw wool contains a number of impurities which must be removed to facilitate yarn production or further processing. These impurities are color.

After that 3 drying zones each have 2 drum types dryer & temp are 900 0 C. MACHINE PARTICULARS AND PROCESS DETAILS Tank No. Detergent “Alphox -200” is used in bowl no.2 & 3 for the cleaning.4-0.3.2-0.2 : This is the main functional Bowl & temp. Melting pt. Major part of the detergent is used in bowl no.2. Blow No 5 & 6 :5000c After every bowl there is a squeeze roller which squeezes the water & does not allow to go in next bowl. of the grease is 400 0 C & 650 0 C helps to melt grease & other oily particles from the wool. Capacity (Upper) Squeeze pressure (Kg/cm2) % Grease 1 2800 liters 4-5 2 2800 liters 3 2800 liters 4 2800 liters 5 2800 liters 4-5 4-5 4-5 4-5 22 –30 5 –6 3-4 58±2 Detergent 7 –8 1 -1. Blow No 4 : 5500c 5.4 54±2 Plain Water 7 -8 0.5 0. Bowl No. are 4.3 50±2 Plain Water 7 -8 % Grease 17-24 Removal Temperature 60±2 (°C) Chemicals Soda Ash PH 8 –10 Amount of Scouring Agents Initial (Kg) Soda 10 Nil Nil Nil Nil NIFT HYDERABAD Page 25 . suint & grease is removed in this bowl & temp is 6000 C. is 650 O C .9 0. Bowl No 3 : Remaining mud.3-0.2. more than 90% grease will be removed.6 0.0-0. Remaining 3 bowls are the rinsing bowls & only wash the wool & temp.2-0. 3. 1 . 8.7 56±2 Detergent 7 -8 1.

NIFT HYDERABAD Page 26 .53 3 Nil 0. Soda ash (Kg) 1 1 2 Nil 0. The dyestuff is transferred through a felt covered bowl by means of a rubber coated dipping roller.6. Production – 400-450(Kg/Hr) Power Consumption – 130 hp Dryer Temperatures Maintained Between 70 0 C to 11 8.5.4. 10-16 bands of about 20 gm/m are combined in a gill to produce a uniform fleece with a draft of 1. VIGROUS PRINTING or VIGRO PRINTING Vigrous printing of top sliver is a recognized method for producing “Mélange effect” on wool. Betafoam KS. The chemicals used for vigrous printing are Benzyl alcohol. OTHER PARTICULARS Efficiency of The Machine – 40-80%. The material is fed to the printing rollers. Glycerin. and Formic Acid etc. It is carried out on a machine of very simple construction consisting of a gill box and the printing compartment.33 4 Nil Nil 5 Nil Nil Detergent (Kg) Nil 8. Urea. which are then placed in a steam autoclave for fixation of the dyes.4–1. which carry a relief pattern of diagonal strips. The dye paste will impregnate the sliver coiled in the perforated cans..Initial Nil Detergent (Kg) Water (liters) 10 5 3 Nil Nil 8 5 Plain water Plain water ADDITION AFTER EVERY 30 MINUTES Tank No.

The grey combing department procures the raw material from the RMG department and the wool scouring department.9. grey combing is done for the grey fibers prior to dyeing . 100% wool). 2.g. polyester top making as well as wool top making takes place.1. For this. in the grey combing. Recombing is done for blends and dyed fibers. pinpoints etc from the material for obtaining good quality of yarns.wool is checked for its grease content and moisture regain before going through the combing department polyester fibers are directly converted into tops in the convertor whereas wool goes through carding . Grey combing department is further departmentalized as: 1. OBJECTIVE OF COMBING a. NIFT HYDERABAD Page 27 .combing and gilling. pin points etc from the material For uniform blending of fiber To remove dirts. This process is done for the grey materials (which are not dyed e. Polyester top processing section. foreign matter To get good quality yarns. wool is inspected for moisture regain and grease content % and then it is rendered for further polyester tows are directly converted into tops by the convertor machines 3. naps. neps. b. GREY COMBING DEPARTMENT Grey combing is the process of removing short fibers. To remove short fibers .requires an additional passage of carding and combing to remove short fibers and any other impurities. 9. d. Wool top processing section. Top godown is integrated with the grey combing department which facilitates easy commutation of tops and fibers. c. Polyester does not require any such checking. dusts.



2    Straightening and parallelization of fibers.  Straightening and Page 30 Post gilling -5 N. Pre-gilling-1 and 2 N.C 11   Post gilling-1 N. To increase evenness of sliver by means of doubling and drafting.S. vegetable matters Parallelization of fibers.C NO.4.C 1    Combing N. OF OBJECTIVES MACHINES 2  Individualize of fibers from tuft of fibers.S.  Kicks-out vegetable matters. To apply antistatic agent and moistures in material if required.  Attenuation of fibers into a strand of fibers which is called sliver.S. neps.S.C NIFT HYDERABAD 1 .S. Straightening and parallelization of fibers. MACHINES USED MACHINES Carding BRAND N. To increase evenness of sliver by means of doubling and drafting Prepare suitable material to feed the combers. To remove short fibers.C (GC4) 1  Straightening and parallelization of fibers.C Pre-gilling-3 N.  To apply antistatic agent and moistures in material if required.  To increase the evenness of combed sliver by means of doubling & drafting.S.9.

Making strand of fibers (sliver). It helps the fiber to in to licker-in. This is necessary to facilitate further fibre manipulation and to remove impurities. To form a bulky sliver in which fiber are aligned. To remove impurities and fiber entanglement To mix the fiber together to provide a uniform distribution.  To increase evenness of sliver by means of doubling and drafting  To make bump tops 9. Feed roller There are two rollers mounted. This process involves subjecting the fibres to the action of large number of pins in an attempt to separate each fibre from its neighboring fibre.5. Licker-in NIFT HYDERABAD Page 31 . At the top there is a comb.6. It combs the wool flock and allows the small size tuff forward. 9. Wool carding-This is the next process after wool scouring. Convertor Gilling -3 N.S.(GC5) with coupled press Parallelization of fibers.  To increase evenness of sliver by means of doubling and drafting  To make bump tops N. Objective     To separate each fiber from other with a minimum of fiber breakage. There is a striping roller which strips the wool fiber from the incline lattice.S. Then the material goes to the feed roller by the help of lattice. SEQUENCES OF CARDING M/C:Hopper In hopper the scoured wool are deposited up to the maximum level.C 1   Conversion of filament fibers into required cut length fibers.C with coupled press 1  Straightening and Parallelization of fibers. One is above and other is underneath.

It is equipped with wire for providing better opening of the fibre and improving their transfer to doffer. Waste Container There is also a conveyer belt in between feed roller and licker-in. The special type wire is present on its surface. It helps to take the burrs and waste and collect in the container. Fancy roller It is of three rollers assembly. There are also four pairs of worker & striper roller around the swift roller. Morel Burr Beater There are three roller device designed to eliminate vegetable impurities contain in the wool with minimum wool rejection. Stripper roller The main function of the striper roller is to remove the short fibres from the worker roller and returns to them to carrier roller. Burr Beater All burrs beater in the card are equipped with covers and adjustable screen. At the side of the worker roller there is also a burr beater. The function of the burr beater is to remove burrs from the wool fiber. Process parameter of carding m/c Particulars Speed Feed roller 0. The main function of it is to penetrate the fiber in to the main swift wire which is coming out due to the action. Doffer The function of doffer is to paralyses the fibers. 9. Worker roller The object of worker roller is to perform a considerable fibre mixing and taking the fibre in the forward direction. The setting of screen determines the type and quality of impurities to be removed. Main swift roller In cotton process it is called as main cylinder.7. stripper and cylinder. Opening and cleaning of the wool fibers is done between worker. The moral transfer roller is fitted with a brush. Licker-in 21 m/min Diameter 110-120 mm 1200mm NIFT HYDERABAD Page 32 . This doffer is gives the output in the web form. Transfer roller: This transfers the fibers from one carrier to another.The three pairs of worker and striper rollers are covered to the licker-in.82 m/min.

80m/min 120m/min. from where it is later transported to the bumpress which converts slivers into tops of 10 kg. 14000 (safety standards) 9.5 ton Input = 1700 kg Output = 2000 kg Linear density = 24 gm/meter Anti-static =0.8. and straightening and parallelization of long fibers. Polyester top making NIFT HYDERABAD Page 33 . FACTS AND STATISTICS Draft (Ratio between cylinder and output) = max 2 Input weight = 22. neps. The final stage includes 2 stages gilling. 25+-2gm 314mm 310mm - Ratios Doffer to delivery: 1:2 Doffer to swift : 1:10 Carding is followed by 3 stages gilling which aims at the removal of short fibers and better penalization. The entanglement of fiber and undesired elements like slubs.5 micron Production/day= 2. and pin point are reduced. slubs. 135 m/min.2% ISO 9000. The next process is 2 stage combing whose basic objects include removal of short fibers non fibers impurities.9. 9.Worker 1st transfer roller 2nd transfer roller Calendar roller Delivery speed Out put delivery 21 m/min 38 m/min. neps.

Delivery wrapping in 21+. It cuts down the polyester tow of continuous filament into certain length.1 Denier type Tow doubling Speed in m / min. Two compressors are there by which they press the material in to smaller size then by the automatic knotting machine. After keeping certain length of sliver. This is placed between the drafting roller and coiler. AUTO LEVELLER NIFT HYDERABAD Page 34 . Reduction in wt per unit length of sliver. 9. FALLER INSTALLATION The GC-14 head comprises 72 right and 72 left faller.10.1 gm /m. Improving uniformity of sliver.1 3 den. GILLING MACHINE Parallelization of fibers. coiling etc thus deposited as slivers. The fallers are moves in alternately one are in right and one is to left SPRAY DEVICE This device permits to apply the spray solution through nozzle. it ties this package. The liquid is brought to the nozzle under pressure. PROCESS PARAMETERS OF CONVERTER 2den 2 275 200. In the g-c machine there is an automatic knotting machine is present. converter is very significant. Top part is called as top caterpillar and bottom part is called as bottom caterpillar.12. 2 275 200-250 21+.250 2. which undergoes tension. Front roller pressure in kg. This package is known as top.5 den 2 275 200-250 21+. falling . DIFFERENT COMPONENTS OF THE MACHINE DRAFTING HEAD Drafting head has two part-Top parts and a bottom part. Objective     9. Removal of short fibers. of sliver in to the can the can goes to packing zone automatically.In the polyester top making. 9.11.

GC-14 Denier type 2 den Doubling 8 Faller density 4R Delivery wrapping in 24+-1 gm / m Speed in m / min GILL BOX – 2 Doubling Faller density Delivery wrapping in gm / m Ratch in mm Speed in m / min GILL BOX . Due to this speed variation the draft increases or decreases and obtained the regular/uniform delivery sliver. The tow led in the machine undergoes a tension.3 6 5F 24+-1 45 8.5 den 3 den 8 8 4R 4R 24+-1 24+-1 300 300 6 5F 24+-1 40 300 6 5F 24+-1 40 300 6 5F 24+-1 40 300 6 5F 24+-1 45 8.5+. NIFT HYDERABAD Page 35 . an opening. Polyester top weighs 8.0.NSC Model . the memory transmits the pre-registered values to a variation by the way of "reader arm".5+.0.5+.3 Then the slivers collected from 6-7 containers are fed into 3 passage gilling machine.0.At the machine input the feed web is measured by mechanically controlled roller system. FOR GILL BOX . By sift of belt the speed of the back roller increases or decreases according to the requirement. a draft through fallers and is deposited in form of continuous slivers.Polyester 2.5 kg. a cutting. The web section variations are registered in form of a memory wheel having certain number of memory rods. Then the top is disposed outside. At the precise moment that these variations arrive at the draft zone. The machine winds the certain sliver length and tied it with thread to form the top.3 6 5F 24+-1 45 8.3 Doubling Faller density Delivery wrapping in gm / m Ratch in mm Top weight 300 Department .1 Make .

for medium shade 4. TOP DYEING The prepared tops come from the Grey combing department which is pressed in the carrier by the help of top press m/c. NIFT HYDERABAD Page 36 . There are mainly two types of blends produced and dyed.e. On an average approx 1760 shade are being processed in the department that goes into production.20kg. Dyeing is employed to give an all over shade to fiber and fabric. There are many type of carriers having deferent capacities i.    Polyester/wool Polyester/viscose All wool The materials are dyed in further different forms as under:10.10. in required shade at required time.. The maximum Crain capacity is 10 tones. For polyester they are using disperse dye. These dried materials are kept as stock for further processing i. the lid of the m/c is closed automatically. The dyeing and other treatment periods depends upon the shade. 10 kg . After loading the tops. re-combing. 200kg. After this the material goes to RF dryer for 100% drying. and to PV Spinning Department dyed fabric to either Mending Department or Finishing Department. For wool dyeing. For light shade 4.5 hrs and for dark shade 5 hrs. After dyeing they are doing RC for removal of surface dye which are mechanically attached on the surface of the material After completing of dyeing process the material comes out and goes to Hydro extractor for drying Hear 40% of water is removed from material.e. 50 kg .5 hrs.1.100kg. The loaded tops in carrier are load in to the vertical HTHP dyeing m/c by the Crain. The dye solution and other required chemicals come in to the m/c automatically after giving the instruction from the control room because “Automatic Dosing System” works in the mill. DYEING DEPARTMENT The dyeing department is to deliver dyed fiber to Recombing Department. they are using metal complex and acid dye.



According to the carrier capacity the number of cheese s are filled in the spindle. After covering the basket with nylon fabric. NIFT HYDERABAD Page 39 . The prepared material is shifted to vertical dyeing machine for dyeing.10. The density of the package is less than general package due to the better penetration of the dye solution. material goes to RF dryer for 100% drying. These dried materials are going to warping section for further processing. FIBER DYEING The fibres in the bale form brought from the RMG dept. After this. After loading the basket the lid of the m/c is closed automatically. it is filled with required amount fibres and compressed with the stamping machine by applying of the water. The dye solution and other required chemicals come in to the m/c automatically after giving the instruction from the control room. Here only polyester fibres are dyed. After dyeing they are doing RC for removal of surface dye which are mechanically attached on the surface of the material After completing of dyeing process the material comes out and goes to cheese Hydro extractor(1360 rpm) for drying. material goes to RF dryer for 100% drying. After this. CHEESE DYEING/YARN DYEING For cheese dyeing they are making special type of package in the winding section. These dried materials are going to PV department for further processing. After completing of dyeing process the material comes out and goes to Hydro extractor for drying. After loading the material the lid of the m/c is closed automatically. For producing this cheese they are using wire spring. 10.35 to 0. . The dye solution and other required chemicals come in to the m/c automatically after giving the instruction from the control room.75 gm/cc. Density is 0. It is then feed to the vertical dying machine by the help of Crain. After dyeing they are doing RC for removal of surface dye which is mechanically attached on the surface of the material.3.4.

the fabric is heat set in the stenter and after dyeing in the jet.. then a new recipe is created from the old recipe that is available. Before dyeing. The laboratory is equipped with three beaker dyeing m/c and a colour matching cabinet. the polyester component is first dyed in the jet dyeing m/c and the wool/viscose component is dyed in the jigger dyeing m/c. The material handling inside the dyeing section is very less. then from the previous records the recipe is taken out and then used. form of the dyeing process and the delivery schedule of the order to other department. the recipe is transformed to the shop floor for bulk production and the lab to bulk variation is maintained between a percentage range of 5 to 10. either disperse and reactive combination or disperse and acid combination. The dyeing of polyester material is done on the basis of the high temperature and high pressure dyeing method whereas the wool/viscose dyeing is carried out on the basis of the conventional method. the type of the shade. When the recipe is finalized. If the dyeing is carried out in the one bath process. sample dyeing m/c is used. In the case of two-bath process. NIFT HYDERABAD Page 40 .25 % concentration and they are kept in stock in the laboratory and as well as the chemicals in their respective concentrations too. amount of the shade. the dyeing process is carried out either by one bath process or by two bath process. then the dyes used are of combination type i. The dyes are prepared with 0. PIECE DYEING/FABRIC DYEING As far as the fabric dyeing is concerned. they are opened from the rope form using the fabric opener and they are dried in the stenter again.5.10. The general method of doing the production work starts from procuring the material from various departments as per the planning obtained from the PPD section and then planning for the dyeing schedules as per the weight of the material. If it is nearby to an old shade.e. For small lots & special shades. After planning all these things the sample is sent to the laboratory to predict the most appropriate recipe that can be used to obtain shade given. If the sample is already dyed in the section before.

The dyeing of PET is done at 130°C. So a wool protecting agent is added. the dyeing temperature of PET component is set at 120°C. Oil from pipe + blower from the motor fabric passing fabric drying NIFT HYDERABAD Page 41 . For single bath dyeing of P/W blends. since wool cannot withstand more than 115°C. wool at 90°C and viscose at 60 to 70°C.

VISCOSE DYEING IN JIGGER Check DMF for heavy coloration NIFT HYDERABAD Page 42 .

The dyes and chemicals are stored in separate storage tanks and they are taken out as required using suction and then fed into the dyeing machine using compressed air. the temperature.10. All the dyeing machines are provided with two pipelines for the dosing of pipes and chemicals. In the dyeing section. TRS. or DAP or DLV will come into function and the required material is fed into the machine. In this way. the call off is sent to the color service and either TRS. This PLCs are linked with the color service section or color dosing system so that whenever any addition of dye or chemical is done. DAP and DLV. production is carried out in the dyeing section. The dyeing programmers are made depending upon     the substrates to be dyed. The TRS is used for dosing dyes and DAP or Distribution of Anhydrous Product and DLV is used for dosing chemicals. AUTO COLOUR SERVICE SYSTEM MODELS The dyeing section is also equipped with a control room in which close monitoring of the dyeing process is done.6. the necessary program is selected and then assigned for a particular lot and then sent to the color service system. The dosing of dyes.e. i. all the dyeing machines (except jiggers) are connected to the control room through PLCs (Programmable Logic Controllers).The advantage of this system is that exact amount of dyes and chemicals are added into the dyeing machines with precision and control. A discipline of dosing liquids in one pipeline and powders through another pipeline is maintained. NIFT HYDERABAD Page 43 . shade to be dyed and the blend to be used and the quality of a fabric. process alarms can be possible. various dyeing programs are made and stored in the control room. The color service consists of three dosing machines by names viz. pH check. By this. Depending on the conditions and the requirements. chemical and water is done automatically using a dye and chemical dosing system called Color System. pressure inside the dyeing machine and liquor level inside the machine is maintained. Also by this system the liquor circulation.

TRS consists of 72 tanks (each containing different dyes). When the program is fed into the computer the required quantity of dye is weighed and poured into the container. It is also connected to computer in which different programs are fed according to light. This is a color rating method and the machine computer linked with all other machines. The coloring unit is equipped with sensors. TRS (Transfer of residual is into solution) is widely used in case of colors. medium.   one is the doser which is used to collect the required amount of chemicals from the tanks through pipes and The second one is the distributor which sends these chemicals to the respective dyeing units. DLV consists of two parts.8. DLV(Distribution of Liquor in Volume): The working of DLV. Automatic color selection Pc1-start the machine wash the cloth Dissolving Unit NIFT HYDERABAD Pc2-color selection color to dye the cloth. chemical to dyes distributor to all the machine Page 44 . and after dyeing chemicals. After that it is again send for collecting next programmed dyes.7. Then through the roller conveyors it travels to the first unit and remains until the last container has transferred to the second unit. Then the empty container is transferred to another unit where the container is washed properly. The required amount of chemicals is determined according to the weight of the dyes. dark and extra dark shades. dyeing chemicals.DLV is used for distributing chemicals to the respective dyeing unit in liquid form. It distributes three types of chemicals: pretreatment chemicals. 10.10. In the first unit the dyes are dissolved properly and then it is transferred to the distributor through suction pipes from where it is distributed to the respective dyeing unit. The working of TRS. This way cycle is repeated.

To remove the excess dye. 34 OF OBJECTIVE Stamping of polyester staple fibre in carrier for dyeing. Removal of excess moisture from fibres. Pressing of Polyester. Wool tops in carrier. Then in the super lab. Final Drying of all the fibre. Sample dyeing is mainly done to match the color with respect to the customer order or party order. Then the solution is passed through it until the solution is discolored.10. Sanjay D. reduction cleaning is done. SAMPLE DYEING UNIT The sample dyeing unit consists of automatic color and chemical dispensing machine made in in Italy. MACHINES USED IN THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF DYEING: FIBRE / TOP / CHEESE DYEING MACHINE TYPE Fibre Stamping Top Press HTHP Dyeing BRAND Dalal Dalal Dalal.powder is weighed and mixed with hot water (60oC to 79oC) for 60secs to prepare 1g/lt of the solution. Parikh Strayfeild NO.10. cheeses. Wool Tops. and Cheese. Polyester Tops. 10. industry itself and one is kept for testing purpose. tops. Reduction cleaning is achieved by using oxidizing agent. Then this dye solution is transferred to the sample pots (120 pots) and required quantity is pipette in the tube. The program is fed and the machine starts automatically. The micro.9. MACHINES 1 4 Calico. This is a computerised automatic machine . The four sample prepared in this process is send to supplier. frame (equipped with chip reader) containing four samples are loaded. The cost of the machine was 2. Dyeing of Polyester staple fibres. the solution absorbed by the fabric on the surface. sales department.5 crores. top & cheese dyed material Hydro extractor R/F Dryer 6 3 NIFT HYDERABAD Page 45 .

Dyeing of Poly / viscose blends.B.  Forosol dyes.It is used for light shades. trial purpose. 1.M ltd. and pH maintained is 4 to 5. Temperature maintained is about 135oC. Used for washing of poly/wool & poly / viscose fabrics Drying of fabrics. Brazzoli33 & 34) are used for dyeing of poly/viscose blends.metal complex and direct dyes. NIFT HYDERABAD Page 46 .  Reactive dyes.  Polywool.2. NOTES Types of dyes are used:  Disperse dyes. It is a mixture dye for P/W. Dyeing of samples for development. of machine 4 OBJECTIVE Inspection of white as well as dyed fabric for any abnormality. On the same is used in HTHP (high temperature and high pressure) dyeing machine.disperse dyes. Following dyes are used for:  All wool. Opening of poly / wool blends Opening of poly / viscose blends Used for dyeing of viscose with reactive dyes 2. 1 4 Sample Dyeing R. synthetics . Some soft flow machines (e.11.PIECE DYEING MACHINE TYPE Perching machine BRAND True shape No.g.acid dyes. Overflow Soft Dalal flow Rapid Jet Rope opener Platter Jigger Calico Delta electrode Calico Harish 2 1 1 1 4 Stenter S.this dye is also known as Foro dyes.disperse dyes + metal complex + color for the material. Machines electronic 10.  Polyester. lot are arranged for dyeing Mainly used for dyeing of poly / wool blends. chrome or reactive dyes .temperature maintained is 100OC and pH value is 11.

The fabric width should be at least 150 cm.Brazzoli 32  6 pieces. there is application of pressure for blowing heat.  Viscose.2). Before going through stentor machine.Overflow(1. the polyester fabric is processed under high temperature (1300 C). these machines require 2 min to complete 1 cycle. machine capacity:  8 pieces. soft-flow machine is used to avoid distortion of fibres.Polyviscose. which is most common for lighter fabric.disperse +direct (Forosol for light and medium colors) and double bath (for dark colors). Besides glauber salt. Generally.Brazzoli 32  4 pieces. Sanjay 4  3 pieces. the fabric is fixed with handle brushes at the selvedges. Type of heating done in the Stenter machine is thermo pack heating of the fabric and perching. Wool protecting agent used is lavasyn.vat dyes. it is having impurities in white powder called OLIVOMERS which are removed at high temperatures. sometimes defects like moonmark is formed during heating. sodium hydrosulphite is also used in the dyeing. The storage tank for the salt has capacity 1000 kgs.Rapid jet  NIFT HYDERABAD Page 47 . But rope opener is used for opening the polywool. A piece length which is dyed is 110 to 120m long. the speed of stentor for drying P/V is in between 16 to 18 whereas. jet back. In the machine. In rapid jet machine material and liquor both moves but in jigger machine only material moves and both edges of the material are stitched. plater is mostly used for opening the gathering of polyester viscose. HTHP machines runs with the high speed of 400 rpm. In piece dyeing. The two rollers in the jigger dyeing machine runs at 20-40 m/sec For delicate materials. 20 and 25. for P/W it ranges between 18. To avoid this . fabric is passed through suction pipe. This machine requires 3 labor. Anti-cross staining agents are used to protect wool and polyester from each other.

The department is responsible for the conversion of the dyed and grey tops are to recombed tops. 11. DEPARTMENTAL HIERARCHY PLANT INCHARGE GM WORKS HOD (DY.1.11. Jalgaon & outside in full quantity at required time. RECOMBING DEPARTMENT The Recombing department delivers recombed tops to PV and Worsted Spinning Departments in Chhindwara. The minimum cost meeting all quality parameters. MANAGER) PLANNING PRODUCTION MAINTENANCE ASST. MANAGER EXECUTIVE EXECUTIVE ASSISTANTS ASSISTANT ASSISTANT WORKMEN WORKMEN BLENDING WORKMEN PACKING & DESPATCH WORKMEN NIFT HYDERABAD Page 48 .

11. wool. etc.2.3.    OBJECTIVES OF THE DEPARTMENT Blending of the fibers viz. 11. silk. and pin point Removal of entanglement at the time of dyeing. viscose. Lenin. Removal of short fibers. PROCESS FLOW CHART NIFT HYDERABAD Page 49 . neps. and undesired elements like slubs. polyester.

LENGTHWISE DEFELTER NSC 4   To apply wool lubricating oil for smooth working in further process. To prepare suitable material for feeding to combers NIFT HYDERABAD Page 50 .  PRE COMBING GILLING –3 NSC 2  To parallelize and homogeneous mixing of fibers.  PRE COMBING GILLING –1 NSC 4 To parallelize and homogeneous mixing of fibers  PRE COMBING GILLING –2 NSC 4  To parallelize and homogeneous mixing of fibers.MACHINES BRAND NO. OF MACHINES  OBJECTIVES To defelt the wool. if required. which became very much felted after dyeing. To make uniform length for proper blending  BLENDING DEFELTER NSC 5 To blend polyester & wool component homogeneously in required composition. To open and parallelize the material. To apply antistatic oil and moistures in material.   To apply antistatic oil in blend material.

4.4.2 .4 20 200 .13. neps. foreign matters. pin points.1  NSC 4  To apply antistatic oil and moisture to material. blend composition and eveness % 11.225 75 +/.1.5.1994 HP: . PROCESS PARAMETERS FOR BLENDING DEFELTER (WHITE) Line A No of machine: 1 Model: -D-2GC 14 Make:-NSC Year: .220 1. PROCESS PARAMETERS OF PRE COMB GILL 1 & 2 Model: . The fibers are checked for quality parameters like anti-static content . To parallelize and homogeneous mixing of fibers.02 Specification:-Chain gill box Type of materials Feed wrapping gm / m Doubling Total feed gm / m Draft given in De felter Funnel diameter in mm Delivery speed m / min Spray gm / m White 24 P + 25 W 5 Poly + 4 Wool 210 . 14.17.5 11.GC 14 Make:-NSC Year: . RECOMBING NSC 26 To remove short fibers. leading & trailing hooks from the material POST COMBING GILLING .1994 HP: .4 Specification:-Chain gill box NIFT HYDERABAD Page 51 .

45 200-225 200-250 34(17 x2) 11.23 Comber type : Rectilinear Can Diameter:. Due to this draft the materials which are felted at the time of dyeing are defelted. DYED SECTION (RC3) 11.chain gill box Type of materials Dyed % of blend 55+45 Count in Nm 60/70 Delivery speed m / min 275 -300 Oil concentration 10 % NIFT HYDERABAD Dyed 65+35 32/48/56/60 275-300.7.DUO TR GC-15 Make:-NSC Year:-2001 Specification: . These rollers have deferent speed.8.1994 HP: .NSC Model: . PROCESS PARAMETERS FOR BLENDER Model: .6. 11. PROCESS PARAMETERS FOR LENGTH WISE DEFELTER Make: .2 4F 40 . 10% Page 52 .screw gill box It is same as gill box but before faller there is two drafting roller.700 mm.D2GN 6 Year:-1994 Specification: . PROCESS PARAMETERS OF COMBER Model:-PB 33LF Make:-NSC Year: .6.Type of material Count (Nm) Feed wrapping gm /m Doubling Total feed in gm Draft Faller pins / cm Ratch in mm Delivery speed in m /min Pressure in kg Delivery wrap in gm / m White (GA1) 32/48/56/60/66/70/80 28 8 224 8 4R 42 – 45 200-225 200-250 28 White (GA2) 24/32/48/56/60/66/70 28 10 280 8.

9. 25w 11.1994 Specification: .Chain gill box Feed wrapping in gm /m Out put wrapping in gm / m Doubling Faller pin density Funnel diameter in mm Delivery speed m /min. 35w Dyed 60 /70 262/276/370&mix shade 55p.Spray gm / m 70 70 11. PROCESS PARAMETERS FOR COMBER Model:-PB 31LF Make:-NSC Year: . 20 20 8 6F 20 200-225 NIFT HYDERABAD Page 53 .10.1994 Type of materials Count in Nm Blend code % Blend Dyed 48 /56 360/365 65P . 45w Dyed 56/32/34 535/981 75p. PROCESS PARAMETERS FOR POST GILL Model:-GC-14 Make:-NSC Year: .

Manager ) (1) Planning Clerk (1) Asst. Section NIFT HYDERABAD Post Spinning Section. General Shift. Manager (1) Maintenance.E.12. Quality. Page 54 . Dy. For colored yarn the dope dyed viscose fibers come from RMG department and colored polyester come from the dyeing department. Workmen (skilled ) Workmen (skilled) Semiskilled. (Dy. Dy. DEPARTMENTAL HIERARCHY GM PLANT INCHARGE GM(Works) HOD (Manager) Manager Planning. For white yarn formation white color viscose and polyester come from RMG Department. D.1.The raw material of this department are polyester and viscose fibers which are coming RMG Department or dyeing department. Manager (1) Production. P/V SPINNING Spinning is the process in which we can produce yarn from fiber . Manager ( 1 ) Asst. 12.O(2) Officer (1) Preparatory Spinning Section. Manager ( 2) Officer ( 7 ) Clerk ( 6) Shift.

3. Polyester and viscose layer mix according to their required percentage.12. BLOW ROOM The blow room has three lines a. then opening of polyester and viscose fibers are done. Lap feed with 6 cards c. Chute feed with 4 cards b. 3.2. Then they prepare the layers of polyester and viscose. Firstly. 2. Lap feed with 4 cards There are two feed systems in blow room   Chute feed Lap feed 1. the raw material is coming from RMG /dying department to p/v spinning department in bale form. Page 55 NIFT HYDERABAD . Then conditioning i of polyester fibres is carried out for 24 hrs. PROCESS FLOWCHART FOR P/V SPINNING 12. They add some oil for decreasing static charge and add binding agent among polyester fibers. This mixing is done manually.

2. Feed table 12. 2. Here if we required maintenance of any m/c 2. So 4. 4.4. In chute feed the production is more LAP FEED 1.5. In lap feed system different types of blends can for same blend of materials. 12.4. In chute feed material feed is uniform. Then the materials go to the 3rd MBO for better cleaning and opening. Here the variation is more. COMPARISON BETWEEN LAP FEED & CHUTE FEED CHUTE FEED 1. But here if any m/c will show problem in blow or any m/c show some problem. Here the production as compare to the chute is less. then the next room then the stock laps can be use in carding m/c will remain stop.7. In chute feed system all carding m/c will work 3. Then the materials go to the scutcher for lap formation. variation in sliver is less. 3. Then materials are fed to the 2nd MBO for mixing the P/V homogeneously and open the tuffs. The materials which are coming from the 3rd MBO direct go to carding m/c as chute feed. PASSAGE OF MBO:Feed lattice PASSAGE OF CARDING:Incline lattice Evener roller Stripping roller Feed roller Tacker in Main cylinder Flats Doffer Can Coiler roller Callendar roller Trumpet 12. be done in different carding m/c. But in LINE.6. PASSAGE OF THE DRAW FRAME Creel Feed roller Draft roller Trumpet Coiler roller Can NIFT HYDERABAD Page 56 . m/c. 12.

PASSAGE OF THE SPEED FRAME: Max head of the m/c – 120 Back roller Middle roller Drafting apron Creel Trumpet Bobbin Pressure foot RING FRAME Flayer Front roller 12.10.60 The main object of this auto coner is to prepare bigger package from smaller bobbin package and removes the yarn faults like thick and thin place and also week place. The winding speed is around 600m/min giving cross-wound package. The cops are steamed and then rewound on Autoconer 138 having 60 spindles. The machine is equipped with Loepfe NIFT HYDERABAD Page 57 .9.2 times the seed yarn.12.(16 X 480) + (2 x 144) = 7968 in PV section PASSAGE OF RING FRAME Creel Guide bar Back roller Middle roller Tradle box Bobbin Traveller Baloon braker Lapet eye Front roller 12. AUTO CONER No of head: . Air splicing is done here and usually the splice strength is 95% of the single yarn strength and the yarn dia. of 1.8. Spindle capacity: .

Package from ply winding Winding roller Spindle Balloon breaker Guide Package Winding roller Travers guide Stop motion device NIFT HYDERABAD Page 58 . The yarn tension in Machconer is reduced by Balcon balloon breakers which adjust its position depending upon the position of the unwinding of the ring cop.yarn clearer. The machine runs between 8000-10500 rpm for twist ranging between 17-24 TPI. TFO (TWO FOR ONE) The packages which are parallel wound in ply winding m/c are twisted on TFO.12. The department has three Autoconer winding machine similar to that with the PW department and one Muratec Mach Coner of 60 spindle capacities. which can be achieved. The machine runs between 8000-10500 rpm for twist ranging between 17-24 TPI. 12. The machine has two splicer which traverses in between 10 spindles. is around 1200 m/min but here speed is kept around 800 m/min.11. It’s an automatic winder with individual spindle driving type performing one cycle of yarn joining in 9 seconds. They are mounted with yarn clearer. The clearer curve setting is done so as to remove the objectionable faults. which works on the photo electric principle. The winding speed. 12. Bobbin PASSAGE OF THE AUTO CONER Pre-cleaner Gate feeler Tensioner Waxing Package Winding drum Splicer Slub catcher Yarn trap The packages which are parallel wound in ply winding m/c are twisted on TFO. Finally this wound yarn is send to New double yarn room from where it is send to weaving as per requirement. Finally this wound yarn is send to New double yarn room from where it is send to weaving as per requirement. The package produces weighs about 2 Kg each.

MACHINES MACHINES: BRAND NO. 12.For setting the twist and preventing anti-snarling the yarn are steamed after every twist insertion stage. MIXING Lakshmi  BLOW ROOM BATLIBOI. foreign matters. ELGI WELKER steaming machine are there in the departments. Conditioning of viscose & polyester.13. & spraying of polyester. Opening of bigger lumps of viscose & polyester into smaller uniform lumps. 3    To convert the material into a uniform sheet called lap. hard chips from the material. Make the uniform material sheet into a sliver form To get uniform weight per unit length of the sliver To parallelize and attenuate the card sliver To get the uniform sliver by doubling the slivers. Autolevelling CARDING Lakshmi 14     DRAWFRAME Lakshmi 9 (4 finisher 4 breaker 1auto leveler)    NIFT HYDERABAD Page 59 . To eliminate hard chips of fibers & foreign material. MACHINES 4 OF OBJECTIVES   Opening of viscose & polyester. To feed properly opened & uniform material to the cards. Individualization of the fibers Removal of short fibers.

.   MORE ABOUT P/V SPINNING 1   TWO FOR TWIST  To get the quality double yarn after insertion of proper twist.14.   AUTOCONER SCHLAFHORST 5 5 x 60= 300 drum   ASSEMBLY WINDING PEASS METLER 5 and 2 x 84= 168 FADIS 2 x 120=240 1 x 36= 36 Total=444 spindles ONE PRERNA 17 STAR 15 x 130=1950 VOLKMANN 2 x 156=312 5 x 144=720 11 x 160=1760 Total=4742 spindles ELGI WELKER STEAMING MACHINE 12. To wind ply yarn on cheeses (Bigger packages)    To prevent anti. Spinning of 100% polyester is not possible (as no moisture is there) due to antistatic charge generated in polyester. To make two ply yarn. To wind auto cleared yarn on ply tubes. Property of viscose is almost similar to that of cotton the blend improves functional property.snarling To set the twist Polyester viscose blend is a very cost effective blend. To wind ring frame yarn onto cheeses (Bigger packages). To insert twist of required amount for different counts. to get better quality of splice. To get the required count & evenness To eliminate yarn defects from the ring yarn. PRODUCTION : 4000 to 5500 kg per day WASTE PERCENTAGE: 7% to 8 NIFT HYDERABAD Page 60 .RING FRAME Lakshmi 24 22 x 480=10560 2 x 144=288 Total=10848 spindles   To convert roving into a uniform yarn.

Manager Prep. Manager Doubling Section Asst. Manager (Doubling) Shift Officer Dy. Managers (2) Maintenance Section-in-charges Ring frame & Auto winding Shift Officer / Supervisor (Preparatory) 3 x 1 per Shift Shift Officer / Supervisor (Ring Frame T3 & Auto) 3 x 1 per Shift Fitter / S.2 Warping / Planning G/Shift Dy. 13. WORSTED SPINNING DEPARTMENT The main aim of the worsted spinning department is to deliver single /double yarn to Yarn room in full quantity at required time with minimum cost.Manager Ply & TFO R/F & Gen Dy. DEPARTMENTAL HIERARCHY GM PLANT INCHARGE GM (Works) HOD (Sr. & Auto Dy.2 General Shift Page 61 .1. Yarn Checker / Worker Shift Officer / Supervisor (Ring Frame T1 & T2) 3 x 1 per Shift NIFT HYDERABAD Fitter / Fitter Helper / Clg. Manager Doubling 3 x 1 per Shift Fitter / D. Gang Staff. Yarn Checker / Worker Prodn.13.) Manager Asst. Entry Clerk 3 x 3 per Shift Data Entry Operator . Mgr. meeting all quality parameters.

2. PROCESS FLOW FOR A & B LINE PROCESS FLOW Recombed tops from Recombing (To be taken for process only after the testing & approval of quality parameter against standard Norms) NIFT HYDERABAD Page 62 .13.


Additional passage for fine count material (56Nm and above), Single weft material and 100% wool materials.


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MACHINES Vertical Box (GV20):



 

 

FUNCTION Additional passage for fine count material (56Nm and above), 24, 32Nm, Single weft material and 100% wool materials. To provide even draft distribution. To make uniform length in each can as per number of doubling for proper run out. To make Sliver even by means of doubling. To Produce wrapping (weight / unit length) as per requirement

Rubber Finisher (FM5P):



 

 

Additional passage for fine count material (56Nm and above), Single weft material and 100% wool materials. To provide even draft distribution. To make uniform length in each can as per number of doubling for proper run out. To make Sliver even by means of doubling. To Produce wrapping (weight / unit length) as per requirement

Roving Machine Rubbing Machine



   

To produce wrapping (weight / unit length) as per requirement. To give required twist/rub to avoid stretch during unwinding in ring frame. To produce a package suitable for subsequent machine. To make uniform length in each package as per requirement of next machine for proper run-out.


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Ring frame



  

To produce single yarn of required twist and count as per the instruction from PPD. To produce good quality of yarn. To make ring cops by means of building mechanism. To impart dimensional stability to single yarn which will help in smooth and snarl free running of yarn on next machine i.e. Machconer To remove objectionable faults available in the yarn and splice the yarn properly after fault removal and bobbin change. To produce a fault free package suitable for subsequent machine.

Machconer/ Padmatex Automatic Winders:



Ply winding



To wind two single yarn of required shade and count ,as per the instruction from PPD department , parallel on a package suitable for subsequent machine

Two For One PRERNA Twister


To twist the two parallel wounded yarn from the ply package as per the TPI (twist per inch) instructed by PPD.

R.B. Double Yarn ELECTRONI-CS Steaming


To impart dimensional stability to double yarn which will help in smooth and snarl free running of yarn on next machine i.e. warping and weaving.

Precision Propeller winder



To make soft package of double yarn suitable for cheese dyeing.


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Single weft material and 100% wool materials. 7. RUBBING FRAME Rubber Finisher (FM5P)      Additional passage for fine count material (56Nm and above). 24.  To make Sliver even by means of doubling.  To provide even draft distribution.13. VERTICAL GILL BOX (GV20)  Additional passage for fine count material (56Nm and above). This is 4-delivery machine. OBJECTS OF GILLING      To parallelize and mixing of fibers. To make Sliver even by means of doubling. 6.3. To apply wool lubricating oil if needed for smooth working in further process. To make uniform length in each can as per number of doubling for proper run out. There are 3 lines each having 4 gilling machines. To make Sliver even by means of doubling.  To Produce wrapping (weight / unit length) as per requirement FALLER DENSITY GN series for normal fibers 6. To produce wrapping (weight / unit length) as per requirement. Single weft material and 100% wool materials. it’s doubling is 4*2=8.  To make uniform length in each can as per number of doubling for proper run out. To provide even draft distribution.4. GILLING To get the required parallelization and fineness we are generally 4 passage of gilling. Wrapping is around 6 gm/min. 32Nm. To Produce wrapping (weight / unit length) as per requirement NSC GV 20 It is vertical gilling machine. To make uniform length in each can as per number of doubling for proper run out. NIFT HYDERABAD Page 66 . Its maximum speed is 400 m/min. 7/cm 13.

The functions of the simplex are twofold. A pair of fluted rubber aprons rubs the material. 13. as a lesser break draft is required during spinning. As the slubbing emerges from the nip of the rubbing rollers. TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS (FM 7N) Specifications 20 Characteristics Number of Drafting elements NIFT HYDERABAD Page 67 . As the twist inserted in the roving material is done by the false twisting method. This machine has the main objective to reduce the wrapping of the material before being fed to the roving frame. It is done to reduce the bulkiness of roving. Two roving are wound on a single package thus saving on creeling time and number of bobbins in use.e. it helps in the formation of suitable package for the subsequent process. FM-8N and FM-5P. 2 slivers are fed to each drafting head. the strand remaining separate as they are consolidated and given cohesions by means of oscillating rubbing action of aprons. They have higher drafting and higher production capacities than roving frames. each of which runs on endless leather bands. the coarser material goes to rubbing frame (FM-7N) and directly goes to the ring frame. By drafting the material. 13. The finer material goes to the intermediate rubbing frame (FM-8N). from the rubbers the roving passes through a funnel is then wound on the bobbin. FM-8N In case of rubbing frame.5. FM 7N Two ends are fed to the rubbing frame and these two individual ends are wound on the single package that reduces material handling.6. Here the feed material is sliver and the delivered material is rubbing. Bi coiling mechanism saves on creel space on roving frame. Top apron is also of the same type and the fiber control is sit weighted. it facilitates the spinning of material.There are 3 types of rubbing frames in the spinning section i. The sliver is passed through the feed rollers and through the drafting system. The bottom apron is plain rubber rolling along a cast iron table. Rubbing speed can be adjusted by changing the driving pulley in gearing end. As shown in the flowchart. These machines convert sliver to roving thus eliminating the need of a roving frame passage. There are two rubbing frames used for production of coarse count material. it reduces the linear density of the gilled sliver and by twisting. This help in the production of finer counts. FM 5P Another rubbing frame of the make FM 5P is also used. Drafting part is of the double apron type. then goes to roving frame and then to the ring frame. FM-7N. The pair of consolidated rovings is cross wound on to a double meche package which is then used to feed to spindles on the spinning frame. For white material FM-5P is used in module C.

7. Starting a BM 14 roving frame with material requires 3 essential settings: 1. expressed generally in turns per unit length.  To make uniform length in each package as per requirement of next machine for proper run-out.4 ktex Particulars No. ROVING FRAME Roving Machine / Rubbing Machine  To produce wrapping (weight / unit length) as per requirement.9. NIFT HYDERABAD Page 68 . 13.9 gm/m 0. The flyer frame has overhanging flyers.  To produce a package suitable for subsequent machine. Of spindles Draft range Delivery speed Flyer speed Twist range Sliver weight at feeding Deliver hank 13. Before fitting the twist change wheel the variator for the general speed of the machine is turned down. Machine particulars BM15 64 8-12 Upto 50m/min 600-800rpm 24 tpm 5 ktex 0. Roving frame (BM 14) The draft system of the BM 14 machine comprises of a pendulum arm carrying three balloon rollers controlling the fibers on a wide apron.  To give required twist/rub to avoid stretch during unwinding in ring frame.8.Ends/drafting element Maximum input/ end Maximum delivery weight Draft Range Tube diameter Bobbin Diameter Delivery speed Rubbing speed 2 15. both the flyers and spindles being driven by groups of toothed belts. The twist.25-1 gm/ m 5 – 36 70 mm 300 125 m/ min 1100 rubs/ min 13. Suction device present beneath the drafting roller and device for periodical lifting up of the scrapers on the pressure rollers.

increase of diameter of the bobbin after each layer and the angle of terminal coming from the bobbin. the roving is converted into yarn by drafting and twisting. To produce good quality of yarn. Building up of the bobbin comprising of pitch of the coil. the drafting system comprising of tension between creel and feed rollers. 3. TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS (BM 14) Draft range Sliver weight at feeding Sliver weight at delivery Twist range Maximum delivery speed 3.10. Textool 3/3 Top arm 35 9000 5 – 45 245 50 – 60 47 51 75 15 – 35 30 40mm Machine parts Drafting arrangement Drafting angle (o) Spindle rpm (maximum) Twist range (TPI) Bobbin lift (mm) Chase length (mm) Bobbin diameter (mm) Ring diameter (mm) Working efficiency Draft range No of machine Roller diameter NIFT HYDERABAD Page 69 .36 15 to 18 g/m 1.6 .2 to 100 tpm 100m/min 13. The objectives of the ring frame are as follows:   To produce single yarn of required twist and count as per the instruction from PPD.25 g/m 9. predraft or tension between feed rollers and draft aprons and draft ratio or speed ratio between draft aprons and front rollers.5 to 0. To make ring cops by means of building mechanism.2. RING FRAME The rubbing and roving frame bobbins are brought to ring frame dept.

OTHER IMPORTANT POINTS Spindle oil used in ring frames is SPIN 12 Ring oil: SPIN 12 + SOLUMOL ALL (Emulsifier) SINGLE YARN STEAMING To impart dimensional stability to single yarn which will help in smooth and snarl free running of yarn on next machine i.11. Machconer. PRECISION PROPELLER WINDER To make soft package of double yarn suitable for cheese dyeing. DOUBLE YARN STEAMING To impart dimensional stability to double yarn which will help in smooth and snarl free running of yarn on next machine i. PLY WINDING To wind two single yarn of required shade and count . parallel on a package suitable for subsequent machine i. TWO FOR ONE TWISTER To twist the two parallel wounded yarn from the ply package as per the TPI (twist per inch) instructed by PPD. Warping and weaving. To produce a fault free package suitable for subsequent machine.e.13. NIFT HYDERABAD Page 70 .e.e for TFO. MACHCONER/PADMATEX AUTOMATIC WINDERS To remove objectionable faults available in the yarn and splice the yarn properly after fault removal and bobbin per the instruction from PPD department .

32Nm. To provide even draft distribution. Ring frame TEXTOOL. 24. COGNETEX 62     To produce single yarn of required twist and count as per the instruction from PPD. To produce a package suitable for subsequent machine. To produce good quality of yarn. To give required twist/rub to avoid stretch during unwinding in ring frame. To make uniform length in each can as per number of doubling for proper run out. To Produce wrapping (weight / unit length) as per requirement Rubber Finisher (FM5P): NSC 3      Additional passage for fine count material (56Nm and above). To make ring cops by means of building mechanism. Single weft material and 100% wool materials. To make Sliver even by means of doubling. To Produce wrapping (weight / unit length) as per requirement Roving Machine Rubbing Machine NSC / 7     To produce wrapping (weight / unit length) as per requirement. Single weft material and 100% wool materials. To provide even draft distribution. To impart dimensional stability to single yarn which will help in smooth and snarl Page 71 NIFT HYDERABAD . To make Sliver even by means of doubling.Vertical Gill NSC Box (GV20): 1      Additional passage for fine count material (56Nm and above). To make uniform length in each package as per requirement of next machine for proper run-out. To make uniform length in each can as per number of doubling for proper run out.

Precision Propeller winder PEASS METTLER 1  To make soft package of double yarn suitable for cheese dyeing.  Ply winding PEASS METTLER 5  To wind two single yarn of required shade and count . To produce a fault free package suitable for subsequent machine. R.e. parallel on a package suitable for subsequent machine Two For One PRERNA Twister 48  To twist the two parallel wounded yarn from the ply package as per the TPI (twist per inch) instructed by PPD. NIFT HYDERABAD Page 72 .free running of yarn on next machine i. Double Yarn ELECTRONI-CS Steaming 3  To impart dimensional stability to double yarn which will help in smooth and snarl free running of yarn on next machine i. warping and weaving.B. Machconer Machconer/ Padmatex Automatic Winders: MURATA. PADMATEX 9  To remove objectionable faults available in the yarn and splice the yarn properly after fault removal and bobbin per the instruction from PPD department .

MANAGER OFFICER FITTER OFFICER OFFICER ASSISTANT FITTER NIFT HYDERABAD Page 73 . MANAGER ASST. Weaving process is commenced by dividing warp into two different sheets in opposite direction & then inserting weft into the shed. MANAGER DY. 14.WEAVING MANAGER WEAVING SULZER & GP MANAGER – WEAVING NP PRODUCTION PLANNING MAINTENANCE PREPARATORY LOOM SHED PREPARATORY LOOM SHED DY. WEAVING Weaving is the term used in relation to produce fabric by interlacing two different series of yarns known as warp & weft.14. By interlacing it into the shed fabric is produced. MANAGER ASST. MANAGER DY.1. Warp ends are placed longitudinally whereas wefts are horizontally placed. DEPARTMENTAL HIERARCHY GM (PLANT IN CHARGE) GM (WORKS) DGM .

Then they are then creeled according to the warp pattern. shade variation.3. The yarn is weighed and its particulars are entered into the computer with specified quantity. remaining yarn is brought back to the yarn room. the PPD department and yarn room in charge checks the yarn particulars. In our plant we are having two Yarn Rooms called as Old Double Yarn Room and New Double Yarn Room. In the fabric forming system.  Along with the shade the twist of the yarn should be checked. Precaution required to be taken  Correct shade of yarn should be issued to the warping as well as weaving dept. 14. contaminants etc. YARN ROOM The weaving activities start from yarn room. oil marks. After twisting & steaming. It is therefore necessary to remove or unwind the yarns from the winding package and arrange the desired number of ends in a sheet form & wind it on package under controlled tension on a package called a beam. The humidity in the yarn room is the same as in TFO twister. They are then creeled according to the warp pattern.2. The yarn cheeses are kept on trolleys and the material from trolleys is kept in a particular bin. warping 2. NIFT HYDERABAD Page 74 . Old DYR is for PV blend yarn and New DYR is for PW blend yarns The yarn cheeses are transported by means of trolleys. Only the correct yarn is given entry in the yarn room according to the correct shade number.Weaving department is divided into two sections1. After spinning and doubling the yarn. all of the yarns forming are presented in the sheet form. which are numbered.  Checking of stains. 14. weaving WARPING The yarns which are coming from double yarn room are going for winding for preparing required amount of package. the yarn from the spinning department comes to the yarn room. The yarns must be parallel and under uniform tension. lot number etc. WARPING The yarns which are coming from DOUBLE YARN ROOM are going for winding for preparing required amount of package. After delivering the yarn. The main object of warping is to produce a warp sheet according to the warp pattern and the formation of warp beam.with the help of UV rays. The main object of the warping is to produce the warp sheet according to the warp pattern and formation of warp beam.

IMPORTANT PARTS CREEL: A frame to hold the package is known as creel. This is necessary otherwise it would be difficult to locate the broken end. In Benninger & Gamatex maximum creel capacity is 480. guides to direct the yarn and to help keep the ends apart and stop motion to detect broken ends and or empty packages. Quick threading THREAD STOP MOTION: The thread stop motion is fitted on the creel though the machine is fitted with an efficient break. 2. 2. thread stop motion. BEAM WARPING SECTIONAL WARPING 14.the creel is having smooth porcelain guides. MEASURING MOTION: Warpers are equipped with a measuring motion to measure the length of yarn wound on to the beam and to stop it as soon as the pre determined length of yarn has been wound. 1.4.TYPES OF WARPING 1. Even tension of the ends within the yarn sheet. Wide tension range.In a beam warping. Creels are either single or multiple package creels. Creels are equipped with package holders on which the supply package are placed . BEAM WARPING Beam warping is simply the winding of yarns directly from the supply packages onto a beam. This is done to stop the warping before the broken ends are buried in the beam. depending upon the creel capacity .the no. NIFT HYDERABAD Page 75 . 3.tension devices to help maintain uniform tension throughout the creel. The maximum capacity ranges from 300 packages to 1400 packages. BRAKE: The warpers must be provided with a break to stop the machine immediately wherever an end breaks or when pre determined length of yarn has been wound on to the beams. TENSIONING DEVICES Tensioners should be capable of fulfilling the following requirements. of ends are collected together & wind it onto a beam called as a warpers beam. Its function is to hold the packages in a manner so as to facilitate warping. & tensioning devices.

BEAMING After sectional warping they prepare the Weaver’s beam from the warp sheet.  To apply requisite amount of wax coating on the warp ends during beaming to reduce hairiness of the yarn and thus producing a weaver’s beam.5. sizing operation is omitted.  To facilitate to insert lease in the warp sheet with the help of the leasing reed so as to keep all the warp ends intact in their sequential position. in the fabric. beam contain some different colours of yarn then sectional warping is used. 14.  To collect all the warped ends from drum and to facilitate to wind them in a beam. SECTIONAL WARPING The main object of the warping is to produce the warp sheet according to the warp pattern and formation of warp beam. After winding on drum it is then taken on weavers beam. the ends are drawn through one in dent. Waxing is done to prevent the static charge generation. In Raymond. LEASE REED The reed is very deep & alternate dents soldered. NIFT HYDERABAD Page 76 .this separate all the odd & even ends SECTION REED The section reed consist of umber of dents which corresponds to the required number of ends per cm. section by  section. Warping faults  Yarn cone of wrong size. to accumulate required no. The ends wound on section drum in required length . according to the design. the warp threads are wound on the warping drum sectionally. therefore a warping machine must be provided with a mechanism to place the full beam on the floor or on the trolley. wax is applied during warping. Then they are then creeled according to the warp pattern.DOFFING MECHANISM: The warpers beam is too heavy.the warp sheet is then wound on the warpers beam. as all the yarns are doubled and have got a good abrasion resistance and are strong sufficiently. For good abrasion resistance. OBJECTIVE  With the help of the creel. for smooth running of the loom and less fly and fluff generation. of ends on drum. The yarns which are coming from DOUBLE YARN ROOM are going for winding for preparing required amount of package. In sectional warping.e. Sectional warping is done when one needs to produce some design i.

Reed Count 5.6. Broken ends improperly repairs.69% For 2/24 to2/48 waxing is not done as yarn itself has enough abrasion resistance. At a time 500lit. solution is done at a time ia solution tank.0 – for 2/24 to 2/48Nm 2. Waxing 14. One operative is called the ‘reacher’ and the other is called the ‘drawer’ who sits in front of the frame. Waxing is done to prevent the static charge generation. 14. Reed Count 8. At the start. Reed Count 6. The beam is brought on a trolley and placed at the bottom of the frame. heald frames and reed. The operation of drawing in is carried out in the following manner. heald wires and the dents of the reed are carried out by a process known as “Drawing In”. wax is applied during warping. the reacher takes a bunch NIFT HYDERABAD Page 77 . Count mix during creeling. it is necessary to space the warp threads properly in order to get the required compactness of the cloth. 3. Passing the warp threads through the close drop wires (warp stop motion).33 – for 2/56 and above Nm. Manual Drawing In The process is carried out on an upright frame. This is affected by passing the warp yarn through the dents of the reed of appropriate count so that the cloth woven from the warp may contain the required number of threads. The heald shafts and reed are held on separate brackets. 1.7. The operative opens knots on the warp section and then the yarn is passed through 2 lease rods and then through drop wires.06 – for 2/48 to 2/56Nm. DRAWING IN In weaving. for smooth running of the loom and less fly and fluff generation. For good abrasion resistance. Waxing recipe Cirosol TF :-19% Poly Ethelene Glycol :-12% H2O :.    Warping reed Wrong built of cone Tension variation during warping. There are three different count reeds used for different yarn count.

According to the design they are feeding program to the computer. For manual drawing-in. i. we always have to start with the nearest end in the uppermost tiers.  Automatic heald wire separation from magazine and its distribution. This m/c is drawing the yarn in to the heald automatically. The capacity of this machine is to draw a staggering 25. By this time. Special incentives are given to those who cross a particular limit when it comes to extra number of threads drawn in. One gripper is there which inserted in to the one heald eye as well as one drop pin and collect yarn from package and again come back through drop pin and heald eye. NIFT HYDERABAD Page 78 . At the extreme end of one heald as soon as the hook reaches the other machine ELM SPA.e. But from year 2004 the Raymond Ltd. for drawing in work. After complete the required amount of drawing they are joining each end with required beam.  Up to 80 drawing in operations per min. Again the gripper goes through the heald eye and drop pin for next drawing.of warp threads in his hand. By this the yarn is inserted in to the drop pin and heald eye. the speed is around 5000 ends per shift.000 ends per shift. the drawer inserts the hook through the corresponding heald eyes. on the side of the reacher the latter will insert the appropriate end in the eye of the hook which will be immediately drawn on the other side by the drawer. yarn guide and yarn stop motion – when drawing the ends in the yarn tensioner. Automatic Drawing In Raymond has one of the latest of its kind of drawing in machine the SUPER VEGA. Automatic Drawing In Machine: Make Model Year Speed Max speed Frequency SUPER VEGA Automatic Drawing. After drawing there is a cutter which cut the yarn at the package. Drawing in the ends in the yarn tensioner. straightens them up and selects the yarn one by one from one extreme end of the loom beam in the proper sequence. ITALY Super Vega 2400 2005 70ends/min 80ends/min 4 beams/shift Some of the special features of this machine are as follows:  Automatic computer controlled drawing in of single beam warps. According to the program one deflector guide is there which guide the heald to go the respective heald shaft according to the design. yarn guide and yarn stop motion. Chhindwara introduces a new “Automatic Healding M/C” made in Italy. Here they are using one yarn package.

of M/C Staubli Topmatic 350 Knots per Min 3 Automatic Knotting M/c:In case for knotting.1 Make Model Year Max. Warping Speed Max. Speed Max. peg plan feed in the computer and it will take care of drawing 4-5 times production is more than manual drawing. Speed Prashant Gamatex Prashant India GE405 1996 Gamatex M/C No. This is done at two places 1. M/C No. drops pin transport.  Automatic reed. Automatic drop wire separation and distribution also. Beaming Speed Beninger Warping M/c Benninger Switzerland EROGOTRONIC 2000 800 200 Warping 600 Beaming 90 14.3 Make Model Year Max. Knotting on Loom NIFT HYDERABAD Page 79 . Operation     Make a set of frames The beam should be knotted first Draft.8 Knotting Machines M/C Max Speed Total No. Knotting on warping M/c 2. two warp sheets of different colors but having same design/pattern. heald wire.

There are many varieties of Rapier systems such as single. The weavers can repair the fault while the machine is running and reactivate the unit that has been stopped. 14.14. the weft insertion element resembles a rapier or a thin bladed straight sword. Rapier loom types are as follows: flexible rapier. The total output of this department is 23000 meters per day.8. 56 Nuovo Pignone (NP) and 22 Picanol Gammax looms. solid or telescopic and a damp device called gripper head screwed at its feed end.9. RAPIER WEAVING In Rapier looms. The Rigid rapiers that include telescopic type remain suspended from the fulcrum and may get help from right upper warp sheet. NIFT HYDERABAD Page 80 . which includes 34 Picanol Gamma. double. Here the control over the weft is positive during the whole pick insertion cycle. WEAVING MACHINES There are total 112 looms. flexible. The machines are running with speed of in between 450 – 530 rpm.  Automatic package switching device prevents the machine from being stopped in the even weft break between the package and weft feed. Flexible tapes invariably need guide meters inside the shed that emerge during the pick insertion and sink back into the sley before beat-up. The rapier may be also be of the rigid rod type or flexible.  Electronically controlled warp let-off and cloth take up units ensure a high degree of fabric regularity and prevents all kinds of start and stop marks.  Grippers are redesigned to ensure better clamping of the yarn and prevent rubbing against the warp yarns. telescopic and two phased. hence the name Rapier Weaving. rigid. flexible guided hooks ( one guide roller between which ribbon passes to pick warp). A Rapier in its simplest form consists of a single rigid bar. FEATURES OF RAPIER WEAVING MACHINE  Electronically controlled weft tensioner reduces the yarn tension especially during insertion. flexible free flight. made of metal or plastic tapes. The weaving department has only one loom type “ rapier”.

4-end satin (warp face) 4. Here usually four are used. Attachments for jacquard machine is main selvedge. Herringbone (broken twill) 5. which is necessary with shorter lots as practiced here. Both these loom have tuck-in selvedge. Hopesack (double plain) 6. Weft insertion is through yarn accumulator for a controlled weft fabric . Satin = 5-end satin . 14. 3/3 3. Both these looms are adapted to Quick style change. Both these looms have an electronic let-off motion for constant warp tension regulation and auto take-up setting mechanism. The usual heald shafts are controlled by Staubli electronic dobby having a maximum capacity of 18 shafts. Fabric design 1. it is shedding mechanism. Plain 2. FACTS AND STATISTICS     output -23000 mts/day The machines are running with speed of in between 450 – 530 rpm. poly-wool. The weft insertion rate for Picanol is around 800mpm while of NP loom is around 600mpm with maximum working width of 190cm and 220 cm for Gamax. poly-viscose .11 PICANOL AND NUOVO PIGNONE LOOMS Picanol and NP loom works on Flexible Rapier principle of Tip transfer. Basket weave (fancy weave) Types of fabric = linen. all wool. lycra . Electronic monitoring control systems have simplified the communication with the machine and facilitated its easy handling by anyone concerned with the operation of the machine. Twill – 2/1. while in dobby machine.     NIFT HYDERABAD Page 81 . which eliminates change of pick wheel. Both these looms have provision for multi-colour weft insertion. The weaver beam capacity for these looms is 500 Kg.12. 2/2. 3/1. Grosse electronic Jacquard controls the name selvedge with 40-hook capacity.bamboo fiber Efficiency = 84% Average rpm = 400 rpm Safety measures are : photo sensors on warping machine and ear plugs. 14.

The main purpose of the plush department is to produce furnishing fabric for automobile industries as well as for interior decoration. Out of 11 plush looms. The warp piled fabric is called as velvet and weft piled fabric is known as velveteen. In Raymond ltd.Jacquard looms. Out of eight flat looms 4 – Auto furnishing over seat-covers 1 – Suiting’s (Sherwini’s) 2 – Home furnishing 1 – Sampling NIFT HYDERABAD Page 82 . bed-ups. 5 . Plush department has two sub departments:  Weaving  Finishing Most of the yarns used for the manufactured of the plush fabrics are outsourced.13. aviation etc The department has 11 looms for plush weaving and 8 looms as flat looms. only 3 are engaged in carpets while rests three are used in making other things. other than the polyester yarns which are supplied In. Out of 6 jacquard looms. For producing this 6 Jacquard and 5 dobby m/cs are used.14. For dobby m/cs two type of warp piled fabric.House. PLUSH WEAVING Plush is a special type of fabric weaving by which we can produce piled fabric. Designing studio creates and selects the designs for furnishing fabrics which includes home furnishing. they are producing warp piled fabric. automotive furnishing.Dobby 6 . carpets (middle weight).

14. OEM (own equipment manufacturer) is used – fabric.14 Yarns used For plush dobby: 2/40 Nm For pile : 2/35 Nm For plush J/Q : 2/50 Nm for round and 2/30 Nm for pile. 100% polyester is used since aviation fabrics require warm feeling fabrics. 750 D For home furnishing.  In aviation. 2/24&2/30 grey. chenille yarns of counts 3.      NIFT HYDERABAD Page 83 . foam and screen. the screen is laminated with foam and then screen with fabric.5 Nm. it is not possible. Screen can be woven or knitted (warp knitted or circular knitted). wool/nylon 90/10 blend as well as poly wool 65/35. Sometimes. YARN SUPPLIERS FOR PLUSH DEPARTMENT Banswara Grasim RSM mill) (Rajasthan Acrylic/polyester cotton Polyester/viscose spinning 2/30& 2/24 Ne dyed. Pile should have soft feel. For plush fabric P/V – base fabric P/acrylic – pile fabric   In flat furnishing 100 % polyester is used while in aviation. which is given by acrylic and its blends. viscose blends are used. From wool. One should be careful in selecting fibers for pile fabrics. For flat auto furnishing: 360 D.90/10 is non-washable but 65/35 is washable. For fancy yarns counts are chosen as per appearance and textures. 5 Nm are in use. 600 D. In auto furnishing.14. Firstly. Pile length = 4 – 8 mm Efficiency of the plush weaving = 51% Bundle requirement=4-5 shift Replacement of all the yarns = 2-3 shift 14. In warp yarns. 150 D polyester is used.

Shadow Jacquard Auto Jacquard Semi Jacquard Made ups/ runner Flat auto Jacquard Chenille 14. RSWM.PSM Ventura Jayashree cotton mill Gokak mills 100% polyester. Here they are using maximum four colors for designed. Jacquard designs are complicated . 2/20 Ne cotton cotton cotton 14. 4 shaft for selvedge and 4 for main body. Production of jacquard (plush) = 150/day Materials used For ground – P/V blend yarn For pile . There are eight shafts for ground weave.16. The fabric when on loon is of 180 cm width. Malwa industry (Ludhiyana). it has creels. BRAND NAMES La crème La mode Electra Fusion Decora Sparkle Designo Home Jacquard. Priyadarsini mill (Coimbatur). JACQUARD In jacquard m/c carpet fabric and designed pile fabric are produced. Jalgaon etc. before preparing their own fabric they are rewinding NIFT HYDERABAD Page 84 . There are 4736 harness for pile fabric and 4680 harness for carpet. Here each end is controlled by electronic jacquard.and finally it becomes 165 cm. The machine runs at 200 rpm.15.Poly/ acrylic 60/40 for carpet & acrylic 100% for other fabric For weft – Cotton yarn of 6 s Ne Generally the yarns are coming from Bansuwara Syntax. Raymond Ltd.

Dobby and also design beam for Dobby.5 meter. 2.W GROSSE Year 1996 1980 1979 N.the yarn in the cheese form. Of m/c 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1989 1996 1996 1 1 1 J/q& loom J/q &loom J/q &loom NIFT HYDERABAD Page 85 . The design area is limited.V. as simple geometric shapes can be weaved. 14.17. 1.METLER PSA OTT PRASHANT GAMATEX BENNINGER. The machine runs at 240 rpm. Description of machine Knotting m/c Perching m/c Perching m/c Mending Winding m/c Winding m/c Warping m/c Warping m/c Model HL-210 STAFI STAFI N.18. The fabric width is 1. DEPARTMENT PLUSH-WEAVING Sr. No.W GROSSE M.V. 5. 1. Production of dobby ( plush)= 225m/day 14.W GROSSE M. M. 8. 7. 9. 2.A RECO SA DA PF2000E GE405 BENTRONIC MPS32 EJP2 VMM32 EJP2 VMM32 EJP2 Make TODO STAFI STAFI N. It has beam. These are used on creel for Jacquard m/c.A PS. DOBBY The dobby machine has shafts through which yarn passes.V. 6. 4. 3.A 1996 2006 1996 No. They are also using sectional warping m/c to prepare the ground warp beam for all Jacquard.

10. 11. 12.

J/q &loom J/q &loom J/q &loom



1996 1996 1989

1 1 1

EJP2 13. Dobby loom VMM22 M.V.W 14. Dobby loom VMM22 M.V.W 15. Dobby loom MPS22 M.V.W 1989 1 1996 1 1996 1


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Finishing is the final process of preparation of the fabric. Finishing processes are carried out to improve the natural properties of the fabric. Its primary objective is to enhance the quality of the cloth, imparting the woven fabric a specific appearance, handle in order to make it attractive, the aesthetic appeal and its serviceability. The finishing department receives the fabric either from mending department or from the fabric-dyeing department. The processes of the finishing treatment differs according to the blends, shades etc. Finishing department in Raymond is divided into 3 sections viz.  grey room,  wet section and  dry section.



This section is called grey room because all the grey material from the weaving department after perching and mending is being sent to grey room. Here all the pieces are sorted according to weaving machine number. 15.2. WET SECTION

This section is known as wet finish section because all the treatments that are carried out on the material are in wet form that includes Batching, Pre-scouring, Heat set, Shearing, Singeing, Wetting, Solvent scouring, Rope scouring, Squeezing, Drying. 15.3. DRY SECTION

This section is called the dry finish section as here the fabric is treated in dry form throughout. Only mechanical operations are rendered to the fabric in order to enhance its look, shine and feel. This


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treatment is generally under the influence of pressure and steam which includes Damping, Nikki press, Dolphin-Contipress, Stabila (antishrink), TMT (kier decatising) and Super finish (open decatising).


Process flow chart of the Finishing Department (wet section) P/W piece dyed

P/W top dyed


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marks on the body of the fabric.  SCOURING : Scouring is a process essentially carried out for each and every fabric in the finishing department aimed at removing all sorts of oils.P/V fiber dyed P/V piece dyed 15. impurities and waxes from the fabric as well as the oil marks in the selvedge of the fabric.5. NIFT HYDERABAD Page 89 . There are two types of scouring machine viz. greasy matters and other unwanted foreign materials on it. fatty acids. Definitions (wet section):  BATCHING: It is the process of matching or shade sorting each beam of fabric to make a bigger batch from the individual smaller ones.

Shearing is the most important process in the dry finishing department. NIFT HYDERABAD Page 90 . If the fabric requires resin treatment then resin is applied thorough padding mangle. the same oil is continuously circulated in these radiators. it is passed through a tank containing water and softener. It comprises of five chambers and each chamber is provided with heated radiators and two blower fans. Heated oil enters at one end of radiator and goes back for reheating from the other end. Pins on the conveyor grip the fabric properly before entering into the chamber.  SHEARING: The object of shearing is to remove protruding fibres from the cloth surface and to even out or level the fibre or neps that has been previously rose. After rescouring the yarns in the fabric swells resulting in the opening of twist in the yarn thus increasing the surface fibres.  STENTER :The stenter can be used for heat setting. At the time of contact between the flame and the fabric. Before the heat setting is carried out by stentering an operation called as bowing is carried out. A fan does the function of blowing the heat of radiators on the fabric passing through these chambers. Suction is provided for extracting the moisture.  SINGEING: In singeing. it is around 140ºC. So it comes to rope opener for the opening and washing purpose. For heat setting. the fabric is in the wet condition and in rope form. These radiators are heated with continuously circulating heated oils through it. Before passing the fabric through the heating chamber. 10 coils heat the drying chamber. the fabric is passed over water cooled guide rollers for avoiding any damage to the fabric. Thus. the temperature of the chamber is kept about 185ºC and for drying. This operation helps in maintaining the width of the fabric. This process makes further process very easier and imparts goods sharpness on the surface. drying and resin treatment.  open width scouring machine and rope scouring machine  ROPE OPENER: After rope scouring. the fabric is perfectly opened out and passed on direct flame of fully combusted flue at a very high speed while the height of the flame can be adjusted as per the quality of the material to avoid the damage to the fabric by burning the protruding fibres.

Before pressing it is very important for the fabric to have sufficient amount of water to give better finish.2g/l).6. Definations (dry section):  DAMPING: Damping is the operation carried out before pressing and decatising. WETTING: it is a process used to remove the dust and ash particles formed during the singeing process and to improve the absorbency of fabric by using wetting agent. In this process. The solution used for this is water and Sandozin MRN (wetting agent. 15. In all pressings. which can cause complete evaporation of the water particles from the fabric. moisture is artificially given to the fabric by evenly spraying water under certain pressure thus giving the required amount of moisture to the fabric. temperature goes above 100oC.7. NIFT HYDERABAD Page 91 . Process flow chart of the Finishing Department (dry section) P/W piece dyed P/V (piece & fiber dyed) P/W top dyed 15.

decatising process also occurs in this machine. PRESSING: The aim of pressing is to make the fabric smoother by subjecting it to the strong compression against polished and heated rollers. In Raymond. and the thin papery handle from previous processes. The conveyor is subjected to vibration through vibrator roller.  SUPER FINISH: This machine is used to give special type of shine and lusture to the fabric. The fabric fed to the pressing unit is passed dry or moist at high temperature between the mirror bright chromated effect roller and the rubber coated surface of the guide belt under high belt tension wherein actual setting and pressing takes place. The tunnel temperature is maintained at 1050C to 1100C. Pressing can be considered as mild.D are more permanent. Fabric is pressurized through the steam of 3. pressure and steam are maintained according to the quality of the fabric. pressing is carried out on Nikki press machine.  RELAXATION: The main objective of this process is to minimize the process shrinkage. no pressure is applied and only steam is passed through the drums. Here temperature. There are two types of decatising: open and kier. pressure is applied to the material along with steam while in the case of open decatising. NIFT HYDERABAD Page 92 . This overall process gives relaxation to the fabric and minimizes the process shrinkage which reduces shrinkage after finishing.5kg pressure. mainly cohesive setting treatment. Therefore it becomes necessary to remove the excess tension of the fabric. to prevent irregularities on the moist side of the moistened fabric to ensure uniform moisture application adjustments. Many times the finishing operation disturbs the surface of the yarn and the fabric. At the same time dry air is blown through perforated conveyor and fabric. The WEKO humidifier situated immediately upstream of actual press unit. as well as to prepare for pressing and cutting. Therefore. The unevenness and the impurities cannot be reduced till it is blown and pressed. Due to various finishing processes the fabric gets stretched in lengthwise and widthwise. In the case of kier decatising(K. The results obtained from K. Objective of pressing are aesthetic and partly commercial. This is done by passing the fabric over the conveyor belt through saturated steam and hot air pressure.  DECATISING: The object of decatising is merely to remove excessive lusture.D).

fabric remains inside for 60 min NIFT HYDERABAD Page 93 .5 3 JT10 For pre-scouring. speed-50mt/min Stenter 2 Harish (Gujarat) Model: Supra 5 For heat set. Hemmer.15. etc. pH-7. Serracant.Ascodet ECN. brush direction. speed-16mt/min. softnerSarasoft 485 . speed.10-14 bar.25mt/min. Zonco(Italy).80-100 mt/min 100 liter – H2O 2 gpl – Sandozin MRN (wetting agent) Shearing m/c 3 Lafer Italy Model :-CMI2(1996). 170185 C m/c speed. NAME Machine details: NO. 4 brushes at 500 rpm. Dhall (Ahmadabad) Detergent. cutter1100rpm. OF M/C 4 MODEL Calico (Bombay) Type: . chemicalsDidavin-EWN. flame intensity. Oxalic acid. Dolly.8. Burner distance-10-12mm.PPM/076 FEATURES Max 700 to 800 meters per lot Batangas Batchmaking m/C Open width washing m/c Jigger m/c 1 Dhall Ahemadabad For pre-scouring.VP-97 (1998) Wetting m/c 1 ------------------------ Rope scouring m/c 11 MAT SPA (Italy). Singeing m/c 2 osthoff – senge (germany) Model: .reverse to fabric. speed-22mt/min. Baysolux. CMI-200(2003).

etc and also the various defects that remains even after the finishing process. Super finish 1 Germany Model:-GFP 800/900 (2004) Used only for special finishes Perching m/c 27 -------------------------- CCl4 in white petrol is used to remove stains.P-F 2000-1503 Magnums and P-F 20001593 New Multiprogram For decatising. Germany Model:-GPP400 (2001) Mangle pressure: .Squeezer Stenter Damping m/c Conti press m/c 2 3 2 1 Supervelox Harish . gsm. 85C Nikki press 2 Nikki (Japan) Model: -4G-4P 6038 (1985).KD Suprema 95/1600 Permanent finish For decatising. 6G-6P 6185 (1990) m/c 1 has 4 plates and m/c 2 has 6 plates. 125Kg pressure TMT machine (Technologia Meccanica Tessle) Kier decatising 2 TMT (Italia) Model: . Every fabric roll has a piece ticket with it which contains piece no. 1 KD (Italia) Model: . supra 5 Stabila Hemmer..oils etc After passing of fabric through all the sections. NIFT HYDERABAD Page 94 .12-15 mt/min Speed.50 lbs/inch2 For II Dry and resin treatment. 85C. all the descriptions of fabric make like weave.12 mt/min. it is kept in an area from where it is send to folding department. selvedge. speed – 12-14mt/min Speed.