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Estática de los fluidos

W = mg
F
b
= W F
b
= W
G
B
G
B
W = mg
Volume
of
displaced
fluid
P dS
y
1. Understand difference between fluid statics and fluid dynamics.
2. Distribución de presiones en un fluido en
reposo
Pascal’s law
3. concepts of absolute, gauge, and differential pressures
4 . measurement of pressure and the principles of manometry
5. forces on submerged inclined planes
6. Difference between the centre of pressure and the
centroid
pressure prism approach to determining forces
7. Flotación y estabilidad de cuerpos
flotantes
The basic property of a static fluid is
pressure.
Pressure is defined as the amount of
surface force exerted by a fluid on any
boundary it is in contact with. It can be
written as:
• Unit: N / m
2
or Pascal (Pa).
• (Also frequently used is bar, where 1 bar =
10
5
Pa).
A
F
P
applied is force the which of Area
Force
essure
=
= Pr
x
y
z
σzz
σyy
σxx
τyx
τxz
τxy
τzx
τzy
τyz
Tensor de esfuerzos
σyy
Plano sobre el
cual actúa
Dirección del
esfuerzo
Variación de la presión
y y y y
x x x x
a
dxdydz dxdydz
g pdsdz dxdz p ma F
a
dxdydz
pdsdz dydz p ma F
2 2
cos
2
sin
µ µ |
µ |
= ÷ ÷ =
= ÷ =
¿
¿
| | cos sin ds dx ds dy = =
( )dy g a p p
dx a p p
y y
x x
+ = ÷
= ÷
2
2
µ
µ
Las cantidades del lado derecho de las ecuaciones son
infinitesimales y se pueden despreciar al tomar el límite
p p p
y x
= =
La presión en un punto es igual en todas las direcciones
y
z
x
dxdydza dxdz dy
y
p
p pdxdz
dxdydza dxdydzg dxdy dz
z
p
p pdydx
dxdydza dydz dx
dx
p
p pdydz
µ
µ µ
µ
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+ ÷
+ =
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
+ ÷
=
|
.
|

\
|
c
+ ÷
Asumimos que el
fluido tiene
aceleración mientras
la posición relativa
entre sus elementos
permanece igual. Se
presume que existe
una presión p debido a
la aceleración.
( ) g a
z
p
a
y
p
a
x
p
z y x
+ ÷ =
c
c
÷ =
c
c
÷ =
c
c
µ µ µ
El diferencial de presión se puede entonces escribir como:
( ) g a a a
z
p
dy
y
p
dx
x
p
dp
z y x
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
=
µ µ µ
Así, mediante integración directa se puede hallar la variación
de presión entre dos puntos en el fluido. Esta expresión será
útil para casos particulares que se desarrollaran mas adelante.
En un fluido en reposo, la aceleración es cero; entonces:
dz gdz dp ¸ µ ÷ = ÷ =
La presión aumenta con la profundidad (disminuye con la
altura). Si ¸ es constante
gh h p
z p
µ ¸
¸
÷ = ÷ =
A ÷ = A
Esta ecuación es usada para convertir presión al peso
equivalente de un líquido; la presión atmosférica se expresa en
mm de mercurio (la presión en el fondo de una columna de
760 mm de mercurio es la misma que la presión en la
superficie de la tierra debido a la atmósfera.
Principio de Pascal
• Una variación en la
presión aplicada a un
líquido encerrado, se
transmite por igual a
cada punto del
liquido y a las
paredes del
recipiente que lo
contiene.
• 2 (TWO) important principles about pressure;
• Pressure acts uniformly in all directions on a small volume of
fluid.
• In a fluid confined by solid boundaries, pressure acts
perpendicular to the boundary.
• These principles, called Pascal’s Law,
Fluid surfaces
For a description of historical experiments on pressure and fluids, see
http://galileo.imss.firenze.it/vuoto/eesper.html
Otto von Guericke completed, around 1655, a pump which could extract the air from air-tight
containers. With this new instrument, von Guericke was able to perform, at Magdeburg, in 1657,
a spectacular experiment with the aid of a large number of his townsfolk. He demonstrated that the
weight of air pushed together two perfectly sealed hemispheres, which had a vacuum created
between them by the pneumatic pump, with such force that it needed two teams of 16 horses to
separate them. Von Guericke understood that the weight of air was a force which could be put to
work, to lift weights, for example. He thus initiated a line of research which led to the steam engine
of James Watt (1736-1819)
Source: Gaspar Schott, Mechanica hydraulico-pneumatica, Würzburg 1657
Pascal’s Principle
This concept is the
basic operating
principle of all
hydraulic
equipment.
An external pressure applied to a fluid within a closed container
is transmitted undiminished throughout the entire fluid.
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Pressure distribution for a fluid at rest
Let’s determine the
pressure distribution in a
fluid at rest in which the
only body force acting is
due to gravity
The sum of the forces
acting on the fluid must
equal zero
• Change of pressure with height in a static fluid in a gravitational field.
Hydrostatic equation
FLUID. Pressure.
The pressure in a pool (lake or ocean) increases with depth. Similarly, the pressure of
the atmosphere decreases with altitude.
z
dz
Free-body diagram on
the volume
(P + dP) dS
P dS
g
g dV g dm µ =
We can detach the
volume of fluid
from the rest of the
fluid, as shown in
the figure. This
volume will be at
equilibrium in a
static fluid under a
gravitational field.
The vertical forces acting on the
volume are those exerted by the rest
of the fluid and by the weight.
Horizontal forces are not showed in
the figure because they will be
balanced.
The pressure P at the bottom must be
greater than the pressure at the top to
balance the weight of the fluid
Static condition
O F
ext
= ¿
dz dS dV as and
dV g dS dP P dS P F
z
=
= ÷ + ÷ ÷ = ¿ 0 ) ( 0 µ
dz g dP µ ÷ =
h g P A µ A =
In the case of a liquid, ρ constant,
h
P
o
P
h g P P µ + =
0
• Hydrostatic equation. Change of pressure with depth in a static fluid in a gravitational field.
FLUID. Pressure.
Many applications are based on the hydrostatic equation: Hydraulic lift, hydraulic
system, horizontal lines (using water connected vessels)…
dz g dP µ ÷ =
h g P A µ A =
In the case of a liquid, ρ constant,
h
P
o
P h g P P µ + =
0
• The pressure increase linearly with the depth, independent of the shape of the container
•The pressure is the same at all point at the same depth
Pascal´s principle: A pressure change applied to an enclosed liquid is transmitted
undiminished to every point in the liquid and to the walls of the container.
Hydrostatic paradox: The pressure depends only on the depth of the water not on the
shape of the container, so at the same depth the pressure is the same in all parts of the
container
FLUID. Pressure.
h g P A µ A =
h g P P µ + =
0
h
P
o
P
Hydraulic lift
Derive the relationship for the
forces in the pistons of hydraulic
lift, considering the hydrostatic
equation (Pascal´s Principle
Hydrostatic paradox
Explain why :
1.- the free surface of
liquid will adopt the
horizontal line.
2.- The pressure at the
bottom at a different
point will be the same
1 bar = 10
5
Pa
Escalas de
medición de
presiones
m c. a. : metros de columna de agua
FLUID. Pressure.
h g P A µ A =
h g P P µ + =
0
h
P
o
P
Determine the difference of
pressure between point 1 and 2.
Pascal puso en evidencia su célebre principio por
medio de un curioso experimento; hizo que se
abrieran las duelas de un tonel, sólidamente
construido y lleno de agua, por cuya cubierta
superior penetraba un tubo muy estrecho y muy
alto, sin más que llenar de agua el tubo, i.e.,
añadiendo al peso total un peso insignificante. Las
paredes del tonel portaban entonces las mismas
presiones que si hubiesen tenido encima una masa
de agua cuya base fuera la del tonel y su altura la
del tubo. De este modo, un kilogramo de agua
puede producir el mismo efecto que miles de
kilogramos.
FLUID. Pressure Measuring pressure. Common pressure units
The pressure you measure in your automobile tire is gauge
pressure. The absolute pressure in the tire can be obtained
from the gauge pressure by adding the actual atmospheric
pressure measured by the barometer. Exercise: The
recommended pressure in a type of tire is 2.5 bar. What is
the absolute pressure if the local atmospheric pressure is
933 mbar?
101325 Pa [Pascal]
1 atm [atmosphere]
1.01325 bar
760 mmHg [millimeter of mercury]
10.33 mH2O [meter of water]
1.0332 kgf/cm2
bar = 100 kPa
mbar [milibar]
Kilogram of force per square
centimeter also called technical
atmosphere
What is the minimum value of the absolute pressure? What is the maximum value of suction
that can be exerted?
• Pressure measurements are generally indicated as being either absolute or
gauge pressure.
• Gauge pressure Presión manométrica
• is the pressure measured above or below the atmospheric pressure (i.e.
taking the atmospheric as datum).
• can be positive or negative.
• A negative gauge pressure is also known as vacuum pressure.
• Absolute pressure Presión absoluta
• uses absolute zero, which is the lowest possible pressure.
• Therefore, an absolute pressure will always be positive.
• A simple equation relating the two pressure measuring system can be
written as:
• P
abs
= P
gauge
+ P
atm
(2.2)
Manómetro en U de líquido, para presiones relativas de gases
A U-shaped container is open on both ends and holds two fluids of different densities.
If the darker fluid is more dense than the lighter fluid, which configuration above is
correct?
1)
2)
3)
4)
Determine the pressure difference between points X and Y in the
system shown below
ρ
A
ρ
B
ρ
c
ρ
D
ρ
E