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# Physics 9C

Part I: Short Computations

Midterm #2 Solutions

March 5, 2013

1. A 3C test charge is carried from place-to-place in a region of space, and the potential energy of that charge is mapped throughout the space. At a position (x,y,z), the PE is given by the equation:

⎛ z3 ⎞ U ( x, y, z ) = A ⎜ x 2 + xy − ⎟ y⎠ ⎝
Find the electric ﬁeld vector created by charges other than the test charge at the point: ( x, y, z ) The electric potential is the electric potential energy of a test charge divided by the test charge, so the electric potential function is:

U ( x, y, z ) A ⎛ 2 z3 ⎞ V ( x, y, z ) = = x + xy − ⎟ qtest qtest ⎜ y⎠ ⎝
The electric ﬁeld is minus the gradient of the potential, so: 3    A ⎡ 3z 2 ˆ+⎛x+ z ⎞ ˆ E = −∇V ( x, y, z ) = 2 x + y i j − ( ) ⎢ ⎜ qtest ⎣ y2 ⎟ y ⎝ ⎠   ˆ⎤ ˆ ˆ E = ( −2.0V / m ) ⎡ ⎣13.0i + 5.0 j − 3.0 k ⎦ [ Exam W ]   ˆ⎤ ˆ ˆ E = ( −2.5V / m ) ⎡ ⎣11.0i + 4.0 j − 3.0 k ⎦ [ Exam X ]   ˆ⎤ ˆ ˆ E = ( −0.5V / m ) ⎡ ⎣15.0i + 6.0 j − 3.0 k ⎦ [ Exam Y ]

ˆ⎤ k ⎥ ⎦

2. A 2.00A current ﬂows through a circular conductor, which has a radius 12.0cm and lies in the x-y plane. When viewed from the +z-axis, the current is ﬂowing clockwise. This loop is in the presence of a uniform magnetic ﬁeld given by:   ˆ ˆ − 3ˆ B=B i j + 2k
o

a. Find the torque τ on the circular conductor. To ﬁnd the torque vector, we ﬁrst need the magnetic moment. We calculate that to be:   ˆ µ = IA − k   ˆ µ = ( −9.05 × 10 −2 A ⋅ m 2 ) k [ Exam W ]   ˆ µ = ( −2.41 × 10 −1 A ⋅ m 2 ) k [ Exam X ]   ˆ µ = ( −1.27 × 10 −1 A ⋅ m 2 ) k [ Exam Y ]

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Now just plug into the formula for torque:

The total ﬂux is given by Gauss’s Law.81J −1 2 ˆ ˆ ⎤ ˆ ˆ ⎤ ⎡ U = −⎡ ⎣( −1. To ﬁnd the potential energy. then the charge would be enclosed by a cube.41 × 10 A ⋅ m ) k ⎦ × ⎣( 2. Because of the symmetry.Physics 9C Midterm #2 Solutions March 5.50T ) i − 3 j + 2 k ⎦ = ( −0.603N ⋅ m ) ⎣ 2i + j ⎦  −1 2 ˆ ˆ ⎤ ˆ ˆ ˆ ⎤ ⎡ ˆ ⎤ ⎡ τ =⎡ ⎣( −1. Use Gauss’s Law to compute the electric ﬂux through the 2L x 2L surface that is not in the x-y plane. centered at the point charge.78 J Part II: Short Problems ( ( ( ) ) ) [ Exam W ] [ Exam X ] [ Exam Y ] 3. Find the potential energy of the conductor’s interaction with the magnetic ﬁeld.50T ) i − 3 j + 2 k ⎦ = 0.50T ) i − 2 j + 3k ⎦ = ( −0. 2013      τ =µ×B  −2 2 ˆ ˆ ⎤ ˆ ˆ ⎡ ˆ ˆ ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ τ =⎡ ⎣( −9. we use the dot product instead of the cross product:     U = −µ ⋅ B −2 2 ˆ ˆ ⎤ ˆ ˆ ⎤ ⎡ U = −⎡ ⎣( −9.] z 2L 2L L x y Q If we include a second box of the same dimensions below the x-y plane. positioned with one of its square faces ﬂat on the plane. A point charge Q lies in the x-y plane. so that gives us the ﬂux through the top face of the block: Φ Q Φtop face = total = 6 6ε o .05 × 10 A ⋅ m ) k ⎦ × ⎣(1.05 × 10 A ⋅ m ) k ⎦ ⋅ ⎣(1.27 × 10 A ⋅ m ) k ⎦ ⋅ ⎣( 3. [Hint: The charge is not enclosed by the imaginary block surface indicated.272 J −1 2 ˆ ˆ ⎤ ˆ ˆ ⎤ ⎡ U = −⎡ ⎣( −2. the ﬂux through each face of the cube is the same as through every other. with all sides length 2L.27 × 10 A ⋅ m ) k ⎦ × ⎣( 3.50T ) 2i − j + 4 k ⎦ = 1.41 × 10 A ⋅ m ) k ⎦ ⋅ ⎣( 2.445 N ⋅ m ) ⎣ i + 2 j ⎦ ( ( ( ) ) ) ( ( ( ) [ Exam W ] ) [ Exam X ] ) [ Exam Y ] b.136 N ⋅ m ) ⎣ 3i + j ⎦  −1 2 ˆ ˆ ⎤ ˆ ˆ ⎡ ˆ ˆ ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ τ =⎡ ⎣( −2. so 1/6 of the total ﬂux through the cube is through each face.50T ) 2i − j + 4 k ⎦ = ( −0.50T ) i − 2 j + 3k ⎦ = 1. Consider an imaginary block (all vertices are right angles) with dimensions 2L x 2L x L.

The integral is symmetric over the -L to +L interval. L ] ⇒ u = ⎡ ⎣ L . so after all the math we get our answer: du 2 2 u ≡ y 2 + L2 . Start with the electric ﬁeld. so we can plug into the ﬂux integral: +L +L     ⎛ QL ⎞ + L + L dxdy Φ = ∫ E ⋅ d A = ∫ Ez dA = ∫ ∫ Ez dx dy = ⎜ 3/2 ∫ ∫ ⎟ ⎝ 4πε o ⎠ − L − L ( x 2 + y 2 + L2 ) −L −L We do each integral in turn.2 L ⎤ ⎦ 2 2 u−L ⎛ QL ⎞ 2 L Φ=⎜ 2∫ ⎝ 4πε o ⎟ ⎠ L 2 ⎛ QL2 ⎞ Φ=⎜ ⎝ 2πε o ⎟ ⎠ b≡L : 2 2 L2 2 ⎛ ⎜ ⎝ du 2 u−L ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 2 ⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ u⎠ ⎜ ⎝ 1 2 4 2L u+L 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎠ L2 ∫ du ⎜ ⎝ u⎟ ⎠⎜ ⎝ u −L ⎞ ⎟ ⎠ 2b ⎞ ⎛ Qb ⎞ ⎡ 1 ⎛ Qb ⎞ 2 b ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎛ b⎞ ⎤ Φ=⎜ du ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2 =⎜ cos −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ∫ ⎢ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ 2 ⎝ u ⎠ ⎦b ⎝ 2πε o ⎠ b ⎝ u ⎠ ⎝ u − b ⎠ ⎝ 2πε o ⎠ ⎣ b ⎛ Q ⎞ ⎡ −1 ⎛ b ⎞ ⎛ b ⎞ ⎤ ⎛ Q ⎞ ⎡π ⎤ Q Φ=⎜ cos ⎜ ⎟ − cos −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ = ⎜ − 0 = ⎢ ⎟ ⎟ ⎥ ⎝ 2b ⎠ ⎝ b ⎠ ⎦ ⎝ 2πε o ⎠ ⎢ ⎝ 2πε o ⎠ ⎣ ⎣3 ⎦ 6ε o .Physics 9C Midterm #2 Solutions March 5. 2013 ***BONUS COVERAGE!*** The problem states that you should solve it “using Gauss’s Law”. but I can’t bring myself to penalize you if you are able to do the integral (but as you will see below. so we can use it (shown below) to do the integral over dx to get: dx 1 x a 2 ≡ y 2 + L2 . z=L. so:  ˆ ˆ + yˆ   ⎛ Q ⎞ r ⎛ Q ⎞ xi Q j + zk ˆ=⎜ E ( x. y. y = [ 0. Making another couple of substitutions puts the integral into a form we can look up. z ) = r = 3/2 2 3 4πε o r ⎝ 4πε o ⎟ ⎠r ⎜ ⎝ 4πε o ⎟ ⎠ ( x 2 + y2 + z 2 ) At the surface in question. keeping y constant. so the dot product only involves the z-component of the electric ﬁeld. L ) = ⎜ 3/2 ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ 4πε o ⎠ ( x + y + L2 ) The area element is simply dA=dxdy. ∫ = 2 + const 3/2 2 2 2 2 a x + a x + a ( ) ⎞⎤ ⎛ QL ⎞ + L ⎡⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎛ 2L ⎢ ⇒Φ=⎜ dy ⎜ ⎟⎥ ⎜ ⎝ y 2 + L2 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ y 2 + 2 L2 ⎠ ⎥ ⎝ 4πε o ⎟ ⎠ −∫L ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ We are not so lucky with this next integral – it was not on the equation sheet (have I mentioned this was not the intended method?). so we can just make this integral from 0 to L and double it. First we do dx. The area vector points in the +z direction. It is a Coulomb ﬁeld at the origin. This integral happened to be on the integration sheet. you would have to be a whiz at trig substitution to get the last integral). y. dy = . which is (at the surface): ⎛ QL ⎞ 1 Ez ( x. In case you tried to do this (and for your enhanced educational experience!). I present the integral solution for you here.

solid cylinder has a length L and is made of conducting material with a uniform resistivity throughout the rod of ρ . creating a gap of length d. The two pieces are then pulled directly apart. Putting in Q(t)=Q/2 and solving for time gives the same result derived in lecture in terms of the time constant: ε ρL t1/2 = RC ln 2 = o ln 2 d . so we can simply combine them to an equivalent resistance: ρL ρL ρL R = R1 + R2 = 1 + 2 = A A A The time constant of this circuit is the product of the resistance and the capacitance: ⎛ A εo ⎞ ⎛ ρL ⎞ εoρL RC = ⎜ ⎜ ⎟= d ⎝ d ⎟ ⎠⎝ A ⎠ The inside potential difference will be half the outside potential difference when half the maximum charge reaches the plates. we have created a parallel-plate capacitor with a capacitance of: Aε C= o .Physics 9C Midterm #2 Solutions March 5. a distance much smaller than the diameter of the cylinder. with the cut creating two ﬂat. An uncharged. So now this looking like a charging RC circuit. It is neatly cut into two pieces. circular surfaces. V ρ d L = L1 + L2 L1 L2 By cutting the cylinder and separating the ends slightly. We have two resistors (one on each side of the capacitor). 2013 4. A voltage difference is introduced across the outside ends of the two pieces. and d (as well as any appropriate physical constants) for the time it takes the voltage difference across the two interior (cut) ends to equal one half of the voltage difference across the outside ends. ρ . but they are in series. Derive an expression in terms of L. d where A is the cross-sectional area of the cylinder.

2013 5. At the origin. so only the contribution to the z-component from each charge element is needed. An insulator in the shape of a half-spherical shell has has a net charge distributed evenly about its surface.Physics 9C Part III: Detailed Problems Midterm #2 Solutions March 5. the electric ﬁeld of a single charge element points directly away from (or toward. if the charge is negative) the element. Find the ratio of the surface charge density on the insulator to the surface charge density on the conductor evaluated at the center of the circular region of contact. so for now we will work with absolute values and magnitudes. we get the following charge element: dQ = σ shell dA = σ shell ( R 2 sin θ dθ dφ ) From symmetry. The magnitude of the zcomponent of the electric ﬁeld at the origin is therefore: dEz = dE cosθ Plugging in for dE in terms of a single charge element (which are all a distance R from the origin) gives: σ shell R 2 sin θ dθ dφ σ dQ dEz = cosθ = cosθ = shell sin θ cosθ dθ dφ 2 2 4πε o R 4πε o 4πε o R [We don’t know the sign of the charge on the shell. the total electric ﬁeld is entirely in the z-direction once all of the elements are included): 2π   ⎛σ ⎞ π /2 ⎛σ ⎞ ⎛ 1⎞ σ E = ⎜ shell ⎟ ∫ sin θ cosθ dθ ∫ dφ = ⎜ shell ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ( 2π ) = shell 4ε o ⎝ 4πε o ⎠ 0 ⎝ 4πε o ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 0 ( ) . and then employ the method of images. Calling the radius of the hemisphere “R” and using polar coordinates with the vertical axis as the z-direction. so the angle the electric ﬁeld makes with the z-axis is exactly the polar angle θ that appears in the line element.] σ conductor at origin σ shell =? shell of charge conductor First we need to compute the electric ﬁeld at the origin due to the hemisphere of charge. thanks to the symmetry.] Now we only need to integrate over the entire shell to get the total electric ﬁeld there (remember. [Hint: Start by computing the electric ﬁeld at the origin due to just the hemispherical shell of charge. It rests on its ﬂat side against an inﬁnite conducting plane (with which it cannot exchange charge). we know that at the origin there will be no x or y components of electric ﬁeld.

. A conducting loop of radius 2.50m/s. After 4. as the calculation is identical. The ﬂux through the loop is:     Φ B = ∫ B ⋅ d A = BA = B (π r 2 ) .0s of expansion: expanding loop a.. making the ﬁeld twice as strong at the origin:     σ E real +image = 2 E real = shell 2ε o We know that the electric ﬁeld near a conductor in terms of the charge density on the conductor is:   σ conductor at origin E at origin = εo Setting this equal to the electric ﬁeld calculated above gives the ratio of the absolute values of the charge densities: σ conductor at origin σ shell σ shell = ⇒ =2 εo 2ε o σ conductor at origin The signs of the charges on the conductor and the shell are of course opposite.Physics 9C Midterm #2 Solutions March 5. The charge on the conductor will place itself such that it is completely equivalent to place a reﬂected distribution of opposite-signed charge on the other side of the plane. and an emf is induced in the loop as a result. so we ﬁnally get: σ shell = −2 σ conductor at origin 6. 2013 This is the electric ﬁeld magnitude due to the shell at the origin. Calculate the current (including direction CW or CCW in the diagram) in the loop. The magnitude of the ﬁeld at the origin due to the “image shell” will be the same as that of the actual shell. Now for the method of images. and then use the two charge distributions to determine the ﬁeld.0m lies in a plane perpendicular to a uniform magnetic ﬁeld of 3. The direction of the ﬁeld of the image shell (because of the opposite sign) will be the same as the direction of the real shell.0 Ω . The radius of the loop begins to expand at a rate of 1.0T. The loop has a resistance of 7.

00 m + (1.80 m / s ) ( 6.00Ω 2π ( 2.20 m + (1.00 s ) ⎤ ⎦ = 50.38 × 10 4 J ⎥⎡ ⎣ ⎦ 3( 6.80 m / s ) ⎤ 3 ΔU = ⎢ 1.Physics 9C Midterm #2 Solutions March 5. The ﬂux is increasing into the page as the loop expands. Calculate the total energy converted into thermal energy in that time.00 s ) ⎤ = 2.50 m / s ) ( 4.00T )2 (1.20 m + (1.60 m + ( 2.00 m + (1.00 s ) ⎤ ⎦ = 57.50 m / s ) ⎤ 3 ΔU = ⎢ 1.50T )2 (1. so the induced current will seek to decrease that ﬂux.50 m / s ) ( 3.80 m / s ) ( 6.50 m / s ) ⎤ 3 ΔU = ⎢ 2. this results in a current going counterclockwise.00 s ) ⎤ = 1.00Ω ) ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 4π 2 (1.50 m / s ) ( 4.40T )2 ( 2.50 m / s ) I= ⎡ ⎣1. apply Ohm’s Law: ξ 2π Bv I= = ( ro + vt ) R R 2π ( 3. so the equation for the radius in terms of the starting radius and the speed (v) with which it is increasing is: r ( t ) = ro + vt Plugging this into the equation for ﬂux gives the ﬂux as a function of time: 2 Φ B ( t ) = π B ( ro + vt ) Now apply Faraday’s Law: dΦ B d 2 = π B ( ro + vt ) = 2π Bv ( ro + vt ) dt dt To get the current from this emf. The power dissipated by the resistance in the wire as a function of time is: ξ 2 4π 2 B 2 v 2 2 P (t ) = = ro + vt ) ( R R The energy converted from start to the ﬁnal time is the integral of this rate over that time interval: 3 tf tf t 3 ⎛ 4π 2 B 2 v 2 ⎞ f ⎛ 4π 2 B 2 v 2 ⎞ ⎡ ( ro + vt ) ⎤ ⎛ 4π 2 B 2 v ⎞ 2 ΔU = ∫ P dt = ⎜ r + vt dt = = ro + vt f ⎢ ⎥ ( ) o ∫ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ R R ⎝ ⎠0 ⎝ ⎠⎢ 0 ⎣ 3v ⎥ ⎦ 0 ⎝ 3R ⎠ ( ) ⎡ 4π 2 ( 3.00Ω 2π (1.60 m + ( 2.00Ω ) ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ [ Exam W ] [ Exam X ] [ Exam Y ] .00T ) (1.50 m / s ) ( 3.80 m / s ) I= ⎡ [ Exam Y ] ⎣1.50 m / s ) I= ⎡ ⎣ 2. From the RHR.40T ) ( 2.30 × 10 4 J ⎥⎡ ⎣ ⎦ 3( 7.50T ) (1.2 A [ Exam X ] 6.3A [ Exam W ] 7.00 s ) ⎤ = 2.00Ω The direction is obtained from Lenz’s Law.00 s ) ⎤ ⎦ = 32.00Ω ) ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ 4π 2 ( 2. 2013 The radius is changing with time at a constant rate. ξ = b.9 A 4.30 × 10 4 J ⎥⎡ ⎣ ⎦ 3( 4.