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**MODELLING AND ANALYSIS OF MARINE OPERATIONS
**

APRIL 2010

DET NORSKE VERITAS

FOREWORD

DET NORSKE VERITAS (DNV) is an autonomous and independent foundation with the objectives of safeguarding life, property and the environment, at sea and onshore. DNV undertakes classification, certification, and other verification and consultancy services relating to quality of ships, offshore units and installations, and onshore industries worldwide, and carries out research in relation to these functions. DNV Offshore Codes consist of a three level hierarchy of documents: — Offshore Service Specifications. Provide principles and procedures of DNV classification, certification, verification and consultancy services. — Offshore Standards. Provide technical provisions and acceptance criteria for general use by the offshore industry as well as the technical basis for DNV offshore services. — Recommended Practices. Provide proven technology and sound engineering practice as well as guidance for the higher level Offshore Service Specifications and Offshore Standards. DNV Offshore Codes are offered within the following areas: A) Qualification, Quality and Safety Methodology B) Materials Technology C) Structures D) Systems E) Special Facilities F) Pipelines and Risers G) Asset Operation H) Marine Operations J) Cleaner Energy O) Subsea Systems

**Amendments and Corrections
**

This document is valid until superseded by a new revision. Minor amendments and corrections will be published in a separate document normally updated twice per year (April and October). For a complete listing of the changes, see the “Amendments and Corrections” document located at: http://webshop.dnv.com/global/. The electronic web-versions of the DNV Offshore Codes will be regularly updated to include these amendments and corrections.

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Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103, April 2010 Changes – Page 3

MAIN CHANGES The main changes include a new Section 9 on Lifting Operations covering heavy lift operations where motion of lifted object may influence the motion of the crane vessel. The new chapter also include guidance on hydrodynamic coupling between vessels situated close to each other and the topic of probability of barge hitting lifted object when lifting an object onto a barge in waves. In Section 5 on Deepwater Lifting Operations guidance is given on slack cable conditions and general properties of fibre ropes for use in deepwater lifting.

DET NORSKE VERITAS

Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103. April 2010 Page 4 – Changes DET NORSKE VERITAS .

... 25 Added mass and drag coefficients for simple bodies ......................... 36 2........................3..3 Stability of lifting operations................................... 39 Drag force ..2............................. 40 Static weight........ 44 Snap force due to lift-off ............... 1....2......3 4......2 2........1 2......................... 20 Inertia force due to moving object..............1..Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103............9 Wave Loads on small volume structures....................................................... 31 Simplified analysis of lift through moonpool...2.........................................3.....................8 4... 24 Hydrodynamic loads on slender elements ........... 17 Moving structure in still water....................3 2..2.6....1 References .. 22 Water exit force ......1 4........................................ 31 3...... 10 Breaking wave limit.......................................................2 3...................................................................................18 LIFTING THROUGH WAVE ZONE – GENERAL ............6.......................2 Latin symbols...25 5..1 2...5 2................................3.. 45 DEEPWATER LOWERING OPERATIONS..1 2...........3 2................................3.... 36 Minimum and Maximum Static weight.6 3................... 7 Greek symbols ..........................5.......................1 4......... 27 Regular design wave approach ..............................4 3......................3 3.............................8 General......................1 4.................8 5.12 3...................1........ 42 Added mass for non-perforated structures.........................................3 References .........6 3..........................................6............................2.7 4...............5.................................7................7...4............4 4.....................................3 References ....... 14 Time domain analysis ............. 20 Viscous drag force ...... 34 Moonpool operations ........................2 3..............5 2........3.....7 4...........7 GENERAL METHODS OF ANALYSIS . 40 Characteristic total force........................................................................................3 2...4.....................5...................................................7 General......7 Symbols...5 3..... 34 Comprehensive calculation method....... 42 Drag coefficients............5 3........... 44 Application of passive heave compensation systems with limited stroke length ............... 36 General..........1 3......................... 19 Application ..........................................................2.2 2...................................................................1 3...............9 3......... 35 3..............................................................................................................4 1.......2............. 40 4................................................................... 7 Introduction ..................7 4.................................................. 42 4............ 35 Effects of free water surface inside the object............. 17 Applicability of relative velocity formulation ....................... 31 Resonance period.................2 Typical load cases during lowering through water surface.........................7...6 Drag coefficients for circular cylinders ......1...... 12 Introduction...............................................................................................5 4.5................................3 3............................................... 28 Time domain analyses .. 17 Drag force on inclined cylinder ............ 26 Added mass and damping for ventilated structures............4 Calculation methods for estimation of hydrodynamic forces .............3..7 General .2 3.........3.............. 20 Wave damping force........ 20 Wave excitation force ..........6 2............4 2............4...2 3.........................1 4...........2................................................ 35 LIFTING THROUGH WAVE ZONE – SIMPLIFIED METHOD.................................................................. 40 General................... 16 Sectional force on slender structures ......5.............................. 26 Estimating added mass and damping coefficients from model tests or CFD analyses..1 3................................... 35 Introduction ................... 30 CFD analyses..........................4 General............................2...........6 2.............12 4...... 37 Wave kinematics.... 43 Estimation of hydrodynamic parameters ............................... 9 3... 38 Varying buoyancy force ......7 2...... 12 Natural periods..................................3...................2 GENERAL ............................................3 4......................................1.....................................3. 19 Steady force due to current .............3.....6...........6 4...............................5 2......................9 3...........6 4..........................3...............1 4...... 22 Equation of vertical motion of lifted object when lowered into wave zone....................................................................19 Objective............3 4................10 3.....................5 3............... 37 Slamming impact force...... 27 The Simplified Method............... 12 Motion time scales........4.....................................................3 1...7.....................................................4.........4.3........7 Abbreviations..............................................4................3.............................4 2...................1 3...........................................3 3.... 11 Directional distribution of wind sea and swell ............. 42 Effect of perforation .....................1 4..... 24 General.....1.....................4.........7...........3.........2.................. 2........................................ 15 Numerical methods............1 4.......4 Hydrodynamic coefficients ..........2 3.....3 3...........4 Accept criteria ............ 16 Definition of force coefficients..............2 4..............4 4.....................5 2............................... 30 1............... 41 3................................................ 10 Modelling of irregular waves....11 3.............6 3...............3...............5........................ 4........... 11 Pierson-Moskowitz and JONSWAP spectra ...... 35 Objective..4............... 36 Crane tip motions.................... 41 General.............................................................3...4..........4 4.............................2 1........... 44 Stiffness of hoisting system.................................................................1 1.............................................................................................2 4........2........................ 19 Weight of object ..... 19 4................ 45 DET NORSKE VERITAS ...............................3....1 3..7....................... 36 Wave periods ..5 4.....6 2......................2............3 4..............................................6............................................... 16 Small volume 3D objects................... 9 Introduction ........... 45 Application ............. April 2010 Contents – Page 5 CONTENTS 1. 25 Added mass and damping for typical subsea structures ..............1 4............1.3 2.......1 2....2.......4..3 4. 18 Hydrodynamic coefficients for normal flow ............... 35 Application .5..................................................... 15 Frequency and panel mesh requirements..2 3....... 35 Main assumptions .....................................................1 3..................2 4............8 2.....................................................4......................................... 13 Multi-body hydrodynamic interaction......................................................7 Relationship to other codes..................................19 4.................................. 23 Equation of vertical motion of lifted object when hoisted out of wave zone................ 10 Short term wave conditions .......................... 13 Frequency domain analysis....1.........................................................7 Objective......2 4................................2..........5 3......... 45 Introduction.....................................................3...........2 2. 41 Load cases for a protection structure...... 19 Phases of a subsea lift ......... 3.................7.... 31 Equation of motion ......... 36 2......3 3.....4.............1 3.......2.......................5.......................... 19 Buoyancy force.................................4 3.......................2 4..4....... 18 3.........2 4...... 17 Moving structure in waves and current ...............................2....7 References ...............................................................2............. 44 Snap forces in slings or hoisting line ..........................................3.9 General. 27 3..................................1 5...2................7 2....2 3.... 39 Hydrodynamic force .6............... 40 Capacity checks ......................... 5............................................................... 36 2......6 4.......4 3......... 43 Snap force ..1 1.............................. 15 Irregular frequencies..............6...................................... 45 3................5 4..................... 43 4.....................4.............3......5................................................................2 4.......................1..... 39 Mass force.................................... 35 Introduction.......................6................. 19 Introduction ...... 12 Maximum wave height in a stationary sea state ........3.2...3......... 17 Relative velocity formulation ........... 32 Damping of water motion in moonpool .........................2..... 43 Snap force due to start or stop ... 40 The slack sling criterion . 21 Slamming force.7 3....................................6 2.................13 General........ 32 Force coefficients in moonpool ..................... 26 Loads and load effects ....6... 35 Partly air-filled objects ..............................7 2.................... 9 Regular waves.........................8 2....................2....................................8 3....................3................................................................4 2..........................2..............2...........5 1...... 43 Snap velocity ...............................................9 Wave loads on large volume structures..16 Hydrodynamic forces..........................2 General...........................................................................................................9 Description of waves.....4 2......3...................4..............................4...

..............................................1 5..............55 Physical parameters and effects to be considered..........3 7.... 70 Weather conditions .......3.6 7...................47 Horizontal stiffness .............1 8.............................................2............5..1 9.3............................................................................................. 6...................................................4.........................4 8..6....6 References......49 Longitudinal pressure waves.. 61 System definition .............................4............2............................................................55 Landing impact problem definition .....3.3 8..........5..3...................4 9.....69 Wet anchoring........................................3................................4 8.....................2 8..........61 Environmental restrictions .......3..............................................................55 8. 79 General..63 Short towlines / propeller race ...................................................72 Statistics from historical data..........................5 7.................................... 52 General ...3.............3...........1 8..79 9.....................................5 5..2 Heave compensation ..........1 6..........1...3 8.......74 Seasonality ...............................................................65 Rendering winch .1 8........6 8.......2..70 5.... straight vertical cable.......... 45 Stretched length of a cable ...60 8..........1 7...................................1.55 Fatigue life of fibre ropes cycled over sheaves....................2...............12 7...................3....................................63 Force distribution in a towing bridle.7 7.............2............................ 67 General............................55 8........... 80 APP...............................60 9..............5.1 7.........49 Response of lifted object in a straight vertical cable exposed to forced vertical oscillations .......................... 8..............68 System modelling...................................................... A ADDED MASS COEFFICIENTS .3 9................1 6.....................3..........6 5.......5 8........3............................................1 5..6 6..53 Elongation and stiffness ................2 Light lifts......3......................................................................... 7......2.........................1 6........................ 70 Introduction....2 6............................2 7......59 Simplified method for foundations with skirts on soft soil..................6 6....5 7.......................................5 Data accuracy....3 7.....4 Monitoring of weather conditions and responses ..............2 References ............2.......2...................................54 Creep ....2...................5 5................2.......74 6........................2.......1.........69 5.........................................................................................................2.........................................................72 Uncertainty of weather forecasts .....5......72 8.........9 Dynamic forces on cable and lifted object .52 8.70 Planning and execution ....................................1.......78 7..................63 Low frequency motions .....1 8.7 6........................................3 6.......................5 5........3.......................................................... 78 Vessels situated side-by-side .........................1 5.....................2 7...2..................................71 5.............................4 7..68 Vortex induced vibrations....................................................4...67 Objects attached to Towed Buoy ....3......................1 8...................2 5............58 Simplified method for foundations without skirts ............... 75 Introduction. example case .............2 6............ B DRAG COEFFICIENTS .................48 Eigenperiods ...............................................4......68 System data ..67 Tow of long slender elements ........................................4 5...........2 Weather forecasting................59 Calculation of skirt penetration resistance ................................ 81 APP........................................ 60 Installation by suction .................... 75 Crane tip motion .......................................................................6 Static forces on cable and lifted object............3 8.......46 Vertical displacement............. 55 Introduction .........1 6...........6....66 9.....9 7........1 5...........2....... 74 Monitoring of environmental phenomena .............................6...................4.. 60 Retrieval of skirted foundations..........65 Nonlinear time domain analysis..........3....2................................. 85 APP..61 Static towline configuration .74 Monitoring of responses .................45 Horizontal offset due to current ......71 Weather routing for unrestricted operations ..... 61 TOWING OPERATIONS .............................1 9................5.....2 Lift-off of an object .......................................3........76 6...7 9.................2 8...52 Dynamic model for heave compensation......2............................2..........6.....................75 6...............76 Degrees of freedom...61 9..................2 9............54 Axial damping.........................................................................2........................ 70 WEATHER CRITERIA AND AVAILABILITY ANALYSIS...........2 9...........2.............................2 8.................4 8....................................................64 Dynamics of towlines ...........3.....59 Application of safety factors ..67 Critical parameters .......11 7............... 55 LANDING ON SEABED AND RETRIEVAL ..72 Sources of data .........3...5..... 72 Weather restricted operations .................................................................................4...............................2.3 5..2..5 Fibre rope properties .................................................................................2 5................ 70 General.............. 75 General ...........5............................................................2.....................59 8......3 5.3.....71 Numerically generated data ..........................................77 Time domain simulation of heavy lifts .....................1 8........74 Alpha factor related monitoring........5 6................. April 2010 Page 6 – Contents 5.....................................2 8....5 9..................1 References............2 5...........................................................2 Installation by suction and levelling .......4.................................72 Time domain simulations...1 9...72 Climatic uncertainty..............3....................................... 76 General.................................2 Retrieval of foundations .............74 6............2........60 Levelling by application of suction or overpressure......................4 5........................................2...3 7...4 6.............................................................................1..............61 Data for modelling and analysis of tows...........68 Recommendations on analysis ......47 Cable payout – quasi-static loads. 55 Types of structures and foundation designs..............................8 7.........1 8........................6 7.................79 Probability of barge hitting lifted object...3.......1 7.......................5.....2.1...........................47 7..... 48 General .............2...............74 Tidal variations ..................2 5.... 61 Introduction ...64 Shallow water effects ..1.........7 7......................................................3...1 6....................75 Hydrodynamic interaction ....3..........................8 7............3 5...................71 Instrumental data.....................3...................................... 61 General ............4 6............60 Retrieval of non-skirted foundations .......................3.....5............................ 74 LIFTING OPERATIONS .........47 Vertical cable stiffness .................................................................................................7 5................................48 Natural frequencies..63 Mean towing force ......................................2...56 Iterative analysis procedure ....72 5..............10 Submerged tow of 3D objects and long slender elements ..............3............4 5......3 Environmental parameters ...............................4 7..........8 Landing on seabed ........2................. 72 Weather unrestricted operations ....................2 References.......3..............67 Objects attached to Vessel .........................2...................62 Drag locking.......................55 Geotechnical data...........................................2..........5.........2 References .......78 9.........................................2...................................................................62 Towline stiffness ..........................1 7...................48 Dynamic drag forces ......5...........2 8...... 53 General ...............3.....................................70 Primary characteristics.............2 7...1 9...................................................................................................................3 5..............3..........52 7.....1 Hydrodynamic coupling.................................8 5......................................................3 6..........Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103...........3 8........4 5.....51 Horizontal motion response of lifted object in a straight vertical cable ........3 9........10 7................................................5 7.................. 55 Introduction..... C PHYSICAL CONSTANTS....... 71 General requirements ..........................13 Surface tows of large floating structures .............. 91 DET NORSKE VERITAS ........50 Slack cable conditions.......................................................... 9........................77 Coupled dynamic motion.2................................4 Persistence statistics..........................................................48 Application.............................3.9 7........4 Heavy lifts ..

These are referred to in the text. 1.2 Objective The objective of this RP is to provide simplified formulations for establishing design loads to be used for planning and execution of marine operations.3 Relationship to other codes This Recommended Practice should be considered as guidelines describing how to apply the requirements of “Rules for Planning and Execution of Marine Operations” issued by Det Norske Veritas. 1.6 Sub Sea Operations in the “Rules for Planning and Execution of Marine Operations”. General Marine Operations. in particular for lifting operations including lifting through wave zone and lowering of objects in deep water to landing on seabed. Loads and Design Load Transfer Operations Sea Transports Transit and Positioning of Mobile Offshore Units DNV-OS-H204 Offshore Installation Operations DNV-OS-H205 Lifting Operations DNV-OS-H206 Subsea Operations More general information on environmental conditions and environmental loads is given in.1 Latin symbols a act ar aw A A Aexp fluid particle acceleration characteristic single amplitude vertical acceleration of crane tip relative acceleration characteristic wave particle acceleration cross-sectional area nominal area of towline projected cross-sectional area of towed object Ah Aij ∞ A33 0 A33 Ab AC Ap As At AT AW Ax Aγ B Bij B11 (1) B33 ( 2) B33 B1 B2 c c’ cc cL CA Cb CB CD CDf CDn CDx CDS CDz Cd Ce CF cF CG CL CM Cs.4 References References are given at the end of each chapter. Section 4 “Lifting through wave zone – simplified method” in the present RP substitutes the sub-section. 1.2 Ch.2 Design Loads in Pt. Sec. These Rules are presently being converted to following new DNV Offshore Standards (planned October 2010): DNV-OS-H101 DNV-OS-H102 DNV-OS-H201 DNV-OS-H202 DNV-OS-H203 Marine Operations. 1.5 Abbreviations DAF HF J LF LTF PM RAO WF Dynamic Amplification Factor high frequency Jonswap low frequency linear transfer function Pierson-Moskowitz Response Amplitude Operator wave frequency 1.6 Symbols 1.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103. Cb Cs1 CS Cij d d di D D Dc D( θ ) E EI Ek f f area of available holes in bucket added mass infinite frequency vertical added mass zero-frequency vertical added mass bucket area wave crest height projected area friction area per meter depth of penetration skirt tip area wave trough depth water plane area x-projected area of lifted object normalizing factor in Jonswap spectrum beam/breadth wave generation damping wave drift damping linear heave damping coefficient quadratic heave damping coefficient linear damping coefficient quadratic damping coefficient wave phase speed equivalent winch damping linear damping of heave compensator sound of speed added mass coefficient block coefficient centre of buoyancy drag coefficient cable longitudinal friction coefficient drag coefficient for normal flow drag coefficient for horizontal flow steady drag coefficient drag coefficient for vertical flow damping coefficient water exit coefficient force centre fill factor centre of gravity lift coefficient mass coefficient (=1+CA) moonpool damping coefficients linearised moonpool damping coefficients slamming coefficient hydrostatic stiffness water depth depth of penetration diameter of flow valve diameter diameter of propeller disk cable diameter wave spectrum directionality function modulus of elasticity bending stiffness fluid kinetic energy wave frequency (=ω/2π) friction coefficient for valve sleeves DET NORSKE VERITAS .1 Introduction The present Recommended Practice (RP) gives guidance for modelling and analysis of marine operations. April 2010 Page 7 1. DNV-RP-C205 Environmental Conditions and Environmental Loads (April 2007).6. 1996. General 1.

Tm01 Tz.θ) HL Hb Hm0 Hs I k k k k’ kflow ks kc kc kf kt kV kE kE kG kG kH kU K KC KCpor kij Kij L Lb Ls skin friction at depth z sectional drag force sectional normal force sectional lift force sectional tangential force force in hoisting line/cable buoyancy force horizontal drag force on lifted object buoyancy force steady force due to current inertia force marginal distribution of “calm” period t wave generation damping force wave drift force drag force dynamic force in cable depth Froude number wave excitation force slamming force water exit force acceleration of gravity longitudinal metacentric height transverse metacentric height gap between soil and skirt tip wave height (=AC+AT) motion transfer function motion transfer function for lifted object breaking wave height significant wave height significant wave height area moment of inertia of free surface in tank wave number roughness height total towline stiffness equivalent winch stiffness coefficient pressure loss coefficient stiffness of soft sling stiffness of crane master stiffness of heave compensator skin friction correlation coefficient tip resistance correlation coefficient vertical cable stiffness vertical elastic cable stiffness elastic towline stiffness vertical geometric cable stiffness geometric towline stiffness horizontal stiffness for lifted object soil unloading stiffness stiffness of hoisting system Keulegan-Carpenter number “Porous Keulegan-Carpenter number” wave number mooring stiffness unstretched length of cable/towline length of towed object stretched length of cable Lsleeve M m m’ ma mc Mf MG Mij Mn M stow M stug N Nc Ns p pFK pw qc(z) qflow qt(d) Qskirt Qsoil Qsc Qsd r & r & r& r0tow r0tug R R Re Rmax rij s S(ω) SL ( ω ) S S S S T T Tb Tc Ts T(s) TC Tct Tj. April 2010 Page 8 f(z) fdrag fN fL fT Fline FB FD0 Fρ FC FI Fτ(t) Fwd FWD Fd Fd Fh Fw Fs Fe g GML GMT h H H(ω.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.Tm02 Tp TPOP length of valve sleeves mass of lifted object mass per unit length of cable equivalent winch mass added mass per unit length mass of heave compensator dynamic amplification factor moment of towing force structural mass matrix spectral moments mass of towed object mass of tug number of wave maxima number of “calm” periods number of “storm” periods perforation ratio undisturbed (Froude-Krylov) pressure hydrodynamic pressure inside bucket cone penetration resistance flow of water out of bucket tip resistance at depth of penetration skirt penetration resistance force transferred to the soil static soil resistance design bearing capacity structural displacement structural velocity structural acceleration position of towline end on tow position of towline end on tug reflection coefficient distance from COG to end of bridle lines Reynolds number most probable largest maximum load radii of gyration submergence of cylinder wave energy spectrum response spectrum of lifted object projected area area of circumscribed circle of towline cross-section wave steepness water plane area wave period draft draft of towed object total duration of “calm” periods total duration of “storm” periods quasi-static tension at top of the cable as function of payout s estimated contingency time period of crane tip motion natural periods (eigenperiods) mean wave period zero-up-crossing period spectrum peak period planned operation time DET NORSKE VERITAS .Tn T2.

2 A linear random wave model is a sum of many small linear wave components with different amplitude. height. For more thorough discussion of this topic and other metocean issues.1 Ocean waves are irregular and random in shape. see refs /2/. length and speed of propagation.2.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103./1/. frequency DET NORSKE VERITAS . /4/ and /5/.1 General 2.2.x) Uc U0 v v3 vc vct vff vflow vimp vm vr vs vw V(t) VR VR V0 w W W W0 &j x & &j x xw x( s ) z( s) zct zm zm zmax operation reference period zero-up-crossing period resonance period (eigenperiod) towline tension horizontal resonance period (eigenperiod) towing speed velocity in thruster jet current velocity flow velocity through propeller disk fluid particle velocity vertical water particle velocity vertical water particle acceleration fluid particle acceleration mean (constant) lowering velocity characteristic single amplitude vertical velocity of crane tip free fall velocity velocity of water out of bucket landing impact velocity maximum wave velocity relative velocity slamming impact velocity characteristic wave particle velocity displaced volume velocity parameter reference volume displaced volume of object in still water submerged weight per unit length of cable/towline submerged weight of lifted object submerged weight of towline weight of lifted object in air velocity of lifted object in direction j acceleration of lifted object in direction j winch pay-out coordinate horizontal towline coordinate horizontal towline coordinate motion of crane tip vertical oscillation amplitude maximum (positive) sag of towline squat φ η ~ η Γ( ) & η Σ ηa ηL κ κ μ ν νj νij λ θ θ ψ ρ ρs ρw σ σ ση σv σr τc τs ω ωj ω0 ω’ ωη ωp ξj ξL ξ( z ) ζ(t) ζa ζb ζs ζw Gamma function velocity potential vertical motion of lifted object wave induced motion of object vertical velocity of lifted object vertical single amplitude crane tip motion motion of lifted object moonpool correction factor amplification factor discharge coefficient fluid kinematic viscosity natural wave numbers of cable wave number wave length wave direction adjustment factor for mass of hoisting line wave amplification factor mass density of water mass density of cable mass density of water spectral width parameter linear damping coefficient for cable motion standard deviation of vertical crane tip motion standard deviation of water particle velocity standard deviation of dynamic load linear damping coefficient for motion of lifted object average duration of “calm” periods average duration of “storm” periods wave angular frequency natural frequencies of cable resonance wave angular frequency non-dimensional frequency angular frequency of vertical motion of lifted object angular spectral peak frequency rigid body motion horizontal offset at end of cable horizontal offset of lifted object wave surface elevation wave amplitude motion of body in moonpool heave motion of ship sea surface elevation outside moonpool 1.6.1.2. A real sea state is best described by a random wave model.2 Description of waves 2. General Methods of Analysis 2. ref. The most recent valid version of DNV-RP-C205 should be consulted. /3/.2 Greek symbols α αint β β Δ ΔzG ΔzE δ mob δ&soil γ γr γm ε ε δ towline direction interaction efficiency factor beta parameter (=Re/KC) wave direction non-dimensional roughness vertical geometric displacement vertical elastic displacement random phase mass ratio static deflection (sag) of beam vertical soil displacement to mobilize Qsd rate of change of soil displacement peak shape parameter in Jonswap spectrum rate effect factor soil material coefficient 2.1 Introduction This chapter is a selective extract of the description of wave load analysis given in DNV-RP-C205. April 2010 Page 9 &3 v & v TR Tz T0 T0 T0h U U(r.1. 2. 2.

and difference frequency wave component caused by non-linear interaction between the individual wave components.2. — Wave crest height AC is the distance from the still water level to the crest.2.3 Modelling of irregular waves 2.1. The influence of the maximum frequency ωmax should be investigated. 2.1. Section 5. Such waves may have an effect on deepwater lowering operations. — Wave height: The wave height H is the vertical distance from trough to crest. A sea state is also described in terms of its duration of stationarity.2. a mean propagation direction and a spreading function. April 2010 Page 10 and direction.1. 2.2 Regular waves 2. The maximum wave height Hb is given by.2. but should be at least 1000 in order to capture the properties of extreme waves. 2. — Wave length: The wave length λ is the distance between successive crests.78 times the local water depth. — Water depth: d λ λ Figure 2-1 Regular travelling wave properties 2. representing a real sea state. wave height.2.t) is the distance between the still water level and the wave surface.2. Moderate and low sea states in open sea areas are often composed of both wind sea and swell. while swell have no relationship to the local wind. a representative frequency.2. 2.142 tanh 2πd λ where λ is the wave length corresponding to water depth d. gives expressions for horizontal fluid velocity u and vertical fluid velocity w in a linear Airy wave and in a second-order Stokes wave.2 In deep water the breaking wave limit corresponds to a maximum steepness Smax = Hb/λ = 1/7.2. In shallow water the limit of the wave height can be taken as 0. ref. — Wave period: The wave period T is the time interval between successive crests passing a particular point.1 The wave height is limited by breaking./1/. two-dimensional regular wave kinematics can be calculated using a relevant wave theory valid for the given wave parameters.5 Table 3-1 in DNV-RP-C205. The deterministic wave parameters may be predicted by statistical methods.1. Δω =2π/t. AC >AT and the phase velocity depends on wave height.8 In certain areas internal solitary waves can occur at a water depth where there is a rapid change in water density due to changes in temperature or salinity. η1 (t ) = ∑ Ak cos(ωk t + ε k ) k =1 N where εk are random phases uniformly distributed between 0 and 2π. usually taken to be 3 hours. mutually independent of each other and of the random amplitudes which are taken to be Rayleigh distributed with mean square value E Ak2 = 2S (ω k ) Δω k S(ω) is the wave spectrum and Δωk = (ωk +1 − ωk −1 ) / 2 .y.2 A regular wave is described by the following main characteristics.2. 2.2.2. This is particularly important when simulating irregular fluid velocities.4. The phases are random with respect to each other. wave height.2.2.2. Hb [ ] λ = 0. crest height and wave. It has a distinct wave length.3. 2.4. H = AC + AT.2 The lowest frequency interval Δω is governed by the total duration of the simulation t. 2. 2. — Phase velocity: The propagation velocity of the wave form is called phase velocity. 2.2.7 The wave conditions in a sea state can be divided into two classes: wind seas and swell. A sea state is specified by a wave frequency spectrum with a given significant wave height.2. ref.2. The simplest random wave model is the linear longcrested wave model given by.2.4 For a specified regular wave with period T. 2. 2. wave period.2.1 A regular travelling wave is propagating with permanent form.6 Structures with significant dynamic response require stochastic modelling of the sea surface and its kinematics by time series. it is sufficient to use deterministic regular waves characterized by wave length and corresponding wave period.2. can be modelled as a summation of sinusoidal wave components. 2.2. may be described either by deterministic design wave methods or by stochastic methods applying wave spectra.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103. For simulations of floater motions randomness is usually assured by using on the order of 100 frequencies. The number of frequencies to simulate a typical short term sea state is governed by the length of the simulation. Use of deterministic amplitudes Ak = σk can give non-conservative estimates. Swells are waves that have travelled out of the areas where they were generated.4 Breaking wave limit 2.2.3.4 Wave conditions which are to be considered for structural design purposes.3 A non-linear random wave model allows for sum. 2.2.3 Nonlinear regular waves are asymmetric.1. DET NORSKE VERITAS . Wind seas are generated by local wind.5 For quasi-static response of structures. — Wave trough depth AH is the distance from the still water level to the trough.1 Irregular random waves.1. wave speed or wave celerity and is denoted by c = λ / T = ω/k — Wave frequency is the inverse of wave period: f = 1/T — Wave angular frequency: ω = 2π / T — Wave number: k = 2π/λ — Surface elevation: The surface elevation z = η(x. wave height H and water depth d. 2.

2.5.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.5 2. the power spectral density function of the vertical sea surface displacement.6.2.6. S PM (ω ) = ⎛ 5⎛ω 5 2 4 ⋅ HS − ⎜ ω p ⋅ ω − 5 exp⎜ ⎜ 16 ⎜ 4⎜ ⎝ ωp ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ −4 3 .1 The Pierson-Moskowitz (PM) spectrum SPM(ω) is given by.6.6. M0 = M1 = M2 = 1 2 Hs 16 1 2 6.2.0 2.2.0 m. Mn = ∫ ∞ 0 ω n S ( ω ) dωn 2. 2.0 1. 2. 6.0 4.6. 2. 2. The effect of the peak shape parameter γ is shown in Figure 2-2.7 The Pierson-Moskowitz (PM) spectrum and JONSWAP spectrum are frequently applied for wind seas. γ = 2 and γ = 5 2.4 For the JONSWAP spectrum the spectral moments are given approximately as. 2.5.0 γ=5 γ=2 γ=1 S J (ω ) = Aγ S PM (ω ) γ where SPM(ω) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2. The wave spectrum is often defined in terms of Hs and Tp.7 The JONSWAP spectrum is expected to be a reasonable model for 2. A stationary sea state can be characterised by a set of environmental parameters such as the significant wave height Hs and the spectral peak period Tp.1 Short term stationary irregular sea states may be described by a wave spectrum. 2. or by a parameterized analytic formula.0 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ where ωp = 2π/Tp is the angular spectral peak frequency 2.0 s for γ = 1.2.2.5.2.0 0.6 < T p / H s < 5 and should be used with caution outside this interval.0 γ σ = Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum = non-dimensional peak shape parameter = spectral width parameter 0. Both spectra describe wind sea conditions that often occur for the most severe sea-states. 2.5 ω 3. of the wave spectra is.2.6.0 3.2 It is common to assume that the sea surface is stationary for a duration of 20 minutes to 3-6 hours. that is.2. /1/). The OchiHubble spectrum and the Torsethaugen spectrum are two-peak spectra (ref.2.5 The following sea state parameters can be defined in terms of spectral moments: The significant wave height Hs is defined by H s = H m0 = 4 M 0 The zero-up-crossing period Tz can be estimated by: M 0 Tm02 = 2π M 2 The mean wave period T1 can be estimated by: Tm01 = 2π M M 0 1 2.6 Wave spectra can be given in table form.5.287 ln(γ) is a normalizing factor Figure 2-2 JONSWAP spectrum for Hs = 4.5.4 The spectral peak period Tp is the wave period determined by the inverse of the frequency at which a wave energy spectrum has its maximum value.2.0 1.2.5⎜ ⎜σ ω ⎜ p ⎝ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 S( ω ) 5.5 1.2.2.6.5 The zero-up-crossing period Tz is the average time interval between two successive up-crossings of the mean sea level.2.6 Average values for the JONSWAP experiment data are γ = 3. The most appropriate wave spectrum depends on the geographical area with local bathymetry and the severity of the sea state.3 The corresponding spectral moment Mn. The PM-spectrum was originally proposed for fully-developed sea.0 0. σb = 0.0.09. 2. σa = 0.5.8 + γ Hs ωp 16 5+γ 1 2 2 11 + γ Hs ωp 16 5+γ 2. For γ = 1 the JONSWAP spectrum reduces to the Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum.2.2.6 Pierson-Moskowitz and JONSWAP spectra 2. The JONSWAP spectrum extends PM to include fetch limited seas. Tp = 8.5.8 Moderate and low sea states in open sea areas are often composed of both wind sea and swell.5.2. 2. as measured spectra.07.8 The zero-up-crossing wave period Tz and the mean wave period T1 may be related to the peak period by the following DET NORSKE VERITAS .0 σ = σa for ω ≤ ωp σ = σb for ω > ωp Aγ = 1.3.5 Short term wave conditions 2.2 The JONSWAP spectrum SJ(ω) is formulated as a modification of the Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum for a developing sea state in a fetch limited situation: ⎛ ⎛ ω −ω p ⎜ exp ⎜ − 0.6. April 2010 Page 11 2.3 The significant wave height Hs is approximately equal to the average height (trough to crest) of the highest one-third waves in the indicated time period. A two peak spectrum may be used to account for both wind sea and swell.

the following value may be applied: 1 ln N 2 1 0. DET NORSKE VERITAS .2 The largest wave loads on offshore structures take place at the same frequencies as the waves.2. the extreme maxima in the sea state can be taken as: Quantity Most probable largest Median value Expected extreme value p-fractile extreme value Hmax/Hs (N is large) For γ = 3.0867Tz 2.4 A common directional function often used for wind sea is.2 Small volume structures may be divided into structures dominated by drag force and structures dominated by inertia (mass) force.7.7. 577 ½ ln N (1 + ) 2 ln N ½ 1 ⎛ ln(− ln p) ⎞ ln N ⎜1 − ⎟ ln N ⎠ 2 ⎝ For a narrow banded sea state.1. Here D(θ. ω ) = S (ω ) D(θ ) where the latter equality represents a simplification often used in practice.2. θ ) = S (ω ) D(θ .7. T T z = 0.0003341γ 3 p rate correlation between the actual sea-state and the constant n.3. 2.04936γ − 0.05037γ − 0.1.2 Motion time scales 2.6.8. the number of maxima can be taken as N = t/Tz where t is the sea state duration.0734Tz For γ = 1. — high frequency (HF) motions — wave frequency (WF) motions — low frequency (LF) motions.3. For a large volume structure the structure’s ability to create waves is important in the force calculations while for small volume structures this is negligible.1 Directional short-crested wave spectra S(ω. If used for swell.3 The term large volume structure is used for structures with dimensions D on the same order of magnitude as typical wave lengths λ of ocean waves exciting the structure.2.2. 2.8 Maximum wave height in a stationary sea state T 1 = 0. V and VI covers small volume structures.2.6 γ = exp(5.6 Due consideration should be taken to reflect an accu- 2. where Γ is the Gamma function and | θ . 2.5 The main direction θp may be set equal to the prevailing wind direction if directional wave data are not available.7.3 Wave loads on large volume structures 2.1.3. This corresponds to the diffraction wave force regimes II and IV shown in Figure 2-3 below where this boundary is equivalently defined as πD/λ > 0. moored structure may respond to wind. April 2010 Page 12 approximate relations (1 ≤ γ < 7).0 (PM spectrum).2.15T p / H s ) for 3. θ ) = S wind sea (ω ) Dwind sea (θ ) + S swell (ω ) Dswell (θ ) 2.1 For a stationary narrow banded sea state with N independent local maximum wave heights.2859Tz and T1 = 1.2.2. Tp = 1. To avoid large resonant effects.θ) may be expressed in terms of the uni-directional wave spectra.0003610γ 3 T p 2. 367 ½ ln N ⋅ (1 + ) 2 ln N γ = 5 for T p / H s ≤ 3.2.2.2.6673 + 0. III. D (θ ) = Γ (1 + n / 2) π Γ (1 / 2 + n / 2) n cos (θ − θ p ) 2.θ p |≤ π 2 .ω) and D(θ) are directionality functions.3. the total directional frequency spectrum S(ω.3.2 The directionality function fulfils the requirement. 2.9 If no particular values are given for the peak shape parameter γ. Typical values for wind sea are n = 2 to n = 4. Figure 2-3 shows the different regimes where area I.7303 + 0.75 − 1. Tp = 1.1 Offshore structures are normally characterized as either large volume structures or small volume structures. usually D > λ/6.7. offshore structures and their mooring systems are often designed in such a way that the resonant frequencies are shifted well outside the wave frequency range. causing wave frequency (WF) motions of the structure.7 Directional distribution of wind sea and swell 1 0.4049Tz and T1 = 1. 2.3.7. ∫ D(θ .Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.5. 2.006230γ 2 + 0. waves and current with motions on three different time scales.1 A floating.θ) can be expressed as S (ω . θ is the angle between the direction of elementary wave trains and the main wave direction of the short crested wave system. 2. 2.006556γ 2 + 0. 2.1 Introduction S (ω .3. ω )dθ = 1 2. n ≥ 6 is more appropriate.6 < Tp / H s < 5 γ = 1 for 5 ≤ T p / H s where Tp is in seconds and Hs is in metres.3 For a two-peak spectrum expressed as a sum of a swell component and a wind-sea component. 2.3.2.

Slowly varying wave and wind loads give rise to low frequency (LF) resonant horizontal motions.3.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103. 2.3.3.3.3. 2. The remaining part is called diffraction forces/moments. some responses always appear at the natural frequencies. which means that the global loads due to wave diffraction are significantly larger than the drag induced global loads. The uncoupled natural period in roll is ⎛ Mr 2 + A44 T4 = 2π ⎜ 44 ⎜ ρgV GM T ⎝ ⎞2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 1 where r44 is the roll radius of gyration.4 Due to non-linear load effects. hydrostatic and mooring stiffness matrices. To avoid an where Mjj.2.2. 2. yaw.4 Frequency domain analysis Figure 2-3 Different wave force regimes (Chakrabarti. 2. 2. while viscous fluid effects are relatively important for LF mo-tions. 1987).4.4.4. and must be taken into account in the analysis and design.3.2 Assuming steady state.2. Cjj and Kjj are the diagonal elements of the DET NORSKE VERITAS . surge. 2.3. The resulting loads are wave excitation loads Fk (d ) = f k (ω )e −iωt .3. A55 is the pitch added moment and GML is the longitudinal metacentric height. with all transient effects neglected.5 The WF motions are mainly governed by inviscid fluid effects. 2.3 A floating structure responds mainly in its six rigid modes of motions including translational modes. also named slow-drift motions. for the six degrees of rigid body modes. 2.3.3 Natural periods Fk (r ) = − Akj d 2ξ j dt 2 − Bkj dξ j dt − C kj ξ j 2. sway. In addition. Natural periods in heave. Akj and Bkj are functions of wave frequency ω.3.6.4. λ = wave length. roll and pitch of semi-submersibles are usually above 20 seconds. — Diffraction problem where the structure is restrained from motions and is excited by incident waves. j = 1. and Ckj are the hydrostatic restoring coefficients.3.k = 1.3 Natural periods depend on coupling between different modes and the amount of damping. H = wave height.4. 2.5 The uncoupled natural period in pitch for a freely floating offshore vessel is. 2. j.3. or with the frequency of encounter in the case of a forward speed.2 The uncoupled natural periods Tj.3. the loads and dynamic response of the structure is oscillating harmonically with the same frequency as the incident waves. A typical example is resonant roll motion. 2.…6 of a moored offshore structure are approximately given by ⎛ M + Ajj T j = 2π ⎜ jj ⎜ C jj + K jj ⎝ ⎞2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 1 where Akj and Bkj are added mass and damping. Analysing a large volume structure in regular incident waves is called a frequency domain analysis.3. sway and yaw are typically more than 100 seconds.6 2. The resulting loads are usually formulated in terms of added mass. roll. added mass. Current may induce high frequency (HF) vortex induced vibrations (VIV) on slender structural elements. Ajj. ⎛ Mr 2 + A55 T5 = 2π ⎜ 55 ⎜ ρgV GM L ⎝ ⎞2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 1 where r55 is the pitch radius of gyration.4 The uncoupled natural period in heave for a freely floating offshore vessel is ⎛ M + A33 T3 = 2π ⎜ ⎜ ρgS ⎝ ⎞2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 1 where M is the mass.3 Within a linear analysis. D = characteristic dimension. the hydrodynamic problem is usually divided into two sub-problems: — Radiation problem where the structure is forced to oscillate with the wave frequency in a rigid body motion mode with no incident waves. and rotational modes.3.3. A44 is the roll added moment and GMT is the transversal metacentric height.5 Large volume structures are inertia-dominated. heave.1 The wave induced loads in an irregular sea can be obtained by linearly superposing loads due to regular wave components.2.3. pitch. April 2010 Page 13 mass.3. A33 the heave added mass and S is the water plane area.e. Viscous fluid effects may be important for WF motions close to resonance. wave induced loads can cause high frequency (HF) elastic response.4 The part of the wave excitation loads that is given by the undisturbed pressure in the incoming wave is called the Froude-Krylov forces/moments.1 Natural periods for a large moored offshore structure in surge. Different hydrodynamic effects are important for each floater type.3. k = 1. i. spring-ing and whipping of ships.3. damping and restoring loads 2. 2.

added mass.11 Based on the response spectrum.3. L(ω ) = −ω [M + A(ω )] + iωB(ω ) + C 2 [ ] M is the structure mass and inertia. the short-term response statistics can be estimated.3.4. i = 1. including analysis of both motions and forces. 2.9 The concept of RAOs may also be used for global forces and moments derived from rigid body motions and for diffracted wave surface elevation. j N i (ωi −ω j ) t where Ai. ω j ) ≅ 1 (2−) H (ω i . Additional resonance peaks also appear in coupled heave. ω j )e i. pitch and roll motions. Fwd (t ) = Re ∑ Ai A j H ( 2 − ) (ω i . The module of the motion transfer function is denoted the Response Amplitude Operator (RAO).7 Only the wetted area of the floater up to the mean water line is considered.4. 2. The QTF is usually represented as a complex quantity to account for the proper phase relative to the wave components. B the wave damping and C the stiffness. hydrostatics.4. The inviscid wave drift force is a second-order wave force. first order motions in rigid body degrees of freedom and the mean drift forces/moments. The mean wave drift force and moments are of second order. Some radiation-diffraction codes have means to damp such trapped waves. /1/.10 The frequency domain method is well suited for systems exposed to random wave environments. the so called Newman's approximation can be used to approximate the wave drift force.4. However. fluid pressure and fluid kinematics. adding Morison type viscous loads and radiation/diffraction loads on the same structural element. like semisubmersibles with rectangular shaped pontoons and columns.3 An important interaction effect is a near resonance trapped wave between the floaters that can excite sway and roll motions.13 Frequency domain analysis is used extensively for floating units. It is usually applied in fatigue analyses. In this approximation the QTF matrix can be approximated by the diagonal elements.14 Low frequency motions of a moored floating structure are caused by slowly varying wave.3. wind and current forces.3.4. this section focuses on first order wave loads. time varying geometry.4. Re denotes the real part.4.ωj and is given by the expression 2. 2. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 2. may be analysed using radiation/diffraction software through the so-called multibody options. ξ(1)(ω) is also denoted the response transfer function.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103. 2.3. The equations of rigid body motion are. 2.3. The discretisation of the wetted surfaces in the area between the floaters must be fine enough to capture the variations in the trapped wave. a Morison load model with predefined added mass coefficients can be added to the radiation/diffraction model.2 An example of a two-body system is a crane vessel and a side-by-side positioned transport barge during lifting operations where there may be strong hydrodynamic interaction between the two floaters.12 A linear assumption is also employed in the random process theory used to interpret the solution. sway and heave) and three rotations (roll.3.5. This means that the loads from individual waves in an arbitrary sea state can be simply superimposed.4. The term linear means that the fluid dynamic pressure and the resulting loads are proportional to the wave amplitude. Aj are the individual wave amplitudes and H(2-) is the difference frequency quadratic transfer function (QTF). potential wave damping. This is inconvenient for nonlinear effects like drag loads.3.3. These quantities are usually taken as complex numbers. as a function of the wave frequency.5 Multi-body hydrodynamic interaction 2.3. Section 2. Hence. The linear motion transfer function gives the response per unit amplitude of excitation. The linear motion transfer function.1 Hydrodynamic interactions between multiple floaters in close proximity and between a floater and a large fixed structure in the vicinity of the floater. six coupled equations for three translations (surge. This trapped wave is undamped within potential theory.3. The mean drift force is obtained by keeping only diagonal terms (ωi = ωj) in the sum above 2.8 The output from a frequency domain analysis will be transfer functions of the variables in question. H ( 2 − ) (ω i .15 If the natural frequency of the horizontal floater motion is much lower than the characteristic frequencies of the sea state.4. April 2010 Page 14 excessive increase in the number of elements/panels on slender members/braces of the structure in the numerical diffraction analysis. N the wave drift force oscillates at difference frequencies ωi . in general. For such floaters a dual hydrodynamic model may be applied. pitch and yaw).3.5. S R (ω ) = ξ (1) (ω ) S (ω ) 2 where ω ξ(1) (ω) S(ω) SR(ω) = angular frequency (= 2π /T) = transfer function of the response = wave spectrum = response spectrum DET NORSKE VERITAS .4. e. /1/. 2. ω i ) + H ( 2 − ) (ω j .3. but depends on first order quantities only. ref.4.6 A linear analysis will usually be sufficiently accurate for prediction of global wave frequency loads. edges may lead to flow separation and introduce considerable viscous damping. exciting forces/moments and platform motions per unit wave amplitude. The interaction may be of concern due to undesirable large relative motion response between the two floaters. In a random sea-state represented by a sum of N wave components ωi. 2. ref. The main advantage of this method is that the computations are relatively simple and efficient compared to time domain analysis methods. and analyses of more moderate environmental conditions where linearization gives satisfactory results. including both hydrostatic and structural stiffness. horizontal restoring forces and variable surface elevation.g. 2. in many cases these nonlinearities can be satisfactorily linearised. proportional to the square of the wave amplitude. The method limitations are that the equations of motion are linear and the excitation is linear.5. The first order or linear force/ moment transfer function (LTF) is usually denoted H(1)(ω). Guidance note: For some large volume floater types. damping and excitation. since the random response spectrum can be computed directly from the transfer function and the wave spectrum in the following way: More detailed information on drift forces and Newman’s approximation is given in Ref. The analysis gives first order excitation forces. A the added mass. 2. The N floaters are solved in an integrated system with motions in 6·N degrees of freedom. 2. The wave-induced drift force can be modelled as a sum of an inviscid force and a viscous force. ω j ) 2 ξ (1) (ω ) = H (1) (ω ) L−1 (ω ) where L(ω) is the linear structural operator characterizing the equations of motion.3.

3 A time-domain analysis involves numerical integration of the equations of motion and should be used when nonlinear effects are important. while others are highly non-linear and can only be handled in time-domain. 2.5. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 2.7.6.3.7 For fixed or floating structures with simple geometries like sphere. 2. Satisfying the boundary condition on the body surface gives an integral equation for the source strength.3. amplification and resonance effects must be properly captured.3. In cases where time-domain analyses are time-consuming. A low-order panel method uses flat panels.4 When analyzing hydrodynamic interactions between multiple floater using a radiation/diffraction panel method one should take care to distinguish between the eigenfrequencies of near resonant trapped modes and possible irregular frequencies inherent in the numerical method (ref. 2. The eigenfrequency ω0 of the piston mode is within a frequency range given by 2.7. hull skin friction damping. 2. One should be aware that the numerical implementation of the strip theory must include a proper treatment of head sea (β = 180o) wave excitation loads. 2.3.3.3.3.3.5 Another interaction effect is the sheltering effect which leads to smaller motions on the leeside than on the weather side. 2.7 Numerical methods 1+ where 2 π G 2 G ω0 D ⋅ < < 1+ ⋅ π D g 2 D 2.6. 2. A higher order method obtains the same accuracy with less number of panels. ellipsoid. In addition.3.3. Viscous damping effects are usually estimated from simplified hydrodynamic models or from experiments. viscous damping from bilge keels and other appendices.7.7.6.3. 2. Examples are — transient slamming response — simulation of low-frequency motions (slow drift) — coupled floater.7. April 2010 Page 15 Guidance note: In the case of a narrow gap between near wall sided structures in the splash zone a near resonant piston mode motion may be excited at a certain wave frequency. a time domain analysis gives the response statistics without making assumptions regarding the response distribution. critical events can be analysed by a refined model for a time duration defined by a simplified model. an analytic representation must be used a distance away from the body to reduce the number of elements. Requirements to discretisation are given in ref.8 Frequency and panel mesh requirements D G g = draft of structure (barge) [m] = width of gap [m] = acceleration of gravity [m/s2] In addition transverse and longitudinal sloshing mode motions in the gap may occur.7. The momentum approach usually applied for one single floater gives only the total drift force on the global system. semi-analytic expressions can be derived for the solution of the potential flow problem.3. including fenders with non-linear force-displacement relationships.5.8.3.3.3. Formulas for the eigenfrequencies of such sloshing mode motions are given in ref /8/.6./1/. Care should be taken when calculating drift force in vicinity of the frequencies of the trapped modes (2. hull eddy making damping. such solutions can be useful approximations. For a low-order panel method (BEM) with constant value of the potential over the panel the following principles apply: — Diagonal length of panel mesh should be less than 1/6 of DET NORSKE VERITAS .3. cylinder.3.2 Modelling principles related to the fineness of the panel mesh must be adhered to. 2.9 Motion damping of large volume structures is due to wave radiation damping. discretising the volume of the fluid domain by elements. For certain offshore structures. Wave radiation damping is calculated from potential theory. spheroid. 2.3.7.3) since undamped free surface motion may lead to erroneous drift force predictions.5.2 The advantage of a time domain analysis is that it can capture non-linear hydrodynamic load effects and non-linear interaction effects between objects.6 The potential flow problem can also be solved by the finite element method (FEM). etc.8. Cancellation. Hydrodynamic interaction effects between multiple surface piercing structures should be included if the excitation loads on each structure is considerable influenced by the presence of the other structures. For infinite domains.3 An alternative is to use elementary Rankine sources (1/R) distributed over both the mean wetted surface and the mean free surface. An alternative is to use socalled infinite finite element.9). torus. 2.5 Time-domain analyses of structural response due to random load effects must be carried far enough to obtain stationary statistics. hence these methods are also called panel methods.2 The most common numerical method for solution of the potential flow is the boundary element method (BEM) where the velocity potential in the fluid domain is represented by a distribution of sources over the mean wetted body surface. 2.7. 2.6 Time domain analysis 2.4 Another representation is to use a mixed distribution of both sources and normal dipoles and solve directly for the velocity potential on the boundary.3.8 Wave-induced loads on slender ship-like large volume structures can be predicted by strip theory where the load is approximated by the sum of loads on two-dimensional strips.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103. direct pressure integration of second-order fluid pressure on each body is required. For simple geometries Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) can be used to assess viscous damping.1 Several wave periods and headings need to be selected such that the motions and forces/moments can be described as correctly as possible.3. 2.1 Wave-induced loads on large volume structures can be predicted based on potential theory which means that the loads are deduced from a velocity potential of the irrotational motion of an incompressible and inviscid fluid. while a higher order panel method uses curved panels. 2.7.5.3.5 The mean wetted surface is discretised into flat or curved panels. A Rankine source method is preferred for forward speed problems. 2.4 Time-domain analysis methods are usually used for prediction of extreme load effects.3. 2. 2.3. 2. and viscous damping from risers and mooring.3.1 Some hydrodynamic load effects can be linearised and included in a frequency domain approach. The source function satisfies the free surface condition and is called a free surface Green function.6. riser and mooring response.6 When calculating individual drift forces on multiple floaters.

3. It is a deficiency of the integral equation method used to solve for the velocity potential.9. the added mass may depend on motion amplitude or equivalently.8.3. using free surface Green function solvers. The lowest zeros are j01 = 2.3).9. In addition a torsion moment mT will act on non-circular cross-sections. /7/.4.2 Sectional force on slender structures 2.3. s = 1. 2.2.520. 2. of large volume structures with large water plane area like ships and barges. 2. axial force and lift force on slender structure ω 2 = gν tanh(νd ) 2..4 Irregular wave numbers ν of a rectangular barge with length L.5 For a motion analysis of a floater in the frequency domain.1.1 For radiation/diffraction analyses.3 Convergence tests by increasing number of panels should be carried out to ensure accuracy of computed loads.1 The hydrodynamic force exerted on a slender structure in a general fluid flow can be estimated by summing up sectional forces acting on each strip of the structure.9 Irregular frequencies where ν g d = irregular wave number = acceleration of gravity = water depth.3. see Figure 2-4. 2.9.4. computations are normally performed for at least 30 frequencies. Methods are available in some commercial software tools to remove the unwanted effects of the irregular frequencies.. The corresponding irregular frequencies are then given by the dispersion relation Figure 2-4 Definition of normal force. 2. — When modelling thin walled structures with water on both sides.3. Drag coefficients are given in Appendix B. the KC-number (ref. ζ is the damping ratio and ω0 the frequency.136. j21 = 5. m = 0. Section 3..4 Wave Loads on small volume structures 2.3. j02 = 5. fN fL α fT v vN ν = ν ij = k ij coth(k ij T ) where kij = π (i / L) + ( j / B ) . 2.2 Irregular frequencies correspond to fictitious eigenmodes of an internal problem (inside the numerical model of the structure) and do not have any direct physical meaning.1 Small volume 3D objects 2.832.3. Special cases may require a higher number.…. The frequency spacing should be less than ζω0 to achieve less than about 5% of variation in the standard deviation of response.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103. For low-order BEM. 2.3. preferably close to centre of panels. 2. i.405.5 Irregular wave numbers ν of a vertical cylinder with radius R and draft T are given by the relations ν = ν ms = k ms coth(k msT ) where kms = jms/R are given by the zeros of the mth order Bessel function Jm(jms) = 0. fluid kinematics and surface elevation should be calculated at least one panel mesh length away from the body boundary.1. see Figure 2-3.9. 2.3 In the vicinity of irregular frequencies a standard BEM method may give unreliable values for added mass and damping and hence for predicted RAOs and drift forces.4. j11 = 3. For a fixed structure the load is given by.4. j = 0.3. 1 & + ρC D Sv v F ( t ) = ρV ( 1 + C A )v 2 where v V S & v ρ CA CD = fluid particle (waves and/or current) velocity [m/s] = fluid particle acceleration [m/s2] = displaced volume [m3] = projected area normal to the force direction [m2] = mass density of fluid [kg/m3] = added mass coefficient [-] = drag coefficient [-] 2.2.4 Calculating wave surface elevation and fluid particle velocities require an even finer mesh as compared to a global response analysis.2 For slender structural members (cylinders) having cross-sectional dimensions sufficiently small to allow the gradients of fluid particle velocities and accelerations in the direction normal to the member to be neglected. 2. Comparing drift forces calculated by the pressure integration method and momentum method provides a useful check on numerical convergence for a given discretisation.8.2.…. — The water plane area and volume of the discretised model should match closely to the real structure. corners). — Fine mesh should be applied in areas with abrupt changes in geometry (edges.. — Finer panel mesh should be used towards water-line when calculating wave drift excitation forces.4. A summary of force coefficients for various 3D and 2D objects can be found in ref. The Rankine source method avoids irregular frequencies. 2.3. In general the force vector acting on a strip can be decomposed in a normal force fN.1.8. the panel size should not exceed 3-4 times the modelled wall thickness. usually D < λ/5. The sectional force fN on a fixed slender structure in two-dimensional flow DET NORSKE VERITAS .3 For some typical subsea structures which are perforated with openings (holes). wave loads may be calculated using the Morison's load formula.4. an axial force fT and a lift force fL being normal to both fN and fT.2.9.2 A Morison type formulation may be used to estimate drag and inertia loads on three dimensional objects in waves and current. i + j ≥ 1 2 2 2.1 The term small volume structure is used for structures with dimensions D that are smaller than the typical wave lengths λ of ocean waves exciting the structure. attention should be paid to the existence of so-called irregular frequencies..1. April 2010 Page 16 smallest wave length analysed.4.1. The diagonal of a typical panel is recommended to be less than 1/10 of the shortest wave length analysed.2. beam B and draft T are given by the relations Added mass coefficients for some 3D objects are given in Table A2 in Appendix A. This applies in particular in cases where a narrow-band resonance peak lies within the wave spectral frequency range.

4. For most applications there is no need to differentiate between these two coefficients .1 The drag coefficient CD is the non-dimensional dragforce.2.4 For combined wave and current flow conditions.4. The sectional force can then be written in terms of relative velocity.3.4.4.1 The use of relative velocity formulation for the drag force is valid if r/D > 1 where r is the member displacement amplitude and D is the member diameter.1.4. additional hydrodynamic damping should normally not be included.4. CD = f drag 1 2 ρDv 2 2.4. 1 & + ρC D Dv r v r f N (t ) = − ρ C A A & r& + ρ (1 + C A ) Av 2 or in an equivalent form when relative acceleration is also introduced.5 The lift coefficient is defined as the non-dimensional lift force 2.4. April 2010 Page 17 normal to the member axis is then given by &+ f N (t ) = ρ (1 + C A ) Av 1 ρC D Dv v 2 2.3.4.3.4 Moving structure in still water 2.4. the relative velocity formulation is most often applied.5 Moving structure in waves and current 2.1 The sectional force fN on a moving slender structure in still water can be written as f N (t ) = − ρC A A& r& − 1 &r & ρCd Dr 2 where v A D & v ρ CA CD = = = = = = fluid particle (waves and/or current) velocity [m/s] fluid particle acceleration [m/s2] cross sectional area [m2] diameter or typical cross-sectional dimension [m] mass density of fluid [kg/m3] added mass coefficient (with cross-sectional area as reference area) [-] = drag coefficient [-] where & r = velocity of member normal to axis [m/s] = acceleration of member normal to axis [m/s2] & r& Cd = hydrodynamic damping coefficient [-] 2.3 Definition of force coefficients 2.7.6.5. solving for r = r(t). ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 2.4.3 The added mass coefficient CA is the non-dimensional added mass 2. In a response analysis.4.4.4.2 In general the fluid velocity vector will be in a direction α relative to the axis of the slender member (Figure 2-4).4. If available.5.2.4.4.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103. a single drag coefficient is sufficient. 2.2. 1 f N (t ) = ρAa + ρC A Aar + ρCD Dv r v r 2 where a vr ar & is the fluid acceleration [m/s] = v & is the relative velocity [m/s] = v−r = v & −& r& is the relative acceleration [m/s2] CA = ma ρA where = the added mass per unit length [kg/m] ma Α = cross-sectional area [m2] 2.1 When the drag force is expressed in terms of the relative velocity. 2.4.7. computations of the total particle velocities and accelerations based on more exact theories of wave/current interaction are preferred.2 This form is known as the independent flow field model.2 and 2.4.3.6. The drag force fdrag is decomposed in a normal force fN and an axial force fT.6 Relative velocity formulation where fdrag = sectional drag force [N/m] ρ = fluid density [kg/m3] D = diameter (or typical dimension) [m] v = velocity [m/s] 2. Guidance note: The drag coefficient CD may be derived experimentally from tests with wave excitation on fixed cylinder while the damping coefficient Cd may be derived by cylinder decay tests in otherwise calm water.4. 2. the added mass force ρC A A& r& = ma & r& adds to the structural mass ms times acceleration on the left hand side of the equation of motion. wave and current induced particle velocities should be added as vector quantities.4 The mass coefficient is defined as CM = 1 + CA 2.4. &+ f N (t ) = − ρ C A A & r& + ρ (1 + C A ) Av 1 1 &r & ρCD Dv v − ρCd Dr 2 2 where λ is the wave length and D is the diameter or other projected cross-sectional dimension of the member.3. Morison's load formula is applicable when the following condition is satisfied: λ>5D 2.4.2 When r/D < 1 the validity is depending on the value of the parameter VR = vTn/D as follows: 20 ≤ VR Relative velocity recommended ρDv 2 where flift = sectional lift force [N/m] DET NORSKE VERITAS .1 The sectional force fN on a moving slender structure in two-dimensional non-uniform (waves and current) flow normal to the member axis can be obtained by summing the force contributions in 2.3 Normally. Hence.2 When using the relative velocity formulation for the drag forces. 2.4.7 Applicability of relative velocity formulation CL = f lift 1 2 2. 2.

8 Drag force on inclined cylinder 2. 2.8. Cambridge University Press. maximum orbital particle velocity [m/s] where η0 is the oscillatory flow amplitude.4. the cross flow principle is assumed to hold.M.max the drag force will not influence the maximum total force.9 Hydrodynamic coefficients for normal flow 2.4. The independent flow field model (2. (Ref.2.5 For combined wave and current conditions. The normal force on the cylinder can be calculated using the normal component of the water particle velocity vn = v sin α where α is the angle between the axis of the cylinder and the velocity vector. When f I . MIT The effect of Re. (1977) “Marine Hydrodynamics”. For sub-critical and super-critical flow CDn can be taken as independent of α.2. See Appendix C. KC. The wave period should be taken as the zero-up-crossing period Tz.9.4. /1/).9. This parameter is defined as the ratio between the Reynolds number and the Keulegan-Carpenter number.9.2 For wave loading in random waves the velocity used in the definition of Reynolds number and Keulegan-Carpenter DET NORSKE VERITAS . 2.4. April 2007 /2/ Faltinsen. /4/ and /6/. the ratio of maximum drag force fD.4 For a circular cylinder.4.3 For a vertical surface piercing member in combined wave and current field.4. the Keulegan-Carpenter number and the roughness.9. the governing parameters are Reynolds number based on maximum velocity. Keulegan-Carpenter number based on maximum orbital velocity vm and the current flow velocity ratio. max = CD 2.max to the maximum inertia force fI. Δ) CA = CA(Re.4. 2.3 For oscillatory fluid flow a viscous frequency parameter is often used instead of the Reynolds number. Hence.5 References /1/ DNV Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C205 “Environmental Conditions and Environmental Loads”.4. max f I . 2. /3/ Newman. one should take into account the variation of CD and CA as function of Reynolds number.7. defined as αc = vc/(vc+vm) where vc is the current velocity. and use the drag formulation in 2.1 For incoming flow with an angle of attack of 45-90 degrees. 2.9. Δ) The parameters are defined as: — Reynolds number: Re = vD/ν — Keulegan-Carpenter number: KC = vm T /D — Non-dimensional roughness: Δ=k/D where D T k v v vm = = = = = = Diameter [m] wave period or period of oscillation [s] roughness height [m] total flow velocity [m/s] fluid kinematic viscosity [m2/s]. J. the parameter VR can be calculated as number should be taken as 2σ v where σv is the standard deviation of the fluid velocity.8 For an oscillating structure in still water.4. 2. KC. The drag force normal to the cylinder is then given by f dN = 1 ρCDn D v n v n 2 π (1 + C A ) 2 KC The formula can be used as an indicator on whether the force is drag or inertia dominated.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103. KC and Δ on the force coefficients is described in detail in refs. the KCnumber is a measure of the distance traversed by a fluid particle during half a period relative to the member diameter.4.4.N. 2. April 2010 Page 18 10 ≤ VR < 20 Relative velocity may lead to an over-estimation of damping if the displacement is less than the member diameter. the Keulegan-Carpenter number is given by KC = & mT x D &m is the maximum velocity of the structure.9.7 For fluid flow in the wave zone η0 in the formula above can be taken as the wave amplitude so that the KC number becomes πH KC = D where H is the wave height.max is given by f D.4. T is the where x period of oscillation and D is the cylinder diameter. O.4. 2.max > 2 ⋅ f D .9.1) may then be applied with equal drag CD and damping Cd coefficients. CD = CD(Re.9. It is recommended to discard the velocity of the VR < 10 structure when the displacement is less than one diameter.5. β = Re/KC = D2/νT = ωD2/(2πν) where D T = = = = diameter [m] wave period or period of structural oscillation [s] 2π/T = angular frequency [rad/s] fluid kinematic viscosity [m2/s] ⎡ H ⎤T VR = ⎢ v c + π s ⎥ n Tz ⎦ D ⎣ where vc Tn Hs Tz = = = = current velocity [m/s] period of structural oscillations [s] significant wave height [m] zero-up-crossing period [s] ω v Experimental data for CD and CM obtained in U-tube tests are often given as function of KC and β since the period of oscillation T is constant and hence β is a constant for each model. which for example is applicable for the lower part of the riser in deep water. (1990) “Sea loads on ships and offshore structures”. v = vc + vm. 2. 2.1 When using Morison's load formula to calculate the hydrodynamic loads on a structure.6 For sinusoidal (harmonic) flow the Keulegan-Carpenter number can also be written as KC = 2πη 0 / D In general CDn depends on the Reynolds number and the angle of incidence.4.

1. If the centre of buoyancy is not vertically above the centre of gravity. Weight is a static force on an object due to gravity.2 During water entry of an object lowered through the free surface. Van Nostrand. (1989) “A summary of subsea module hydrodynamic data”. Cambridge. 1981. Loads and response on object when deeply submerged is covered in Section 5. Structural mass is a dynamic property of an object and is unchanged regardless of where the object is situated.4 The direction of the buoyancy force is opposite to gravity. Fwd Fd Fw Fs Fe = = = = = wave damping force drag force wave excitation force slamming force water exit force 3. FB (t ) = ρgV (t ) where [N] 3. T.2. W 0 = Mg where [N] Μ g 3. The mean force is actually a slowly varying force. the buoyancy force will exert a rotational moment on the lifted object. partly due to the lowering velocity and partly due to water ingress into the object after submergence.1. Marintek Report MT51 89-0045. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 3.2.3. vol.1.1. 3. /6/ Sumer. B. Lift off is covered in Section 9. pp. The resulting static force on a submerged object is the sum of the weight of the object acting downwards and the buoyancy force acting upwards. increase the number of suitable installation vessels and also increase the safety level of the operation. April 2010 Page 19 Press. Reinhold Company. 3.1 The weight of the object in air is taken as.2.2 The objective of this section is to give guidance on how to improve the modelling and analysis methods in order to obtain more accurate prediction of the design loads.3.2.3 Buoyancy force 3. Other installation methods as e.3 Application 3.3. 3. (1987): “Hydrodynamics of Offshore Structures”. (1997) “Hydrodynamics around cylindrical structures”. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 3.1 The buoyancy force for a submerged object is equal to the weight of the displaced water.1 This section gives general guidance for modelling and analysis of the lifting through the wave zone phase.1.2.2.2.1. MA.3.1..2.1 General 3. M. the buoyancy force is given by the weight of the instantaneous displaced water.1 Objective 3. S.3 A simplified method for estimating the hydrodynamic forces is given in Section 4. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 3.1 Introduction 3. Mech. USA. /7/ Øritsland. The inertia force is the product of mass (including added mass) and acceleration required to accelerate the mass. 3. "Mechanics of Wave Forces on Offshore Structures".1. /5/ Chakrabarti. In general the following forces should be taken into account when assessing the response of the object.3.K.3.2 Weight of object 3.1 An object lowered into or lifted out of water will be exposed to a number of different forces acting on the structure.4. Fluid.2. Springer Verlag.1. J. 70. Report No. /4/ Sarpkaya.1 A typical subsea lift consists of the following main phases: — lift off from deck and manoeuvring object clear of transportation vessel — lowering through the wave zone — further lowering down to sea bed — positioning and landing. free fall pendulum installation are not covered.3. Topics related to the lowering phase beneath the wave influenced zone are covered in Section 5 while landing on seabed is dealt with in Section 6.2 Only typical subsea lifts are covered. 430.2.2. J. B. 3. ρ = mass density of water [kg/m3] g = acceleration of gravity [m/s2] V(t) = displaced volume of water [m3] Guidance note: The mass density of water varies with salinity and temperature as shown in Table C1 in Appendix C. (2001) “On the piston and sloshing modes in moonpools”.2. Fline = W0 = FB = Fc = FI = force in hoisting line/cable weight of object (in air) buoyancy force steady force due to current inertia force DET NORSKE VERITAS .3 For a totally submerged object the buoyancy force may vary with time in the case of continued water ingress into the object. 3.1 Design loads need to be established when lowering subsea structures through the wave zone. Accurate prediction of these design loads may reduce the risk of expensive waiting on weather. (1981). 3.2 Loads and load effects 3.1.M and Fredsøe.2 The force Fline(t) in the hoisting line is the sum of a mean force F0 and a dynamic force Fdyn(t) due to motion of crane tip and wave excitation on object.1.1. Landing of object on seabed is covered in Section 6. Guidance note: The centre of buoyancy xB is defined as the geometrical centre of the displaced volume of water.6.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.g.2. All phases of a subsea lift operation should be evaluated.2. 3.2 Phases of a subsea lift = mass of object including pre-filled water within object [kg] = acceleration of gravity [m/s2] Guidance note: The interpretation of the terms weight and structural mass is sometimes misunderstood. 27-50. Marine Operations Part III. 3. World Scientific.1.2. Lifting through Wave Zone – General 3.3. New York.2 Additional water flowing into the (partly or fully) submerged object shall be taken into account as described in 4. O. and Isaacson. /8/ Molin.

the cross-coupling added mass coefficients A12.4 A general object in pure translational motion may be destabilized due to the Munk moment which can be expressed in terms of the translational added mass coefficients. Guidance note: For perforated structures viscous effects may be important and the added mass will depend on the amplitude of motion defined by the KC-number.5 Inertia force due to moving object 3.5 For a partly submerged object in long waves (compared to characteristic horizontal dimension) the buoyancy force varies with wave elevation according to 3. The resulting force on the object is the wave damping force.2.3.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103. so that the hydrodynamic inertia force may differ in direction from the acceleration. /6/.2.2 When the characteristic dimensions of the object is considerably smaller than the wave length.6 as well as coupling coefficients with dimension mass multiplied by length.1 The wave exciting forces and moments are the loads on the structure when it is restrained from any motion response and there are incident waves. & &i xi .2. v &i .2.2. x x SWL xi W (t ) = W0 − FB (t ) = [M − ρ V (t )] ⋅ g 3.7.7 Wave excitation force 3. For transparent structures composed of several slender elements. Aij = Aji. the wave excitation DET NORSKE VERITAS .1 In general when an object moves in vicinity of a free surface. Added mass coefficients for general compact non-perforated structures may be determined by potential flow theory using a sink-source technique.i = −(Mδ ij + Aij )& x [N] where summation over j is assumed and δij = 1 if i = j M = structural mass [kg] 3.5. The time varying part of the buoyancy force due to waves can then be taken as a wave excitation force. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- where T is the period of the oscillatory motion. 3.6.1 The steady force due to ocean current can be taken as a quadratic drag force 3. [kg] where ρ VR = mass density of water [kg/m3] = reference volume of the object [m3] T >> 2πD / g [s] ij = added mass coefficient [-] CA Guidance note: In the absence of body symmetry.2. the wave damping force vanishes for high frequencies and for low frequencies. 3. x3 ζ &i vi . ij Aij = ρC A VR & j = velocity of lifted object [m/s] x 3.2.3.4. outgoing surface waves will be created. The energy of these waves comes from the work done to dampen the motion of the object.j = 4. x2=y. A13 and A23 are non-zero.6 For a submerged object.2. the submerged volume V and the vertical added mass A33 shall be taken to the still water level.2. 3.2.2.3) on an object moving in pure translation can be calculated from 3. 3.2.2 For objects crossing the water surface.2 The wave damping force Fwd is proportional to the velocity of the object.7.2. 3. Hence.6 Wave damping force &j FI . Wave damping can be neglected if. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- Fc = where 1 ρC DSi A piU c ( z 0 ) 2 2 [N] CDSi = the steady state drag coefficient in the current direction i [-] = projected area in direction i [m2] Api Uc(z0) = current velocity at depth z0 of object [m/s] 3.2.2.5. The added mass will also be affected by a large volume structure in its close proximity.5.4 Steady force due to current [N] Figure 3-1 Submerged object lifted through wave zone 3.2. the characteristic dimension is the cross-sectional dimension of the slender elements.4.2. ref. for a three-dimensional object of arbitrary shape there are in general 21 different added mass coefficients for the 3 translational and 3 rotational modes. Added-mass coefficients are symmetric.5.3 For rotational motion (typically yaw motion) of a lifted object the inertia effects are given by the mass moments of inertia Mij and the added moments of inertia Aij where i.6.5.5.3 For oscillatory motion of the object. 3. &j Fwd = Bij x [N] where Bij = wave generation damping coefficient [kg/s] = 0 if i ≠ j Aij = added mass in direction i due to acceleration in direction j [kg] & & j = acceleration of object in direction j (x1=x. Reference is made to /6/. D is a characteristic dimension of the object normal to the direction of motion and g is the acceleration of gravity.2 The steady current force is opposed by the horizontal component of the hoisting line force.2. the submerged weight W of the object is defined as.2. and x x3=z) [m/s2] The added mass is usually expressed in terms of an added mass ij coefficient C A defined by.1 The inertia force in direction i (i = 1.2. z = 0.6. April 2010 Page 20 3. 3.

See lower graph in Figure 3-2.8.5 The upper graph in Figure 3-2 shows a typical variation of CD with KC-number.4. the product CDKC is plotted against KC-number. Hence.8. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 3. The drag coefficient for steady flow is denoted CDS.7.4. b2.2. the KC-number can be taken as 3. i [m/s] Guidance note: Note that the viscous drag force can either be an excitation force or a damping force depending on the relative magnitude and direction of velocity of object and fluid particle velocity.2.3 The dependence of KC-number for force coefficients (inertia and damping) also applies to objects exposed to oscillatory water particle motion in the wave zone. FDi = B1 v ri + B2 v ri v r 3. April 2010 Page 21 force in direction i on a fully submerged object is found from ij & j + FDi FWi = ρV (δ ij + C A )v [N] where V ρ δij C &j v FDi ij A = mass density of water [kg/m3] = submerged volume of object (taken to still water level z = 0) [m3] = 1 if i = j = 0 if i ≠ j = added mass coefficient [-] = water particle acceleration in direction i [m/s2] = viscous drag excitation force [N] (see 3.2. normally the smallest dimension transverse to the direction of oscillation [m] 3.2.8. Guidance on use of CFD is given in 3. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- KC = where ( 2σ v )T z D [-] σv = standard deviation of water particle velocity [m/s] Tz = zero up-crossing period [s] 3.2.5.2.3. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 3.4 For small KC-numbers (typically less than 10) it may be convenient to express the drag and damping force as a sum of linear and quadratic damping.6 When estimating damping coefficient and its dependence on KC-number from oscillatory flow tests. The oscillation amplitude is usually expressed in terms of the nondimensional Keulegan-Carpenter (KC) number defined as z [-] KC = 2π m D where zm D = oscillation amplitude [m] = characteristic length of object.3 For a partly submerged object the excitation force in direction i is found from KC = πH D [-] & FWi = ρgAwς ( t )δ i3 + ρV (δ ij + C ij A ) v j + F Di [N] where H is the regular wave height. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 3. and the quadratic damping term.8. The KC-number is a measure of the distance traversed by a fluid particle during half a period relative to the dimension of the object.8. A straight line can then often be drawn through a considerable part of the experimental values in this representation.7 The intersection with the vertical axis is given by b1/ω’ where b1 represents a linear damping term.8) Guidance note: For sinusoidal motion the KC-number can also be defined as KC = vmT/D where vm = 2πzm/T and T is the period of oscillation.2. The parameter ω’ is the non-dimensional frequency of oscillation. Guidance note: The effect of KC-number on damping coefficients can also be determined by numerical simulation using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) of the fluid flow past objects in forced oscillation. Guidance note: Damping coefficients obtained from oscillatory flow tests of typical subsea modules for KC-number in the range 0 < KC < 10 can be several times larger than the drag coefficient obtained from steady flow data.8.1.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103. For regular waves. For irregular wave conditions the KC-number can be taken as where the first term is a hydrostatic force (see Guidance Note) associated with the elevation of the incident wave at the location of the object and where g = acceleration of gravity [m/s2] Aw = water plane area [m2] ζ(t) = wave surface elevation [m] δi3 = 1 if i = 3 (vertically) = 0 if i = 1 or i = 2 (horizontally) Guidance note: The hydrostatic contribution in the excitation force for a partly submerged object can also be viewed as part of a time dependent buoyancy force (acting upwards) since in long waves the increase in submerged volume for the object can be approximated by Awζ(t).2.8. The variation of drag coefficients with KC-number is described in 3.2 If the damping of an oscillating object is calculated by a quadratic drag formulation as given by 3. is equal to the slope of the straight line. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 3. This corresponds to the value of CD for large KC-number. Note that this is strictly valid for vertical wall sided objects only. [rad/s] ω' = ω D / 2g where D is the same characteristic length of the object as used in the KC-number.2.8 Viscous drag force 3. using steady-flow drag coefficients CDS in place of KC-dependent drag coefficients CD may underestimate the damping force and overestimate resonant motions of the object.1 The viscous drag force in direction i can be expressed by the equation Fdi = 1 2 ρ C D Ap v r v ri where CD Ap vr vri [N ] ρ = = = = = mass density of water [kg/m3] drag coefficient in oscillatory fluid [-] projected area normal to motion/flow direction [m2] total relative velocity [m/s] vi.2.x & i = relative velocity component in dir. the drag coefficient CD depends on the oscillation amplitude.8.2. DET NORSKE VERITAS .2.

Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103. the coefficients B1 and B2 in the expression in 3. The high frequency limit heave added mass for a partly submerged object is half of the added mass of the corresponding “double body” in infinite fluid where the submerged part of the object is mirrored above the free surface.2 The slamming force can be written in terms of a slamming coefficient Cs as F s (t ) = where Cs is defined by Cs = 1 ρC s A p v s2 2 [N] ∞ dA33 2 ρA p v s dt = ∞ 2 dA33 ρA p dh [-] ∞ and dA33 / dh is the rate of change of added mass with submergence. the buoyancy force and a viscous drag force will be part of the measured force. during the initial water entry.9. However.67KC.9. ∞ ∞ (t ) d A33 vs dA33 Fs (t ) = = vs dt dt &3 + + ( ρV + A33 )v where (1) B33 ( 2) B33 ∞ dA33 & −η & ) 2 + ρgV (t ) − Mg + Fline (t ) (ς dh ( ) [N] ∞ where A33 (t ) is the instantaneous high-frequency limit heave added mass.8 When b1 and b2 are determined.10.62 +1. This corresponds to the high frequency limit for a body oscillating with a free surface. ref.1 Combining the expressions for buoyancy. which is necessary for dynamic analysis of irregular motion.2.9.10 Equation of vertical motion of lifted object when lowered into wave zone.2.4 It should be noted that when measuring the vertical force on an object during water entry. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- Figure 3-2 Estimation of damping coefficients from experimental values. /6/. In this example CDKC = 10.9. inertia. so that the slamming force can be taken as 3. wave excitation.8. (1) ( 2) && = B33 & ) + B33 & ) (v3 − η &) ( M + A33 )η (v3 − η (v3 − η 3. April 2010 Page 22 The damping coefficient can then be written as.2. ref.2. B1 = 2 ρA p 2 gD 3π 1 2 2 Fs (t ) = where & η 1 &) 2 ρC s A p (ς& − η 2 [N] ⋅ b1 [kg/s] & ς = vertical velocity of sea surface [m/s] = the vertical motion of the object [m/s] B2 = where ρ A p ⋅ b2 [kg/m] 3.9 Slamming force 3. 3. C D KC = b1 + b2 KC ω' [-] These constant parameters can replace the amplitude dependent CD for a realistic range of amplitudes.2.2.2. ν3 &3 v = = = = the linear damping coefficient [kg/s] the quadratic damping coefficient [kg/m] water particle velocity [m/s] water particle acceleration [m/s2] DET NORSKE VERITAS . Ap = projected area normal to motion/flow direction [m2] g = acceleration of gravity [m/s2] Guidance note: The linear damping can be associated physically with skin friction and the quadratic damping with form drag.3 For water entry in waves the relative velocity between lowered object and sea surface must be applied.8. the equation of vertical motion η(t) for the lowered object can be taken as. /4/.2. Ap h ρ = mass density of water [kg/m3] = horizontal projected area of object [m2] = submergence relative to surface elevation [m] Guidance note: The rate of change of added mass with submergence can be derived from position dependent added mass data calculated by a sink-source technique or estimated from model tests. Guidance note: Using the high-frequency limit of the added mass is based on the assumption that the local fluid accelerations due to water entry of the object are much larger than the acceleration of gravity g.4 can be calculated from the formulas. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 3. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 3.2. 3. the slamming force may dominate. slamming and drag damping forces valid for wave lengths much longer than the dimensions of the object.1 The slamming force on an object lowered through the free surface with a constant slamming velocity vs (assumed positive) in still water can be expressed as the rate of change of fluid momentum.

0 ) (ς M + A33 3. and a hydrostatic restoring part due to the wave induced motion of the object. the force in the hoisting line can be taken as.2. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- Δvc = 2 A33 & − vc . April 2010 Page 23 Fline(t)= force in hoisting line [N] 3.10.7 The reduction in the force in the hoisting line due to slamming can be taken as 3.2 The force in the hoisting line is given by where M = mass of suction anchor [kg] A33 = mass of water plug (added mass) inside suction anchor [kg] & = vertical velocity of water surface inside suction anchor ς before slamming event [m/s] vc.2. The change in velocity is given by Guidance note: Using the low-frequency limit of the added mass is based on the assumption that the local fluid accelerations during water exit are much smaller than the acceleration of gravity g.1 The water exit force Fe(t) on a fully submerged object lifted up beneath the free surface with constant lifting velocity ve (positive upwards) in still water can be expressed by the rate of change of fluid kinetic energy by the relation ~ (t ) ] ρgV (t ) = ρg [V 0 + Aw ς (t ) − Aw η where V0 = displaced volume of object in still water [m3] Aw = instantaneous water plane area [m2] v e Fe (t ) = − where [N] dE k dt [Nm/s] Ek = 1 0 2 A33 ve 2 [Nm] 0 A33 (t ) = instantaneous low-frequency limit heave added mass. depending on lowering velocity vc.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103. ω0 = natural frequency of anchor motion [rad/s] 3.10. This corresponds to the low frequency limit for a body oscillating beneath a free surface. 3.11. Fe (t ) = − 0 1 d ⎛1 0 2 ⎞ 1 dA33 ve ⎜ A33 v e ⎟ = − v e dt ⎝ 2 2 dt ⎠ [N] &3 − Fline (t ) = Mg − ρgV (t ) − ( ρV + A33 )v ∞ dA33 & − vc ) 2 (ς dh [N] − B1 (v3 − vc ) − B2 (v3 − v c ) (v3 − vc ) Slamming and wave excitation forces can cause slack (F = 0) in the hoisting wire followed by high snatch loads.2.0 = vertical velocity of suction anchor before slamming event [m/s] Fline (t ) = Mg − ρgV (t ) + K ( z ct − η ) where K zct = hoisting line stiffness [N/m] = motion of crane tip [m] = motion of object [m] η & and vc. DET NORSKE VERITAS .2.6 Slamming on the top plate of a suction anchor will lead to a change in velocity of the anchor. the water exit force acts downwards.2.4 For an object with vertical sidewalls at the mean water level.2.11.11.2 The water exit force can then be written as 3. the instantaneous buoyancy force ρgΩ can be split into a slowly varying (mean) component. /9/. Both ς 3.0 are defined to be positive upwards.10./9/. a wave excitation part. Hence.11 Water exit force = stiffness of hoisting system [N/m] 3. See ref.3 The heave added mass increases as the fully submerged object approaches the free surface. The exit velocity can be expressed in terms of exit Froude number Fn = ve/√(gD) where D is a characteristic horizontal dimension of the object.2.2. in the opposite direction to the exit velocity. Hence the formulation is valid for low Froude number Fn <<1.2. 3. The instantaneous water plane area Aw is a slowly varying function of time.10. ref.10.10.5 Assuming a constant vertical velocity vc of the lowered object and neglecting the motion of the crane tip.2.3 The velocity and acceleration of the lowered object are ~ & +v & =η η c [m/s] [m/s2] ΔFline = K where K Δvc ~ && && = η η ω0 where ~ (t ) η = the wave-induced motion of the object [m/s] vc = a constant lowering velocity (vc is negative during lowering as positive direction is upwards) [m/s] 3.

[m/s2] Fe ( t ) = − where 1 & )2 ρCe A p ( ς& − η 2 [N] Guidance note: The relative velocity formulation for the drag force is valid when the motion xN of the element in the normal direction is larger than the characteristic cross-sectional dimension D. 3.2.2. i.2.13. Ref. (1) ( 2) && = B33 & ) + B33 & ) ( v3 − η &) ( M + A33 )η ( v3 − η (v3 − η 0 1 dA33 & −η & ) 2 + ρgV (t ) − Mg + Fline (t ) (ς 2 dh &3 − + ( ρV + A33 )v The velocity of the lifted object is ~ & +v & =η η e [N] The force in the hoisting line is given by 3.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103. wave excitation and water exit forces the equation of vertical motion η(t) for the lifted object can be taken as.7 For water exit in waves the relative velocity between lifted object and sea surface must be applied. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- & ς & η = vertical velocity of sea surface [m/s] = vertical motion of the object (positive upwards) [m/s] 3.4 The sectional (2D) added mass for a slender element is aij = ρCAAR.2. 3.11. wave loads may be calculated using Morison's load formula being a sum of an inertia force proportional to acceleration and a drag force proportional to the square of the velocity.13.13 Hydrodynamic loads on slender elements 3. Morison's load formula is applicable when the wave length is more than 5 times the characteristic crosssectional dimension. large horizontal surfaces beneath the object may contribute to the water exit force.5. Combining the expressions for buoyancy.5 The water exit force can be written in terms of a water exit coefficient Ce as.6. so that the exit force can be taken as.2.2. usually taken as the cross-sectional area.2. 3. The drag coefficient can be taken as independent of angle of attack.2.2.1 The hydrodynamic force exerted on a slender object can be estimated by summing up sectional forces acting on each strip of the structure.11. vN fT Figure 3-4 Normal force fN . Drainage of water may alter the weight distribution during exit.j = 1.2 Normally.11.4 The water exit force can usually be neglected on a partly submerged object being lifted out of the water.13.2.13.2 where AR is a reference area. DNV-RP-C205 sec. April 2010 Page 24 3. The use of normal velocity in the force formulation is valid if the angle of attack α (Figure 3-4) is in the range 45-90 deg. DET NORSKE VERITAS . inertia. &N + ρ ( 1 + C A ) A v &N + f N = − ρC A A & x 1 ρC D D v rN v rN 2 [-] [N/m ] where A CA CD D & &N x vrN &N v 0 dA33 / dh = rate of change of added mass with submergence [kg/m] ρ = mass density of water [kg/m3] = horizontal projected area of object [m2] Ap h = submergence relative to surface elevation [m] Note that the rate of change of added mass is negative.11. ρ 3.3 The sectional normal force on a slender structure is given by. tangential force fT and lift force fL on slender structure Ce = and 1 dA 1 dA =− ρA p v e dt ρA p dh 0 33 0 33 3.6 Enclosed water within the object and drainage of water during the exit phase must be taken into account.10. fN fL α v Figure 3-3 Water exit of ROV (Courtesy of Statoil) 3.12 Equation of vertical motion of lifted object when hoisted out of wave zone.2. For slender structural members having cross-sectional dimensions considerably smaller than the wave length.2. 1 Fe (t ) = − ρC e A p v e2 [N] 2 where Ce is defined by. However.2. 3. = = = = = = = = mass density of water [kg/m3] cross-sectional area [m2] added mass coefficient [-] drag coefficient in oscillatory flow [-] diameter or characteristic cross-sectional dimension [m] acceleration of element normal to element [m/s2] relative velocity normal to element [m/s] water particle acceleration in normal dir.

---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- It should be noted that buoyancy effects are included in this formula so that it should only be used for s/D < 0.9 The sectional water exit force on a horizontal cylinder can be written in terms of a water exit coefficient Ce as 1 Fe (t ) = − ρC e Dv e2 2 3.2 Added mass and drag coefficients for simple bodies [N/m] 3.2.13.2.3. close proximity to a large structure (wall effects) and vortex shedding.5 2. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 1.2. wake effects.2 0.0 3.5 or h/r < 0.2 1. Dotted line: (da33/dh)/ρπr.2.0 0.1 In general the hydrodynamic force coefficients (added mass coefficient.3. ref.2.13. aspect ratio. 3.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.5 0.3.8 The high frequency vertical added mass coefficient as function of submergence is shown in Figure 3-5.6 0.15 lies between the theoretical values obtained by two classical water entry solutions. in the normal direction to the direction of the relative velocity vector may be due to unsymmetrical cross-section. — geometry — Reynolds number (Re = vmD/ν) based on the maximum velocity vm — Keulegan-Carpenter number (KC = vmT/D).15⎢ + D ⎥ ⎣ D + 19 s ⎦ [-] Cs = where = D = h = ∞ da33 / dh = [-] where ρ mass density of water [kg/m3] diameter of cylinder [m] submergence [m] rate of change of sectional added mass with submergence [kg/m2] s D h = h + D/2 = submergence of cylinder [m] = diameter of cylinder [m] = distance from centre of cylinder to SWL [m] as shown in Figure 3-5.5 3. April 2010 Page 25 3.10 The slamming coefficient for a circular cylinder can be taken from experimental values by Campbell & Weinberg. In addition. -0. Guidance note: Close to the free surface the added mass and damping vary with frequency and distance to the free surface. Close to the seabed the coefficients depend upon the proximity. see ref. π (von Karman) and 2π (Wagner). lift coefficient) depend on the following.1 Added mass and drag coefficients for 2. frequency of oscillation. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- C A = a33 / ρ π r 2 [-] 3. 3.2. Guidance note: Note that the exit coefficient may depend strongly on the exit Froude number Fn = ve/√(gD) and the formulation in terms of rate of change of added mass is valid only for Fn <<1 (See also 3.2. surface roughness.0 0.4 0. ∞ 2 da 33 ρD dh [N/m] 3.7 The sectional slamming force on a horizontal cylinder can be written in terms of a slamming coefficient Cs as where Ce is defined by Ce = − 0 1 da33 ρD dh [-] mass with submergence [kg/m2] A discussion of water exit for circular cylinders is presented in ref.8 0.0 -1. More information on tangential drag is given in DNV-RP-C205.0 1. /8/.1 General h r 3.13. The added mass coefficient is defined by.0 h/r where Figure 3-5 High frequency limit of vertical added mass coefficient and its derivative close to a free surface as function of water depth. Guidance note: The initial value of this empirical slamming coefficient Cs(0) = 5.5 1. drag and damping coefficient. Solid line: a33/ρπr2.2.0 2.107 s ⎤ ⎡ D C s ( s ) = 5. perforation ratio. but not frequency. ν D T = diameter [m] = fluid kinematic viscosity [m/s2] = wave period or period of oscillation. 3.5 For bare cylinders the tangential drag force ft is mainly due to skin friction and is small compared to the normal drag force.13. the tangential drag force may be important. /10/ for a smooth cylinder.11. DET NORSKE VERITAS . proximity to free surface and proximity to solid boundary may have an influence.3 Hydrodynamic coefficients 3.6 The lift force fL.1. /9/.13. angle of inclination to the flow. For more information on lift forces for slender cylindrical elements. However for long slender elements with a predominantly tangential velocity component.2) ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 0 da33 / dh = rate of change of sectional low frequency added 1 f s (t ) = ρC s Dv s2 2 Cs is defined by. Guidance note: h is the distance from centre of cylinder to free surface so that h = -r at the initial time instant when the cylinder impacts the water surface.and 3-dimensional bodies with simple geometry are given in Appendix A & B.13. 0.3.

a protection cover used to shelter subsea modules on seabed (Courtesy of Marintek) 0. The added mass A33 is normalized with the added mass of a solid structure.4.3.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.3.3.5 Drag coefficients for circular cylinders 3.0.1 In the present context ventilated structures comprise structures where a plane normal to the oscillation direction is either arranged with holes or slots or consists of parallel slender elements.3.3.0 =e KC = 0 − p 0.05 ⎩ DET NORSKE VERITAS .65 .2 For assessment of the effect of oscillation amplitude on the force coefficients for a ventilated structures. 3. For example.3 Added mass and damping for typical subsea structures The perforation ratio p is defined as the open area divided by the total area.3. Also other parts of a 3-dimensional structure with significant flow restriction are here defined as ventilated structures.4.6).3. Guidance note: A simple guideline is as follows.3. In case it is included in the body mass. It is therefore difficult to determine the hydrodynamic coefficients by analytical methods or by use of sinksource programs.3. The variation of added mass with amplitude of oscillation is considerable (by a factor of 2-3) for all the objects.5.2 Notice that the added mass coefficient given in Appendix A & B are exclusive of water inside the body. 3. the steady drag-coefficient CDS may be taken as Figure 3-6 Example of ventilated structure. Guidance note: Interaction effects can be neglected if the solid projected area normal to the direction of motion (within a typical amplitude of either body motion or wave particle motion) is less than 50% of the silhouette area.4.47.3 The added mass and damping of an open subsea structure may be estimated as the sum of contributions from its individual structural members. interaction effects between members caused by flow restrictions can cause a significant increase in the added mass and damping. this asymptotic value at KC = 0 may give inaccurate values for structures in oscillatory fluid flow. Water inside the body may either be included in the added mass or in the body mass. water that is contained within the structure when object is lifted out of water should be taken as a part of the body mass. templates and protection structures.28 [-] However.2 The presently most accurate method to determine hydrodynamic coefficient for complex 3-dimensional subsea structures. a “porous Keulegan-Carpenter number” may be defined as KC por = where zm D p = = = = z m (1 − p) ⋅ D 2μ p 2 [-] μ oscillation amplitude [m] characteristic horizontal dimension [m] perforation ratio 0 < p < 1 discharge coefficient [-] 3. otherwise the water should be included in the added mass. Two test methods are used. while water inside suction anchors most often is included in the added mass. 3.4 Added mass and damping for ventilated structures 3. /7/ 3. as seen in figure 3-7. 3.1 The drag coefficient for circular cylinders depends strongly on the roughness k of the cylinder.1 Most subsea structures such as remotely operated tools. ref. Examples are the horizontal top plate of a suction anchor with ventilation holes and the top area of a protection structure (Figure 3-6). April 2010 Page 26 3.5 and 1.15 to 0.3. Δ < 10−4 (smooth) ⎧ ⎪ CDS (Δ) = ⎨(29 + 4 ⋅ log10 ( Δ) ) / 20 . Figure 3-7 Added mass of 5 perforated objects compared.3. A33.3. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- A33 A33. Δ > 10− 2 (rough) 1.4 The asymptotic value for A33 in the limit of zero amplitudes (KC = 0) can be found from potential theory and calculated by a sink-source panel program.3. For high Reynolds number (Re > 106) and large KC number. the buoyancy should include the internal volume. water inside tubular frames flooded through small holes may typically be taken as part of the body mass. either free motion decay test or forced oscillation test (See 3.3 Figure 3-7 shows model test results for added mass of 5 ventilated structures representing typical protection structures.4. 10− 4 < Δ < 10− 2 ⎪ ./2/ and /3/.3.0 (with same dimensions perpendicular to the motion direction). and has been found applicable for plates with ventilation openings. have a complex geometry.3. is by model tests. The discharge coefficient μ is usually between 0.2. see ref.3. However. 3. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 3. with perforation ratio varying from 0. 3. The following approximated formula has been found by curve fitting through results for plates with circular holes.

A.3. April 2010 Page 27 where Δ = k/D is the non-dimensional roughness.6. General recommendations for model testing are given in DNV-RPC205. [-] C D = C DS ⋅ψ ( KC ) where CDS is the drag coefficient for steady flow past a cylinder and.1 In forced oscillation tests the structure is forced to oscillate sinusoidally at a frequency ω. B1 and B2.3.10 3. ref.3 The intention of the Simplified Method is to give simple conservative estimates of the forces acting on the object.8.10.1. 3. Scales are typically chosen between 1:30 and 1:100.5.3. a better fit may be obtained by applying. the damping may be split into a linear and quadratic term by: [kg/s] B = B at z = 0 1 B2 = ( B − B1 ) ⋅ where T z B1 B2 = = = = 3T 16 z [kg/m] oscillation period [s] oscillation amplitude [m] linear damping. CDS=1.8.8.60 Garrison (1990).6. 1. CDS=1. CDS=0. may be derived as described in 3.1 The Simplified Method as described in Section 4 may be used for estimating characteristic hydrodynamic forces on objects lowered through the water surface and down to the sea bottom.6 Estimating added mass and damping coefficients from model tests or CFD analyses 3.2.4 [kg/m] 3. /1/.65 Rodenbusch (1983). ref.7 (if a straight line is obtained). B.10 Sarpkaya (1986).4 Calculation methods for estimation of hydrodynamic forces 3. 2B [-] CD = ρA p where Ap = projected area of object normal to the direction of oscillation [m2] 3.4. A similar approach is applied for estimating added mass and damping from CFD analyses.6. sinusoidal Iwaki (1991).1. The above values apply for both irregular and regular wave analysis. the linear and quadratic damping terms.4. The added mass coefficient is extracted from the added mass by. sinusoidal Rodenbusch (1983). CDS=1. CDS=0. 3. Note that surface roughness varies. ref.66.1.10. and corrections to the Froude scaling may be needed.5 0 0 2 4 6 KC 8 10 12 14 Rodenbusch (1983). 3. /11/ 3. & − Bz &z & F = −( M + A )& z [N] 2 3.3.6.6. 3. Wake amplification factor 2.9 In a free motion decay test the total mass is found from the period of each oscillation cycle. 3.3.4 [kg/s] quadratic damping. Figure 3-8 Wake amplification factor. One should be aware that scaling effects may be important for perforated structures. A [-] CA = ρV R where 3.4 The derived linearised damping .2 Time series for motion z(t) and force F(t) are analyzed and the total oscillating mass (M+A33) and the linearised damping B can be estimated by a least-squares method. random directional Garrison (1990). Such corrections are normally referred to as “scaling effects”.66. random directional Marin (1987).3.60 Marin (1987). CDS=0.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.4.2 The variation of the drag coefficient with KeuleganCarpenter number KC for circular cylinders can be approximated by.4.65 Rodenbusch (1983).3. 3.4 The Simplified Method assumes that the horizontal extent of the lifted object is small compared to the wave length.6. If a fairly straight line DET NORSKE VERITAS .6.2. may be plotted as function of the oscillation amplitude.3.3.8 These methods are more robust than estimating the two damping coefficients in one single step.10 Bearman (1985).5 CD /CDS 1 0.3. 3. CDS=0. [-] ψ ( KC ) is an amplification factor. When viscous forces are significant. & − Bz & [N] F = −( M + A )& z 3. CDS=1.6 The drag coefficient is then extracted from the damping factor B by. CDS=1.5 can be fitted. and the damping is derived from the decaying amplitudes of oscillation.1 The Simplified Method 3.3 The added mass.6. 3.10 Sarpkaya (1986).1. CDS=0.2. ρ = mass density of water [kg/m3] VR = reference volume of the object [m3] CA = added mass coefficient [-] 3. is found by subtracting the structural mass of the structure and the suspension elements from the total oscillating mass.4.7 Having established drag coefficients for a number of oscillation amplitudes. ref. CDS=0.2 The Simplified Method may also be applied on retrieval of an object from sea bottom back to the installation vessel.6. z. the Reynolds number is also relevant due to vortex shedding. CDS=1.3. The shaded area in Figure 3-8 shows the variation in ψ from various experimental results.5 Alternatively. using the equation. 3.3.6.10 Test models used for estimating force coefficients are scaled by use of Froude’s scaling law defined by the Froude number.

2 Documentation based upon this method should be thoroughly described in every detail to such extent that the calculations are reproducible.4. A time domain analysis is recommended if amplification due to vertical resonance is present. k = ω2/g for deep water.4. i. 3.0 times the significant wave height in cases where the planned operation time (including contingency time) exceeds 30 minutes.11. ζa = 0.2.e.4. 3.4.4. 3. The waves propagate in a direction β relative to the x-axis. where g is the acceleration of gravity [m-1] x. each of which contributes to the hydrodynamic forces. Tz . of the associated sea state.e. T.2. 3.4.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.2 Regular design wave approach 3. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 3.4. April 2010 Page 28 A regular design wave approach or a time domain analysis should be performed if the object extension is found to be important. C and D) and two manifold halves (Left Side and Right Side). 3. Calculations are made to obtain acceptance limits for both significant wave height and zero-up-crossing wave period.2.11 The regular wave is given by: ζ = ζ a sin(ωt − kx cos β − ky sin β ) where [m] 3. see 3.e.2.11.4. The origin of the coordinate system is in the still water level. Detailed expressions for water particle velocity and acceleration are given in DNV-RP-C205. B.2. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- ζa = wave amplitude.4.4.4 The global structure geometry should be divided into individual main elements both horizontally and vertically. Guidance note: The structure may in this case roughly be divided into four suction anchors (A.10 Figure 3-9 shows the definition of the coordinate system for the wave description given in 3.2. 3. or a programming language.8 The applied regular wave height should be 2.4. as described in this section. y = horizontal CoG coordinates for the individual main items of the lifted object [m] β = wave propagation direction measured from the x-axis and positive counter-clockwise [rad] Guidance note: In shallow water the wave number is given by the general dispersion relation ω 2 = gk tanh(kd ) ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 3.5 The Simplified Method assumes that the vertical motion of the structure is equal to the vertical motion of the crane tip.1 Lifting and lowering operations may be analysed by applying a regular design wave to the structure using a spreadsheet. 3.3 Shallow water effects are for simplicity not included in this section.2. Main elements.5 Separate calculations are made for each defined wave direction and for each defined load case where the still water level is positioned either beneath a slamming area or just above the top of a main item.2. If the lowering through the wave zone are to be performed within 30 minutes.4. ω = 2π/T where the regular wave period.2. Guidance note: A finite water depth.4. d. may be taken into account by deriving the water particle velocity v = grad φ and acceleration a = ∂v/∂t from the velocity potential for linear Airy waves.1 [s] k = wave number. see Figure 3-9.80 times the significant wave height.2.4.7 The regular wave height should not be less than the most probable largest wave height. φ= gζ a cosh k (z + d ) 2 cos(ωt − kx cos β − ky sin β ) [m /s] ω cosh kd Figure 3-9 Example of subsea module.4.2.9 The regular wave period should be assumed equal to the zero-up-crossing period. coordinate system and wave direction.9Hs for operations less than 30 minutes and ζa = Hs for operations exceeding 30 minutes [m] ω = wave angular frequency.4. the largest characteristic wave height may be assumed equal to 1.2. i.2. 3. 3.12 The vertical wave particle velocity and acceleration can be taken as: v =ωζa e and kz cos (ω t − kx cos β − ky sin β ) [m/s] & = − ω 2 ζ a e kz sin (ω t − kx cos β − ky sin β ) v where v & v z [m/s2] = vertical water particle velocity [m/s] = vertical water particle acceleration [m/s2] = vertical CoG coordinate for the individual main items of the lifted object (negative downwards) [m] DET NORSKE VERITAS .2.1. i. 3.6 A regular wave is applied. should be assumed equal to the applied zero-up-crossing period T = Tz [rad/s] t = time varying from 0 to T with typical increments of 0.

ωη = 2π/Tct where Tct is the peak period of the crane tip motion response spectrum for the applied Tz wave period [rad/s] t = time varying from 0 to T with typical increments of 0.2.16 The phase angle that results in the largest dynamic tension amplitudes in the lifting slings and hoisting line should be applied. ζ-η.4.4.81 [m/s2] 3.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103. April 2010 Page 29 3. assumed equal the most probable largest crane tip single amplitude. See also DNV-RP-C205.5 ρ C s As (v − η where 2 [N] ρ Cs 3. ηa .4.16 [rad] 3. normally = 1025 [kg/m3] V = volume of displaced water of object item [m3] & = vertical water particle acceleration as found in 3.18 The varying buoyancy force for items intersecting the water surface can be found by: Fρ = ρ g δV (ζ −η ) [N] CD = drag coefficient of object item [-] AP = area of object item projected on a horizontal plane [m2] and otherwise as defined in 3. velocity and acceleration of the lifted object is then given by: Figure 3-10 The displacement change δV(ζ-η) η = η a sin (ωη t + ε ) [m] [m/s] [m/s2] & = ωηη a cos(ωη t + ε ) η and 2 && = − ωη η η a sin (ωη t + ε ) 3.2.15 [m] = density of sea water.14 [m] ωη = circular frequency of the vertical motion of the lifted object.21 The drag force may be taken as: &) v −η & Fd = 0.2.2.15 [m/s2] The mass force as defined above is the sum of the inertia force (3. For smooth circular cylinders Cs should not be taken less than 3. see 3.4.4.17 The characteristic vertical hydrodynamic force acting on each of the structure main items can be found by: Fhyd = Fρ + Fm + Fs + Fd where Fρ Fm Fs Fd = = = = varying buoyancy force [N] hydrodynamic mass force [N] slamming impact force [N] hydrodynamic drag force [N] [N] As v & η = density of sea water [kg/m3] = slamming coefficient which may be determined by theoretical and/or experimental methods.2.2 and Figure 3-10) [m3] ζ = water surface elevation in the applied regular η ρ g wave as defined in 3.2. 4.7. The phase angles that result in the highest risk of slack sling or the largest DAFconv should be applied.20 The slamming impact force on object items that penetrate the water surface may be taken as: &) Fs = 0.4.4. The vertical crane tip motion is assumed to oscillate harmonically with an amplitude. the volume of displaced water should be taken as the volume at still water level.0.19 The mass force is in this simplified regular design wave approach estimated by: &&) − Mη && & + A33 (v & −η Fm = ρVv where [N] where η & η && η ηa vertical motion of lifted object [m] vertical velocity of lifted object [m/s] vertical acceleration of lifted object [m/s2] vertical single amplitude motion of lifted object.4.g. Guidance note: This can be found by applying a set of phase angles in a range from ε = 0 to ε = 2π with increments of e. see 3.0 σ η [m] for operation durations above 30 min. ref. and a regular period Tct .2.2. see 3.e. z = 0 if slamming area is situated in the still water level.2.10. (see 3.4. DET NORSKE VERITAS . see 3. normally = 1025 [kg/m3] = acceleration of gravity = 9.5. 0.2).1π.6σ η [m] for operation durations less than 30 min. see 3.4. Guidance note: A time domain analysis is recommended in cases where this assumption is not valid.2. Cs should not be taken less than 5. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- where δV(ζ-η) = change in displacement due to relative vertical motion. i. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 3. ηa .2.14 The most probable largest vertical single amplitude crane tip motion. where ση is the standard deviation of the vertical crane tip motion response spectrum.3 and 4.15 The vertical motion. Otherwise.3.12 [m/s] = vertical velocity of lifted object [m/s] 3.0.2. 3.4.3.4.4.2.4. = slamming area projected on a horizontal plane [m] = vertical water particle velocity at slamming area.20.12 v [m/s2] & & η = vertical acceleration of lifted object.4.4.2. Guidance note: For items intersecting the water surface.5 ρ C D A p (v − η where [N] 3. η a = 4. for the applied Tz wave period can be taken as: η a = 3. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- = = = = M = mass of object item in air [kg] A33 = added mass of object item [kg] ρ = density of sea water.13 The vertical motion of the lifted object is in this calculation method assumed to follow the motion of the crane tip.4.1) and the wave excitation force (3.4.1 [s] ε = phase angle between wave and crane tip motion.4.2.2.2.2.2.11 [m] = vertical motion of lifted object.2.4.

2 Examples of numerical methods applicable for simulation of wave-structure interaction including water entry (slamming) and water exit are: — — — — Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) method Level Set (LS) method Constrained Interpolation Profile (CIP) method Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method. 3. 3. LS. the drag force can be estimated by: & ) + B 2 (v − η & ) v −η & Fd = B1 (v − η where B1 is the linear damping of the object [kg/s] [N] The zero up-crossing period of the dynamic load is defined by M0 [s] T z = 2π M2 where M0 and M2 are the zero and second moments of the load spectrum (2.3. 3. may be found applying the following relation: ⎛ t ⎞ Rmax = σ r 2 ln⎜ ⎜T ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ z⎠ [N] 3.1 Wave load analyses based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) may be performed on subsea lifts.3 Time domain analyses 3. 3.4 CFD analyses 3.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.4.4.28 The forces are then summed up. 3.2.4.4.2. Both relative motion amplitude. CIP) are grid methods while SPH is a particle method where a grid is not needed.3. Rmax . The static weight is applied as a minimum and maximum value according to Section 4.4.2. The estimated maximum load should therefore always be compared with the largest observed load in the simulation.2 If applicable. this should be thoroughly tested. Holes and penetrations may be summed into fewer and larger openings.3.2.4. a full 3 hour simulation period for each load case is recommended in the analyses.4.4. velocity and acceleration should be decision parameters in the selection of wave trains. 30 minutes.2. 3.4.4.4. April 2010 Page 30 Guidance note: Alternatively.3.27 The varying buoyancy force.9 Approximations of actual structure geometry due to limitations in available computer capacities should be performed applying correct total areas.4.4 The largest and smallest observed loads in e.4.3. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- B2 is the quadratic damping of the object [kg/m] ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 3.7 For lowering operations it is generally recommended to keep the object fixed in selected positions for minimum 30 min. the selections should preferably be based upon maximum vertical relative motion between crane tip and water surface.4.4.9 ⋅ HS g ≤ TZ ≤ 13 [s] 3. 3.3 In sensitivity analyses a number of shorter simulations may be performed. The fluid motion is then described by the Navier-Stokes equations. Hence.5 Assuming that the dynamic loads can be Rayleigh distributed. 3. minimum 30 minutes [s] = zero up-crossing period of the dynamic load [s] DET NORSKE VERITAS .4. slamming force and drag force are calculated for each time step at each defined main item.2.4. the most probable largest maximum load. 3.4.2.1 Computer programs applying non-linear time domain simulations of multi-body systems may be used for more accurate calculations.2.4.7 The distance from inflow boundary to the structure may in some cases influence the wave action on the structure. 3. mass force. The slack sling criterion as described in Section 4. 3.2. slings and fall during simulation time should be stated. 3.4.26 Some motion response analysis computer programs are able to define off-body points on the wave surface and generate relative motion directly.4. 3.4. 3.4.4. 3.8 For simulations where generated waves start from rest. 3.4.4.6.4.4.3. a sufficient number of subsequent waves should be generated in order to avoid transient effects.4.3. ensuring that also the moment of inertia values are correctly modelled.25 The motions. e.23 A more limited Tz range may be applied if this is reflected in the installation criteria in the operation procedures.4. The structure and the lifting equipment should be checked according to Section 4. 3.4.4.g. Guidance note: Geometry approximations may give an inadequate representa- where σr t Tz = standard deviation of the dynamic load [N] = duration of operation including contingency time.3.3.6 If analyses are based upon selected wave trains of short durations.3. If a continuous lowering of the object is simulated a large number of realizations is required in order to obtain a proper statistical confidence.4.3 The first three methods (VOF.5 Convergence tests should be performed verifying adequacy of applied number of cells or particles (for particle methods) in the model. 3.4.2.4 The applied boundary conditions and the size of the computational domain should ensure that reflections from the boundaries of the domain do not influence the hydrodynamic forces on the object.g.3 should be fulfilled. velocities and accelerations are calculated for each time step at each defined main item.4. In such case. these values may be applied. 3.24 The vertical crane tip motion is found according to Section 4.6 Stretching of cells may influence the incoming wave. Reaction forces in slings and crane hooks are found applying the force and moment equilibrium. 3.8 Damping and added mass values should be carefully chosen in the analyses.22 The performed analyses should cover the following zero-up-crossing wave period range for a given significant wave height Hs: 8 .4.4) Guidance note: In most dynamic non-linear cases the response does not adequately fit the Rayleigh distribution.4. 3.4.

pressures and velocities should be checked and compared with approximate hand-calculations.2 Simplified analysis of lift through moonpool 3.1 General 3. 3. The draught of the ship is D.4. installation through the moonpool of the vessel is often preferred. — The moonpool dimensions are small compared to the breadth of the ship.5. A typical application area is maintenance and repair operations of subsea production plants.2.3 Equation of motion 3.5.5.4. Convergence tests should always be performed. 3.4.4.3 Both Gs and Gw can be found by integrating the pressure p obtained by a sink-source diffraction program over the cross-section of the moonpool at z = -D. The moonpool may have varying crosssectional area A(z).5. Only vertical forces parallel to the moonpool axis are considered.13 If model test results are available. Calculations are carried out using 2 different CFD models and are validated with experimental results.4. numerical simulation results should be compared and validated with the model test.5.3.5. April 2010 Page 31 tion of local forces and pressures. = = = = = = = ζ s = Gsζ w [m] The hydrodynamic pressure force acting on the water plug can also be related to the sea surface elevation by a transfer function Gw (amplitude and phase).14 Figure 3-11 shows an example of prediction of added mass and damping coefficients for model mud mat geometries with 3 different perforation ratios (0%. increase the limiting seastate and thus reduce the costs of installation and intervention operations. 3. Gs and Gw are functions of wave frequency and wave direction. — The blocking effect of the lifted object on the water in the moonpool is moderate. 3. — Only motion of the water and object in vertical direction is considered.2 The equation of motion for the water plug can be written as && + C ζ& − ζ& ζ& − ζ& ( M + A33 ) ζ s s s + Cb ζ& − ζ&b where b ( ) (ζ& − ζ& ) + Kζ = F (t ) Μ Α33 ζ ζs ζb ζw mass of water plug [kg] added mass of water plug (see 3. For small subsea modules and tools.10 Additional buoyancy due to model approximations should be taken into account when evaluating computed total vertical forces.1 The simplified analysis described in this subsection is based on the following limiting assumptions. see Figure 3-12.12 Computed forces.4. 3. The vertical motion of the lifted body may differ from the vertical ship motion due to the winch operation and/or dynamic amplification in the hoisting system.5. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 3.3.5 Moonpool operations 3.4.5.4. F (t ) = Gwζ w Figure 3-11 Example of use of CFD for prediction of added mass and drag coefficients for model mud mat geometries (Courtesy of Acergy) [N] 3. 3.3) [kg] motion of water plug [m] heave motion of the ship [m] motion of body in moonpool [m] sea surface elevation outside moonpool [m] Cs damping coefficient for relative motion between water plug and ship [kg/m] Cb = damping coefficient for relative motion between water plug and body [kg/m] K = ρgA water plane stiffness [kg/s2] F(t) = wave excitation force on water plug [N] The ship heave motion is related to the sea surface elevation by a transfer function Gs (amplitude and phase).11 The computed slamming loads may be overestimated when single phase modelling is applied. DET NORSKE VERITAS . 15% and 25%).Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.4.4.4.1 A body object suspended inside a moonpool is considered.3. This may reduce the dynamic forces. 3. For wave impact problems it is recommended to use two-phase modelling. — Cursors prevent impact into the moonpool walls.

5. damping is provided by viscous drag damping caused by various structures like guidance structures.4. In addition to inviscid damping due to wave generation.5.4.4. M eq = ⎧D Ek A( 0 ) ⎪ A( 0 ) = ρA( 0 )⎨ dz + ⋅κ 1ζ & 2( 0 ) A ( z ) A ( −D ) ⎪ 2 ⎩0 ∫ ⎫ ⎪ A( − D ) ⎬ ⎪ ⎭ [kg] 3. depends on the level of damping. Assuming the moonpool walls do not move.5.5.5 The parameter κ has been found to be within 0.4. the above expressions simplify to the following.48. [Nm/s] 3.46 can be used for all realistic rectangular moonpools. An amplitude RAO for the relative motion is defined as. fittings.7 The energy-equivalent mass (mass plus added mass) moving with the surface velocity ζ& (0) is. in particular for wave excitation close to the resonance period T0.4 A33 is the added mass for vertical oscillation of the water plug.1 The amplitude of the water motion in the moonpool.5. ρ −D ∫ A( z ) ⋅ ζ& ( z )dz + 2 1 A ⋅ζ& 2 ( − D ) 2 33 =1 2 ⎧0 ⎫ A33 ⎪ A( 0 ) ⎪ A( 0 ) 2 & ⋅ ρ A( 0 ) ⋅ ζ ( 0 )⎨ dz + ⎬ [Nm] A( − D ) ρ A( − D ) ⎪ ⎪ A( z ) ⎩− D ⎭ ∫ and RAO = where ζ −ζs ζw [m/m] Ep = 1 ρ g A(0) ⋅ ζ 2 (0) 2 [Nm] 3. Thus κ = 0.5.5.5.4 and 1.4.5.5.5. DET NORSKE VERITAS . 3.2 In general the cross-sectional area of the moonpool is a function of the vertical position z.6 The resonance period is found from the energy conservation expression.4.5. 3. z ζs 3. In these tests the relative motion between the water plug and the ship at the moonpool centre axis has been measured.5 Damping of water motion in moonpool 3.5.4 Resonance period 3.8 If the moonpool has a constant cross-sectional area A(z) = A. 2π [s] T0 = D +κ A g M eq = ρ A D + κ A ( ) [kg ] A( z ) ⋅ ζ& ( z ) = A(0) ⋅ ζ& (0) d (E k + E p ) = 0 dt where Ek = 1 2 0 [m3/s] 3. cofferdam or a bottom plate. the requirement of continuity yields 3. the water motion inside a moonpool has been investigated.5.4.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.4. which can be expressed as A33 = ρ κ A( − D ) A( − D ) [kg] ζ ζs ζw = motion of water plug [m] = heave motion of the ship [m] = sea surface elevation outside moonpool [m] 3.47 for rectangular moonpools with aspect ratios between 0.3 The requirement of energy conservation gives. For a circular moonpool κ = 0.0.5.45 and 3.2 In model tests of several offshore diving support vessels and work vessels with different damping devices. A(z) ζb ζ ζw or ω 02 ⎨ ∫ D ⎧ 0 A(0) A(0) ⋅κ dz + A(− D) ⎩− D A( z ) T0 = 2π 0 ⎫ A(− D ) ⎬ − g = 0 ⎭ A(0) [m/s2] dz + ⋅ κ A(− D) ∫ A(− D) g − D A( z ) A(0) [s] p Figure 3-12 Suspended body in a moonpool 3.3 Figure 3-13 shows the measured RAO for different structures causing damping of water motion in moonpool. April 2010 Page 32 0.1 The natural period of vertical oscillations of the water plug and the damping conditions given by the moonpool design are important for the dynamic forces on an object inside the moonpool.5.

F ( t ) = F1 ( t ) + F2 ( t ) = p FK &&s ⋅ A + A33 ⋅ ς && = ρ A g ζ w e −kD + κ ρ A A ζ s = ρ A ζ w g e −kD − ω 2 κ AG s ( ) [N] where PFK = the undisturbed (Froude-Krylov) dynamic fluid pressure [N/m2] A33 = the added mass of the water plug as given in 3.25 1. An approximate linearised complex equation of motion of the water plug in an empty moonpool (without a lifted object) is. in Figures 3-14 and 3-15.5.5. Gw = F( t ) 3. — Deep water is assumed.5.+ 50% bottom plate Minor fittings Cofferdam Figure 3-13 Measured relative water elevation in a moonpool per unit incoming wave amplitude (Courtesy of Marintek) Hence. can be assessed as for a ship without Figure 3-14 Calculated relative water elevation. η. The motion transfer functions of a typical 80 m long diving support vessel have been used. found at resonance. for the cases without bottom plate.5. Hence it is not straightforward to derive damping data directly from such curves.5. where the curve shapes differ from the model test results.07 0.5.8).5.00 T / T0 1.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103. and due to ship motion.5. Gs for vertical moonpool motion has been inserted in the above expressions.5.50 1.8 T/T0 1 1.6 To obtain a relationship between transfer functions Gw and Gs. are shown as a function of the relative damping. — The fluid pressure expressions valid for long waves can be used.4 The water plug is excited both by the incoming waves and by the vertical ship motion.2 1. some simplifying assumptions are made.20 0.10 0.03 0.5. 3.5 0 0. including added mass [kg] = ρgA = water plane stiffness [kg/s2] = 2η KM = linearised damping [kg/s] = damping ratio (relative to critical damping) [-] = transfer function for vertical moonpool motion [m/m] = transfer function from wave elevation to excitation force [N/m] 3.10 The maximum RAO values.6 0.50 0. no bottom plate (β = 1) DET NORSKE VERITAS . An approximated approach has been used in order to estimate the damping given by the various damping arrangements. 3.50 iω C s 1 G s + G w ζ = = ζ w − ω 2 M + iω C s 1 + K Gw ω + 2i G sη ρgA ω0 ⎛ ω 1−⎜ ⎜ω ⎝ 0 ⎞ ω ⎟ + 2iη ⎟ ω0 ⎠ 2 [-] 3.4 0.5. — Excitation force due to incoming waves.4 [kg] Naked moonpool Guidance structure Guid.25 0. F1.00 η Gs Gw = ρA( D + κ A ) = total mass of water plug. April 2010 Page 33 Relative water elevation in moonpool 3 2. The following approximate expressions for the excitation force can then be used. F2.30 0.4 moonpool.8 In Figure 3-14 an example case of the relative water elevation inside the moonpool is plotted.5 1 0.4. — The moonpool dimensions are small compared to the ship breadth.5.5 The ratio between the motion of the water plug and the sea surface elevation outside the moonpool is.5 2 RAO 1.00 0. 3.75 2. ζw = ρ A g e − kD − ω 2 κ A G s ( ) [N/m] where k = ω2 / g.05 0. Relative water elevation inside moonpool 9 Elevation / wave amplitude 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0.7 The amplitude ratio of relative water plug elevation to incoming wave elevation is then given by && + C ζ& − ζ& + Kζ = F ( t ) Mζ s1 s ⇓ ( ) RAO = [N] ζ −ζs ζ = − Gs ζw ζw − ω 2 M ζ + iω C s1 (ζ − Gsζ w ) + Kζ = G wζ w where M K Cs1 [N] 3.75 1. Relative damping = 0.5.9 The results are uncertain for the shortest wave periods (T/T0 < 0. and the RAO curves have been computed for varying relative damping.5.15 0.5.

Cs = 3π ⋅ ωζ 0 ⋅ 2η KM 8 [-] where ζ0 is the amplitude of relative motion. if applicable.6. 3. with mass equal to the energy-equivalent mass given in 3.6. e) The interaction between the water plug and the moonpool walls should be modelled as a quadratic damping coupling in vertical direction. it is difficult to couple with the dynamic characteristics of ship in waves and the response of the lifting system. Naked moonpool: Minor fittings: Guidance structure: Guidance structure + 50% bottom plate: Cofferdam: η = 8 .10 0. DET NORSKE VERITAS .5.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.7. 3.5. 3. b) The lifting system is modelled. f) The interaction force between the water plug and the lifted object is found as: C D 1 − 0. 3. using a diffraction theory program with a panel model of the ship with moonpool. Emphasis should be put on obtaining numerical stability for the moonpool oscillation mode.5.5.5. relative elevation / Wave amplitude 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0.30 0. April 2010 Page 34 Max.50 Relative damping 3.5.9⎜ b ⎟ C A0 ⎝ A⎠ where CD0 = CA0 = Ab = A = 9 4 &&w − A33ς &&b [N] F=1 ρC D Ab v r v r + (ρV + A33 )ς 2 for Ab/A < 0.7.3 The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) may not be recommended for moonpool dynamics.35 0.12 The quadratic damping coefficient Cs can be estimated from the relative damping and the motion. c) The water plug inside the moonpool is modelled as a fluid body moving only in vertical direction.15 0. 3. in irregular waves. with motion compensator or soft spring. a conservative approach is to analyse the dynamics. drag coefficient for unrestricted flow [-] added mass coefficient for unrestricted flow [-] solid projected area of the object [m2] cross-sectional area of the moonpool (at the vertical level of the object) [m2] For Ab/A > 0. 3.5.45 0.00 0.25 0.1 Restricted flow around the object inside a moonpool leads to increased hydrodynamic forces.7.5.5. either if the solid projected area covers more than 80% of the moonpool section area. or — if the object is suspended in soft spring.: — if a motion control system is applied when the lifted object is inside the moonpool.20 0.1 The following calculation steps are defined.7 Comprehensive calculation method A more comprehensive calculation method should be used.5.45% η ≈ 45% 1) Calculate the first order wave pressure transfer functions at the moonpool mouth.4.6.5.6. using hydrodynamic forces based on the wave kinematics of undisturbed waves and hydrodynamic coefficients for unrestricted flow condition. Calculate motion of the lifted object and forces in lifting gear. Force predictions may hence be uncertain. i. with a model as described below.14% η = 18 .6 Force coefficients in moonpool 3.2 The dynamic behaviour of the lifted object when leaving the lower moonpool end during lowering or prior to entry at lifting.2 The following analysis model is proposed. should be analysed by a time domain calculation method. 3.7.8 CA ⎛A ⎞ = 1 + 1.5.05 0. The following approximation may be used.e. Even though CFD can analyse the fluid dynamic interaction between the lifted object and the water plug inside the moonpool.8 where = relative velocity between lifted object and water plug [m/s] Ab = solid projected area of the lifted object [m2] V = volume of lifted body [m3] A33 = added mass of lifted body [kg] &&w = vertical acceleration of the water plug [m/s2] ς &&b = vertical acceleration of lifted object [m/s2] ς vr 3.5.19% η = 40 .11 Approximate relative damping values for the cases without bottom plate have been found by a comparison between Figure 3-13 and Figure 3-14. d) The water body should be excited by the water pressure multiplied by the section area of the moonpool opening. Figure 3-15 Calculated relative water elevation at resonance 3.5.5 Ab / A = C D 0 (1 − Ab / A) 2 for Ab/A < 0. or if the vertical motion of the lifted object differs from the vertical motion of the vessel at moonpool. such as a pneumatic cylinder.40 0.3 For an object close to the lower end of the moonpool.9% η = 13 .4 Realistic impact forces between lifted body and moonpool walls require accurate stiffness data for the cursor system. 2) Carry out a non-linear time domain analysis of the system. The following approximate relative damping values have been assessed. The analysis should be made for relevant irregular wave sea states. with mass and hydrodynamic mass and damping. Increased drag coefficient CD and added mass coefficient CA to be used in the calculation can be taken as a) The lifted object is modelled.8 a more comprehensive calculation method should be used.

4. Final Report. “Sea Loads on Ships and Offshore Structures”. B.1 Introduction Situations where stability during lifting operations is particularly relevant include. O. Italy.2. CF = where Mg ⋅ CG − ρgV ⋅ CB CG − α ⋅ CB = 1−α Mg − ρgV [m] α = ρgV Mg [-] 3.2 The Simplified Method supersedes the recommenda- DET NORSKE VERITAS .1 This case is also relevant for lifting of objects where the buoyancy is distributed differently from the mass. /4/ Faltinsen. exit and slamming.1. ref.6. 28-31 March 2004.1. “Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries – Fixed Steel Offshore Structures”. the vertical distance GB between CG and CB must be large enough to give an up-righting moment larger than the overturning moment provided by the free water surface. 275-290. 15. /8/ Sumer. (1977) “Marine Hydrodynamics”.6.ρgV Mg Figure 3-16 Definition of CG.M. CB and CF 3. C. (1980) “Measurement of parameters affecting slamming”. P. 24th OMAE Conference. Mg ⋅ GB > ρgI [Nm] where M I 4. I.6. 3.1.4 The adjustments of sling lengths required for a horizontal landing on seabed may thus give a tilt angle when the object is in air (due to the horizontal distance CF . and Nielsen. /11/ ISO 19902 (2001).1 Objective = object mass [kg] = area moment of inertia of the free surface [m4] The area moment of inertia I varies with filling. 2006-JSC-322.6. and Li. and Hu. Figure 3-16 shows a submerged body where the centre of gravity CG and the centre of buoyancy CB do not coincide. and Nielsen.2 The intention of the Simplified Method is to give simple conservative estimates of the forces acting on the object.2. (1987) “Added masses for circular cylinders near or penetrating fluid boundaries – Review.1.G. /3/ Molin. /7/ Sandvik.2. 3. Proc. it will rotate until CB is vertically above CG. and Fredsøe. F.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.Y. No.CG). OT-R-8042. Figure 3-17 Lifting with free surface inside the object ρgV CF 3. M.6. Rep. /9/ Zhu.1.C. J. Ocean Engineering.2 Partly air-filled objects CB CB CG CG Mg 3. 14 (4) 325-348.6.6 Stability of lifting operations 3.M.2. /6/ Newman.1 Calculation results based upon the Simplified Method may be used as input in DNV-OS-H205.3.2. 19th Int.H. and Weynberg.Technology Reports Centre No.3 Effects of free water surface inside the object 3. J. P.2 Application 4. San Francisco. geometry and tilt angle. B.1 In case of a free water surface inside the body.M. If the object is suspended. J. X. Cortona.M. Y. Halkidiki.G. the lift wire must be attached vertically above CF in order to avoid tilting. World Scientific.2.C. 3. /10/ Campbell.”. Extension and application to water entry.3.1.1. (2005) “Water entry and exit of a circular cylinder”.. (2006) “Hydrodynamic Forces on ventilated Structures" ISOPE Paper no. 1990. April 2010 Page 35 3./3/. F.1 This section describes the Simplified Method for estimating characteristic hydrodynamic forces on objects lowered through the water surface and down to the sea bottom.6.. May 2006. Southampton University: Wolfson Unit for Marine Technology. ρgV — tilting of partly air-filled objects during lowering — effects of free water surface inside the object.1. Fluids & Structures. Greece.1 Introduction 4.A.6. Figure 3-17 illustrates this.. 4.N. (2004) “Heave added mass and damping of a perforated disk below the free surface”.6. MIT Press. (1997) “Hydrodynamics around cylindrical structures”. 4. Cambridge University Press. Lifting. Solaas. Lifting through Wave Zone – Simplified Method 4. 4. /5/ Greenhow. O. April 2007 /2/ Molin B.7 References /1/ DNV Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C205 “Environmental Conditions and Environmental Loads”.2. 440. Annex A9. F. Faltinsen. Workshop on Water Waves and Floating Bodies. (2001) "On the added mass and damping of periodic arrays of fully or partially porous disks". CF CB CB C G CG Mg .2 The force centre is found from moment equilibrium.3 If no other forces are acting on the object.

the Simplified Method describes forces acting during lowering from air down through the wave zone.3.1.5.3. 4.1. is the same for both cases.3. The method is however also applicable for the retrieval case.6.2. ref. 4.3 Increased heave motion of the lifted object due to resonance effects is not covered by the Simplified Method.1. one may apply the wave kinematic equations that are independent of the wave period.e.1 should be reflected in the weather criteria in the operation procedures. 4.1 Flooding of subsea structures after submergence may take some time.2. Both loss of stability./3/. the structure is fully flooded after submergence) [kg] Guidance note: A lower limit of Hmax= 1. acceleration and force terms in the Simplified Method should always be applied as positive unless denoted otherwise.1.2.3 Main assumptions Guidance note: The volume of displaced water. risk of implosion and risk of slack slings should be investigated. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 4.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103. the structure is submerged but the flooding has not yet started) [kg] Mmax = the maximum mass is equal the mass of object in air including the full weight of the water that floods the structure (i. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- Guidance note: The relation between the zero-up-crossing wave period.1 General 4. 4.3 For further explanation of the term “characteristic”.3 The weight inaccuracy factor should be applied as a reduction of the minimum mass and as an increase in the maximum mass.2.3.2 Minimum and Maximum Static weight 4. ref. 4. — The horizontal extent of the lifted object (in the wave propagation direction) is relatively small compared to the wave length.1. 4. 1996.4 Water that is pre-filled before lifting should be taken as part of the mass of object in air.3.ρVg [N] Fstatic-max = Mmaxg .1 This section describes the Simplified Method for estimation of the environmental loads and load effects.81 [m/s2] density of sea water.2 Ch. 4.5.2.3.2 Wave periods 4.3.2. see DNV-OS-H102 Section 1.2 More accurate estimations are recommended if the main assumptions are not fulfilled.ρVg [N] where M g 4.1. the static weight should be calculated applying both a minimum value and a maximum value./6/. ref.1.ρVg [N] where Mmin = the minimum mass is equal the mass of object in air (i.1 The Simplified Method is based upon the following main assumptions.2. 4.3. In such cases.3.2.0 s are in most cases sufficient. C200. 4.2 Applied Tz-ranges or concluded allowable Tz-ranges deviating from 4.1. Implementation of safety factors in the capacity check of structure and lifting equipment should be performed as described in DNV-OSH102.2 The minimum and maximum static weight for objects being flooded after submergence should be taken as: Fstatic-min = Mming .1.1.2 Static weight 4.2.8·Hs = λ/7 with wavelength λ = g·Tz2/2π is here used. C100.3. Tp.e. The performed analyses should then cover the following zero-up-crossing wave period range for a given significant wave height Hs: 8.3 Alternatively. applying a JONSWAP spectrum. 4.2. The operation procedures should then reflect that the calculations are DET NORSKE VERITAS . For a PM spectrum the relation can be taken as Tp = 1.3.4 In general. 4.1.2. 4.2.2.5 Water that is retained within the lifted object during recovery should be taken as part of the mass of object in air.2. see 4.2. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 4. see.2. 4.3. V.2.1.2. — The vertical motion of the object follows the crane tip motion. Pt. 4. 4. — The load case is dominated by the vertical relative motion between object and water – other modes of motions can be disregarded. Section 3.3 A weight inaccuracy factor should be applied on the mass of the object in air according to DNV-OS-H102 Section 3. ref.3. April 2010 Page 36 tions for determination of environmental load effects given in DNV Rules for Marine Operations. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 4. 4./2/ and DNV-OS-H205./5/. Section 3.3.81 [m/s2] Hs = significant wave height of design sea state [m] Tz = zero-up-crossing wave periods [s] Guidance note: Tz values with increments of 1.2.2. and the peak wave period.9 ⋅ Hs g ≤ Tz ≤ 13 ρ V = = = = mass of object in air [kg] acceleration due to gravity = 9.1 General 4.2.6 The possibility of entrapped air should be evaluated and included in calculations when relevant. may be taken according to DNV-RPC205. Tz.3 Hydrodynamic forces 4.2. 4.3. velocity. normally = 1025 [kg/m3] volume of displaced water during different stages when passing through the water surface [m3] [s] where g = acceleration of gravity = 9.4·Tz.3 The sign of the motion.2 The static weight is to be calculated with respect to the still water surface.1 The influence of the wave period may be taken into account.2 Only characteristic values are included.2.1 The static weight of the submerged object is given by: Fstatic = Mg .

1 In order to establish the relative motion between the waves and the lifted structure. Roll motion may then be larger for short crested sea than for long crested sea. see.3. i.7 For subsea lift operations that may be performed independent of vessel headings.2 The Simplified Method assumes that the vertical motion of the structure is equal to the vertical motion of the crane tip.3.3.4 Wave kinematics Guidance note: Resonance amplification due to the crane tip motion may be disregarded if the peak period of the response spectrum for the vertical motion of the crane tip. pitch and roll RAOs for the vessel should be combined with crane tip position in the vessel’s global coordinate system in order to find the vertical motion of the crane tip. the most probable largest characteristic responses may be taken as 1. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- Guidance note: A lower limit of Hmax = 1.5.3.4.6 For subsea lift operations dependent on a fixed vessel heading. it is necessary to find the motions of the vessel’s crane tip.8 Long-crested sea may be applied in the analysis.2. vessel responses for all wave directions should be analysed.g.3.7.10 The applied values for the crane tip velocity and acceleration should represent the most probable largest characteristic single amplitude responses.3. Tp.e. be dominated by the roll motion in head sea ±15°.7 and Section 5. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 4.3.3.3.3. Guidance note: In some cases it may be appropriate to apply short crested sea in order to find the most critical condition.3.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.3.3.3.3. 4. see also DNV-OS-H101 Section 3. See however the guidance note below.4 Active or passive heave compensation systems should normally not be taken into account in the Simplified Method when calculating hydrodynamic loads.3.3. It is hence recommended to investigate the effect of short crested sea in such cases.3.3. April 2010 Page 37 only valid for waves longer than the following acceptance limit. Vertical crane tip motion may e.2. or if the vessel can document that it is able to keep within ±10° in the design sea state.3. is significantly larger than the resonance period of the hoisting system.12 The performed motion response analyses should cover a zero-up-crossing wave period range as described in Section 4. T0. 4. see 4. Wave induced resonance amplification of an object located in the wave zone may in such cases be disregarded if the peak wave period. T0 .6 ⋅ HS g see Section 4. Resonance amplification due to crane tip motion may therefore occur during deployment of objects down to very deep water. C800. 4. This should be given special attention. crane master). typically: T p − ct > 1. typically: T p > 1. A heading angle of ±15° combined with long-crested sea should only be applied if the vertical crane tip motion is not dominated by the roll motion.11 If the lowering through the wave zone (including contingency time) is expected to be performed within 30 minutes.1 The lowering through the wave zone (including contingency time) is in this subsection assumed to be performed DET NORSKE VERITAS .3.1. of the hoisting system: M + A33 + θ ⋅ mL T0 = 2π K where m L M A33 K [s] θ = = = = = = mass of hoisting line per unit length [kg/m] length of hoisting line [m] mass of object in air [kg] heave added mass of object [kg] stiffness of hoisting system. this operation restriction will for most cases not imply any practical reduction of the operability.9 The computed heave. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- Guidance note: The resonance period of the hoisting system.3.1 [N/m] adjustment factor taking into account the effect of mass of hoisting line and possible soft springs (e.g. is larger than the resonance period of the hoisting system.3. increases with the length of the hoist line.3.3.80 times the significant responses. More accurate calculations should be made if amplification due to vertical resonance is present. Tp-ct. T0 is less than the relevant wave periods.3. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 4. Guidance note: In most cases. 4. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 4.3 ⋅ T0 where Tp-ct is calculated for a Tz range as described in 4. or by acceptable documented simplified calculations. Guidance note: The effect of passive heave compensation systems may be implemented as soft springs in the stiffness of the hoisting system when performing snap load calculations and when checking risk of resonance amplification.3.2.7. vessel response should be analysed for wave directions at least ±15° off the vessel heading stated in the procedure.3. : T z ≥ 10 .3.3 Crane tip motions 4. 4. 4. 4.6. 4.6 ⋅ T0 ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- Guidance note: If long-crested sea is applied for simplicity. 4.3. see 5. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- [s] Guidance note: As zero-up-crossing wave periods less than the above acceptance limit very rarely occur. Section 3 for more accurate time-domain simulations. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 4.5 The characteristic vertical crane tip motions on the installation vessel should be calculated for the environmental design conditions.8·Hs = λ/10 with wavelength λ = g·Tz2/2π is here used. either by a refined analysis. 4.3 Resonance amplification may be present if the crane tip oscillation period or the wave period is close to the resonance period. a heading angle of ±20° is recommended in order to account for the additional effect from short-crested sea.

3 The characteristic wave amplitude can be taken as: As vs theoretical and/or experimental methods. = slamming area. The two alternatives for the Simplified Method should not be interchanged within the analyses. DET NORSKE VERITAS . v w = 0 . April 2010 Page 38 within 30 minutes. Hs.35 d Hs vw [m/s] κ = characteristic vertical water particle velocity [m/s] = amplification factor. typically 0.4.0 [-] ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- a w = 0.0.3.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103. in the below equations for wave amplitude.4. d.4.4 In this Simplified Method the following characteristic wave particle velocity and acceleration can be applied: ⎛ 2π vw = ζ a ⋅ ⎜ ⎜T ⎝ z ⎞ ⎟⋅e ⎟ ⎠ − [m/s] 4π 2 d T z2 g where vc = hook lowering velocity.3.3.9 ⋅ H S [m] 4. typically 0. Guidance note: A simplified estimation of the local slamming impact velocity inside a suction anchor may be to apply: 2 2 v s = v c + v ct + vw ⋅κ 2 [m/s] and ⎛ 2π aw = ζ a ⋅ ⎜ ⎜T ⎝ z ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 − 4π 2 d T z2 g ⋅e [m/s2] where vw = characteristic vertical water particle velocity [m/s] aw = characteristic vertical water particle acceleration [m/s2] ζa = characteristic wave amplitude according to 4.5 Alternatively.1 The characteristic slamming impact force on the parts of the object that penetrate the water surface may be taken as: Fslam= 0.3.5 Slamming impact force 4. 4. 4.e.5 applying a distance. the significant wave height.10 π g ⋅e − 0.3.5. Otherwise.8·Hs = λ/10 with wavelength λ = g·Tz2/2π is here used.2 If the duration of the lifting operation is expected to exceed the 30 minutes limit.3.4.6 It should be clearly stated in the analyses documentation whether or not the influence of the wave period is included. part of structure projected on a horizontal plane that will be subject to slamming loads during crossing of water surface [m2] = slamming impact velocity [m/s] ζ a = 0 .2 The slamming impact velocity may be calculated by: 2 2 v s = v c + v ct + vw 4.3.4.4 and a Tz application limit as described in 4. See also DNV-RP-C205. i.3.4. wave particle velocity and wave particle accelerations should be multiplied with a factor of 1.3. The air cushion effect due to limited evacuation of air through ventilation holes may contribute to reduced slamming force.50 [m/s] vct = characteristic single amplitude vertical velocity of the crane tip [m/s] π g Hs ⋅ e − 0 .5.5. For smooth circular cylinders Cs should not be taken less than 3.3.3.0. see 4.4.0 ≤ κ ≤ 2. 4. Cs should not be taken less than 5. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- Guidance note: Compression and collapse of air cushions are disregarded in this simplified estimation.3.3 Increased slamming impact velocity due to excitation of the water column inside suction anchors can be specially considered.1 [s] 4.3.4 or 4.3.3. one may apply the following wave kinematic equations that are independent of the wave period.4.3. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 4. Water spray from ventilation hole.50 [m/s] vct = characteristic single amplitude vertical velocity of the crane tip [m/s] vw = characteristic vertical water particle velocity as found in 4.10. typically 1.30 [m/s] where vc = hook lowering velocity.81 [m/s2] d = distance from water plane to centre of gravity of submerged part of object [m] Hs = Significant wave height of design sea state [m] Tz = Zero-up-crossing wave periods.3 [m] g = acceleration of gravity = 9.35 d Hs [m/s2] with definition of parameters as given in 4.4. equal zero [m/s] 4. Guidance note: A lower limit of Hmax = 1.5 ρ Cs As vs2 [N] where ρ Cs = density of sea water [kg/m3] = slamming coefficient which may be determined by Figure 4-1 Top-plate of suction anchor crossing the water surface.2.2.

---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 4. Guidance note: If the change in displacement is highly nonlinear.3.3.4 or 4.5 s.8.3.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.5 m.3.1 The static weight of the object is related to the still water surface.3.3. normally = 1025 [kg/m3] Vi = volume of displaced water of object item relative to the still water level [m3] aw = characteristic vertical water particle acceleration as found in 4.3.6.1.25 m/s.7 Mass force [m] ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 4.4.3. 3.0 m.3. Guidance note: The term “mass force” is here to be understood as a combination of the inertia force and the hydrodynamic force contributions from Froude Kriloff forces and diffraction forces (related to relative acceleration).3.5 [m/s2] Guidance note: The structure may be divided into main items.4. April 2010 Page 39 where ~ Aw = mean water line area in the wave surface zone [m2] ζa = characteristic wave amplitude. The mass. The crane tip acceleration and the water particle accelerations are assumed statistically independent.3. The change in buoyancy due to the wave surface elevation may be taken as: 4.8. From CFD analysis. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- Figure 4-2 Internal slamming on top-plate of foundation bucket.1 The characteristic mass force on an object item due to combined acceleration of object and water particles may be taken as: FMi = [(M i + A 33i )⋅ act ] + [(ρV + A )⋅ a ] 2 i 33i w 2 [N ] where Mi = mass of object item in air [kg] A33i = heave added mass of object item [kg] act = characteristic single amplitude vertical acceleration of crane tip [m/s2] ρ = density of sea water.3.4. 4.6.6.8.5.1 The characteristic drag force on an object item may be taken as: FDi = 0.3 [m/s] 4.2 Estimation of added mass may be performed according to 4.3.7. see 4. see 4.3.6 Varying buoyancy force 4.6.3.3 [m] ηct = characteristic single amplitude vertical motion of the crane tip [m] 4.2 The change in volume of displaced water may be estimated by: ~ [m3] δV = Aw ⋅ ζ a 2 + ηct2 = density of sea water. One second between snapshots.8. normally = 1025 [kg/m3] CD = drag coefficient in oscillatory flow of submerged part of object [-] Api = area of submerged part of object item projected on a horizontal plane [m2] vr = characteristic vertical relative velocity between object and water particles.7.2 Estimation of drag coefficients may be performed DET NORSKE VERITAS .3. displaced volume and projected area for each individual main item are then applied in 4.7. Bucket dim.1 and 4.3.3 The change in volume of displaced water may be asymmetric about the still water surface. Mass forces and drag forces are thereafter summarized as described in 4. a direct calculation of the volume from still water surface to wave crest or to wave trough may be performed applying a water surface range of: δζ = ± ζ a 2 + ηct2 4.5 ρ CD Api vr2 [N] where surface to wave crest or wave trough [m3] = acceleration of gravity [m/s2] ρ 4. added mass.9.8 Drag force Fρ = ρ ⋅ δV ⋅ g where [N] ρ = density of sea water.5 × Ø4.6. Ventilation holes Ø0.6. Regular wave H = 3. normally = 1025 [kg/m3] δV = change in volume of displaced water from still water g 4. T = 5.8 m.3 – 4. Lowering speed 0.

4. A simpler and more conservative approach may be to apply the Regular Design Wave Approach as described in Section 3.3. Hence.2 Characteristic total force v r = vc + where vct2 + v w2 [m/s] 4.4 Accept criteria 4.4. Likewise.3.5.4.3.9 [N] 4.3. 4.g. see 4. 4.2.3.1 The characteristic hydrodynamic force on an object when lowered through water surface is a time dependent function of slamming impact force.9 Hydrodynamic force 4. The slamming force acting on the surface crossing item is then in phase with the drag force acting on the fully submerged part.4 This method assumes that the horizontal extent of the lifted object is small compared to the wave length. time domain analyses are recommended for this purpose. 4. ref.5 [m/s] 4.3. more refined analyses are needed in order to establish loads in individual slings.4. ref.3.3 The characteristic vertical relative velocity between object and water particles may be taken as: 4.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.3. 4. 4. The following relation should be applied in the equations given in DNV-OS-H205: DAF conv = Ftotal Mg where FMi and FDi are the individual force contributions from each main item.9.2.1 In addition to the slack sling criterion. In this method the wave induced motion response of the lifted object is assumed negligible. see Section 3.4. In general.2.3.4.1. hydrodynamic mass forces and drag forces. 4. varying buoyancy. Lifting relates to the weight of the object in air.3. a converted dynamic amplification factor (DAF) should be applied equivalent to a factor valid in air. 4.2 Snap forces in slings or hoist line may occur if the hydrodynamic force exceeds the static weight of the object. 4. e.8. 4. 4. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 4.3.4.4.6.1 This section describes the accept criteria for the calculated hydrodynamic forces.4. the mass and varying buoyancy forces are 180° out of phase.4 or 4.9.4. 4.9. the structure may have both fully submerged parts and items in the splash zone. typically 0.7. [-] DET NORSKE VERITAS .9.3.9 ⋅ Fstatic − min [N] Guidance note: During lowering through the water surface. see 4.3.4.1 General 4.4. A more accurate estimation should be performed if the object extension is found to be important.3 The slack sling criterion vc = hook hoisting/lowering velocity./3/.50 [m/s] vct = characteristic single amplitude vertical velocity of the crane tip [m/s] vw = characteristic vertical water particle velocity as found in 4.4. 4.1 Snap forces shall as far as possible be avoided.2.4. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- Guidance note: Hydrodynamic forces acting upwards are to be applied in 4.3.2.4 The minimum static weight of the object should be applied as described in 4.4. April 2010 Page 40 according to 4.2 In cases where snap loads occur the characteristic total force on object should be taken as: Ftotal = Fstatic + Fsnap [N] where Fstatic = static weight of object. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 4.2 [N] Fhyd = characteristic hydrodynamic force.2 [N] Fsnap = characteristic snap force.2 The following combination of the various load components is acceptable in this Simplified Method: Fhyd = ( F D + F slam ) 2 + ( F M − F ρ ) 2 [N] 4.5. ref. Weather criteria should be adjusted to ensure this. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- Guidance note: A 10% margin to the start of slack slings is here assumed to be an adequate safety level with respect to the load factors and load combinations stated in the ULS criteria. ref.3 The following criterion should be fulfilled in order to ensure that snap loads are avoided in slings and hoist line: where FD Fslam FM Fρ = = = = characteristic hydrodynamic drag force [N] characteristic slamming impact force [N] characteristic hydrodynamic mass force [N] characteristic varying buoyancy force [N] Fhyd ≤ 0. 4.4.3.9.5 The structure may be divided into main items and surfaces contributing to the hydrodynamic force. the capacity of lifted structure and lifting equipment should be checked according to DNV-OS-H205. These force contributions should then be found by: FM = Guidance note: In cases involving objects with large horizontal extent.4 Capacity checks ∑F i Mi and FD = ∑F i Di [N] 4. 4.2 [N] 4. ref.6 The water particle velocity and acceleration should be related to the vertical centre of gravity for each main item when calculating mass and drag forces.3 The capacity checks described in DNV-OS-H205.4.4.3 The slamming impact force on a structure part that is hit by the wave surface may be taken as the only load component acting on that structure part.2 The characteristic total force on the object should be calculated applying the maximum static weight.3.9.2.4.4. Lifting.2. long slender structures like spool pieces.1 The characteristic total force on an object lowered through water surface should be taken as: Ftotal = Fstatic + Fhyd [N] where Fstatic = static weight of object.4.3. 4.2.2.2.

Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.2. FMi.1.5. Fslam.2. Fslam. 4.4 The maximum static weight of the object should be applied as described in 4. — Mass forces.81 [m/s2] is the largest of: Ftotal = Fstatic-max + Fhyd or Ftotal = Fstatic-max + Fsnap [N] ≥ 1.2 The first load case is slamming on the mud mats. see 4. figure 4-3: where — Slamming impact force. April 2010 Page 41 where DAFconv M g Ftotal = = = = is the converted dynamic amplification factor mass of object in air [kg] acceleration of gravity = 9. FDi.4 The total hydrodynamic force on the structure should be calculated as specified in 4. The still water levels may be positioned according to the following general guidance: where — Slamming impact force.9. figure 4-5: ≤ 1.3. acts upwards on top-plate inside the buckets.5.5 The fourth load case is when the whole structure is fully submerged.5. Typically. figure 4-6: CoGRoof dRoof ≥ 1.4. are also calculated separately for buckets and legs applying correct CoGs.2 When establishing load cases one should identify main items on the object contributing to hydrodynamic forces. in the wave surface zone is calculated. — Varying buoyancy force. 4.1.1. 4. legs and ventilated buckets may be divided into four load cases as shown in figures 4-3 to 4-6.0m = 1. The characteristic vertical relative velocity and acceleration are related to CoG of submerged part of structure. CoGLegs dLegs CoGBucket dBuckets 4. 4.5.0m Figure 4-3 Load Case 1 – Still water level beneath top of ventilated bucket where — Slamming impact force.4 The third load case is when the roof cover is just above the still water level.5.0m 4. mass force FM and drag force FD are negligible assuming the horizontal projected area of the skirt walls is small.5. Only the mud mat area of buckets simultaneously affected need to be applied. — Varying buoyancy force Fρ .5 Typical load cases during lowering through water surface 4.3 Examples of typical load cases are given in 4.2. — Varying buoyancy force Fρ. — Drag forces.2. 4.4. These are merely given as general guidance.6.2.1.2 Load cases for a protection structure CoGLegs CoGBucket dLegs dBuckets Figure 4-5 Load Case 3 – Still water level beneath roof cover 4.2.2. 4. mass force FM and drag force FD are calculated.1 The lowering through water surface of a typical protection structure with roof. Typical load cases and load combinations should be established for all structures individually. if the object has four buckets. are calculated separately for buckets and legs. is zero.5. Fslam. 4.2.1 General Figure 4-4 Load Case 2 – Still water level above top of tuckets 4. The total mass force is the sum of the two load components. The operation should therefore be analysed covering a number of different load cases.3. figure 4-4: Figure 4-6 Load Case 4 – Still water level above roof cover DET NORSKE VERITAS . The total drag force is the sum of the two load components.5.0m — the still water level is located just beneath the slamming area of the main item — the still water level is located just above the top of the submerged main item.5.3 The second load case is when buckets are fully submerged.1 There will be different hydrodynamic loads acting on different parts of the structure during lowering through water surface.5. CoG d 4.5. is calculated on the roof cover.2. applying the characteristic vertical water particle acceleration for CoG of buckets and legs individually. it may be sufficient to apply two.9. Fρ .5.

the following guideline for drag coefficients on typical subsea structures in oscillatory flow is given: C D ≥ 2.6.8.6.1.: 4. The total drag force is the sum of the three load components.2 The heave added mass of a surface piercing structure may be taken as half the heave added mass (in an infinite fluid domain) of an object formed by the submerged part of the structure plus its mirror about the free surface. 4. Fslam.6. methods as CFD studies or model tests should be performed. is zero. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 4. the drag coefficient will tend to approach the value of the steady flow drag coefficient. The reason for this is that the lowered structure will tend to enter more undisturbed fluid. Ref. a bucket shaped suction anchor with a diameter equal the height will according to 4.1 The hydrodynamic parameters may be determined by theoretical and/or experimental methods. see App. The mass of this water volume should not be included in the added mass as it is already included in the body mass. 4.1. the drag coefficient decreases with increasing lowering speed. see 4.3.B.2. are calculated separately for buckets.1 goes to infinity as the fluid velocity goes to zero.3. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 4.6.4.6.3 The following simplified approximation of the added mass in heave for a three-dimensional body with vertical sides may be applied: 4.4 A structure that contains a partly enclosed volume of water moving together with the structure may be taken as a three-dimensional body where the mass of the partly enclosed water volume is included in the added mass.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.2 The hydrodynamic parameters may be dependent on a number of factors.3. legs and roof individually.2. This may reduce the oscillatory drag coefficient compared to model test data obtained without this influence.2.1.g.6 Sensitivity studies of added mass and damping are in general recommended in order to assess whether or not more accurate Guidance note: In this Simplified Method flooded items as e.2 The drag coefficient in oscillatory flow.6. 4.3 Added mass for non-perforated structures 4. see e.6.2. CD. Guidance note: For example.2 Drag coefficients 4.3.5 [-] 4.6. see e. legs and roof.3 The drag coefficients and added mass values given in this simplified method do not fully take into account all the above listed parameters.3.1 Hydrodynamic added mass values for different bodies and cross-sectional shapes may be found in Appendix A-1 and A-2. CDS. Guidance note: The drag coefficient may be considerable higher than the recommended value given in 4. If the lowering speed exceeds the maximum oscillation velocity. as e.6. is zero. — Varying buoyancy force Fρ.6.6. The total mass force is the sum of the three load components.g.4 Model tests have shown that the added mass may be highly dependent on the oscillation amplitude of typical subsea structures. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- — — — — — — — structure geometry perforation sharp edges proximity to water surface or sea bottom wave height and wave period oscillation frequency oscillation amplitude 4.9. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- ⎡ A33 ≈ ⎢1 + ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎤ 1 − λ2 ⎥ ⋅ A33o 2(1 + λ2 ) ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ [kg] and λ= where Ap h + Ap [-] A33o = added mass for a flat plate with a shape equal to the horizontal projected area of the object [kg] h = height of the object [m] AP = area of submerged part of object projected on a horizontal plane [m2] 4.6.g.6. In model tests and CFD analyses of complex subsea structures at relevant KC numbers.3 Waves.4 Unless specific CFD studies or model tests have been performed. 4.6. — Drag forces. tubular frames or spool pieces should be applied in the static weight calculations according to 4.1.3.g. — Mass forces. FMi. 4.3.6. Ref. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 4. 4. April 2010 Page 42 where — Slamming impact force. applying the characteristic vertical water particle acceleration for CoG of buckets.6. vary with the Keulegan-Carpenter number and can be typically two to three times larger than the steady flow drag coefficient.57 times the added mass of a circular disc plus the mass of the water volume inside the bucket.6 Estimation of hydrodynamic parameters 4.2. FDi.2.6. applying correct CoGs. oscillatory flow drag coefficients in the range CD ≈ 4 to 8 may be obtained when wake wash-out due to waves.2.6.1 Hydrodynamic drag coefficients in oscillatory flow should be used./6/ and /7/.6./11/.6.5 For long slender elements a drag coefficient equal to twice the steady state CDS may be applied provided that hydrodynamic interaction effects are not present.2. legs and roof. Guidance note: Beneath the wave zone.3 have an added mass equal 1. current or lowering speed is disregarded. Guidance note: This approximation is based upon the high frequency limit and is hence only applicable in cases where the radiated surface waves are negligible.1 General Guidance note: It should be noted that for extremely low KC numbers the drag coefficient as applied in 4. are also calculated separately for buckets. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- DET NORSKE VERITAS . 4. current or vertical fluid flow due to lowering speed may partly wash away some of the wake.2.

---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 4.5 [m/s] = characteristic vertical relative velocity between object and water particles.1.5 [m/s] 4.3.5D-NiMo BucketKC2.5+ Hatch20-KCp0.5D-NiMo PLET-KC1-4 Roof-A0.4.3.1-0. see 4. As shown. [m/s] = Correction factor.2 RoofKCp0.5-H0. Weather criteria should be adjusted to ensure this.5D-NiMo BucketKC3. Guidance note: Interaction effects can be neglected if the solid projected area normal to the direction of motion (within a typical amplitude of either body motion or wave particle motion) is less than 50%. 4. The exp(-P/28) curve is derived from numerical simulations (based on potential flow theory) of perforated plates and included in the figure for reference.6.7.1 will in most cases significantly overestimate the added mass. April 2010 Page 43 4. Added Mass Reduction Factor Effect of perforation on added mass 1 0.2 Snap forces may occur if the slack sling criterion is not fulfilled.9 0.5 Added mass calculations based upon panel methods like the sink-source technique should be used with care (when subject to viscous fluid flow).27 RoofKCp0. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 4.4 0.7.3.37 DNV-Curve Mudmat CFD 4.4.8 0.e.6. see 4.1-H4D-NiMo BucketKC0. see 4. 4.3.4. see 4.3 0.3.1 The snap velocity may be taken as: vsnap = vff + C · vr [m/s] where vff vr C = free fall velocity. i.1 Characteristic snap load may be taken as: Fsnap = v snap K ⋅ (M + A33 ) [N] where vsnap K M A33 = = = = characteristic snap velocity [m/s] stiffness of hoisting system.3-0.6 [N/m] mass of object in air [kg] heave added mass of object [kg] Guidance note: This guidance is based upon a limited number of model test data and includes hence a safety margin.2.2 and 4. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 4.1 BucketKC0. see 4.1 The effect of perforation on the added mass may roughly be estimated by the following guidance: A33 = A33 s if p ≤ 5 ⎛ ⎡ π ⋅ ( p − 5) ⎤ ⎞ A33 = A33 s ⋅ ⎜ ⎜ 0.2 0.1-0.3.3.7. a bucket shaped suction anchor with a ventilation hole corresponding to 5% perforation will have an added mass equal the solid added mass.7.7.6 Added mass calculations based upon summation of contributions from each element is not recommended if the structure is densely compounded.1.3.1 Snap forces shall as far as possible be avoided.7.2 The characteristic snap load should be applied as described in 4.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.6-H4D-NiMo BucketKC1.2 The vertical relative velocity between object and water particles may be taken as: v r = vc + where vct2 + v w2 [m/s] 4.3 Two values for hook lowering velocity should be DET NORSKE VERITAS .2 The intention of this guidance is to ensure a conservative estimate of the perforation rate influence on the added mass.4.4.3. the added mass is in this case unaffected by the ventilation hole.6 BucketKC1.7. It may give underestimated values due to oscillation amplitude dependency.8 BucketKC0.4 [-] 4.2.7 Snap forces in slings or hoisting line 4. CFD studies or model tests are recommended if more accurate estimations are needed. see 4.4.5-H0.4.5-1.3.3 Snap velocity Guidance note: The recommended DNV-curve is shown as the upper curve in figure 4-7.7.2 Snap force if 34 ≤ p ≤ 50 where A33S = solid added mass (added mass in heave for a non-perforated structure) [kg] p = perforation rate (percentage) [-] Guidance note: For example.5D-NiMo BucketKC1.6 0.7.3 ⋅ cos ⎢ ⎟ if 5 < p < 34 ⎥⎟ 34 ⎣ ⎦⎠ ⎝ and A33 = A33 s ⋅ e 10 − p 28 Figure 4-7 Added mass reduction factor A33/A33S as function of the perforation rate (percentage) 4. It is not considered applicable for perforation rates above 50%.7.7 0.7 + 0.4 or 4.6.6.7.6.3. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 4.7.4 Effect of perforation 4.1 0 0 10 Perforation 20 30 40 50 e^-P/28 BucketKC0. As seen in figure 4-7 (shaded area) the actual reduction factor may vary a lot depending on geometry and oscillation amplitude.2. 4.5-2.2.3.3.7.5-H0.7.4.6.4. The calculated values may be underestimated due to interaction effects and the oscillation amplitude dependency. vc = hook hoisting/lowering velocity.7.1 General 4.2-H4D-NiMo BucketKC0.5-H0. the exp(-P/28) curve may give non-conservative values.3.5 0. The shadowed area represents model test data for different subsea structures at varying KC-numbers. The recommended guidance in 4.3 [m/s] vct = characteristic single amplitude vertical velocity of the crane tip [m/s] vw = characteristic vertical water particle velocity as found in 4.8 Hatch18-KCp0.

6.4. typically vsnap= 1./3/. see 4. typically 0.2 The line stiffness may be calculated by: 4.7. the snap velocity may be assumed equal the slamming impact velocity given in 4.7.2. DET NORSKE VERITAS . 4.7.5 The free fall velocity of the object may be taken as: vff = 2 Fstatic ρ Ap CD [m/s] where E A L k line = EA L [N/m] where Fstatic = the minimum and maximum static weight as defined in 4. vc = 0 m/s and vc = typical lowering velocity.1 Passive heave compensation systems may have a certain available stroke length.50 [m/s] vrct = characteristic vertical relative velocity between object and crane tip [m/s] 4.2 ⎟⎥ ⎢ ⎠⎥ ⎣ ⎝ r ⎦ and C =0 for v ff > 0.50 m/s may be applied. Guidance note: If the typical hoisting/lowering velocity is unknown. a 6 × 37 IWRC steel core wire rope could be CF = 0. The highest snap velocity for the three options should be applied in the snap force calculation. ref.2.4.7. April 2010 Page 44 applied.7.7.7v r ⎡ ⎛ v ff ⎞⎤ ⎟ C = cos ⎢π ⎜ ⎜ v − 0.7. 4.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103. The smallest available single amplitude stroke length at each load case should be applied.58 and E = 85 ·109 N/m2.7.4 The correction factor should be taken as: C =1 for v ff < 0.7v r total stiffness of hoisting system [N/m] stiffness of rigging.5.3. a barge should be taken into due considerations. [m2] = length of line(s). and E.1 Snap force due to start or stop may be calculated according to 4. spreader bar.3 should be applied in the equations given in DNV-OS-H205.1 The stiffness of the hoisting system may be calculated by: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 = + + + + + K krigging kline k soft kblock kboom kother where K = krigging = kline = ksoft = kblock kboom kother 4. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 4.7. etc.3 Estimation of available stroke length should take into account the change in static weight as lifted object is transferred from air to submerged.7. 4.2. a value of vc = ± 0. Section 2.6.3 The characteristic vertical relative velocity between object and crane tip should be calculated applying design sea states according to 4.7. D.3. If multiple lines the distance from block to crane tip is normally applied [m] 4.2. applying a characteristic snap velocity equal to: vsnap : maximum lowering velocity.7 = stiffness of multiple lines in a block if used = stiffness of crane boom = other stiffness contributions.2.4.6.7.7.7. stiffness of hoist line(s) stiffness of soft strop or passive heave compensation system if used.2.6 If the snap load is caused by a slamming impact force while the object is still in air.7.7.4 Snap force due to start or stop = fill-factor of wire rope [-] = the rope diameter [m] Guidance note: The value of the fill factor cF needs to be defined in consistence with Awire.6 Stiffness of hoisting system 4.2v r < v ff < 0.g.7.5.1 and using the same guidelines as given in 4. Guidance note: A more accurate calculation of the lifting operation is recommended if the Simplified Method indicates risk for snap loads.0 [m/s] 4.3. applying a characteristic snap velocity equal to: vsnap = vc + vrct [m/s] where vc = hook hoisting velocity.3. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 4. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- = modulus of rope elasticity [N/m2] = effective cross section area of line(s). a retrieval case should be covered applying a vc equal to a typical hoisting velocity.2 Snap loads during lift off may be calculated according to 4.7.7. normally = 1025 [kg/m3] AP = area of submerged part of object projected on a horizontal plane [m2] CD = drag coefficient of submerged part of object 4.7.3.g.3. In addition. if any 4.7.3. Typical values for e.5.5.2v r for 0. D200. see 4.3 The effective cross section area of one wire line is found by: Awire = π ⋅ D2 4 ⋅ cF [m2] where cF D 4. The areas are summarized if there are multiple parallel lines.1 Snap forces due to lift off from e.7.6.2 [N] ρ = density of sea water.2 Dynamic motions of lifted object exceeding available stroke length may cause huge peak loads and failure of the hoisting system.1.7.7. This stroke length must not be exceeded during the lift.5 Snap force due to lift-off 4.3. The calculated DAFconv as specified in 4.7 Application of passive heave compensation systems with limited stroke length 4. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 4.1. Guidance note: It is here assumed that the maximum free fall velocity after impact will not exceed the maximum relative velocity between object and water surface.

Subsea Operations” (planned issued 2010 see ref. April 2007. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- Guidance note: Also the recovery load cases should be verified.2 Ch. 275-290. 5. 19th Int.2. Cortona. 5.8 References /1/ DNV Offshore Standard DNV-OS-H101.2 Static forces on cable and lifted object 5. “Marine Operations. Italy. 15.4 Entrapped water causing increased weight in air during recovery should be taken into account when checking available stroke length. San Francisco.7. Forces on lifted objects in the wave zone is covered in Sections 3 and 4.7. 5. April 2010 Page 45 Guidance note: The equilibrium position (and thereby the available stroke length) will change during the lifting operation as the static weight of the object change when lowered through the water surface. F.1 Stretched length of a cable A vertical cable will stretch due to its own weight and the weight of the lifted object at the end of the cable. /12/ DNV Rules for Planning and Execution of Marine Operations (1996). “Marine Operations. (2004) “Heave added mass and damping of a perforated disk below the free surface”.1 or 4. Lifting Operations” (planned issued 2010.G. /5/ “DNV Rules for Planning and Execution of Marine Operations”. /8/ Faltinsen. Pt. and Nielsen. Cable can consist of steel wire.05. P. 5. [m/s] ksoft = stiffness of the passive heave compensation system [N/m] Guidance note: A more accurate estimation of available stroke length is recommended if the system characteristics are known.3. Pt. F. 4. 28-31 March 2004.5.1. May 2006.6. Loads and Design” (planned issued 2010).. Cambridge University Press. Workshop on Water Waves and Floating Bodies. O. /6/ DNV Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C205 “Environmental Conditions and Environmental Loads”. /10/ Molin.7. δx > where 2 ( M + A33 ) ⋅ v stroke k soft [m] — stretched length of cable due to cable own weight and weight of lifted object — horizontal offset due to current where the current velocity may be time-dependent and its magnitude and direction may vary with water depth — dynamics of lifted object due to wave induced motion of crane tip on vessel — methods for controlling vertical motion of lifted object. Marintek Report No. F. B./13/ until release). see e. acceleration and force terms in this section should always be applied as positive unless denoted otherwise. “Sea Loads on Ships and Offshore Structures”.1 Calculation results based upon the method and formulas given in this section may be used as input in DNV-OSH205.7.1. to be assumed equal the relative velocity. O.7. δx. vr (see 4..4 Static and dynamic response of lowered or lifted objects in deep water can be predicted by established commercial computer programs. see ref. The method and formulas are also applicable for the retrieval case.3.7. 1990./12/ until release).1.1. Deepwater Lowering Operations 5.2 The sign of the motion.2 Application M = mass of object in air [kg] A33 = heave added mass of object [kg] vstroke = stroke velocity.1.1.1. “Marine Operations. 5. /4/ DNV Offshore Standard DNV-OS-H206.1 For lifting operations in deep water the following effects should be considered. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 5. /9/ Molin B. Fluids & Structures. “A Summary of Subsea Module Hydrodynamic Data”.2 Ch.2. Lifting. 1989. and Nielsen. The stretched length Ls of a cable of length L is.5 Lifting /13/ DNV Rules for Planning and Execution of Marine Operations (1996). 4. may be to apply the following criterion: 5.6 A simplified check of the available single amplitude stroke length./1/..7. should be applied. chain.g. 1996.2.1 General 4. 1 ⎡ ⎤ ⎢ W + 2 wL ⎥ Ls = L ⎢1 + ⎥ EA ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ [m] where Ls L W w = = = = stretched length of cable [m] original length of cable [m] Mg – ρgV = fully submerged weight of lifted object [N] mg – ρgA = fully submerged weight per unit length of cable [N/m] DET NORSKE VERITAS . /7/ Øritsland. General” (planned issued 2010). vsnap. 4.6 Sub Sea Operations.511110.2) unless snap forces occur at which the snap velocity.3 In general. ref. 2006-JSC-322.g. (2001) "On the added mass and damping of periodic arrays of fully or partially porous disks". this section describes forces acting on the vertical cable and the lowered object from beneath the wave zone down to the sea bed.2.1.7.1. 5.2.7.5 Changes in equilibrium position of pressurized pistons due to increased water pressure may be taken into account if relevant.2. Solaas.2 The term “cable” is in the following used to denote the lifting line from crane to lifted object.1 Introduction 5. 4. or a combination of these. /3/ DNV Offshore Standard DNV-OS-H205. 5. velocity. fibre rope.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.1.7.7. “Marine Operations. in pressurized pistons the energy loss due to flow resistance is not included in 4. (2006) “Hydrodynamic Forces on ventilated Structures" ISOPE Paper no. e.M. J.C. The analytic formulas presented in this section may be used to check or verify predictions from such numerical analyses. /2/ DNV Offshore Standard DNV-OS-H102. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- /11/ Sandvik.G.

q. April 2010 Page 46 M m g ρ E A V = = = = = = mass of lifted object [kg] mass per unit length of cable [kg/m] acceleration of gravity = 9.4 = displaced volume of lifted object [m3] z x U 5. See Figure 5-1. 5. See Guidance Note in 5. is given by.81 m/s2 density of water [kg/m3] modulus of elasticity of cable [N/m2] nominal cross sectional area of cable [m2].L [m] L CDn CDx Dc Ax Uc(z) z1.2.1 For an axially stiff cable with negligible bending stiffness the offset of a vertical cable with a heavy weight W0 at the end of the cable in an arbitrary current with unidirectional (in x-direction) velocity profile Uc(z) is given by. λ= FD 0 wL [-] (4) The hydrodynamic drag force per unit length of cable. q= 1 ρC Dn Dc U c2 2 [N/m] (5) Guidance note: A correction to account for the vertical component of drag is to replace w by (w – qξL/L) in formula (1) for the horizontal offset.2 Horizontal offset due to current 5.2. where ξL is the uncorrected offset at the end of the cable as calculated by formula (2). FD0. κ= Guidance note: The cable diameter Dc(z) and drag coefficient for normal flow CDn(z) may vary with depth. 0 z ξ(z) q w FD0 ξ ( z) = ∫ where [ FD 0 + (1 / 2) ρ ∫ C Dn D c [U c ( z 2 )] dz 2 2 −L z1 ξL W + w( z1 + L) ] dz1 [m] W Figure 5-1 Horizontal offset ξ(z) due to uniform current. The horizontal offset of the lifted object is obtained by setting z = –L in the expression for ξ(z). z ⎡ ⎤ κ + + 1⎥ q ⎞ ⎢ ⎛ q L ξ ( z ) = L ⎜ κ − λ ⎟ ln ⎢ z ⎥− κ w + 1 w ⎠ ⎢ ⎝ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ξ(z) = horizontal offset at vertical position z [m] ξL = horizontal offset at end of cable z = . CDn the horizontal offset can be derived by. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- W wL [-] (3) and λ is the ratio between the drag on the lifted object.3 When the current velocity direction and cable properties vary with water depth a static analysis using a Finite Element methodology with full numerical integration is DET NORSKE VERITAS .2. and the weight of the cable.2.2.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 5.2. See Figure 5-1. Guidance note: It is assumed that the sum of the weight wL of the cable and the submerged weight W of the lifted object are so large that the angle between cable and a vertical line is small.2. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- ξL = L⎜ ⎛q ⎞ ⎡ κ ⎤ qL κ − λ ⎟ ln ⎢ ⎥+ w ⎠ ⎣ κ + 1⎦ w ⎝ [m] (2) where κ is the ratio between the weight of the lifted object. z2 [m] (1) = un-stretched length of cable [m] = drag coefficient for normal flow past cable [-] = drag coefficient for horizontal flow past lifted object [-] = cable diameter [m] = x-projected area of lifted object [m2] = current velocity at depth z [m/s] = integration variables [m] where the top of the cable is at z = 0 and the lifted object is at the end of the cable at z = –L. Parameters are defined in 5. Curvature of cable determined by FD0/W < q/w.2 For a uniform current Uc and cable properties Dc.2.2. The parameters are defined as. W.2. This variation must be taken into account when calculating the offset. and the weight of the cable. FD 0 = 1 ρC Dx Ax [U c (− L)]2 2 [N] is the hydrodynamic drag force on the lifted object.

2.4.1 The vertical cable stiffness kV is the vertical force that has to be applied to the lifted object at the lower end of the cable per unit vertical displacement. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 5.1 For installation of modules on seabed it is important to control the distance from the seabed to the lower part of the lifted object at the end of the cable. 5.5.4.2. 5.2.2.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103. See also Sections 4 and 7.2.4.2 For constant unidirectional current and constant cable properties along the length of the cable. the elastic stiffness kE and the geometric stiffness kG.2. κ= W >> 1 wL ⇒ k H = wκ = W L [N/m] 1 1 1 = + kV k E kG [m/N] 5.1 The horizontal stiffness kH of lifted object is the horizontal force that has to be applied to the lower end of the cable per unit horizontal displacement.2.2 The horizontal stiffness kH is given by 1 1 ⎡κ + 1⎤ ∂ξ L = = ln ⎢ ∂FDO w ⎣ κ ⎥ kH ⎦ 5.2.2 The vertical stiffness is the sum of two contributions. The difference Δz of vertical position of the lower end of the cable between the real condition and a vertical un-stretched condition has two contributions Δz = ΔzG + ΔzE where Guidance note: A is the nominal cross-sectional area of the cable defined as A = S·cF where S is the cross-sectional area (of circumscribed circle) and cF is the fill factor.2. and gives the change in position of the lower end of the cable for a unit force applied at the end. the vertical displacement due to curvature of the cable my be taken as.4 When the current velocity direction and cable properties varies with water depth a three-dimensional static analysis using a Finite Element methodology is recommended to find the offset.2.3 The elastic stiffness kE is given by.3 Vertical displacement 5.3.2.3.2. [-] kH = dFH dx [N/m] 5.2. w. κ and λ are defined in 5. It should also be noted that this expression for horizontal stiffness is valid for static loads only.5.6 Cable payout – quasi-static loads The quasi-static tension T(s) at the top end of the cable during payout for a deepwater lowering operation is given by 5.2. 5.2. Δ zE 1 ⎡ 1 ≈− W + ( wL − qξ L L EA ⎢ 2 ⎣ ⎤ )⎥ ⎦ 5.4 Vertical cable stiffness [m/N] 5.4. dF kV = V dz [N/m] 5.3. 5.1 and 5.2. The vertical stiffness kV is given by. T ( s ) = W + ws + where = = CDf = CDz = Dc = s kE = where E A L EA L 1 1 ρCDf πDc svc vc + ρCDz Ap vc vc 2 2 [N] [N/m] ρ = modulus of elasticity [N/m2] = cross-sectional area of cable [m2] = length of cable [m] length of cable payout [m] water density [kg/m3] cable longitudinal friction coefficient [-] drag coefficient for vertical flow past lifted object [-] cable diameter [m] DET NORSKE VERITAS .4 The geometric stiffness kG is given by ∂( Δ z G ) 1 q2 ⎡ ⎛ κ ⎞ 1 κ + 3 ⎤ = − = − 3 ⎢ln⎜ ⎟+ ⎥ 2 ∂W kG w ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎝ κ + 1 ⎠ 2 (κ + 1) ⎦ + q λ 1 w 2 κ ( κ + 1 )2 + 1 ⎛ λ ⎞ 2κ + 1 ⎜ ⎟ w ⎝ κ ⎠ 2( κ + 1 ) 2 2 ΔzG = vertical geometric displacement due to curvature of the cable ΔzE = vertical elastic displacement due to stretching of cable The geometric effect increase the clearance to seabed while the stretching decrease the clearance to seabed.3 The vertical displacement due to stretching of the cable may be taken as. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- where the parameters q.5 Horizontal stiffness 5.3 When the lifted object is much heavier than the weight of the cable the horizontal cable stiffness reduces to the stiffness of the mathematical pendulum. 5.2.5. the geometric stiffness becomes rapidly more important at higher current speeds.2.2. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- [-] Guidance note: The geometric stiffness decreases with increasing current speed at a rate of Uc-4. Hence.2. Note that the horizontal stiffness is not influenced by the current drag on the cable and the lifted object.3. April 2010 Page 47 recommended to find the offset. Δ zG ⎧ λw ⎤ ⎫ ⎡ 1− 2 ⎪ ⎪ κ q⎥ q⎛q ⎞⎪ ⎡ κ ⎤ 1 ⎢ ⎪ 1⎛ q ⎞ ⎢ ⎥ + ≈ ⎜ κ − λ ⎟⎨ln ⎢ + ⎜ ⎟ ⎬ ⎥ L w⎝w ⎠⎪ ⎣ κ + 1 ⎦ 2 ⎢ 1 + κ ⎥ ⎪ 2 ⎝ w ⎠ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎭ ⎩ [m/N] Guidance note: The vertical cable stiffness defined above is valid for static loads.

3.3.2 1. In order to perform a controlled lowering of the object in a given sea state.3.4 1. 5.4.2.0 1. Solid line is exact solution while the dotted line is the approximation for small mass ratio ε. ε. the eigenperiod stated in 5. the fundamental wave number is given by the approximation ν0L = ⎜ ⎛ ε ⎞ ⎟ ⎝1+ ε / 3 ⎠ 1/ 2 5.3.1. straight vertical cable ν 0L 0. ref. 5.6 1.3.6 0.1 For a typical lifting operation from a floating vessel it is normally acceptable to assume that the motion of the vessel is not affected by the motion of the object.. The figure shows that the above approximation is close to the exact solution even for mass ratios.0 0. Guidance note: Data describing friction coefficients for flow tangentially to a cable may be found in e.4 2.0 0.3 Application Guidance note: The difference between the exact solution and the approximate solution is shown in Figure 5-2.2 0.2 Dynamic drag forces 5.1 Due to the motion of crane tip and lifted object.3.3./6/.4 0.4 The higher natural frequencies can for small mass ratios. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 5.3.8 0.4 1. which again affects the eigenperiod of the lifted object.6 0.8 1. April 2010 Page 48 Ap vc w W = horizontal projected area of lifted object [m2] = constant cable payout velocity.. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 5. Note that the formula above neglects the effect of current and water particle velocity due to waves and is therefore only valid for still water. This simplification is based on the following assumptions: — mass and added mass of lifted object is much smaller than the displacement of the vessel — the objects contribution to moment of inertia around CoG / centre plane of vessel is much smaller than the vessels moment of inertia — the motion of the crane tip is vertical — the effect of current can be neglected. Figure 5-2 Exact solution and approximated solution of the fundamental wave number ν0L as function of mass ratio (corresponding to the first natural frequency of vertical oscillations).8 3. ε.3 Dynamic forces on cable and lifted object 5.3. the added mass also depends on the oscillation amplitude. the elastic stiffness becomes increasingly important. be estimated by the corresponding wave numbers. Guidance note: Typically.5.2 1.2 0.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.4 Natural frequencies.8 2. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- ε = 2π/Tj = angular natural frequencies [rad/s] = eigenperiods [s] = corresponding wave numbers [1/m] = length of cable [m] = modulus of elasticity [N/m2] = nominal cross-sectional area of cable [m2] = mass per unit length of cable [kg/m] = mass of lifted object in air [kg] = added mass for motion in vertical direction [kg] = mL/(M+A33) = mass ratio [-] Guidance note: The vertical added mass for three-dimensional bodies in infinite fluid is defined as A33 = ρCAVR where CA is the added mass coefficient and VR is a reference volume. -up to 3. νj. usually the displaced volume.4. The added mass of the lifted object is affected by proximity to free surface and proximity to sea floor.3. Table A2.3. For mass ratios above 3 it is recommended to use 2ε /5 instead of ε /3 in the denominator of the approximate solution above.3 For small mass ratios.2. The drag forces restrict the change of shape of the cable.4. As the velocity/accelerations of the crane tip increases.3. Added mass coefficients for certain threedimensional bodies are given in Appendix A. ε.0 5. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--1. an assessment of the dynamic response of the lifted object at all depths should be carried out in the planning of the operation.1 (derived from 5.3) should be valid for most practical cases.1 The natural frequencies of a straight vertical cable (Figure 5-4) is given by mL/ (M+A 33 ) ω j =ν j EA m [rad/s] . Reference is made to sections 3 and 4. It should be noted that for complex subsea modules that are partly perforated. the necessary payout velocity to produce a slack condition is found by setting T = 0 in the equation above. DET NORSKE VERITAS . dynamic drag forces will act on the cable.3. applying uncoupled vessel RAOs will give conservative results as the object in most cases tend to reduce the vertical crane tip motion.0 5.1. ν j L tan(v j L) = ε = mL M + A33 [-] 5. 5.6 2. Hence. DNV-RP-C205. j = 0. hauling being positive and lowering negative [m/s] = submerged weight per unit length of cable [N/m] = submerged weight of lifted object [N] where ωj Τj νj L E A m M A33 For a cable payout length s.1 General 5.3.0 2.1 For lifting and lowering operations in deep water the dynamic response of the object depends on its vertical position (depth).2 The exact solution for wave numbers νj are given by the equation (assuming un-damped oscillations).2 2.4.4.g.4 0.

4 For straight vertical cables. the eigenperiod increases then with the square root of the length of the cable.3.5.2.2.5 Eigenperiods 5. k L c= c EA and k L s= s EA 5. down to the end and back.1 The first (fundamental) eigenperiod for un-damped oscillations of the lifted object in the presence of crane master and/or soft slings (Figure 5-3) may be taken as M + A33 + θ ⋅ mL T0 = = 2π K ω0 2π where 1 K ⎛ 1 L ⎞ 1 = ⎜ ⎜ k + k + EA ⎟ ⎟ s ⎝ c ⎠ m.3.2 The adjustment factor to account for the cable mass is given by the general formula θ= where 1+ c + c / 3 (1 + c + c / s ) 2 2 Figure 5-3 Forced oscillation of lifted object in cable with crane master at top of cable and soft sling at top of lifted object. the adjustment factor can be approximated by ρs [m/s] where cL ρs = speed of sound [m/s] = m/A = mass density of cable [kg/m3] θ =⎜ ⎛ s ⎞ ⎟ ⎝s+c⎠ 2 5. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- T ≤τ = 2L cL [s] where τ is the time it takes for a pressure signal to travel from the top of the cable..85·1011 N/m2 and ρs = 7800 kg/m3. Guidance note: For a steel wire with modulus of elasticity E = 0. j = 1.6.4. April 2010 Page 49 given by. to travel from top of the cable. ν j L ≈ jπ + mL jπ (M + A33 ) [-] .. Tj = ωj Guidance note: The fundamental frequency is normally related to the oscillation of the lifted object (with modifications due to the mass of the cable).3. the higher eigenperiods are given by 2π [s] .2.4). Guidance note: For deep water operations where hosting system consists mainly of one long cable (rope. wire). while the higher modes are related to longitudinal pressure waves in the cable (Ref.3. 5.1 The speed of longitudinal pressure waves in the cable (or the speed of sound) is given by cL = EA = m E — θ ~ 1/3 if the line stiffness EA/L is the dominant soft stiffness (c and s are both large numbers) — θ ~ 0 if the dominant soft spring is located just above the lifted object (s << 1 and c > 1) — θ ~ 1 if the dominant soft spring is located at the crane tip (c << 1 and s >1) In the case of soft springs at both ends of the cable (s << 1 and c << 1).3. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- DET NORSKE VERITAS . j = 1.3 The following limiting values for the adjustment factor may be applied: 5..2 Dynamic effects due to longitudinal pressure waves must be accounted for when the cable is excited with a characteristic period T which is comparable to or less than.4. z kc 5.3.3.3. cL = 3300 m/s.6 Longitudinal pressure waves 5.6).6. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- where ωj is defined in 5. EA [s] L K kc ks θ = stiffness of total hoisting system [kg/s2] = stiffness of crane master at top of cable [kg/s2] = stiffness of soft sling or crane master at lifted object [kg/s2] = adjustment factor to account for the cable mass ks 5. For a polyester rope cL may be in the order of 1000 m/s which means that for a depth of 3000 m a pressure signal will take 6 sec.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103. K may be assumed equal the elastic stiffness of the cable kE (See 5. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- Guidance note: The effect of damping on the eigenperiod can normally be disregarded.5. For a given lifted object and hoisting system.3. 5..3.5.5. down to the lifted object and back.

Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103, April 2010 Page 50

5.3.7 Response of lifted object in a straight vertical cable exposed to forced vertical oscillations

5.3.7.1 When a deeply submerged object is lifted from a vessel in waves, the vertical motion of the object is governed by the motion of the top of the cable, fixed to the oscillating vessel.

Guidance note: The motion of top of the cable, or motion of crane tip in a given sea state is derived from the motion characteristics of the crane vessel by linear combination of vessel RAOs determined by the location of the crane tip relative to centre of rotation of the vessel. The resulting motion RAOs in x-, y- and z-directions for crane tip may be combined with a wave spectrum to obtain time history of motion of crane tip. For deep water lowering operations only the vertical motion is of interest. See also 5.3.3.1.

---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

5.3.7.4 The linear damping coefficient for cable motion is defined by; 4 [kg/ms] σ = ρCDf Dcωηa 3 and the longitudinal cable friction force per unit length is given by;

fv =

1 &η & ρC Df Dc η 2

[N/m ]

[m/s]

where the vertical motion along the cable is given by;

& = ∂η / ∂t η

Guidance note: Using the motion amplitude at top of cable in the definition of the linear damping coefficient for cable motion is an approximation. The linearized damping actually varies along the cable.

---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

5.3.7.2 The vertical motion of a straight vertical cable with the lifted object at vertical position z = -L caused by a forced oscillation of top of the cable with frequency ω and amplitude ηa is given by;

η ( z) kEA cos[k ( z + L )] + (−ω 2 M '+iωΣ) sin [k ( z + L)] [m/m] = ηa kEA cos( kL) + (−ω 2 M '+iωΣ) sin( kL)

5.3.7.5 The linear damping coefficient for motion of lifted object is defined by;

Σ=

4 ρC Dz A p ωη L [kg/s] 3π

1 &Lη &L ρC Dz A p η 2

**where | | means the absolute value (or modulus) of a complex number and the mass M’ = M +A33 (ref. 5.3.4.2).
**

5.3.7.3 The complex wave number k is given by

and the vertical drag force for lifted object is given by

Fv =

where

M A33 M’ m L E A CDf CDz

[N]

k = k r + ik i =

m ⎛σ ⎞ ω 2 − iω ⎜ ⎟ EA ⎝m⎠

[m-1]

where the positive square root is understood. i = − 1 is the imaginary unit and m is the mass per unit length of cable. The functions cos(u) and sin(u) are the complex cosine and sine functions of complex numbers u = ur + iui as defined in Abramowitz and Stegun (1965).

σ and Σ are linear damping coefficients for cable motion and

motion of lifted object respectively defined by equivalent linearization.

ρ

z

Dc Ap

ηL

= structural mass of lifted object [kg] = added mass of lifted object [kg] = M+A33 = the total mass [kg] = mass per unit length of cable [kg/m] = length of cable [m] = modulus of elasticity [N/m2] = nominal cross-sectional area of cable [m2] = cable longitudinal friction coefficient [-] = vertical drag coefficient for lifted object [-] = mass density of water [kg/m3] = cable diameter [m] = z-projected area of lifted object [m2] = η(-L) = motion of lifted object [m]

Guidance note: Since the linearized damping coefficients depend on the amplitude of motion ηL, an iteration is needed to find the actual response. Note that the oscillatory KC effects on CDz should be taken into account (3.3.5.2). Note that structural damping is not included in this simplified analysis.

---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

0

η

L m , EA M

5.3.7.6 The amplitude of the vertical motion of the lifted object caused by a forced oscillation of top of the cable with frequency ω and amplitude ηa is given by

ηL kEA = ηa kEA cos(kL) + (−ω 2 M '+iωΣ) sin(kL)

[m/m]

5.3.7.7 The ratio between the motion of the lifted object and the motion at the top of the cable, is the motion transfer function

Figure 5-4 Forced oscillation of lifted object in cable

H L (ω ) =

ηL ηa

[m/m]

DET NORSKE VERITAS

Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103, April 2010 Page 51

Guidance note: An example response curve of a lifted object in deep water is shown in Figure 5-5, plotted with respect to oscillation period T = 2π/ω. The following parameters were used in the calculations:

**the force transfer function
**

H F (ω; z ) = Fd

ηa

[N/m]

M’ m L EA

ρ

Dc CDf CDz Ap

ηa

= M+A33 = 190 000 kg = 25.0 kg/m = 3 000 m = 3.00E+08 N = 1 025 kg/m3 = 0.04 m = 0.02 = 1.0 – 2.0 = 25 m2 =1m

5.3.7.10 The motion of the lifted object due to a general irregular wave induced motion of top of the cable is obtained by combining transfer functions for motion of lifted object and motion of top of cable at crane tip position. The response spectrum of the lifted object is given by

S L (ω ) = [H L (ω ) H a (ω )] S (ω )

2

[m2s]

where Ha(ω) is the transfer function for crane tip motion, S(ω) is the wave spectrum and HL(ω) is defined in 5.3.7.7. Likewise, the dynamic force in the cable due to a general irregular wave induced motion of top of the cable is given by

S F (ω; z ) = [H F (ω; z ) H a (ω )] S (ω )

2

[ N2s]

Large response is observed close to eigenperiod T0 = 9.2 s (as given by the formula in 5.3.5.1 for un-damped oscillations). Enhanced response at eigenperiod T1 = 1.7 s can also be observed. For long oscillation periods, the combined system of cable and lifted object is oscillating like a rigid body where the lifted object follows the motion of the top of the cable, |ηL/ηa |~ 1.

---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

**where HF (ω;z) is defined in 5.3.7.8.
**

5.3.8 Slack cable conditions

5.3.8.1 In the general case the dynamic force varies along the length of the cable due to inertia effects in the cable. If the amplitude of the dynamic force exceeds the static tension in the cable, a slack cable condition will occur. Alternatively, a slack wire will occur if the relative motion between lifted object and crane tip is greater than the static stretch of the cable,

η L − η a ≥ η st

where ηL is given by 5.3.7.6 and the static stretch ηst is obtained from 5.2.1,

η st = L s − L =

WL +

1 2 wL 2 EA

5.3.8.2 Neglecting the damping due to friction along the cable (σ = 0), the slack cable criterion can be expressed as

(a1 a 2 )2 + (a1b )2 + (a 2 b )2 + b 4

Figure 5-5 Example response amplitude of a lifted object in deep water due to a forced motion ηa = 1 m at top end of cable for three different drag coefficients CDz = 1.0, 1.5, 2.0.

a12 + b 2

≥τ

Where the non-dimensional parameters are defined as

**5.3.7.8 The amplitude of the dynamic force Fd(z) in the cable at position z is given by;
**

Fd ( z ) − (kL) 2 k E sin [k ( z + L)] + (kL)h(ω ) cos[k ( z + L)] = ηakE (kL)k E cos(kL) + h(ω ) sin( kL)

a1 = Λ ε cos Λ ε − Λ2 sin Λ ε a2 = Λ ε − a1 b = 2ξΛ sin Λ ε M'L AE Λε = Λ ε mL ε= M' 1 L ξ= Σ 2 EAM ' Λ =ω

where

h(ω ) = −ω 2 M '+iω ∑ k E = EA / L

The amplitude of the dynamic force Fd0 at the top of the cable is obtained by setting z = 0 in the expression above. Likewise, the amplitude of the dynamic force FdL at the lifted object is obtained by setting z = −L, FdL h (ω ) = η a k E k E cos(kL) + h (ω ) sin( kL ) / kL

5.3.7.9 The dynamic force per unit motion of top of cable is

τ=

η st ηa

Λ is the non-dimensional frequency, ξ is the non-dimensional damping (damping ratio), and τ is the displacement ratio. Σ is the linearized damping as given in 5.3.7.5. The other variables are defined in 5.3.7.5. Regions of taut and slack cable conditions are shown in Figure 5-6 for mass ratios ε and damping

DET NORSKE VERITAS

Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103, April 2010 Page 52

ratios ξ of 0, 0.4 and 1.0.

Guidance note: Neglecting the damping due to friction along the cable reduces the region for slack in the (Λ, τ) domain. To account for this, a comparison should be done between the drag force FvL on the lifted object and the total friction force fvL along the cable as given in 5.3.7.4 and increase the damping ratio ξ by a factor 1+fvL/Fv in the criterion 5.3.8.2. A slack cable criterion similar to 5.3.8.2 for the general case, including damping due to friction along the cable may be derived from the general criterion 5.3.8.1 using 5.3.7.3 and 5.3.7.6.

---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

oscillations of the lifted object may be taken as:

T0 h

mL ⎞ ⎛ ⎟⋅ L ⎜ M + A11 + 3 ⎠ ⎝ ≈ 2π W + 0.45 wL

[s]

7

where L = length of cable [m] W = Mg – ρgV = submerged weight of lifted object [N] w = mg – ρgA = submerged weight per unit length of cable [N/m] M = mass of lifted object [kg] m = mass per unit length of cable [kg/m] A11 = surge added mass of lifted object [kg]

5.3.9.2 Applying added mass in sway, A22, in equation 5.3.8.1 will give the eigenperiod for sway motion of lifted object. 5.3.9.3 If the ocean current energy spectrum is non-zero in a range of frequencies close to f0 = 1/T0h horizontal oscillations of the lifted object can be excited. Likewise, the oscillations may be excited by horizontal motion of crane tip. Such oscillations may be highly damped due to viscous drag on cable and lifted object.

ε=0.0 ξ = 0.0 ε=0.0 ξ = 0.4

6

ε=0.0 ξ = 1.0 ε=0.4 ξ = 0.0 ε=0.4 ξ = 0.4

5

TAUT

4

ε=0.4 ξ = 1.0 ε=1.0 ξ = 0.0 ε=1.0 ξ = 0.4 ε=1.0 ξ = 1.0

D isplacem ent ratio

τ

TAUT

3

5.4 Heave compensation

5.4.1 General

2

1

5.4.1.1 Various motion control devices may be used to compensate for the vertical motion of the vessel. The most commonly used device is a heave compensator.

SLACK

0 0 1 2

5.4.1.2 A heave compensator may be used to control the motion of the lifted object and tension in cable during a lifting operation. 5.4.1.3 Heave compensators may be divided into three main groups:

Non-dimensional frequency

Λ

Figure 5-6 Regions for slack and taut cable conditions for given frequency and amplitude of oscillation. Regions depend on mass ratio and damping of lifted object.

**— passive heave compensators — active heave compensators — combined passive/active systems.
**

5.4.1.4 A passive heave compensator is in principle a pure spring damper system which does not require input of energy during operation. An active heave compensator may use actively controlled winches and hydraulic pistons. The active system is controlled by a reference signal. In a combined system the active system is working in parallel with the passive. 5.4.1.5 Examples of input reference signals to an active heave compensator are:

5.3.8.3 When the mass of the cable is negligible, the criterion for impending slack in the cable can be expressed as (Ref. /7/)

Λ4 + (2ξΛ) 2 Λ4 (Λ2 + 4ξ 2 − 1) 2 + (2ξΛ) 2

≥τ

Guidance note: The following approximations can be useful for investigation of slack conditions. For small values of the damping ξ < 0.01, the condition can be approximated by

Λ2 1 − Λ2

≥τ

For small displacement ratios τ < 0.04, the condition can be approximated by

— — — — — —

wire tension crane top motion winch or hydraulic piston motion position of lifted object vessel motion wave height/current velocity.

Λ + ( 2ξΛ ) ≥ τ

4 2

5.4.2 Dynamic model for heave compensation, example case

---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

5.4.2.1 As an example case, a simplified dynamic model for a passive heave compensator situated at crane tip is shown in Figure 5-6. The equations of motion at top of wire, η3P, and at lifted object, η3, can be taken as;

&&3 P + ccη &3 P + kcη3 P + k w ( η3 P − η3 ) = F3T ( t ) mcη &&3 + cη &3 + k w ( η3 − η3 P ) = F3 M ( t ) ( M + A33 )η

5.3.9 Horizontal motion response of lifted object in a straight vertical cable

5.3.9.1 The first (fundamental) eigenperiod for un-damped

DET NORSKE VERITAS

4. Linear damping estimates can be obtained by equivalent linearization.2.2.6 For harmonic excitation of the top of heave compensator. 5.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103. This means that response characteristics differ greatly from the ideal elastic-plastic response for steel. 5. i.4. The hysteresis depends upon load history. tension-tension fatigue. The heave motion at crane tip is calculated from the vessel motions in six degrees of freedom and signal sent to compensator unit.4.4. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- — Response is nonlinear and inelastic — Lack of recovery to initial static loading case — Energy dissipation (hysteresis) associated with dynamic loading. kc Cc η 3P mc kw F3T (t ) = F3Ta cos(ωt ) [N] η3 M+mL 5.5 Fibre rope properties 5.2.5. η3T 5. 5.10 Deviations due to imperfect motion measurements and tracking control may result in residual motion of the lifting cable at suspension point on ship.2.e.3 The vertical force F3M(t) on the lifted object is related to the motion of top of wire η3P = ηa by the transfer function DET NORSKE VERITAS .4. Factors that limit the life of HMPE ropes include hydrolysis. 4th order Runge-Kutta technique.2.1 can be integrated in time by replacing the two equations by four first order differential equations and using a standard integration scheme. This residual motion may cause low amplitude oscillations of the lifted object at the resonance frequency. The main differences are: Guidance note: Note that the damping of compensator and lifted object is in general due to quadratic viscous damping and the compensator stiffness is in general nonlinear. 5. at top of compensator) [m] Vertical force at crane tip (i.2.2. — Continued elongation with time under static or dynamic load (creep) Guidance note: Choice of fibre material depends on the application. Figure 5-7 Simplified dynamic model of a passive heave compensator where mc kc cc M A33 kw c η3P η3 η3T = = = = = = = = = = F3T (t ) = F3 M (t ) = Mass of heave compensator [kg] Stiffness of heave compensator [N/m] Linear damping of heave compensator [kg/s] Mass of lifted object [kg] Added mass of lifted object [kg] Wire stiffness = EA/L [N/m] Linear damping of lifted object [kg/s] Vertical motion at top of wire (i.4 In a lowering operation the length of the wire changes with time hence the wire stiffness kw will be a function of time.5 For given time series of F3T(t) and F3M(t) the equations of motion in 5.7.7 The ratio between the response of the lifted object and the excited motion can be expressed through a complex transfer function η3 = G (ω ) η 3T e = 1 − G(ω ) [m/m] where the efficiency of the heave compensator is defined as [-] C 5. 5.2. Compensator stiffness may be due to compression of gas volume in pneumatic cylinders. Different load-elongation paths are observed when ascending and descending.e.2 For forced motion of top of heave compensator due to vessel motion.4. a theoretical model of active heave compensation will have to take into account physical imperfections in order to produce realistic results. April 2010 Page 53 as given in 5. we have that.4.9 Motion measurements and control system inevitably introduces errors and time delays.e.2.4. at top of compensator) [N] Vertical force at lifted object [N] 5. the force on compensator is given by &3T cc F3T (t ) = η 3T k c + η [N] 5.4. At some frequencies it will be more effective than at others. heating (from bend-oversheave loading) and internal abrasion.4. below compensator) [m] Vertical motion of lifted object [m] Vertical motion at crane tip (i.2. 5.2.3. Another alternative is Aramid which possesses greater heat resistance than HMPE.2. Hence.4.11 An active heave compensator is generally not equally effective in reducing motions at all frequencies. Such imperfections must be based on operating data for the actual system.1 General Fibre ropes are constructed from materials that display viscoelastic properties.e. For deepwater deployment systems High Modulus Polyethylene (HMPE) has been applied due to its high strength to weight ratio and high stiffness properties.8 Active heave compensation systems generally use information from vessel motion reference unit (MRU) to control payout of winch line.

Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103, April 2010 Page 54

**axial-compressive fatigue, and creep rupture.
**

---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

5.5.2 Elongation and stiffness

5.5.2.7 For an oscillatory motion of a suspended weight, the specific modulus of elasticity for a fibre rope depends in general on the mean load and the load amplitude as well as the frequency of the oscillatory load (Ref. /8/). It can be expressed as

5.5.2.1 The change-in-length characteristics of fibre ropes are more complex than those of steel wire rope. Stiffness can be non-linear since strain may be different for the same load level. Permanent strain can be significant. Both stiffness and strain depend on the loading history and even the load frequency. 5.5.2.2 The stretch ΔL = Ls – L is defined as the change in length of the rope. The strain ε is defined as the change in length divided by its length L before change in tension, ε = ΔL/L [-] 5.5.2.3 The non-dimensional stiffness S is defined as the incremental rope tension ΔF/F0 (where ΔF is the variation in the load, and F0 is the minimum breaking load) divided by the strain ε

S= ΔF F0 ΔL L0

E

ρ

where

Fm Fa f α,β,γ,δ

= α + βFm − γFa + δ log10 ( f )

= = = =

mean load [N] load amplitude [N] excitation frequency [Hz] constants [-]

5.5.2.8 Since the dependence on loading frequency is only logarithmic, the frequency term does not contribute significantly, and may be neglected. It should be noted that effects of load amplitude and frequency tend to vanish under complex loading sequences (corresponding to real wave loading). 5.5.2.9 Permanent stretch affects change in length of the fibre rope. It is of concern when determining the fibre rope length for a lowering operation and the amount of line which must be taken up during a lifting operation. 5.5.2.10 The additional elongation associated with initial loading of a new fibre rope is known as bedding-in, when the rope is pulled into a tighter and thus stiffer structure. During the initial installation and tensioning it is difficult to define a general stiffness. Once the initial load is completely taken off for a period of time, the rope recovers to some extent. After the rope has been tensioned to allow bedding-in, and cyclic load and relaxation has occurred for some time, the stiffness of fibre ropes tends towards a linear function of mean load and load range.

5.5.3 Creep

[-]

**The rope strength F0 is also denoted MBL (the minimum breaking load).
**

5.5.2.4 The change-in-length characteristics of polyester ropes can generally be described by six elements (DNV-OS-E303)

εp = polymer creep strain, a function of time under tension εc = rope construction strain, a function of highest applied

tension So = original stiffness, during loading to a load which is higher than any previous load Ss = static stiffness, during subsequent loadings less than or up to the highest previous load Sd = dynamic stiffness, after a number of relatively fast load cycles εse = sustained elastic strain, which occurs during cycling and is relaxed after cycling

5.5.2.5 The spring rate K for a fibre rope is defined by

ΔF K= ΔL

[N/m]

5.5.3.1 Elongation in fibre ropes results from bedding-in of the rope structure and terminations, and from both initial extension and creep in the yarns. Creep may be a problem with HMPE under high tensions. 5.5.3.2 Creep can be classified into three areas:

**The following notations are used for spring rate,
**

Ko = Ks = Kd =

— primary creep (recoverable part of extension) — secondary creep (permanent part of extension) — creep rupture (the most damaging form of creep).

5.5.3.3 Primary creep is also referred to as delayed elastic elongation and is recoverable. For most fibre ropes, creep rate reduces with time and is approximately the same for equal increments of logarithmic time. 5.5.3.4 Creep of polyester rope can be expressed as (Ref. /10/)

original spring rate static spring rate dynamic spring rate

5.5.2.6 The quantity generally used to report stiffness from test results is the specific modulus of elasticity, E/ρ, which eliminates the influence of change in cross-section area. E EA [m2/s2] = ρs m

⎛ t − t0 u = u 0 + a c log 10 ⎜ ⎜1 + t 0 ⎝

where

u0 t0 ac ta

⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠

where E = Young’s modulus of elasticity [N/m2] ρs = mass density of fibre rope [kg/m3] A = cross-sectional area [m2] m = mass per unit length of rope [kg/m]

Guidance note: Note that the speed of longitudinal pressure waves in the fibre rope is equal to the square root of the specific modulus of elasticity (see 5.3.6.1).

---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

= = = =

elongation at t = t0, measured from start of loading time origin, i.e. start of load plateau creep per decade length of zeroth decade

5.5.3.5 The secondary creep results in a permanent increase in the length of the fibre rope when under a sustained load over time. This is the part that is normally referred to as creep and which is important for HMPE fibre ropes used for deep water deployment. Secondary creep does not follow the same log function of time as primary creep, but increases linearly with

DET NORSKE VERITAS

Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103, April 2010 Page 55

time. Ref. /9/.

5.5.3.6 Protection against creep rupture can be obtained using discard criteria based on rope permanent elongation (10% has been proposed).

5.5.4 Axial damping

**6. Landing on Seabed and Retrieval
**

6.1 Introduction

6.1.1 Types of structures and foundation designs

5.5.4.1 Axial rope damping is an important parameter for prediction of dynamic response of the payload and cable system, and when evaluating snap loads and resonant response. In such cases fibre rope axial damping determines the peak tension in the rope. 5.5.4.2 The damping coefficient for fibre ropes may depend on the mass of the suspended weight. Relevant data on axial damping of fibre ropes is scarce.

5.5.5 Fatigue life of fibre ropes cycled over sheaves

6.1.1.1 This chapter gives recommendations for evaluating seabed landing and retrieval of any subsea structure with permanent or temporary foundation consisting of plate foundations that may or may not be equipped with skirts. This includes the foundation solution of suction anchors, also called bucket foundations. Installation or retrieval of driven piles or drilled and grouted piles is not treated. Structures with piles as permanent pile foundations, however, go through a temporary phase supported on plate foundations or “mud mats”.

6.1.2 Geotechnical data

5.5.5.1 The fatigue life of fibre ropes cycled over sheaves is limited due to the following:

6.1.2.1 Geotechnical data required for these evaluations will normally be covered by the data gathered and established for the foundation design. Reference to requirements for soil investigations are the DNV Classification Note 30.4 “Foundations” and NORSOK G-001 “Soil investigation”.

— Low friction of ropes on steel sheaves causing risk of slippage and burning — Risk of crushing and cutting-in where multiple layers of rope are wound on top of each other — Internal heating leading to creep or melting of the rope.

6.2 Landing on seabed

6.2.1 Introduction

6.2.1.1 The aim of evaluating the landing on seabed shall be to assure that

5.6 References

/1/ DNV Offshore Standard DNV-OS-H205, “Marine Operations, Lifting Operations” (planned issued 2010 see ref./4/ until release). /2/ Abramowitz, M. and Stegun, I.A. (1965) “Handbook of Mathematical Functions”. Dover Publications. /3/ Nielsen, F.G. (2007) “Lecture notes in marine operations”. Dept. of Marine Hydrodynamics, NTNU. /4/ DNV Rules for Planning and Execution of Marine Operations (1996). Pt.2 Ch.5 Lifting – Pt.2 Ch.6 Sub Sea Operations. /5/ Sandvik, P.C. (1987) “Methods for specification of heave compensator performance”. NTNF Research Programme “Marine Operations”. Marintek Report No. 511003.80.01. /6/ DNV Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C205 “Environmental Conditions and Environmental Loads”, April 2007. /7/ Niedzwecki, J.M. & Thampi, S. K. (1991) "Snap loading of marine cable systems". Applied Ocean Research, Vol. 13, No. 1. /8/ Chaplin, C.R. and Del Vecchio, C.J.M. (1992) "Appraisal of0 Lightweight Moorings for Deep Water". Offshore Tech-nology Conference Paper no. OTC 6965, Houston. /9/ Davies, P., Huard, G., Grosjean, F., Lyon, I.F.P. and Francois, M. (2000) "Creep and Relaxation of Polyester Mooring Lines". Offshore Technology Conf. paper no. OTC 12176, Houston, Texas, USA. /10/ Francois, M. and Davies, P. (2000) "Fibre Rope Deepwater Mooring: A practical model for the analysis of polyester mooring systems". IBP24700, Rio Oil and Gas Conf., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. /11/ BMT Fluid Mechanics Limited (2004) "Deepwater Installation of Subsea Hardware (DISH) Phase 2. Task 3.3 Fibre Rope Deployment System (FRDS). Simulation Study: State-of-Art Literature Review. /12/ DNV-OS-E303 "Certification of fibre ropes for offshore mooring". April 2008.

— foundation failure does not take place during the landing — damage does not occur to acceleration sensitive equipment. Acceptance criteria should thus be available to compare with the analysed/evaluated responses related to allowable displacements or allowable accelerations (retardations).

6.2.1.2 Whether or not the foundation solution (i.e. size of plate foundations) is equipped with skirts, strongly depends on the type and characteristics of the subsea structure and the soil characteristics. This again has influence on the challenges for the landing and how this shall be considered. 6.2.1.3 Some foundations on hard soils have ample capacity to carry the submerged weights without skirts, whereby the landing evaluation should focus on the dynamic impact force and maximum retardations. Other foundations on soft soil may require a significant penetration of skirts before the soil can resist even the static submerged weight of the structure. In that case the main design issue is to assure sufficient area of holes for evacuation of entrapped water within the skirt as they penetrate in order for the water pressure not to exceed the bearing capacity of the soil. 6.2.1.4 In the following sections a problem definition of the landing impact is given including a description of the physical effects and the parameters involved. Then an ‘optimal’ solution taking account for the relevant effects is described. Finally, simplified methods are suggested to check out landing impact of a foundation without skirts on hard soil and required water evacuation for skirted foundations on very soft soil.

6.2.2 Landing impact problem definition

6.2.2.1 The following describes a methodology for simulating the landing of a bucket on the seabed. The method considers one degree of freedom only, i.e. vertical motion. 6.2.2.2 This methodology can also be used to solve the vertical impact of structures with several foundations, as long as centre of gravity and centre of reaction for other forces coincides with the geometrical centre of the foundations. In that case masses and forces can be divided equally onto each of the

DET NORSKE VERITAS

Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103, April 2010 Page 56

**foundations and the impact can be analysed for one foundation.
**

6.2.2.3 A mud mat foundation without skirts can be considered a special case of the method described for a bucket foundation. The model to be analysed is illustrated on Figure 6-1.

where

M g

ρs ρ

= = = =

structural mass [kg] mass density of steel [kg/m3] mass density of water [kg/m3] acceleration of gravity [m/s2]

**6.2.3.2 The structural mass, M, shall include mass of structural elements and equipment on top of the anchor.
**

Qwire

6.2.3.3 The added mass including mass of water entrapped within the skirts may for a typical foundation bucket be taken as;

Hatch for water evacuation, area A h.

⎛ 2 D⎞ A33 = ρ ⋅ Ab ⋅ L ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ 3 L⎠

where

A33 D L Ab

[kg]

Ah

= = = =

added mass for vertical motion [kg] diameter of bucket [m] length of bucket [m] πD2/4 = bucket area [m2]

L

Additional added mass may have to be added to represent added mass caused by structural elements and equipment on top of the anchor.

Guidance note: Bucket height and size of ventilation hole may affect the heave added mass. See Section 4.6.3 for more accurate estimation.

D

---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

**6.2.3.4 The total dynamic mass is:
**

δsoil

h

M ' = M + A33

and the initial kinetic energy is:

[kg]

Figure 6-1 Model for impact analysis

**1 [Nm] ⋅ M '⋅v c20 2 where vc0 is the initial velocity at start of the calculations.
**

Ek0 =

6.2.3.5 For vertical motion of an object very close to the seabed the added mass will vary with distance to seabed. The effect is an upward force of;

2 &L 0.5( dA33 / dh )η

6.2.2.4 The anchor is lowered down to seabed in a sling from an installation vessel being exposed to wave action. 6.2.2.5 During lowering the vertical motion of the anchor is given by a constant downwards velocity plus an oscillatory heave motion caused by the wave induced motion of the installation vessel. 6.2.2.6 The geometry of the bucket is simplified to a vertical cylindrical surface of diameter D and height L. A hatch for water evacuation is located on the top of the anchor. 6.2.2.7 The impact is to be solved by time integration of the general equation of motion, which may be performed as time integration assuring energy preservation. All relevant forces acting upon the foundation shall be considered in the time integration with their instant time dependent values. Such forces are gravity, buoyancy, sling forces, dynamic water pressure from within the bucket and soil resistance acting upon the skirts as they penetrate.

6.2.3 Physical parameters and effects to be considered

[N]

where

&L η = velocity of the object [m/s] h = distance to the seabed [m] dA33 / dh = rate of change of added mass vs. h [kg/m]

Guidance note: This estimation of hydrodynamic force uses the same approach for added mass as for water exit, ref. 3.2.11.2.

---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

6.2.3.1 The following physical parameters are involved in the simulation model

6.2.3.6 The hydrodynamic water pressure increases as the bucket approaches the seabed, and the area for water evacuation decreases. The development of the water pressure also depends on the interaction with the soil (mobilisation of soil bearing capacity). The increase in bearing capacity with skirt penetration must be accounted for, and penetration resistance as skirt starts to penetrate must be included in the calculations. 6.2.3.7 The sum of the penetration resistance and the force from water pressure inside the bucket, shall be limited by the bearing capacity. 6.2.3.8 The hydrodynamic force from the water pressure beneath and within the bucket is calculated using Bernoulli’s equation:

Assuming bucket consists of only steel volume we get a submerged weight W given by,

W = M ⋅g⋅

ρs − ρ ρs

[N]

DET NORSKE VERITAS

h start = h min + η L ⋅ (1 + sin ϕ ) where [m] Qsoil = Qsd ⋅ δ soil / δ mob for δ soil < δ mob hstart = clearance at start of calculations.2.17 The bucket impact problem can be solved by a time integration with an iterative solution at each time step.2. δ&soil = dδ soil / dt [m/s] where dδsoil is the change in soil displacement due to the change in bearing pressure taking place during time step dt. 6.14 The relation between Qsoil and δsoil is illustrated in Figure 6-2.2.13 The total force Qsoil transferred to the soil at any time can be written as. of length L) [m] ϕ = phase angle at t = 0 [-] DET NORSKE VERITAS . with correspondingly moderate soil displacements.12 Assuming incompressible water.3. or computer programs using limit equilibrium or finite element methods. 6.2.2. which reduces as the bucket approaches the seabed [m] = rate effect factor to account for increased shear strength due to rapid loading [-] γm = soil material coefficient [-] 6. Q soil = Q w + Q skirt [N] which is the sum of the force Qw = pwAb resulting from the hydrodynamic water pressure and the force Qskirt transferred from the penetrating skirts to the soil. The skirt penetration resistance can be calculated as described in 6.3. Qsc is in the calculations transferred to a ‘design soil resistance’ by the following relation Q sd = Q sc ⋅ γ r γ m where [N] where qflow = flow of water out of the bucket [m3/s] Aflo = Ah + πD·h [m2] w γr Ah h = area of available holes in the bucket [m2] = gap between the soil and the skirt tip. the pressure loss coefficient can be determined as. as described in DNV Class Note 30.18 The interaction with the string is taken as a prescribed lowering velocity combined with a sinusoidal heave motion given by its amplitude and period.3.3. 6.3.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.11 The velocity of water out of the bucket can be expressed as v flow = q flow A flow [m/s] 6.2.2.2.3.4 Foundations.9 In the case of valve sleeves with high length to diameter ratio.10 Alternatively.2. = the design bearing capacity for loading within area Ap at seabed or at skirt tip level [N] δmob = the vertical soil displacement to mobilise Qsd [m] ku = the unloading stiffness [N/m] Qsd Qsoil Qsd 1 k flow = 1 + 1 / 2 1 − (d i / D) 2 where di f n Lsleeve [ ] 2 + f ⋅ n ⋅ Lsleeve / d i [-] ku 1 ku = = = = diameter of flow valves [m] friction coefficient for valve sleeves [-] number of flow valves length of the valve sleeves [m] δsoil δmob Figure 6-2 Mobilisation of soil bearing capacity 6.3.2.16 The soil bearing capacity can be determined based on bearing capacity formulae. 6. The clearance with the seabed at start of calculations is related to a given minimum clearance and to the heave amplitude and a phase angle of start as illustrated in Figure 6-3. The following relation between Qsoil and δsoil can thus be applied./3/. 6.15 The characteristic static soil resistance. The calculations should start at a distance above the seabed where the build-up of hydrodynamic pressure is moderate.8. 6. The phase angle for start of calculations is an input. & q flow = Ab ⋅ vc − δ soil ( ) [m3/s] vc is the vertical velocity of the bucket and.3.2.3.3. t = 0 [m] hmin = required minimum clearance for start of calculation [m] ηL = heave amplitude of the foundation (at the end of the crane wire. April 2010 Page 57 pw = where pw = vflow = ρ = kflow = 1 k flow ⋅ ρ ⋅ v 2 flow 2 [N/m2] Qsoil = Qsd ΔQ = k u ⋅ Δδ soil where for δ soil ≥ δ mob for unloading hydrodynamic pressure within the bucket [N/m2] velocity of water out of the bucket [m/s] mass density of water [kg/m3] pressure loss coefficient [-] 6. ref. kflow for different outlet geometries are given by Blevins (1984). As a simplified solution it is suggested that mobilisation of soil resistance follows a parabolic function. the water flow that escapes at any time from within and beneath the bucket is taken as.

it may be beneficial and relevant to account explicitly for the combined crane lowering and heave motions. 6. ⎛ A flow.i − Δt ⎝ k flow ⋅ Ab ⋅ ρ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⋅ Ab ⋅ 2 ⋅ Q sd ⎠ [m2] ω2 ⎞ ⎜1 − 2 ⎟ ⎜ ω ⎟ 0 ⎠ ⎝ Note that iteration on Δδsoil.3.i − ⎜⎜ Δt ⎝⎝ [N] 5) Calculate total reaction on soil.i and Δδsoil. – 6. Δδ soil . a) For Qsoil.i = δ soil .i = (Qsoil .i ⎛ A flow.i.i ) ⎞ ⎟ ⋅ Δt [m] Δδ soil .i = Ah + max(π ⋅ D ⋅ hi .2. In that case several phase angles of the heave motions should be considered.4. 6. 0 + k wire ⋅ δ wire .i ) ⋅ k flow ⋅ v2 flow . the un-damped response given by the formula above may be too conservative. when the characteristic frequency of crane tip motion is close to the eigenfrequency of the hoisting system.20 When the impact lasts long.i [N] 6) Calculate soil displacements δsoil. ΔEi = ⎜ ⎜ Qw.i = − hi −1 + Δzi + hi hi = A flow . skirts are penetrating).2. 6. which is to be observed and controlled during installation.i − δ soil .i ≥ 0 [N] 1) Assume an incremental soil displacement Δδsoil [m] 2) Calculate the clearance hi between the skirt tip and the seabed as.i = Qwire . Qwire .19 Conservatively the heave motions can be taken into account by analysing the impact for a constant lowering velocity.i < Qsd . 7) Repeat steps 1. Results from a dynamic analysis including relevant damping effects can then be applied.i − ⋅ ⎜ ⎟ ρ A k ⋅ A ⋅ b flow b ⎝ ⎠ Δδ soil .i − Qsoil .i 2 ⋅ (Q sd − Q skirt . A flow . δ soil . hi = hi −1 − Δz i + Δδ soil [m] where Δz i = v c .Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.3.0001.i −1 + Δδ soil .21 For the analysis method described it is assumed that the heave motions relates to the motion ηL of the foundation close to seabed. skirts are not yet penetrated).i ) ⋅ k flow ⋅ = sign( vc . In order to include the interaction with the crane wire the motion at the vessel end of the wire ηa can be set considering an un-damped oscillation of the modelled total dynamic mass in the wire.4 Iterative analysis procedure 6. i = δ soil .1 For each time step in the suggested time domain analysis the following iteration procedure is suggested in order to account for the non-linear behaviour of the soil resistance. since a beneficial phasing is not likely possible to control.5.i = ⎜ ⎜ v c .2. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- When hi ≤ 0 (i. taken as the sum of the crane lowering velocity and the maximum heave velocity of the foundation.i = ∑ Δz i − ⎢v c ⋅ t + d 0 ⋅ Mf ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ where vc is the crane lowering velocity 9) Calculate new wire force.i [m] where Μf ω ω0 = dynamic amplification factor [-] = angular frequency of the heave motions [rad/s] = angular eigenfrequency [rad/s] Guidance note: For resonant conditions.i = sign( v c . i is required to solve for the unknown Aflow. Qsoil .3.i = ⎜ v c . as when skirts penetrate deeply before the peak impact is reached.0) [m2] 4) Calculate corresponding water pressure reaction on the soil and bucket Qw .i ⋅ Δt [m] Note that hi has negative values when skirt penetrates where kwire is the crane wire stiffness as defined in Sec.i + Qsling . δ soil .i − W ⎟ ⎟ ⋅ Δz i Ab ⎠ DET NORSKE VERITAS .i .2.i − Ah [m] π ⋅D [m] ηL =Mf = ηa ⎛ 1 Δδ soil .i = δ mob ⋅ (Qi Qs )2 Δδ soil . This will represent the worst phasing of the heave motions.i + Qskirt .e. 10) Calculate loss in kinetic energy. April 2010 Page 58 3) Calculate area for escape of water.i −1 ) k u c) For unloading: [m] 6.i ⋅ ⎜⎜ v c . Dynamic response of a lowered object due to wave action is described in Section 5. ⎡ ⎤ 1 ⋅ (sin(ωt + ϕ ) − sin ϕ )⎥ [m] δ wire. When hi > 0 (i.i ⋅ ρ 2 Ab ⋅ ρ 2 ⋅ Ab ⎞ Ab ⎟⋅ ⎟ A flow ⎠ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 Figure 6-3 Situation for start of analysis ⎛⎛ Δδ soil .e. until convergence 8) Calculate total change in crane wire length.i ⋅ ⎝ ⎛ ⎞ Ab − Ah [Nm] + Qskirt .i = Qw. i −1 [m] [m] b) For Qsoil ≥ Qsd or (Qsoil – Qsd) / Qsd ≥ –0.2. which is also relevant to consider.

2.2 A conservative design can be performed by neglecting the beneficial effects on the impact from flexibility of crane wire and soil. often noted as skin friction.2. Load coefficients may be applied to masses and corresponding submerged weights. [Nm] vc . April 2010 Page 59 It is assumed that the retardation from dynamic water pressure within the bucket does not act on the evacuation holes in the top plate.3 In sand and over-consolidated clays the skin friction and tip resistances may most reliably be predicted by correlations to cone penetration resistance as.7 Application of safety factors 1 2 M '⋅v imp + W ⋅ δ soil = 2 δ soil 0 ∫ Qsoil (δ )dδ [Nm] 6.6.25 should be applied.2. 6.2.2.2. 6.2 As the skirts penetrate.2 The skirt penetration resistance shall be calculated as the sum of the vertical shear resistance.7.8 Calculation of skirt penetration resistance [Nm] for δ soil ≤ δ mob [m] and Qsd ⋅ (δ soil − δ mob 3 ) [Nm] for δ soil > δ mob [m] 6.5 Simplified method for foundations without skirts Q sd 1 2 ≥ p w = k flow ⋅ ρ ⋅ v imp ⋅ ( Ab / Ah ) 2 Ab 2 [N/m2] 6. the penetration resistance and the global soil resistance should be updated to account for the increased resistance with increased penetration.6 Simplified method for foundations with skirts on soft soil 6.5.2.2. but is also required in order to evaluate the need for suction aided penetration and in order to determine the suction required. and the soil bearing capacity for a surface loading on the gross foundation area. vimp ≤ 2 ⋅ Qsd ⋅ Ah 2 k flow ⋅ ρ ⋅ Ab 3 [m/s] 6. and material coefficients should be applied to the soil resistance.1 Calculation of skirt penetration resistance is required as input to seabed landing analyses.2.3 Assuming the non-linear soil resistance being described as in Figure 6-2. vimp ≤ (4 3 Q sd − 2W ⋅ δ mob M' ) [m/s] = = = = = = skirt penetration resistance [N] depth of penetration [m] friction area per meter depth [m2/m] skirt tip area [m2] skin friction at depth z [N/m2] tip resistance at the depth of penetration [N/m2] 6.5.4 Load coefficients should be included in the design dynamic mass and submerged weight. When consequences are considered serious a load coefficient γf = 1.2.2.5.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103. The relation between impact velocity and required area for escape of water is then given by the following equation. 6.6.5.i −1 − ΔEk . 6. 6.i +1 = 2 ⋅ Ek .1 Application of safety factors should be evaluated in relation to the consequences of exceeding selected limits.1 In a simplified approach to check the foundation capacity for the seabed landing situation for a foundation without skirts one may neglect the beneficial effects of water cushion underneath the mud mat and the beneficial effect of the work performed by the crane wire.2. Ah ≥ 2 k flow ⋅ ρ ⋅ v imp ⋅ Ab 3 2 ⋅ Q sd [m2] or if the area for escape of water is set. the area for escape of water.3 It should be noticed that a requirement for using the above method is that the crane lowering velocity is kept constant until the foundation comes to rest and is not increased when skirts start to penetrate.3 and a material coefficient γm = 1. 6.5.2.2 Applied boundary conditions for the problem are then a structure with a given dynamic mass and submerged weight.1 For skirted foundations on soft soil where it is required that the skirts penetrate before the soil can resist the dynamic landing impact (or even the submerged weight of the installed subsea structure with foundation). 3 δ soil 2 Qsd ⋅ 3 δ mob 6.6. Ek . A simplified equation to solve landing impact problem then becomes. 6. the gross foundation area.4.8. 6.8.i md [m/s] 6. along both sides of the skirts and the resistance against the skirt tip.i 11) Calculate new velocity. Ah.i = Ek . it is necessary that sufficient f ( z) = k f ⋅ qc ( z) [N] [N] qt ( z ) = k t ⋅ q c ( z ) where DET NORSKE VERITAS .2. areas for escape of water are provided so that the hydrodynamic pressure never exceeds the bearing capacity. The boundary conditions for the problem then becomes the impact velocity as the skirts start to penetrate. 6. Qskirt = As ⋅ ∫0 f ( z )dz + At ⋅ q t (d ) where Qskirt d As At f(z) qt(d) d [N] δ soil ≤ δ mob [m] in which case the requirements to the landing impact velocity becomes.2.2.2. the right side of equation 6.5 Other criteria may however be used based on an evaluation of consequences. a velocity at the impact with the seabed and a non-linear mobilisation of the bearing capacity.2.5. requirements to landing velocities becomes.8. and material coefficients in the soil resistance as relevant. 6.3 The requirements to area for escape of water for a desired landing velocity becomes.4. Normally the acceptance criteria would be.2 becomes.2.

3. 6.4.4 Retrieval of foundations 6. levelling should normally be performed following the stage of self penetration.1.1.3.1.3 0. In clay a suction contribution below the tip should be considered when the skirts are moved upwards. Such failure will take place when the total skin friction on the outside of the skirts exceeds the reversed bearing capacity at the skirt tip level. Skin friction may be taken equal in both directions.1 Retrieval of skirted foundations 6. kf 0.3. 6.5 Alternatively in less over consolidated clays the skin friction may be taken equal to the remoulded shear strength. the soil resistance may drop towards that used for calculation of skirt penetration. The resistance can be implemented as p/y-curves.3 The skirts as well as the mud mat shall be designed with respect to buckling for the upper estimate of the required suction. The soil resistance will then only be vertical resistance towards the skirts.03 0.2.3.2 Retrieval of non-skirted foundations 6.3.2.3 Installation by suction and levelling 6. 6.5 The vertical soil skin friction and tip resistance can be calculated. 6. Even on sandy soils suction will occur for a rapid lifting.2.2 Levelling by application of suction or overpressure 6. For the global mode a horizontal resistance at the skirt tip reflecting shear off of the soil plug at skirt tip level should be included.4.2.2. and the necessary suction and or overpressure to accomplish the levelling should be calculated.1.9 The skirt foundation including the mud mat should be checked structurally for the maximum foreseen suction or overpressure.3. The resistance to overcome is.4 The most probable and highest expected values for the skin friction correlation coefficient kf and tip resistance correlation coefficient kt for clay and sand (North Sea condition) are given in Table 6-1.3. The boundary condition for the analysis should be applied moment with no horizontal force at the ‘pile top’.2.4. The tip resistance may in clays be taken as 7.1 When retrieving non-skirted foundations the suction from the soil will have to be considered. also often called ‘suction piles’. 6. 6. as described in 6.3 When levelling a subsea structure with four foundations application of suction or overpressure should be performed at two neighbouring foundations at a time to avoid restraining of the structure.3. whereas for the global mode resistance only to the outside should be included. kt tration or rising of skirts.8.1.2.3.2. 6. 6.2. April 2010 Page 60 qc(z)= cone penetration resistance as measured in a cone penetration test (CPT) [N] kf = skin friction correlation coefficient [-] kt = tip resistance correlation coefficients [-] 6.3.3.2 The procedures should be well planned.4 As part of the foundation design it shall be checked that when applying suction.11 The levelling process should be carefully monitored and logged as a documentation of the installation performance. After the motion is initiated. — The structural weight that contributes to increased overpressure or reduction in suction. 6.8 and may be applied in the estimation of required suction in order to provide the necessary penetrating force (in excess of the submerged weight).1. some seconds or min- DET NORSKE VERITAS .1.3.10 For foundations with long skirts requiring suction to penetrate. 6.1 A subsea structure supported by three or more (typically four) individual skirted foundations may be levelled by applying pressure into the void between the mud mat and the soil at low corners. 6. 6.6 0.2 The skirt penetration resistance may be calculated as prescribed in 6. The uncertainties should be accounted for by defining a range for the remoulded shear strength.8 Alternatively the resistance to rotate the skirts within the soil could be analysed with finite element analyses.3.2. — The vertical soil skin friction and tip resistance due to pene- 6.3.7 For the local mode resistance to both sides of the skirt wall should be included.2. Table 6-1 Correlation coefficients for skin friction and tip resistance in sand and over-consolidated clay Clay Sand Correlation Most Highest Most Highest coefficient probable expected probable expected 0.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.2. Likewise the possible soil plug failure mode of a reversed bearing failure for high suction or a downward bearing failure for high overpressure should be checked.6 Tip resistance. 6.1 Installation by suction 6. 6.05 0. In clay also a downwards tip resistance should be included.8.3 The initial outside and inside skin friction may be calculated using methods developed for calculation of axial capacity of driven piles.4 The righting moment to achieve the levelling comes from differential pressures within the skirt foundation. Depending on the size of the area and the permeability of the sand.4.3. — The resistance to rotate the skirts within the soil. 6.4. This may be the case for suction anchors with high length to diameter ratio.5 times the intact un-drained shear strength of the clay.4 0.3.2 Skirted foundations intended to be removed should be equipped with a filter mat attached to the underside of the mud mat in order to prevent adhesion to the soil and to assure a distribution of applied pressure on the total area between the mud mat and the soil. with a subsequent frequent adjustment of the level during the further penetration.001 0.3. 6. 6.1. Both modes can be studied using a simple pile model where at any level above skirt tip the maximum horizontal resistance equals the integrated resistance around the skirt periphery of passive and active pressures and horizontal shear resistance. 6.8. The total force to be overcome is the sum of submerged weights and soil resistance.2.2.2.6 The resistance to rotate a skirt foundation within the soil will be the least of a ‘local’ mode where soil resistance is mobilised on each side of the skirt walls and a ‘global’ mode where the skirt foundation is rotated as a pile with the soil plug following the motions of the pile.5 The actual suction applied during installation should be continuously monitored and logged as a documentation of the installation performance. 6.003 Skin friction.1 Retrieval of skirted foundation may be achieved by a combination of lifting and application of pressure underneath the mud mat.4.1 When suction is required to install skirted foundations it is important that the range for expected necessary suction is calculated in order to provide adequate equipment and to design the skirted foundation to resist the suction. 6. a soil plug failure is not achieved.2.3. or by applying suction at high corners.

This impact load may e. TR = TPOP + TC where 7. ref. the resistance to overcome may be close to the dynamic impact load onto the soil during installation.g.2. towline data and operational data as given below.1.4.1.2. towed object and towline relative to global axes (XG. 7.3 For TR > 72 hours the operation can be defined as weather restricted provided that: — Continuous surveillance of actual and forecasted weather is specified in the operation procedures.1 Introduction 7. 7. 7.1. The required lifting force may be reduced by lifting at one end of the structure or by use jetting in combination with the lifting. The magnitude of this additional soil resistance will be at least equal to the submerged weight of the structure. towline data (weight.2.1 A tow operation may take several days due to the low transit speed.2.1.2 Data for modelling and analysis of tows TR = Operation reference period TPOP = Planned operation period TC = Estimated contingency time ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 7. 7.4 For operations with TR > 72 hours. 7.1.1.2.2 Classical surface tow of large volume structures is covered in section 7. This should be taken into account when choosing and designing lifting equipment.4 (1992) “Foundations” /2/ NORSOK G-001 (2004) “Marine soil investigation” /3/ Blevins.3 If the structure has been installed with a high set down velocity.1 Towing is one of the most common marine operations. In addition to lifting the submerged weight of the structure.5 References /1/ DNV Classification Note CN-30.2 When lifting non-skirted foundations off clayey seabed.2.2 Surface tows of large floating structures 7.1 Dynamic analysis of a tow requires information on geometry and mass properties of towed object and tug. θ ) motion transfer function in six degrees of freedom (j = 1. the impact load is twice the submerged weight of the structure.D.g. the required lifting load to free the structure will be three times the submerged weight.2. Most offshore development projects involve towing in one or several of its phases.1.2 For operation reference period. — The system satisfies ALS requirements for unrestricted weather conditions. A short description is however given in the following paragraphs. stiffness. April 2010 Page 61 utes may be required to release the suction.6) for tug [-] tow = H j (ω .2.1. one will then have to overcome a reversed bearing failure in the soil.1. 7.6) for towed object [-] r0tug = local position of towline end on tug [m] = local position of towline end on tow [m] r0tow B = breadth of towed object [m] Lb = length of towed object [m] Tb = draft of towed object [m] DET NORSKE VERITAS . Towing Operations 7. TR. If e. less than 72 hours a weather window can be established (weather restricted operation).5.2 Environmental restrictions Figure 7-1 Definition of angles for orientation of tug. set down at seabed)./1/). 6. θ ) freedom (j = 1. towed object and towline to be used for static and dynamic analysis of towline in waves propagating in direction β.2. the operation normally needs to be defined as an unrestricted operation.2. bridle etc) and operational data including information on environmental conditions (wave. wind and current).1 Input data for analysis of surface tows are classified as tug and tow data.3. Reference is given to DNV-OS-H101. Krieger publishing Company.2. Start of the operation is conditional to an acceptable weather forecast.1 System definition 6.2 Figure 7-1 shows local and global co-ordinate systems and definition of angles for orientation of tug.1. Tow of submerged small volume structures or long slender structures is covered in Section 7. 7.1.1.1. diameter. Examples of tows are: — — — — — rig move transport to site and positioning of large floating structure transport of objects on barge wet tow of subsea modules wet tow of long slender elements. — Safe conditions for the towed object is established along the route (e.1 General 7. 7. (1984) “Applied Fluid Dynamics Handbook”. and the operation may either be classified as weather restricted or as unrestricted. This should be considered when establishing lifting procedures. 7.2. the suction will last so long that it will normally be unrealistic to rely on suction release. 7. R. Environmental criteria for these operations shall be based on extreme value statistics (see DNV-OS-H101 ref.2. Tug and towed object data: = motion transfer function in six degrees of H tug j (ω . be evaluated by the method suggested in 6.2.4./1/.YG) 7.g.2. Guidance note: The operation reference period should include both the planned operation period and an estimated contingency time. 6.3 The wave induced response of tug and towed object (and hence the dynamic tension in the towline) is a function of wave direction relative to the objects.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.

1 The towline stiffness can be split into two components.4. the horizontal x(s) and vertical z(x) coordinates along the towline can be = towline tension [N] = submerged weight per unit length of towline [N/m] = length of towline [m] DET NORSKE VERITAS .4 Towline stiffness 7.2. 7. 7.θ) β Vc Vw = towing speed [m/s] = towline tension [N] = length of towline [m] = towline direction [deg] = significant wave height [m] = spectrum peak period [s] = wave spectrum = mean wave direction [deg] = current velocity [m/s] = wind velocity [m/s] where A = nominal cross-sectional area of towline [m2] E = modulus of elasticity of towline [N/m2] L = length of towline [m] 7.1 For a towing cable where the towline tension is much larger than the weight of the cable.2.3 The stiffness due to change of geometry is given by. one due to elastic elongation of the line and one due to the change of geometry of the towline catenary.2.2.4. zm = T ⎞ L ⎛ wL ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜1 + 0 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ EA ⎠ 8 ⎝ T0 ⎠ ⎝ [m] 7. A typical static geometry of a towline is shown in Figure 7-3.2 Towline data: D CD CM A S cF E approximated by the following parametric equations ρs m ma w W = hydrodynamic diameter of towline [m] = hydrodynamic drag coefficient [-] = hydrodynamic inertia coefficient [-] = nominal area of towline (area of steel) [m2] = area of circumscribed circle = πD2/4 [m2] = A/S = Fill factor [-] = modulus of elasticity of towline [N/m2] = density of steel [kg/m3] = mass per unit length of towline [kg/m] = added mass per unit length of towline [kg/m] = submerged weight per unit length of towline [N/m] = total submerged weight of towline [N] T ⎞ 1⎛ w ⎞ 3 ⎛ ⎟ x( s) = ⎜1 + 0 ⎟ s − ⎜ ⎟ s EA ⎠ 6⎜ ⎝ ⎝ T0 ⎠ z ( s) = − z m + T ⎞ 1 ws 2 ⎛ ⎜1 + 0 ⎟ EA ⎠ 2 T0 ⎝ 2 [m] [m] where s is the coordinate along the towline (-L/2 < s < L/2) and zm is the sag of the towline. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- D Figure 7-3 Geometry of towline 7.3. Usually T0 << EA so that the term T0/EA can be neglected in the expressions above.1 give good estimates even when T0 is comparable to the weight W of the towline.2. April 2010 Page 62 7.4 Operational input data for tow analysis are: U T0 L kE = EA L [N/m] α Hs Tp S(ω.2. T0/W > >1.2. 7.3. ρw is the water density and g is the acceleration of gravity.L/2 z = -zm s L/2 T0 Figure 7-2 Example cross-section of steel wire towline with fill factor cF = 0.3. kG = where T0 w L 12T03 ( wL) 2 L [N/m] 7.2.2 The stiffness due to elastic elongation of the towline is given by.2.58 Guidance note: Note that modulus of elasticity of a steel wire towline is typically on the order of 40% of the modulus of elasticity of solid steel. zm < d [m] where d is the water depth.3 Static towline configuration 7.2.3 For towing in shallow water the towline length and towline tension should be controlled so that there is sufficient clearance between towline and sea bed.2. z x T0 .2.3 The submerged weight per unit length of the towline is given by w = ( m − c F Sρ w ) g [N/m] 7.2. Sliding contact between towline and sea bed may cause severe deterioration of towline strength.3. where m is the structural mass per unit length in air. The total submerged weight of the towline is denoted W = wL.2.2.4.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.2 The approximate formulas in 7.

2. typically 1025 [kg/m3] = acceleration of gravity.7.8 Short towlines / propeller race 7.6 Mean towing force 7.4 The wave drift force at zero towing speed can be approximated by the following simplified expression. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- where typical reflection coefficients.81 [m/s2] = the significant wave height [m] = breadth of towed object [m] Guidance note: This simplified expression for wave drift force will in most cases give conservative results. are. ref.8. 9.6.2. as if the towline was restricted to move within a narrow bent pipe.1 When towing in waves the resulting oscillatory vertical motion of the towline may be partly restricted due to drag forces on the line. 7. DNV-RP-C205.4 [kg s-2] = structural mass of towed object [kg] = added mass of towed object in towline direction [kg] = structural mass of tug [kg] = added mass of tug in direction of towline [kg] 7. Table 7-1 Typical reflection coefficients.7 Low frequency motions 7./4/ and DNV-RP-F205. Also.4 The total stiffness k is given by the formula. wind or current.7.45 ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 7. for surface tows.2.5 It should be noted that the force – displacement ratio given by the combined stiffness above is only valid for slow motion of the end points of the towline.1 The tug and the towed object may experience low frequency (slow drift) motions due to slowly varying wave and wind forces.2.2.7. R. if the tug is heading into waves.2. ref.1 At zero velocity and in the absence of wind. kG >> kE.2. the mass and added mass of the towed object is much larger than the mass and added mass of the tug so that the eigenperiod can be approximated by T0 = 2π tug M stug + A11 k [s] Fwd = 1 2 ρw g R2 B ⋅ H s 8 [N] Guidance note: The formulas for the eigenperiod of slow drift motion assume that the mass of the towline is much smaller than the mass of the tug and towed object.5 Drag locking 7.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.4.2.g. 7. waves and current.6. For typical towlines this means motions with periods above 30 sec. 7. April 2010 Page 63 7. 7. 7. the net available towing force is reduced due to increased forces on the tug itself.2.2.6. pressure form drag and wave making drag. R = 1.2. the tug will have maximum towing force equal to the continuous bollard pull. and the total stiffness can be approximated by the elastic stiffness k ≈ kE.2 The towed object is in addition to wind forces and calm water resistance subject to wave drift forces FWD.67 R = 0. 7.2.2./5/.2.5.3 The effect of waves can be taken into account by multiplying the continuous bollard pull by an efficiency factor (see DNV-OS-H202. ref.3 In most cases.2. For the low frequency motions the towline will behave as a spring. 7. Draglocking causes the apparent stiffness of the line to increase and the dynamic force is approximately the force which is obtained considering the elastic stiffness only. dynamic effects due to inertia and damping will be important. Calculation by a wave diffraction program is recommended if more accurate results are needed.2 The eigenperiod of the slow drift motion is given by T0 = 2π tug M stug + A11 tug ⎛ M stug + A11 1 k⎜ + tow ⎜ M stow + A11 ⎝ 7.00 R = 0.2. This phenomenon is called “drag-locking”. Wave drift force on a floating structure can be calculated by a wave diffraction program using a panel discretisation of the wetted surface. ref. 7.1 When short towlines are applied the tug propeller may induce flow velocities at the towed structure which increases the towing resistance significantly. Square face Condeep base Vertical cylinder Barge with raked bow Barge with spoon bow Ship bow Guidance note: Guidelines for estimation of the actual slow-drift motion may be found in e. This resistance is partly due to viscous skin friction drag.6. For wave frequency motions./4/./2/) depending on length of tug and significant wave height. ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ [s] where k M A tow s tow 11 M stug tug A11 = towline stiffness defined in 7. The available towing force decreases with forward velocity. When the tug has a forward velocity some of the thrust is used to overcome the still water resistance of the tug. the geometric elasticity is “locked”.55 R = 0.6. For more information on wave drift damping reference is made to DNV-RP-C205.97 R = 0. and 1 1 1 = + k k E kG or ρw [m/N] g Hs B = density of sea water.5 The wave drift force increases linearly with the towing speed according to the formula FWD (U ) = FWD (0) + U ⋅ B11 [N] where B11 is the wave drift damping. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- k= kG k E kE = kG + k E 1 + k E [N/m] kG For very high towline tension.4. DET NORSKE VERITAS . which may give an important contribution to the towing resistance.88 R = 0.2. Hence.4.

the distribution of forces in 7. See figure 7-5) L = length of towline. See figure 7-5) T2 = force in starboard bridle [N] (for rotation of towed object towards port.5 ( x ) ) where [ 2 −2 ] [m/s] U m ( x) = U 0 [0.2.2.4 The moment of the towing force around the rotation centre of the towed structure is given as.2. the forces in each of the bridle lines will be different. 7. 7. 7. T1 sin( β + α + γ ) = T0 sin 2 β [N/N] T2 sin( β − α − γ ) = sin 2 β T0 [N/N] U ( r .2.3 For deeply submerged thrusters the propeller race can be approximated by an axi-symmetric turbulent jet with a radial velocity distribution each bridle line for small rotation angles. measured from bridle [m] R = distance from centre of gravity of towed structure to end of bridle lines [m] α = angle of rotation of towed structure [rad] β = angle between each of the bridle lines and the vessel centreline [rad] γ = R α L [rad] 2β γ Um T0 L x = . the bridle contributes with a substantial increase in the rotational stiffness.2 When the towed structure is small compared to the propeller race the force on each structural member of the towed structure can be estimated from the local flow velocity taking into account the increased velocity in the propeller race and drag force coefficients for normal flow. The trim of the object will also be modified. a large part of the propeller race may be reversed by the towed object.9.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.2.5(x) where T0 = towing force [N] T1 = force in port bridle [N] (for rotation of towed object towards port. See Figure 7-4. is given by.or trench-type channel.5 ( x) = 0.46D where D is the diameter of the propeller disk and U0 is the flow velocity through the propeller disk.9.9. so that the system of tug and tow move backward. restricted water.9. the effect of the propeller race is taken into account by reducing the available bollard pull by an interaction efficiency factor (ref. Lβ L+R [rad] α int = [1 + 0. [-] αint = interaction efficiency factor M G = T0 R (1 + Aexp = projected cross sectional area of towed object [m2] L = length of towline in metres [m] η = 2.3 For rotation angles greater than this value. A semi- DET NORSKE VERITAS . This combined effect of sinkage and trim in shallow water is called the squat-effect. Assuming each bridle line forms an angle β with the towing line. such as a canal.015 Aexp / L ]−η where 7. C 66 = T0 R (1 + [Nm/rad] Hence.2.1 for typical barge shapes 7. x ) = U m ( x ) 1 + 0.10 Shallow water effects 7.149 x / D ] and −1 [m/s] [m] r0.89 + 0. the net forward thrust can become negative by this effect.2. Reference is made to /11/ and /15/ for details.0875 x r is the radial distance from the centre of the jet at x = -4. April 2010 Page 64 7.10. considered to be uniform.2 The force in starboard bridle line becomes zero when α= 7.46D x α R Propeller plane Figure 7-5 Layout of towline and bridle lines Figure 7-4 Propeller race modelled as an axi-symmetric jet 7.4142(r / r0.1 When the towed structure is rotated an angle α. DNV-OS-H202).8.2.5 When the towed object is large compared to the dimensions of the propeller on the tug. See Figure 7-4.9 Force distribution in a towing bridle R )α L R ) L [Nm] and the rotational stiffness due to the towing force is given by.8.1 The towed object will be subject to a set down effect (sinkage) because of the increased velocity past the object causing the pressure on the wetted surface to be decreased.39 D + 0.2.4 For towlines longer than 30 m. one bridle line goes slack and only the other bridle line will take load. Detailed calculation of this effect can be done by use of CFD.2.4. r Um/2 r = r0. 7. This effect may be greatly increased in shallow. and the towing force is T0. hence reducing the net forward thrust on the system. Actually. improving the directional stability of the tow.8.2.8.

nonlinear wave induced response as well as nonlinear towline dynamics.11.4 The following frequency domain solution method can be applied: ση = Tz M 0 = standard deviation of the relative motion [m] = 2π ∞ M0 = zero up-crossing period [s] M2 n Mn = ∫ω 0 S (ω )dω = spectral moments [m2/sn] 7. 2 [m2s] squat (combined sinkage and trim) at bow or stern [m] length of object [m] beam of object at the maximum area [m] draught of object [m] ∇ / LBT [-]. 7. If the towed object is much larger than the tug. is.8 An estimate of the extreme towline tension when towing in waves can be obtained by assuming drag locking (7.2.11. Hence. 7.2. zp(t) are obtained by proper transformation of the rigid body motion transfer function for each of the tug and towed object and combining with a wave spectrum.2. April 2010 Page 65 empirical relation for squat of a ship-like towed object is direction of the towline is obtained from. Resulting towline tension at tug and towed object are shown in Figure 7-8. A winch can be used on the tug to reduce tension in the towline. A time-domain method can account for nonlinearities in the system.2.11. Static configuration is the basis for calculation of dynamic towline dynamics.3.7 From the response spectrum an extreme representation of the relative motion can be generated.2.12 Nonlinear time domain analysis 7.2. Tmax = T0 +ηmaxkE [N] where T0 is the mean towing force and kE is the towline stiffness as given in 7. — The motion transfer functions for the line attachment points are calculated on tug and towed object respectively and the transfer function for the relative motion of the towline attachment points can be established. DET NORSKE VERITAS . Neither tug nor towed object is significantly influenced by the towline with respect to first order wave induced response. pitch and yaw) of tug and towed object.2 Time histories for the motions of the towline end points xp(t).2.11. β ) S (ω ) where S(ω) is the wave spectrum. yp(t).1 Analysis of towline dynamics involves independent motion analysis of tug and towed object in a given sea state and the resulting towline response. Maximum sag depth is obtained from static analysis. 7.4 b T L / B 1 − Fh2 where zmax = L = B = T = Cb = Fh = V = g = h = U = Uc = [m/m] Sη (ω ) = H η (ω .2.2. the extreme towline elastic tension decreases with increasing towline length.5 The transfer function for relative motion η between tug and towed object in the towline secant direction is obtained by a linear transformation.5) so that the effective stiffness is the elastic stiffness. β ) = H sec (ω . β TO ) x p (t ) = ∑ Ak H xp (ω k ) cos(ω k t + ε k ) k [m] where Ak and εk are random amplitudes and phases as given in 2. 7. where ∇ is the displaced water volume.2.12.13).2. See Figure 7-1.4. the depth Froude number: Fh = V / gh [-] U-Uc is the relative speed [m/s] gravitational acceleration [m/s2] water depth [m] towing speed [m/s] current velocity (in e. the motion transfer function for end point of towline is given by a linear combination of the rigid body motion transfer functions. — First the static towline configuration is calculated. The transfer function for motion in the secant (towline) direction is the component of the motion vector in this direction.6 The relative towline motion transfer function is combined with the wave spectrum characterizing the actual sea state.2.2.g. a river) being positive in the direction of the tow route [m/s] Guidance note: Assuming small wave induced rotations (roll. z max C Fh2 = 2. The response of the winch and the towline is strongly non-linear and coupled (ref. usually taken as 3 hours.2 Analysis of towline dynamics can be done in the frequency domain or time domain.11 Dynamics of towlines 7. η max ≈ σ η 2 ln(T / Tz ) where [m] 7. 7. but requires a linearised model of the system.3 Wave induced response of towed object and tug is well described by linear equations. The response spectrum for relative motion in the secant and Hxp(ω) is the transfer function for motion in x-direction of end point p. 7.11. the relative motion will be dominated by the tug response.2.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103. A frequency domain analysis can be used to obtain relative motion between tug and tow. β TU ) − H sec (ω .2. Examples of simulated motions of towline end points at tug and towed object for head waves and no current are shown in Figures 7-6 and 7-7.1 Ak = 2 S (ω k )Δω k [m] [m/m] 7. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 7.2. and the towed object transfer functions may be omitted. For example. The most probable extreme value for the relative motion in a time interval T. the time history of the motion in the x-direction of end point p is given by. 7.1 An alternative approach to the frequency domain method described above is to model the towline in a non-linear FEM analysis program and prescribe forced motions of the towline end points on tug and towed object respectively.11.11.11. TU TO H η (ω . A frequency domain method is computational efficient.12.2. Minor differences between the two curves at peaks are due to dynamic effects in towline.

Mass forces are neglected.2. 210 220 230 240 250 Time [s] Time [s] 260 270 280 290 300 Figure 7-6 Example of simulated horizontal motion of towed object (upper curve) and tug (lower curve) in a given sea state 7. The winch is designed to start rendering when the towline tension exceeds a specified limit.3 The rendering winch is modelled by an equivalent mass.1 An automatic rendering winch (Figure 7-9) can be designed to reduce extreme towline tension.2.2.3 yields the equations of motion for the coupled towline-winch DET NORSKE VERITAS .2.13. ≈100 tonnes bollard pull).2.2) kG = geometric stiffness [N/m] (7.5 Assuming the towline leaves the winch horizontally.13.2.4.0 MN (i. x = η − x w [m] Figure 7-8 Example of simulated axial towline tension at endpoints. the tangential motion of the towline end is given by.13.13 Rendering winch where η is the relative motion between tug and tow.2. 7. damping and stiffness with the equation of motion. 15 &u & + k * u = kE x c* u [N] 10 5 0 -5 -10 where u = displacement of the towline [m] c* = generalised line damping [kg/m] k* = kE + kG = generalised towline stiffness [N/m] kE = elastic stiffness [N/m] (7. A detailed analysis of a coupled towline-winch Td = k E ( x − u ) [N] 7. 210 220 230 240 250 Time [s] Time [s] 260 270 280 290 300 Z-disp [m] Z-disp [m] -15 -20 200 &w + c' x & w + k ' x w = T0 + Td (t ) m' & x [N] Figure 7-7 Example of simulated vertical motion of towed object (lower curve) and tug (upper curve) in a given sea state 1800000 1600000 1400000 Axial Tension [N] Axial Tension [N] 1200000 1000000 800000 when the winch is rendering. /13/.2 A simplified towline model is based on the assumption that the shape of the dynamic motion is equal to the change in the static towline geometry. 1 0 X-disp X-disp [m] [m] -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 200 Figure 7-9 Coupled towline – winch model (from Ref.2.2.2. and where T0 = static tension [N] Td (t) = dynamic tension [N] xw = winch pay-out coordinate [m] m’ = equivalent winch mass (= I/r2 where I is the winch mass moment of inertia and r is the radius of the winch) [kg] c’ = equivalent velocity dependent winch damping coefficient (= cw/r2 where cw is the winch damping coefficient) [kg/s] k’ = equivalent position dependent winch stiffness coefficient (= kw/r2 where kw is the winch stiffness coefficient) [N/m] When the winch is stopped 600000 400000 &w = 0 x 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 [m/s] 200000 0 200 Time [s] Time [s] 7.6 Combining the equations in 7.4.13. 7.13.13.2.3) x = tangential motion excitation at end of towline [m] 7.2 and 7. The towline dynamic tension can be expressed as.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103. April 2010 Page 66 2 system during forced excitation was presented in Ref. 7.4 The winch starts rendering when the total tension T0 + Td(t) exceeds the winch rendering limit F.e.13. This leads to the following equation for the line motion. /13/).13. Mean tension is T0 = 1.

pipe bundles.3.3 Objects attached to Vessel 7. roll and pitch) of the installation vessel.1. 7.3. 7.3 Surface or sub-surface tow of long slender elements are established methods for transportation to field.3.3.3. An uncoupled analysis will therefore be conservative.2.3.3.3. 7. — to utilise installation vessels with limited deck space or insufficient crane capacity — to increase operational up-time by avoiding offshore operations with low limiting criteria such as lifting off barges and/or lowering through the splash zone 7.2 Critical parameters Figure 7-10 Submerged object attached to vessel 7.1 Examples of critical parameters to be considered in modelling and analysis of a submerged tow could be: — — — — — — — — — — — vessel motion characteristics wire properties towing speed routing of tow operation (limited space for manoeuvring.1. DET NORSKE VERITAS .) the discrepancies can be large and a coupled analysis will thus describe the vessel behaviour more correctly. This chapter covers the tow to offshore installation site. 1) Submerged tow of objects attached to Vessel 2) Submerged tow of objects attached to Towed Buoy 3) Surface or sub-surface tow of long slender elements.3. DNV-OS-H102). 7. April 2010 Page 67 model & + c' x & + (k '+ k ) x = f (t ) m' & x where [N] vertical wave frequency motion (heave.3. particular attention should be given to check clearance between rigging and moon pool edges. 7.6 If the object is hanging in a rigging arrangement through the moon pool of the vessel.3.4 Objects attached to Towed Buoy 7.1 Three different tow configurations will be covered in this chapter.3. 7.1.g. The object tends to dampen the vessel motions with reduced force in hoist wire as a result. Reasons for selecting such installation method may be. while long crested sea will give increased pitch motion compared to short crested sea (ref.3. structure/piping) lift effects on sub-surface towed structures wave loads on surface towed bundles (extreme and fatigue loading). 7.3.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103. 7. &&(t ) + c'η & (t ) + k 'η (t ) − T0 f (t ) = k E u (t ) + m'η [N] This equation is coupled with the towline response model in 7.12 giving the towline response u as a function of the end point displacement x.3.3.2 Initially one should determine whether long crested or short crested sea is conservative for the analysis in question.4 With increased size of object (mass. slings and towing bridle clearance between object and tow vessel clearance between rigging and vessel VIV of pipe bundles and slender structures (e.3. 7. a hang-off frame (Figure 7-10) are mainly influenced by forward speed and the 7. e.3.2. 7.1 General 7. For head sea short crested sea will give increased roll motion compared to long crested sea.g. In effect this models the ballasting that will be performed to keep the vessel on even keel.3. added mass etc.3 Submerged tow of 3D objects and long slender elements 7.4 The following steps are involved in the tow operation: — inshore transfer to towing configuration — tow to offshore installation site — offshore transfer to installation configuration.1. varying current condition) directional stability of towed object as function of heading forces in hang-off wire. spools.3. This heeling can be counteracted by including a righting moment in the analyses.g. Acceptably low risk for damage during the transportation phase must be ensured.5 If the object is located in e. Figure 7-11 Submerged object attached to towed buoy (not to scale) In order to calculate/simulate these effects a time domain analysis is necessary.2 Submerged tow of objects is an alternative to offshore lift installation.g.3.1 For objects attached to Towed Buoy (Figure 7-11) the dynamic forces on object and rigging is not affected by wave induced vertical vessel motions.3.1 Objects attached to vessel in e.4. a hang-off frame on the side of the vessel the weight of the object will make the vessel heel.3 From simulations it is seen that coupling effects may be important even for small objects.

radius of inertia. — Vessel data: Mass properties (mass. 7. — Towed object data: Mass properties (mass. the structure should be modelled in a finite element (FE) program. Further. In such cases it may be sufficient to model the lines using springs. a Finite Element (FE) model of the rigging (slings and hoist wire) and/or the tow line and bridle is normally not necessary. buoyancy.7.3.2 For the buoy.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103. draught. 7. stiffness properties. any lumped masses. current speed/heading.3. 7.4.3 Since vessel roll motions do not influence the behaviour of the buoy.5.3. Several slender objects may be towed together as a bundle (strapped together or within a protective casing). DET NORSKE VERITAS .3. — Buoy data: Mass properties (mass.4 In most cases it is recommended that the towed object is modelled by Morison elements with added mass and drag properties for the different basic elements such as cylinders. it is important to apply a model that describes the combined surge/pitch motion correctly. 7. These data will be input to 3D diffraction analysis. holdback tension. Geometry and stiffness. buoyancy).3 For towed objects attached to vessel or towed buoy.3.3. — Tow line/bridle data: Mass properties (mass. long crested sea will be conservative for this analysis. radius of inertia) and General Arrangement (GA) drawing (incl. In order to capture these effects a Morison model may be suitable. in the towed-buoy concept.2 Tow of long slender elements are normally performed by one of the following methods: 7. trim) and hull geometry.3. 7. where k = 2π/λ is the wave number and λ is the wave length. radius of inertia.5 For tow of long slender objects like bundles. 7.7. spools — TLP tethers — riser towers / hybrid risers. buoyancy.6.7.4. COG. See Figure 7-12. geometry and stiffness. vessel heading. Buoyancy elements are often used.3. at tow depth equal to λ/2 the energy is only 4% of the value at the surface.7 System modelling 7.7. buoyancy) of any lumped masses such as crane hook. It is important to assure that correct mass and buoyancy distribution is obtained. Ballast chains are used to keep the tow near the seabed and provide sufficient submerged weight and stability. wave heading and sea states. but below the area with strong wave influence. COG.1 Examples of slender objects that may be towed to field are. Figure 7-12 Different methods for tow of long slender objects 7.5.3. 7. The towed object should be modelled as a 6DOF body with the Morison elements distributed over the structure to capture the correct dynamic load distribution between the slings.3.3.1 For slender structures such as bundles. drag and lift effects. In order to minimize direct wave action the tow depth of the towed object should be deeper when towing in sea-states with high peak periods since long waves have an effect further down in the water column. buoyancy.3. COG. 7. Particular attention should be given to non axi-symmetrical cross section. Possible forward speed effects should be included.3.5 It is important to minimize fatigue loading on the pipe 7.3.3. plates etc.2 The buoy itself can be designed with a small water plane area relative to its displacement reducing the vertical wave induced motion of the buoy. Hence. April 2010 Page 68 7. — Operational data: Towing speed.5. and the global behaviour of the structure under dynamic loading has to be assessed. buoyancy. 2) Deeply submerged. — Rigging data: Mass properties (mass.3 The tow configuration is dependent on: — — — — — Submerged weight in water Use of temporary buoyancy/weight Tow speed and towline length Back tension provided by trailing tug Drag loading due to current. tow-heads or other structures attached to the bundle 7.1 The following system data is necessary in order to perform a time domain analysis for a submerged tow concept: 1) Off-bottom tow uses a combination of buoyancy and ballast chains so that the towed object is elevated above the seabed. the effect of trim on the heave motion should also be included. draught) and hull geometry. fatigue loading can be decisive. bundles.3. spools. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 7. special consideration should be given to identify whether vortex induced vibrations (VIV) will be a problem.6 System data 7.3.8 Vortex induced vibrations 7. By careful design of towline length. 3) Surface or near-surface towing methods for transport of long slender elements over short or long distances. Guidance note: The wave induced velocity is reduced with a factor ekz downwards in the water column.8.5 Tow of long slender elements due to tug motions and direct wave action. piping etc. or Controlled Depth Tow (CDT) method is a further development of the off-bottom tow method. For surface tows the towed object will be influenced by wave loads. ballast and drag chains with their specific hydrodynamic properties.4 Lift effects and stability may impede the control of a sub-surface towed bundle. 7.3. size of structural members) for establishment of analysis model. In this case. — pipelines. This is valid for long and slender buoys.7.5. the towed object will be lifted off the seabed at a critical tow speed to be towed at a ‘controlled depth’ above obstructions on sea bed.1 Vessel force transfer functions and hydrodynamic coefficients for all 6 degrees of freedom should be calculated by 3D wave diffraction analysis.5.

In anchored position the bundle will be exposed to current forces.3. Anchors are usually attached to the end of the bundle.1 Off-bottom tows of long slender objects over long distances may be aborted due to adverse weather conditions and the bundle left in anchored position close to sea bed. This can be done by supporting the structure or part of it which is susceptible to VIV to make it stiffer. If one of the eigenfrequencies fn of the structure is close to the vortex shedding frequency.8. Table 7-2 Friction coefficients between chain and sea bed Friction coefficient Sea bed condition Static Sliding 0. can be detected.3 Some analysis programs may require very long simulation time for a full 3 hour simulation. vortex induced vibrations may occur and possible fatigue due to VIV during the tow-out operation should be further evaluated.8. Frequency domain analysis may also be used for fatigue analysis of long duration tows encountering different sea states during the tow.2.9.3.9.9. irrespective of safety class.90 Soft mud 0. L is the span length.92 Mud with sand 0. 7. vortex induced vibrations may occur if the 3 < VR < 16. The static deflection δ due to a uniform current can be estimated as 5 qL4 δ= 384 EI where q is the sectional current drag force.5 Special considerations should also be given to the selection of wave trains for calculation of minimum clearance to vessel side and moon pool edges.3.1). It is therefore important that the analyses are performed for the intended direction ±15 degrees. For bundles VIV may cause significant fatigue damage. In this way unphysical behaviour. The bundle is stabilized by the friction forces between ballast chains and the sea bed.3.3. 7. the hang off frame) and then select wave trains that coincide with the occurrence of maximum vertical velocity and maximum vertical acceleration.57 m'⋅L4 2 ⎡ ⎛δ ⎞ ⎤ ⎢1 + 0. use of temporary buoyancy/weight. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- minimum and maximum sling forces clearance between object and vessel stability during tow VIV of slender structures.3 If it is found that the towed object is susceptible to VIV. 7. such as: — — — — 7.g.9. it is recommended that no more than 10% of the allowable fatigue damage is used in the installation phase. Guidance note: Unless otherwise documented.3.9.9. Guidance note: If long crested sea is applied.2 The duration of the time simulation should be sufficient to provide adequate statistics.3. 7. δ is the static deflection (sag) and D is a characteristic cross-sectional dimension (diameter). one should either document that the resulting damage is acceptable.7 It is important to establish the design limitations for each weather direction.3.3. 7.69 0.8⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎝D⎠ ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣ [s-1] where EI is the bending stiffness.3. and full time simula- 7.56 0.01 Firm mud 0. EI f1 = 1.3.3.4 A consistent selection is to compute time series of the vertical motion at the suspension point (e.9.9 Recommendations on analysis 7.3. Frequency domain analysis may be used in planning phase for parameter studies and to obtain quick estimates of the response for various towing configurations. For these programs a method with selection of characteristic wave trains can be applied. or alter the configuration in such a way that the eigenperiods are reduced to avoid VIV.1 It is recommended to use a time domain analysis in order to capture the important physical effects (ref.10 Wet anchoring 7.9. See Figure 7-13. Guidance note: For long slender structures submerged in water. m’ is the total mass per unit length (including added mass). 7.25 Clay DET NORSKE VERITAS . 7.).3. tension in the bundle etc. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- Guidance note: The first natural frequency of a simply supported beam may be taken as.9. Typical friction coefficients for anchor chain is given in Table 7-2.2 Eigenmodes for the slender structures can be calculated in a FE program. 7.98 Sand 0. 7. a heading angle of ±20° is recommended in order to account for the additional effect from short crested sea. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- VR U fn D = U/(fnD) is the reduced velocity = Relative velocity between tow speed and current [m/s] = natural frequency [Hz] = Slender element diameter [m] Further guidance on calculating VIV response is given in DNVRP-C205.10.3. 7.3.10 For long slender elements an important result from the analyses will be to determine the optimal tow configuration (tow depth. April 2010 Page 69 7.81 1. This is according to industry practice. 7.9. where tions for a wide range of sea states and wave headings may therefore not be practical.11 Visualisation of results is beneficial.9 It is important to check the results versus established acceptance criteria. It is recommended to perform 3 hour simulations in irregular sea states. The eigenmodes are the “wet” eigenmodes including the effect of added mass from surrounding water.3. such as large deflections from initial position and large rotations.9.74 0.6 It is recommended to perform one 3 hour check for the worst limiting cases in order to verify that the selection method give results with approximately correct magnitude.8 A heading controlled vessel will not be able to keep the exact same direction continuously.62 1. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 7.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.

Texas. /2/ DNV Offshore Standard DNV-OS-H202. 455-464.2. 85.. USA. and Smith. /17/ Rooduyn. Smith. (2000) “Combined Riser-Bundle-Template Installed by Controlled Depth Tow Method”.R. C. /4/ DNV Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C205 “Environmental Conditions and Environmental Loads”. drilling. (1998) ”The lifetime dynamics of a deep water riser design”. the Near Real Time (NRT) data (data with a time history 1-5 hours) and. on Real Time (RT) data (data with a time history 0-1 hours). These values will depend upon the type of operation and on critical responses.2. and Struijk. /9/ Headworth. Marcollo. 1-4 May 2006. USA. 1990. (1993) “Dynamikk i slepeliner under slep av offshore konstruksjoner”..G (2007) ”Lecture notes in marine operations”. 1985.3 Execution of marine operations shall be based on the weather forecast./3/ until release). pipeline installation. UK. Sea Transports” (planned issued 2010./3/ until release). J. (2006) “Pulling and towing of pipelines and bundles”. 23 April 1991.2 Environmental parameters 8.2. S.2 Planning and execution 8. pp. 20. Houston. (1985) “On the propeller race interaction effects”. Seattle. Trondheim. /8/ Fernandez.1 Weather conditions Figure 7-13 chains during tow (upper) and in off-bottom mode (lower) 7. USA. Aywin.L. Texas. Texas. P. offshore offloading. L... installation of a platform. and Doctors. (1992) “Enhanced Flexible Riser Installation – Extending Towed Production System Technologies”. I. Offshore and Polar Eng. Proc. and Reynolds. Friction force Submerged weight of chain 8. 8. (1993) “Recent developments in the towing of very long pipeline bundles using the CDTM method”. Weather Criteria and Availability Analysis 8. (1991) “Towed Production Systems – Further developments in design and installation”. 2007. Trondheim. S. (1981) “Tow techniques for offshore pipe laying examined for advantages.1. T. /16/ Risøy. J. e. I. and Fylling. General” (planned issued 2010. The analysis shall be based on historical data covering a time period of at least 5-10 years. Offshore 93 – Installation of Major Offshore Structures and Equipment. D. /12/ Ley. /19/ Watters.1 General 8. OTC 18233. (2001) “Design and Installation of a Banded Riser System for a North Sea Development”. (1995) “Dynamics of a Near-Surface Pipeline Tow”.1. 1981. C. Mork.1 For marine operations the time history of weather conditions and duration of weather events are the key parameters. (2007) “The Pencil Buoy Method – A Subsurface Transportation and Installation Method”. OTC 7818. Johnsgard. limitations”.1.1. E. April 2010 Page 70 Buoyancy of the bundle /14/ Moxnes.1.. J.1. OTC 19040. F. 8.1. Clausen. 8. 8. Oil & Gas Journal. Houston. and Gramnæs.2 The design and planning phase shall select seasons when the marine operations can be carried out and provide weather criteria for starting and interrupting the operations (the availability analysis). DET NORSKE VERITAS . Texas. London. 8. /18/ Song. H.1. 10th Int.2.1 Information about weather conditions required for carrying out marine operations depends on the type of operation. H. “Marine Operations. Applied Ocean Research Vol.1 Introduction 8. Subsea International’91... OTC 7297. crane operations or subsea installation. June 22. Offshore Technology Conference. Norske Sivilingeniørers Forening. see ref. May 28June 2. Houston. Texas. and Garrett. J.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103. A. 8. /11/ Lehn. USA. April 2007. /3/ DNV Rules for Planning and Execution of Marine Operations (1996). pp. Marine Structures 5. J.1. 8. USA.g. /13/ Moxnes. R. Houston. /5/ DNV Recommended Practice DNV-RP-F205 “Global Performance Analysis of Deepwater Floating Structures”.2 Threshold limits of environmental parameters critical for carrying out an operation and its sub-operations. Hinwood. 69-81. C.1 Marine operations consist of two phases: — design and planning — execution of the operations. J. see ref. L. Weather criteria and availability analysis shall include identified environmental parameters critical for an operation and provide duration of the events for exceeding and not exceeding the threshold limits of these parameters. (1993) “Dynamics of Offshore Towing Line Systems”. M. E.2 Relevant environmental parameters for carrying out marine operations as well as recommendations and requirements for description of environmental conditions are given in DNV-OS-H101. if justified. 30 April – 3 May 2007..1. /7/ Dercksen A. D. Conf.1. M. October 2004. Houston. Marintek Report P-01.2. /10/ Knudsen. (In Norwegian) /15/ Nielsen.4 References /1/ DNV Offshore Standard DNV-OS-H101. time for preparing the operation as well as the duration of each suboperation need to be specified prior to the start of an operation. “Marine Operations. H.2. OTC 12975. T. T.. NTNU. E. /6/ Binns.

an optimal route is recommended to be decided.2.3 General weather related requirements for marine operations are given in DNV-OS-H101.3 Weather routing may also be performed during the execution of the transportation itself on the basis of weather forecasting. e. The event can be defined as above the level (from t1 to t2.2. Tz .2 The duration of a weather event is defined as the time between a crossing of a level for that parameter and the next crossing of the same level. Satellite scattermeters data may be utilized. Guidance note: The duration of the first “calm” period is τ c1 = t 3 − t 2 and the corresponding first “storm” period τ s1 = t 2 − t1. The events below the threshold level are often called “calm” periods and above the threshold level “storm” periods. HS > HS’) or below the level (from t2 to t3. Global environmental databases may be utilized for this purpose.3. the corresponding significant wave height limits (threshold values) must be found. 8. /9/.3. General requirements to collection of metocean data are given in ref. The systematic instrumental error in estimating mean wind speed and direction can be regarded as negligible. 8.2. Comparison with the wave buoy data suggests wave height accuracy on average of about 8-10%.2. The wave buoy data shall not be used for estimation of wave profiles in steep waves. For monitoring a wave profile a laser is recommended to be used. /22/. The standard wind data represent measured or calibrated 10-minute average speed at 10 m above ground or mean sea level. Further. there is however a certain risk of making wrong decisions. it is recommended that the data are sampled at least each 3rd hour and interpolated between the sampling intervals. A position of a wave gauge may affect accuracy of data.1 General requirements [m] ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 8. Threshold limits for other environmental parameters (e. for varying wave period and wave direction.1 Often the significant wave height exceeding a given threshold level. see e. max (Tz ) = X (Tz ) H s =1 s z 8. 8. the response will be proportional to the significant wave height Hs.3.3 Weather routing for unrestricted operations 8. Assuming the Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum.3 Data accuracy 8. Due to the implicit possibilities of human errors or forecast errors. 8. The SBWR significant wave height are on average higher than the buoy wave heights.2. Bad weather areas or critical weather directions may then be avoided by altering speed and direction of the vessel. DET NORSKE VERITAS .2. Wave buoys are regarded as being highly accurate instruments. Then the response can be calculated for Hs = 1 m for all zero-up-crossing wave periods observed in the statistical data. 8.3.8 m satellite altimeter derived significant wave heights were nearly as accurate as the ones obtained from surface buoy measurements. with a greater percentage difference at low wave heights and less at high wave heights. mean wind direction and maximum wind speed within the observation interval.1 For marine operations involving transportation. Prior to starting marine operai necessary for operations without interruptions a number of days tion shall be approximated.3. or data generated by recognized weather prediction models.g. Events going to the end of the data series shall not be included in the statistics. The main uncertainty is the response of a ship to the waves. /1/.g. April 2010 Page 71 Guidance note: If a maximum response limit (Xmax) is defined for an operation. as shown in Figure 8-1. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 8. The data applied shall be given for a location or an ocean area where an operation takes place.3.2 In the design and planning phase an optimal route is recommended to be selected based on evaluation of responses and fatigue damage along different alternative routes. and wave direction.3 The instrumental accuracy of wave observations depends on the type of instrument used. Wind instruments on buoys are usually mounted approximately 4 m above sea level. On-route weather routing should therefore be used with care. Environmental conditions necessary for evaluating critical responses along different alternative routes shall be provided and used in the analysis. mooring) may cause the buoy measurements to be biased. the presence of strong surface current or external forces on the buoy (e. ref /7/. breaking waves. and error in the estimated significant wave height and zero-up-crossing wave period may be considered as negligible for most sea states.2 Primary characteristics 8. 8.3.3. if available.2.2. It is recommended to use reliable instrumental data.2. See Figure 8-1.g. During severe sea conditions. a linear response and a constant zero-up-crossing wave period.3.2. X max H (T ) H s . Hs’ t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6 t7 Time (hours) Figure 8-1 Example of significant wave height variation in time 8.2.. 8.2.2.g. 8.1 The weather criteria and availability analysis shall be based on reliable data and accuracy of the data shall be indicated. the differences between sea surface oscillations recorded by a fixed (Eulerian) probe or laser. The zero-up-crossing periods from the two instruments are approximately the same.2. /1/. Ref. towing. Usually they will represent scatter diagrams of significant wave height and zero-up-crossing wave (or spectral peak) period.2. The total period considered is Ttot = ∑ (τ ci + τ si ) .2 Instrumental data 8.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.6 Platform mounted wave gauges and other wave sensing devices have the advantage that they measure directly sea surface displacement rather than the acceleration as the buoys do.3. Hs (m) 8. corresponding wave periods) relevant for carrying out a marine operation may be established based on joint probabilities.2. /19/. and those obtained by a free-floating (Lagrangian) buoy can be very marked. /10/ and /18/.3. /23/.2 The common wind observations include mean wind speed.1 Accuracy of environmental data may vary widely and is very much related to the observation mode.3. will be the primary parameter.3. /5/.2.1.2.7 Ship Borne Wave Recorder (SBWR) makes direct wave height measurements but provides no directional information./6/ demonstrate that over the range of significant wave heights 1 m .4 Several investigations carried out in the last years indicate very promising results that support use of the satellite data. 8. /2/.5 In steep waves. HS < HS’). The maximum Hs for each Tz is then scaled according to: 8.

3. WAMOS) provide directional wave spectra but infer wave height indirectly.4.3.4.4.1 It is recommended that duration statistics includes the following parameters (ref.5.1 Marine operations with a reference period exceeding 72 hours are normally defined as unrestricted operations. e. 8./7/.2 Uncertainty of weather forecasts 8. such as loss of rotor or marine growth.g. Initial analysis of WAVEX data shows that the WAVEX may significantly over-estimate wave heights for swell-dominated conditions. The database needs to cover at least 20 years of preferably 30 years or more in order to account for climatic variability. 8. etc.1 For weather restricted operations uncertainties in weather forecasts shall be considered.1.5. It is recommended to use the data with care. They include numerical wind and wave data (some provide also current and/or sea water level) calibrated by measurements (in-situ data.11 Water level data are collected either by using mechanical instruments or by using pressure gauges.2.3.g. the total sea water level reduced by the tide. 8.1 Historical data used for specification of operational weather criteria may be affected by climatic uncertainty. 8. see ref. This may result in overestimation or underestimation of the operational weather criteria. and if possible to compare with other data sources. suitable for the analysis and simulation of multivariate time series of environmental data may be used as a supporting tool for generating the long–term data.e. however.5-2.3 A non-stationary stochastic modelling. The average duration of events will depend on the averaging period and sampling interval of the data.3.5. The accuracy of these recordings is 2-3 cm. April 2010 Page 72 8. Guidance note: At present. specifying weather criteria for comparison. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 8.4 Weather forecasting 8.3.8 Marine radars (e. 10 8.10 A current instrumental data set may be erroneous due to instrument failure.3. 8. i. i.1. 3. for return periods of 1.2.5. especially concerning wave period. Accuracy of a data basis shall be documented before applying the data./16/): Ttot = total time period of an environmental time series under consideration Nc = number of “calm” periods DET NORSKE VERITAS . set by an owner.4. a distribution of significant wave height. Particular attention shall be given to ocean areas where data coverage is poor.3. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 8. when the underlying hind-cast is calibrated with measured data and accuracy of the data is documented. /15/ or /2/. This is accounted for by the alpha factors as specified in /7/.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103. and lasers. For use of the computed water level data it is necessary to know the assumptions and limitations of the models. Operational limits of environmental parameters (e.5.9 For instrumentally recorded wave data sampling variability due to a limited registration. 8.g.1.5 Sources of data 8. /21/. Accuracy of these data is. They have a sufficiently long observation history to give reliable global wind and wave climatic statistics. a mixture of numerical and instrumental data or pure instrumental (satellite) data.2 Persistence statistics shall be established according to specified a priori operational design criteria./7/.3./1/. Climatic uncertainty appears when the data are obtained from a time interval that is not fully representative for the long-term variations of the environmental conditions.2 The Global Wave Statistics (GWS) visual observations (BMT (1986)) collected from ships in normal service all over the world since 1949 are often applied.2. ref. if justified. For the JONSWAP and PiersonMoskowitz spectrum the sampling variability coefficient of variation of the significant wave height and zero-up-crossing wave period are approximately 4-6% and 1.5. wave radars. /1/.4 Climatic uncertainty 8. 8. Starts of weather restricted operations are conditional on a reliable weather forecast as given in DNV-OS-H101.3 Recently several global environmental databases have been developed. The DNV-OS-H101 requirements are location specific and shall be used with care for other ocean locations. 5. time constitutes a significant part of the random errors. WAVEX. model specific corrections when used outside the areas provided in /7/.5.3.3. Current data uncertainty is specified e. Before application of a data set in planning and execution of marine operations.g.3.g.1 Numerically generated wave data are produced on routine basis by major national meteorological services and are filed by the data centres.1 Weather unrestricted operations 8. 8. 8.1 Weather restricted operations 8. These operations may be planned with weather conditions selected independent of statistical data. 8.3. it is important to make sure that a data quality check has been carried out. The hind-cast data can be used.4.1. Accuracy of a marine radar shall be indicated prior to using it in a marine operation.2. in ref.1 Because of data inaccuracy it is recommended to use several data sources in analysis (if available). it is recommended to establish environmental description.3.2. The data represent average wind and wave climate for 104 ocean wave areas. The data are usually given as residual sea water levels. Technology use by marine radars for recording the sea surface is under continuous development and accuracy is continuously improved. an operator.2 If data from 20 to 30 years are available. wind speed) shall be lower than the design values. 8.4. confer e. satellite data). The accuracy of these data may vary and depends on the accuracy of a wave prediction model applied as well as the adopted wind field.1. These operations shall be planned based on extreme value statistics established from historical data or time domain simulations. 8. 8. wave buoys..3. 8.1 Marine operations with a reference period less than 72 hours may be defined as weather restricted.5.3 Numerically generated data and 25 years. the given alpha-factors in DNV-OS-H101 are derived from North Sea and Norwegian Sea data only.3.e. still questioned. It is recommended to apply location and.5% respectively for a 20-minute measurement interval. significant wave height. Guidance note: Note that certain operations require a start criterion although designed for unrestricted conditions. /17/.2 Statistics from historical data 8.3.4 For limited time periods like months the statistics shall follow the DNV-OS-H101 requirements and be based on events that start within the period and are followed to the next crossing.2.5 Persistence statistics 8.

2. and FHs(h) is a cumulative distribution of significant wave height.75 m and 1. [hours] [hours] [hours] 8. Ttot NC [hours] τ c = A[− ln( FH s (h ))] − 1 β [hours] 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Tz (s) where A and β are established based on location specific data.5 The distribution for h < Hs and duration t < t’ is. These sea state limitations have been combined with the scatter diagram in Table 8-1 to show operable and non-operable sea states. ref/9/. 8. A = 20 hours and β = 1.2. 0. N c' (h < H s' | t < t ' ) = Fτ (t < t ' ) ⋅ N C [-] The average duration for h < Hs’ and t < t’ is. assume that the operability shall be studied for a moonpool vessel.5.3 maybe adopted.5.5.2 Unless data indicate otherwise. Calculated operational limits should of course be combined with operational limits based on practical considerations and requirements from personnel that shall carry out the operation.0 m Table 8-1 Joint probability of sea states. with the maximum significant vertical amplitude in the moonpool area equal to 0. April 2010 Page 73 τc τs Tc Ts Ns = = = = = number of “storm” periods average duration of “calm” periods average duration of “storm” periods total duration of all “calm” periods total duration of all “storm” periods where λ= 0 ∫ tdFτ ( t ) [-] t' ∞ Hence.2.5 m. τ C = t C ⋅ Γ( where Γ( 1 β + 1) [hours] ) is the Gamma function. a 2-parameter Weibull distribution can be assumed for the marginal distribution of “calm” period t (ref.2. τ C (h < H s' | t < t ' ) = 1 tFτ (t ) Fτ (t < t ' ) ∫ 0 t' [hours] ⎡ ⎛t FT (t ) = 1 − exp ⎢− ⎜ ⎜t ⎢ ⎣ ⎝ c ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ β ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ [-] where tc is the scale parameter and β is the shape parameter. Three motion-sensitive operations are considered. 8. Calculated significant amplitudes of vertical motion for the vessel have given the limiting Hs for these three operations. The operability for each of the different work tasks is shown in Table 8-2.5 m.75 m Zs = 1. The distribution parameters are determined from site specific data by some fitting technique.5. as shown in Figure 8-2.50 m Zs = 0.3 The average duration is expressed as τc = ∫t 0 ∞ dFT dt dt [hours] Guidance note: As an example./9/ and /14/).Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.75 m and 1. with operation limitations FH s |T ( h < H s' | t > t ' ) = FH s ( h < H s' ) ⋅ (1 − λ ) [-] DET NORSKE VERITAS . ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--8 7 6 Limiting Hs (m) 5 4 3 2 1 0 For the 2-parameter Weibull distribution it reads.2.5. Figure 8-2 Limiting Hs for operations with Zs= 0. /9/.4 If the cumulative distribution of Hs is known then the average duration of periods with significant wave height lower than h can be approximated by τ C = FH s ( h ) alternatively.6 The number of periods when h < Hs’ and t < t’ can be expressed as. Zs = 0.00 m 8. For the North Sea.0 m. 0. ∫ tdFτ ( t ) 0 8.

Vol. and Shaw.g. /4/ British Maritime Technology (Hogben. Verboom.. R.3. Global Wave Statistics.3 Time domain simulations 8.) (1986).5 It is recommended to split each operation into a sequence of small and. J.5. /2/ Bitner-Gregersen.0 Zs0 = 0. (1992). The maximum limits for a longer time will depend upon the accuracy of the duration estimates. Vol. weather limits and sequence of activities. R. L.7 References /1/ Bitner-Gregersen. D. 8. C.5 m 19. Guidance note: Tidal variations shall be plotted against established astronomical tide curves. 8.2..1 It is recommended that the persistence statistics includes information about seasonal variations of the weather climate. systematic monitoring of these conditions prior to and during the operation shall be arranged. — It is easy to combine limits of several weather parameters.6. F.6. N. C.3 Monitoring of responses 8. “Uncertainties of Load Characteristics and Fatigue Damage of Ship Structures”.2 The marine operation performance simulation programs should include specification of durations. G. A.5.. Vol. H.3.6.4 Advantages of using the time series and not statistical data are: — It is simpler to deduce the statistical variability than from the statistics. J. T. Challenor.5. e.. H.. 8. Proceedings of the E&P Forum Workshop. J. E.0 m Operability: P(Zs < Zs0) % 65.1 For marine operations particularly sensitive for certain environmental conditions such as waves. April 2010 Page 74 Table 8-2 Calculated operability Criterion Down-time: P(Zs > Zs0) % 35. the operation performance software scans the weather time series and finds the performance of the given network.3.1 Uncertainties related to monitoring of weather conditions shall be taken into considerations according to the requirements given in DNV-OS-H101.4 Seasonality 8.. “Uncertainties in Metocean Data”. M. and Oliver . Design and planning of marine operations shall be based on the established average weather conditions for one year. Any given number of environmental parameters can usually be handled in the time series. Alternatively. J.3.1. — The activity networks are easy to check against the time series. Swail (1995).6 Zs0 = 1. (1978) 8.. Cramer. E. London.3. C. /5/ Cardone. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 8. Cramer.5. assuming the given start date of the year. “Environmental Description for Long-term Load Response of Ship Structures”. Any discrepancies shall be evaluated.6 Monitoring of weather conditions and responses 8.0 80.. Proceed.1 Alternatively to the statistics described in 8.6. E. N. Essential monitoring systems shall have back up systems. F. Several return periods are recommended to be considered.5. Recognized marine operation performance software shall be used for this purpose. duly considering barometric pressure and other weather effects. — The operational limits are more easily checked on the time series than from statistics. 8. Res.6.4 Zs0 = 0. The Decision Support System may be based on the Near Real Time (NRT) and/ or Real Time (RT) data which can be provided by met-offices. 8.6. The NRT and RT data may represent numerically generated data. Any unforeseen monitoring results shall be reported without delay. ISOPE-95 Conference.4 Alpha factor related monitoring 8. to the extent possible. Weather conditions in a form of measured or numerically generated time series are an input to the analysis. DET NORSKE VERITAS . 1995.. They may be used for operation planning in advance and during execution of operations.97 (C7). June 11-16. 97-117.3 Given an activity network and the weather time series.1 Monitoring of environmental phenomena 8.1.5. DNV-OS-H101.4.6 93. 8. a mixture of numerical and instrumental data (in-situ measurements. Ø (1990).5. E.2 Tidal variations 8. “An Assessment of GEOSAT Wave Height and Wind Speed Measurements”. Attention shall be given to accuracy of prediction of combined seas (wind sea and swell).4. and Korbijn.6. Geophys.1 Tidal variations shall additionally be monitored a period with the same lunar phase as for the planned operation. pp.6 To avoid a critical sub-operation to be started up but not finalised until unacceptable weather conditions occur an extra duration of the forecasted weather window may be required. private company or research institutes.3 Carrying out marine operations can be helped by a Decision Support System installed on board of marine structures if reliability of the system is described and approved by an authority or by a Classification Society. Responsibilities. Structural Safety. G. uncertainty in forecast simulations can be accounted for by introducing a random error (and/or bias) in a real environmental record. "Uncertainties in Data for the Offshore Environment". — Duration of operations is taken directly into account. and Hagen. /6/ Carter.3. 11-34.6.. pp. and Løseth.5. Srokosz. — It allows establishing of statistics for weather parameters of interest. independent suboperations.6. Unwin Brothers Limited. M. three months and a shorter period of time according to the requirements given in DNV-OS-H101. .. /16/.5. Shaw and V. Da Cunha.6. Marine Structures. /8/ Graham. 7.2 Monitoring shall be systematic and follow the requirements given in DNV-OS-H101.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103. /7/ DNV Offshore Standard ”Marine Operations General”.4 8. 8.3.1. 8.4 A required sampling interval for time monitoring will depend upon the type of operation and its duration. and is recommended to be considered carefully.1. etc. and M..75 m 6. a wave record. G. current. monitoring methods and intervals shall be described in a procedure.6. M.5. 8. swell. P. 8. /3/ Bitner-Gregersen. 8. Vessel motions may be utilized by a Decision Support System and environmental conditions can be evaluated from measured vessel motions. England. /11/. The Netherlands. (planned issued 2010). E. 8. J. The Hague. A sufficiently long historical time series shall be analysed to obtain reliable results.2 the weather criteria and availability analysis can be studied by use of time domain simulations of operation performance. 8. (1995).1 Monitoring of responses shall be carried out by documented reliable instruments. marine radar and satellite data) or pure instrumental data if sampling frequency of the latter is sufficient for an operation under consideration. tide.

Proc.1.6 Usually. The calculated clearance should consider motions of the crane vessel and transport vessel/barge. Estimations of On-site Directional Wave Spectra from Measured Ship Responses. and Kolpman G. For such lifts the coupled dynamics of the vessel and the lifted object must be considered. Poster at the GLOBWAVE Workshops. Proc. NSFI/NTH Division of port and ocean Eng.2 Light lifts 9. Rev.. “On the Duration of Sea State”. Estimations of On-site Directional Wave Spectra from Measured Ship Responses.1. For heavy lifts. Krogstad. G. The vertical heave motion of the crane tip is given by the heave. J. Winterstein (1992). sway and heave) of the crane tip xct. Amsterdam. (2006). /18/ Vartdal. 2005. and S. U.1 A lifting operation usually involves a crane. Coastal Engineering. I. roll and pitch RAOs of the vessel. and S. Pascal R. 97-113. R. U. H.4 Requirements to clearances are given in DNV-OSH205 “Marine Operations. Vol. pitch and yaw RAOs of the vessel... Vol. 9. F. Vancouver. Bergen July. L.2. 23rd OMAE Conference. 9. The motion calculations should be based on the environmental design conditions and maximum values should be estimated. In this case the motion characteristics of the vessel (at the crane tip) is not affected by the lifted object. (1984) “Transformation of Cumulative Probability of Significant Wave height into Estimates of Effective Operation Time”. (2008) “Weather Routing: Uncertainties and the Effect of Decision Support Systems”. 4. 9. yct and zct are given from the vessel RAOs for six degrees of freedom motion usually defined for the centre of gravity for the vessel. 9. Marine Structures. C.2.. crane vessel.1.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.1. C. OMAE’2005 Conf. 1. Brest. (1982).1. D.1. /12/ Nielsen. Ch. April 2010 Page 75 “Comparison of Ship Born Wave Recorder and Waverider Buoy Data used to Generate Design and Operational Planning Criteria”. — clearance between lifted object and crane boom — clearance between crane boom and any other object/structure — clearance between the lifted object and any other object/ structure — clearance between the underside of the lifted object and grillage or seafastening structure on the transport vessel/ barge — bottom clearance between crane vessel and sea bed for lifting operations at small water depths. Proc. 9. Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions (POAC 85).1. Houston. C.1. The motion RAOs should be combined with crane tip position in the vessel’s global coordinate system.2 The following operational aspects should be considered during a lifting operation.411-423.1.1. Narssarssuaq. /9/ Graham. B. Trondheim/Bergen January 2007. Sept. Marine Structures. Gommenginger. 9. (1985) “Wave Statistics for Offshore Operation”. pp. and van Dongen.. /19/ deValk. Hulst S. and Moat. A. (1977). /20/ Vik.. G. Proc. 19. yct. J. and Vik. roll and yaw RAOs of the vessel.7 Heave compensation is frequently used during light lifts. Norwegian University of Science and Technology. “Measurements of Wave Properties in Extreme Seas During the WADIC Experiment” . T.1.. The characteristic values for crane tip motions (xct. ISOPE. Elsevier. ”The Parametrisation and Prediction of Wave height and Wind Speed persistence Statistics for Oil Industry Operational Planning Purposes”. 9. Marine Structures. G. Lifting Operations 9. Vol.1. /14/ Houmb. /16/ Nielsen. and Vik. Faculty of Marine Technology.1. Proc. G. “Building a Global Resource for Rapid Assessment of the Wave Climate”. K. /10/ Marthinsen. use of heave compensation is generally not possible. 19. “Nonstationary Stochastic Modelling of Multivariate Longterm Wind and Wave data”. (2007) “Future Exploitation of Insitu Wave Measurements at Station Mike”. typically less than a few hundred tons. P. W.2.1. Halkidiki. Coastal Engineering.1. "Collection of Metocean Data". The weight of the lifted object is less than 1-2% of the displacement of the crane vessel.2 The wave induced translational motions (surge. (1991). M.. /13/ Kleiven.1 For light lifts the crane boom can be treated as a stiff structure.5 Clearance between lifted object or transport vessel/ barge and the crane vessel or crane boom should be calculated. 6-13.1 Crane tip motion 9. Barstow (1989). A. — Heavy lifts where the weight of the lifted object is more than 1-2% of the vessel displacement and typically more than 1000 tons.. Lifting Operations” (Ref. Report. 8th Inter. Norsk Hydro Research Centre. /23/ NORSOK N-002. /7/). no 1. Modelling of heave compensation systems is given in Section 5. 21st Annual Offshore technology Conference.1.2 should be decided on the basis of expected duration of the operation. (2006). and Kleiven. Guidance note: The horizontal surge motion of the crane tip is given by the surge. crane lifting operations are divided into two categories: — Light lifts where the lifted object is very small compared to the crane vessel. hence the motion of the crane tip can be determined directly from the wave induced rigid body motion of the crane vessel. /15/ Guedes Soares. /22/ Aalbers. pp..1. and Moan. /17/ Stefanakos. of the 2nd International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference. Greece. On the skewness of random surface waves. Vol. Greenland. 9. C. C. Groenewoud. no 1.1.1. Department of Marine Hydrodynamics. transport vessel/barge and the lifted object.. I.2. pp. 9. Marine Operations Specialty Symposium – MOSS2008.3 The crane tip’s characteristic vertical motion in a given sea state and wave heading can be taken as DET NORSKE VERITAS .1. F.1 General 9. B. September 19-21. Sept.3 The clearances listed in 9. “Model Uncertainty in a Long Term Distribution of Wave-induced Bending Moments for Fatigue Design of Ship Structures. /11/ Nielsen. N. “Lecture Notes in Marine Operations”.. G. K. T. 303-329. I. June 20-25. Texas. The horizontal sway motion of the crane tip is given by the sway. 1997. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 9. 2004. (2007) . /21/ Yelland. 6. (2004). pp 472-478. San Francisco. .(2005). O. yct) in a sea state with given Hs can be taken as the largest motion response when all possible wave periods Tz are considered. Canada. the operational procedures and the environmental conditions. Bjorheim. D.1 Introduction 9. and Belibassakis. I.

2.6 The eigenperiod for horizontal motion of a lifted object in air is given by 9. ⎛ L ⎞ ⎛ M + 0.3.2. 9.2 For a lift-off operation the crane vessel with bowmounted cranes is pre-trimmed to a stern-up position.3.96 for a mass ratio of 1.7 The eigenperiod for rotational motion (yaw) of an object lifted by two parallel wires (tandem lift system.2. roll and pitch are to be taken as absolute values.1 General Guidance note: For most applications the effect of the mass of hoisting line can be neglected when the mass of the hoisting line is less than the lifted object. see Figure 9-1) is given by rg L T0 r = 2π a g where L = length of hoisting line [m] DET NORSKE VERITAS . The effect on the natural period is a factor varying from 1.1. April 2010 Page 76 η ct = η 32 + (b sin η 4 ) 2 + (l sin η 5 ) 2 where ηct η3 η4 η5 b l = = = = = = characteristic single amplitude vertical motion of crane tip [m] characteristic single amplitude heave motion of vessel [m] characteristic single amplitude roll angle of vessel [deg] characteristic single amplitude pitch angle of vessel [deg] horizontal distance from the vessel’s centre line to the crane tip [m] horizontal distance from midship to the crane tip [m] g rg 2a = = = acceleration of gravity [m/s2] yaw radius of gyration of lifted object [m] distance between wires [m] Resonant yaw motion of the lifted object can be excited by either wave action or by fluctuating wind. 9.1. The coupled hydrodynamic problem should be solved as a 12 degrees-of-freedom system.2.2. 9. 9.1. Prior to water entry an unsteady wind force may affect the motion of the object.5.33mL ⎞ ⎟⎜ T0 h = 2π ⎜ ⎟ ⎜g⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ M + 0.4 Guidance on numerical modelling of hydro-dynamic interaction between floating bodies are given in Section 2. the motion of the crane vessel and hence the crane tip motion may be strongly influenced by hydrodynamic interaction with sea bed.3.00 for a mass ratio of 0 to 0.2.2. these should be modelled as constraints or horizontal springs in the equations of motion for the lifted object.1 Heavy lifts are usually carried out by semi-submersible crane vessels (SSCV). the barge and SSCV oscillate as a system almost rigidly connected in the vertical direction. Computer program applied for wave induced response of the crane and transport vessels should have an option for analysis of multi-body systems.2.2.5 For a given motion of the crane tip. 9. RAOs for both vessels should be calculated.2. By adjusting the ballast water in the ballast tanks the vessel’s trim is reversed and the load is lifted 4-5 meters during a period of 90 seconds.3 For lifting operations in very shallow water.2 Hydrodynamic interaction 9.1. Heavy lift crane vessels are usually equipped with a computer controlled ballast system to counteract trim and heel moments induced during lifting and setting of the load. RAOs calculated for the crane vessel in unrestricted water can in general not be applied for lifting operations without correcting for hydrodynamic interaction between crane vessel and other nearby structures. the motion of the lifted object in air can be solved as a forced pendulum problem.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103. In this condition with tensioned slings.2. 9.1.1 The crane vessel RAOs may be influenced by other fixed or floating structures in close proximity. corresponding to a lifting velocity of about 5 cm/s.2. In a prehoist operation the hook is hauled up.2.4 The crane tip’s characteristic vertical velocity in a given sea state and wave heading can be taken as ⎛ η 3 ⎞ ⎛ b sin η 4 v ct = 2π ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎜T ⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝ T4 where vct T3 T4 T5 = = = = 2 ⎞ ⎛ l sin η 5 ⎟ ⎟ +⎜ ⎜ ⎠ ⎝ T5 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 Figure 9-1 Tandem lift system characteristic single amplitude vertical velocity of crane tip [m/s] heave natural period [s] roll natural period [s] pitch natural period [s] 9.2 For lifting from or to a transport vessel/barge in close proximity.3.45mL ⎠ where M m L g = = = = mass of lifted object [kg] mass per unit length of hoisting line [kg/m] length of hoisting line [m] acceleration of gravity [m/s2] 9.1. transferring about 80% of the heavy load from the barge to the SSCV.3 Heavy lifts 9. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 9. 2a L The values for characteristic single amplitudes in heave. When guide wires are used to control the horizontal motion of the lifted object. 9.

3. 9. η8 is the motion of the lifted object in the y-direction and η9 is the motion in the z-direction. Ch. x(x y.z t.4 The 9 × 9 mass matrix M can be written as Expressions for the non-zero Ch. Vertical mooring forces may normally be ignored compared to hydrostatic effects..3.ij are given in DNV-RP-C205.3 Coupled dynamic motion A = 6 × 6 added mass matrix for crane vessel [kg] mo = 3 × 3 mass matrix for lifted object [kg] a = 3 × 3 added mass matrix for lifted object [kg] The mass matrix M and the added mass matrix A are both symmetric.….3. but is usually small and can be ignored in the coupled analysis.56 may all be set to zero. If the crane vessel is not moored but is using dynamic positioning (DP). 9.3.3.3. ref. C vm 26 . In a simplified analysis rotations of the lifted object may be ignored and the number of DOFs is reduced from 12 to 9.2. 9.3.45 and Ch. the DP system may be approximated by a linear spring damper system with a restoring matrix similar to the one above. When the crane vessel is symmetric about y = 0 and when vertical mooring forces are ignored.3.1 Before lift-off from the transport barge the system of crane vessel and transport barge can be modelled as a 12 DOF system to account for hydrodynamic interaction between semisubmersible and barge. /2/.5 In general there is hydrodynamic interaction between a submerged lifted object and the crane vessel.1 A crane vessel with a heavy load hanging in a vertical hoisting line from the crane tip is in general a 12 DOF system.3. C vm 22 .9 where i = 1. the mass matrix for the lifted object is taken as m o + a = ( m + a ii )δ ij 9.35 0 Ch .Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103. 46 0 0 Ch .3.3. Such interaction would give non-zero coupled added mass terms (between A and a). 9.yL.6 The stiffness matrix C for the coupled system can be split into three contributions: C = Ch + Cm + Cc where Ch = hydrostatic stiffness matrix Cm = mooring stiffness matrix Cc = coupling stiffness matrix Mooring stiffness only contributes to the horizontal motions of the crane vessel.9 The symmetric 9 × 9 coupling stiffness matrix is given by (see Ref. sway (i = 2) and heave motion (i = 3).3. 9.6 are the rigid body motions of the crane vessel with 3 translatory and 3 rotational motions (see Figure 9-2). Rotations of the lifted object are usually controlled by guide wires or tugger lines running from the load to the vessel. In that case.3. Such motions can be reduced by means of tensioned lines.3.y z.3.8 The 9 × 9 mooring stiffness matrix can be written as ⎛ C vm 0 ⎞ Cm = ⎜ ⎜ 0 0⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ where Cvm is the 6 × 6 mooring stiffness matrix for the crane vessel. 46 ⎟ Ch . If the mooring system is symmetric. 9. Neglecting off-diagonal (i ≠ j) added mass terms.2.zL) η9 η1 η4 η8 η2 Figure 9-2 Model of crane vessel with lifted object ⎛0 ⎜ ⎜0 ⎜0 Cvh = ⎜ ⎜0 ⎜0 ⎜ ⎜0 ⎝ 0 0 0 0 0 0 Ch . ct t. 9. the dynamic behavior of the system is rather complicated since the load and the crane vessel perform coupled oscillations.56 ⎟ ⎟ 0 ⎟ ⎠ 9. ct t ct) L η3 η6 η5 ⎛ C vh 0 ⎞ Ch= ⎜ ⎜ 0 0⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ where the 6 × 6 hydrostatic matrix for the crane vessel is given by η7 (xL. C vm 66 0 ⎞ ⎛Mv + A ⎟ M =⎜ ⎜ 0 mo + a ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ where Mv = 6 × 6 body mass matrix for crane vessel [kg] These elements may be estimated by a mooring analysis program. /2/. The lifted object will in general have different added mass aii for surge motion (i = 1).3.56 0 Ch . The lifted object may be submerged.2. Horizontal relative motions between the load and the crane vessel may be critical. C vm 16 .3.2 In the pendulum condition when the load has been lifted off the barge.2. There are no inertia coupling terms between the vessel and the lifted object. 44 0 Ch .34 0 Ch ..34. The mooring stiffness matrix is symmetric and the only non-zero elements are C vm 11 . The vertical motions will then also be reduced due to reduced coupling effects. η7 is the motion of the lifted object in the x-direction.55 Ch .2.3.. 9. April 2010 Page 77 9.35 0 0 0 ⎞ ⎟ 0 ⎟ 0 ⎟ ⎟ Ch.3 Hydrodynamic interaction between the SSCV and the transport barge vessel may be important since the columns and characteristic wave lengths in operating conditions are comparable to the vessel dimensions. C vm 12 . added mass of the lifted object must be included. 9.2 The nine DOF motions are denoted ηi.3.7 The 9 × 9 hydrostatic stiffness matrix can be written as 9.3 The lifted object may be modelled as a point mass with mass m.3. After lift-off the heavy lifted object will influence the motion of the semi-submersible so the total system should be modelled as a 18 DOF system. Ch. In a fully numerical simulations of the coupled system such guide wires must be modelled as springs. i = 1. only the diagonal elements are non-zero.3. /1/) DET NORSKE VERITAS .34 Ch .2 Degrees of freedom 9.33 0 Ch .3.3. Body mass and added mass matrix for a floating body is given in Ref.

The wave damping is represented in the time domain by a convolution integral where previous values of the velocities are multiplied by retardation functions. Procedures for simplified calculation of linear wave loads on barges and semisubmersibles are given in Ref..2 For a given sea state the pre-generated frequency dependent wave forces on crane vessel.4.9 the coupled system can be computed from (− ω 2 M +C x = 0 ) Due to coupling between modes of motion.3. 9.. transport barge and lifted object (in submerged position). λn θ0 DET NORSKE VERITAS .. transport barge and lifted object (when submerged). 9.3. 9. care should be taken to ensure that the hydrostatic forces.11 For harmonic wave induced excitation of the vessel.9 and B is a linear damping matrix.3.2..3 When the structural elements of the lifted object are small compared to characteristic wave lengths..4 For transient response simulations where the lifted object undergoes large changes in draft during the operation.1 When two vessels are situated closely side-by-side hydrodynamic resonance may occur in the gap between the two vessels.12 The motion response of the coupled vessel – load system is obtained from r b l h g = = = = = = = Fa = ( F1 ..4. the load vector can be written on complex form F = Re Fa e iωt where { } 1 + J n 0 tanh λ n h J n 0 + tanh λ n h where oscillation and Re denotes the real part of the expression. 9. i = 1.….. F6 .2 The eigenfrequencies ωn corresponding to the hydrodynamic resonances in the gap are given by (Ref. /5/) 2 ωn = gλ n ω i .0.4. added mass and wave damping for crane vessel. are converted to force time histories applied in the coupled equations of motion for the system. 9.3. the velocity of the lifted object can be neglected when calculating relative velocity. where ks ke Ls Le AE w Cc44 Cc55 Cc66 xt yt zt = = = = = = = = = = = = w/Ls [N/m] AE/Le [N/m] length of hoisting wire from crane tip to centre of load [m] effective length of hoisting wire including flexibility of total length from load to winch as well as crane flexibility [m] stiffness of wire per unit length [N] submerged weight of load [N] ks zt2 + ke yt2 [Nm] k s z t2 + k e xt2 [Nm] k s y t2 + k e y t2 x-position of crane tip [m] y-position of crane tip [m] z-position of crane tip [m] 9.4. the exciting force and damping for the submerged object can be approximated by Morison’s load formula in terms of the wave particle kinematics (fluid velocity and acceleration).3.5 The time varying wind drag force on the lifted object in air is given by a wind force coefficient and the instantaneous relative velocity between wind and lifted object.3. /3/.0.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.3.0)T is the complex excitation force vector.3. April 2010 Page 78 9..1 Heavy lift operations can be analysed by time-domain simulations based on pre-generated frequency dependent wave excitation force transfer function.10 The undamped eigenfrequencies and eigenvectors of 9.4.4.4. the eigenvectors have contributions from the different degrees of freedom. 9.1. 9. There are three types of resonant motions to be considered — piston mode motion — longitudinal sloshing — transverse sloshing.3.2.4.4 Hydrodynamic coupling 9.1.4 Time domain simulation of heavy lifts Cc = ⎛ ks ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ 0 ks 0 0 ke 0 − k s zt k e yt Cc 44 k s zt 0 − k e xt − k e xt y t Cc 55 − k s yt k s xt 0 k s z t xt − k s zt yt C c 66 − ks 0 0 0 − k s zt k s yt ks 0 − ks 0 k s zt 0 − k s xt 0 ks 0 ⎞ ⎟ 0 ⎟ − ke ⎟ ⎟ k e yt ⎟ k e xt ⎟ ⎟ 0 ⎟ ⎟ 0 ⎟ 0 ⎟ ⎟ ke ⎟ ⎠ 9.1 Vessels situated side-by-side 9. i = 1.3..3. added mass and wave damping are correctly modelled. Usually. Several stationary steps with different hydrodynamic models for each steps may be used instead..3. ω is the frequency of J n 0 (r ) = − 1 2 ⎛ r2 ⎜ ∫ 2 2 2 [1 + 2u + (u − 1) cos(nπu ) nπ 2 r ⎜ ⎝0 u u +r 1 + cos θ 0 3 1 + 1 + 2r ln sin( nπu )]du − sin θ 0 1 − cos θ 0 nπ b/l [-] width of the gap between vessels [m] length of the gap (approximated by length of shortest vessel) [m] draft of vessels (assumed to have similar draft) [m] acceleration of gravity [m/s2] nπ/l [m-1] tan-1(1/r) [rad] ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ η = (−ω 2 M + iωB + C ) −1 F where η = {ηi}..

9. 9.5 1 1. — The combined motion characteristics of the barge and the crane vessel. 9-3. and the motions can be assumed to be Gaussian distributed. the lift off operation itself is a simple operation since the relative motion between the crane-top and the vessel is marginal.8 0. The statistics of the relative motion determines the probability that the barge will hit the lifted object after lift-off.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103. the volume of water between the vessels heaves up and down more or less like a rigid body. 1.2.6 0. dotted line) Guidance note: Example: For a gap between two barges of dimensions l = 80 m. in the general expression 9. 9. 9.0 0 0. with a narrow gap.1 m/s).5.2.6 1. r = b/l = 0.4 The parameters determining if the lift-off operation is feasible are the following: — The hoisting speed of the crane (depends on the weight of the object to be lifted.41 sec for the lowest sloshing mode.1.2 1. λ1 = 0.4.1.1.05. — The probability that the lifted object will be hit by the barge more than once is practically zero.5.5. Since the length of the wire is short in this case.2. λ2 = 0.2 In case the transport has taken place on the crane vessel.5. J10 = 0.1.2 0. The safety of the operation can be assessed by estimating the probability that the lifted object will be hit by the barge and ensuring that the probability is less than a certain prescribed value.7 The hydrodynamic resonances in the piston mode and the longitudinal/transverse sloshing modes can be identified by a diffraction analysis as peaks in the transfer function for surface elevation at arbitrary points in the gap between the vessels.1. solid line) and lowest sloshing mode (n=2. a lower limit is usually taken to be in the order of 0.3 When lifting an object from the barge by means of a crane onboard a crane vessel positioned side by side with the barge. and the force in the wire can be estimated from the vertical acceleration of the crane top alone. The eigenfrequencies of sloshing modes are obtained by setting n = 2. and is being subject to the motion of the crane top.4 A simplified expression for the eigenfrequency of the piston mode is given by (Ref.5. — The weather condition.4.4….1 A criterion for characterization of the safety of the lifting operation is that the object is not re-hit by the barge after having been lifted off.5 + ln ⎟ π⎝ 2b ⎠ where B is the total beam of the two vessels including the gap between the vessels.5 Lift-off of an object 9. a critical parameter is the relative motion between the crane hook and the barge at the position of the lifted object. — The hoisting speed U is constant during lifting — The lifted object is leaving the barge as the relative vertical motion a between the barge and the crane hook has a maximum. the eigenfrequencies of transverse sloshing are high and may be neglected.5 2 2.5. 9.2 The following simplifying assumptions are made for the statistical analysis: — The motion responses of the two vessels are assumed to be narrow banded.4 1.4.03927. 9. When vessels are located in close proximity.1 Since lifting operations takes place in relatively calm weather.5.5.1.5 3 3.1 General σ 9.3 In the piston mode motion.1. This mode of motion is also called the pumping or Helmholtz mode.8 1. 9. erfc( x) = 2 ∞ π ∫e x −t 2 dt DET NORSKE VERITAS .3 The probability P that the lifted object will be hit by the barge at the next maximum value of the relative motion can be approximated by nπ r Figure 9-3 Function Jn0 versus nπr for piston mode (n=1. P (τ ) = where ⎛ τ2 1 exp⎜ ⎜− 2 2 ⎝ ⎛τ 2 ⎞ ⎞⎛ τ π ⎛τ ⎞⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟erfc⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ 4 ⎟ ⎟ ⎜1 − 2 exp⎜ ⎝ ⎠⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎠⎝ τ= U Tz = = = UT z σ hoisting speed [m/s] zero up-crossing period for relative motion [s] standard deviation of relative motion [m] 9.2.1.4.1.2067 and J20 = 0.6 In the transverse sloshing mode the water motion between the vessels is a standing wave between the vessels with a wave length on the order of the gap width.5 In the longitudinal sloshing modes the water between the vessels moves back and forth in the longitudinal direction. the object will be hanging from the crane. combined with the orientation of the two vessels.2 Probability of barge hitting lifted object ω12 = g b⎛ B⎞ d + ⎜1. The eigenfrequency of the piston mode is obtained by setting n = 1 in the general expression 9.43 sec for the piston mode and T2 = 6.5.5 4 4.1. the dynamic response of the object/ wire system will be marginal.4.2. Consequently only the first possible hit is considered.4 0.3089 resulting in natural periods T1 = 7.0 0. /4/) 9. the motions of the barge and the crane vessel can be computed from linear wave theory.07854. The corresponding natural periods are given by Tn = 2π / ω n 9.1. b = 4 m and draft h = 10 m.5 5 SLOSHING MODE n=2 PISTON MODE n=1 Jn0 9. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 9.4.4. 9.5. 9.3. April 2010 Page 79 The function Jn versus nπr is shown in Fig.1.5 Once the object is lifted free of the transporting vessel (barge).

5 UT z/σ UT/ 2. /5/ Molin. Cambridge University Press. B. Guidance note: During a series of 10 lifting operations one may require that the total aceptable probability is 0.01 0. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- σ Figure 9-4 Probability of barge hitting lifted object 9. M. April 2010 Page 80 The probability P is plotted in Figure 9-4. gives implicitly a value for the maximum standard deviation σ of the relative motion which is proportional to the significant wave height Hs.3 m/s and Tz = 7. 24 pp.247-260. Assuming hoisting speed U = 0.72 m which is related to significant wave height of the seastate through the relative motion transfer function. pp. /4/ Molin.01. Hence the required probability P for each lift should be less than 0. 430.000001 0. If the relative motion as a special case. Vol.0 1. (1965) “Handbook of Mathematical Functions”.max = 4σ = 2. the requirement to standard deviation of relative motion is σ < 0.00001 0.0 2. Issued April 2007. Nielsen (2007) “Lecture Notes in Marine Operations”.9 m. /2/ Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C205 “Environmental Conditions and Enviromental Loads”. 9. 27-50.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.2. From Figure 9-5 this requires UTz/σ > 2.0 4.G. the limiting Hs of the operation is in this case given by Hs.5 3. Fluid Mech. (1990) “Sea Loads on Ships and Offshore Structures”.0 3. /6/ Abramowitz. Applied Ocean Research Vol.A.0 sec. I.6 References /1/ F.1 Probability 0.4 The probability of the lifted object hitting the barge is a function of the non-dimensional number 0. NTNU. is equal to the wave motion.9. /7/ DNV-OS-H205 (planned issued 2010) “DNV Marine Operations.M. O. B. J.0001 0. /3/ Faltinsen.5 4. DET NORSKE VERITAS .0 1 0. Dover edition. Lifting Operations”.5 1.5 τ= UT z Requiring the probability to be less than a given number ε.001. (2002) “Experimental study of the wave propagation and decay in a channel through a rigid ice-sheet”. and Stegun.5. (2001) “On the piston and sloshing modes in moonpools”.001 0.

76 0. long cylinders in infinite fluid (far from boundaries).15 0.2 a / b = 0.125 0.19 π a2 d/a 0.10 0.2 0.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.61 π a2 0.e.15 0. i.234 - βρπa 4 d / a = 0.1 0.14 1.85 0.69 a/b=2 a/b=1 a / b = 0.2 Vertical 0.0 π a2 2 4 ρa 4 (csc4 α f (α ) − π 2 ) / 2π where f (α ) = 2α 2 − α sin 4α + 0.40 0.5 sin 2 2α and sin α = 2ab /( a 2 + b 2 ) 2a Horizontal ⎛a⎞ ⎛a⎞ 1− ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ ⎝b⎠ ⎝b⎠ π b2 π /2<α <π 2a 2a a/b=∞ a / b = 10 a/b=5 a/b=2 a/b=1 a / b = 0.059 ρπa4 for a = b only DET NORSKE VERITAS .72 2.147 0.0 2.5 a / b = 0.15 0.0 1.70 1.0 ∞ 0.0 Vertical π a2 2 π ρa 4 Vertical 1.05 0.25 Vertical 1.1 Horizontal or 1.0 π a2 ρ π 8 (b 2 − a 2 ) 2 π b2 Vertical 1.21 1.31 0.67 0.234 0.05 d / a = 0.36 1.0 5.61 1.5 a / b = 0.10 d / a = 0. April 2010 Page 81 APPENDIX A ADDED MASS COEFFICIENTS Table A-1 Analytical added mass coefficient for two-dimensional bodies.0 π a2 ρ π 8 a4 b Circular cylinder with two fins Vertical 1.51 1.98 2.23 β1 ρπa 4 or β 2 ρπb 4 a/b β1 β2 πa 2 0. Added mass (per unit length) is Aij = ρCAAR [kg/m] where AR [m2] is the reference area Section through body Direction of motion CA AR Added mass moment of inertia [(kg/m)*m2] 1.0 1.0 π a2 0 2b Vertical Horizontal 1.5 1.15 0.10 β 0.

2 3.6 1. i.2 d/a = 0.6 0.e.4 7.4 d/a = 0.2 d/a = 0.7 5.0 4.5 2.3 1.3 2.0 0.2 0.7 0.160 1.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.8 1.5 - b 1.044 1.6 4.2 - b/a 0. Added mass (per unit length) is Aij = ρCAAR [kg/m] where AR [m2] is the reference area (Continued) Section through body Direction of motion CA AR Added mass moment of inertia [(kg/m)*m2] Horizontal π2 3 −1 π a2 Horizontal ⎛ h 2a ⎞ − 1+ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 2a h ⎠ c/a 2 π a2 b c a A d 2a 2a B A moving B fixed Horizontal Vertical 0.8 d/a = 0. April 2010 Page 82 Table A-1 Analytical added mass coefficient for two-dimensional bodies.1 2ab 3.096 1.1 0.5 1.1 4.024 1.7 4.9 1. long cylinders in infinite fluid (far from boundaries).4 2.0 2.0 3.2 5.0 1.0 4.0 d/a = ∞ d/a = 1.7 2.8 6.000 1.224 π a2 a b Cylinder within pipe b2 + a2 b2 − a2 π a2 s y r θ x a a a m yy = mrr sin 2 θ + mss cos 2 θ Cross section is a a a symmetric about r mxx = mrr cos 2 θ + mss sin 2 θ and s axes a mxy = 1 a a ( mrr − mss ) sin 2θ 2 Shallow water 2b d c b b 2 2 2 2 2b − ln 4ε + − +ε + ε cε π c 3π π c d = 1 − ε where ε << 1 c 2 ρc 2 DET NORSKE VERITAS .

00 1.68 0.045 0.0 CA 0.0 4.917 0.984 0.59 2.637 CA 0.0 10.036 0.830 CA 2/π b/a 5.840 0.933 0.500 0.0 4.059 0.082 0.758 0.0 5.15 0.00 10.801 0.757 0.991 0.13 0.50 1.5 4.0 6.690 0.00 ∞ CA 0.24 0.0 3.00 2.0 b/a 1.642 0.500 0. April 2010 Page 83 Table A-2 Analytical added mass coefficient for three-dimensional bodies in infinite fluid (far from boundaries).622 0.917 0.5 2.989 0.579 0.0 7.933 0.972 0.00 5.872 0.826 0.11 0.8 10.0 b/a 3.704 0.08 Square prisms Vertical a2 b DET NORSKE VERITAS .00 6.000 VR 4 π a3 3 Elliptical disc Vertical π 6 a2 b Flat plates Rectangular plates Vertical π 4 a2 b Triangular plates Vertical 1 (tan θ)3 / 2 π a3 3 Spheres Any direction ½ 4 π a3 3 CA a/b Bodies of revolution Spheroids 2b 2b Lateral or axial 2a 1.36 0.000 0.0 2.0 5.3 12.964 CA 0.0 7.704 0.934 0.304 0.0 1.900 0.156 0.945 4 π b2 a 3 2b 2c CA = Axial 2a α0 2 −α0 ∞ 0 −3/ 2 Ellipsoid where α 0 = εδ ∫ (1 + u ) (ε + u ) 2 −1/ 2 (δ + u ) 2 −1/ 2 du 4 π abc 3 Axis a > b > c ε = b/a δ = c/a b/a 1.952 0.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.0 2.029 Lateral 0.50 3.0 8.0 2.947 1.25 8.25 1.00 CA 1.0 3. Added mass is Aij=ρCAVR [kg] where VR [m3] is reference volume Body shape Circular disc Direction of motion Vertical b/a ∞ 14.17 4.0 1.0 Axial 0.19 0.894 0.210 0.762 0.897 0.860 0.0 7.0 6.0 6.5 1.

78 0.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.62 0.00 πa2b DET NORSKE VERITAS .5 5.96 1.0 9.0 ∞ 0. Added mass is Aij=ρCAVR [kg] where VR [m3] is reference volume (Continued) Body shape Direction of motion b/2a CA CA VR Right circular cylinder a b Vertical 1.2 2. April 2010 Page 84 Table A-2 Analytical added mass coefficient for three-dimensional bodies in infinite fluid (far from boundaries).90 0.

4 D Wire.0 1.45 1.021 0.5 CDS 1.2 1.0 1.35 1.5 2.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103. Geometry Drag coefficient.0 1. Circular cylinder with thin fin T << D D L/D 0 0.4 1.2 1.0 DET NORSKE VERITAS . Re = uD/ν = Reynolds number.042 0.38 1.4 0.0 1. Drag force per unit length of slender element is f = ½ρCDSDu2.1 0.5 2.1.7 0.07 1.38 1.02 1.6 Re ~ 5 × 104 CDS = (1-D/H)-nCD | H = ∞ for 0 < D/H < 0.0 0. CDS 1.50 2. Rectangle with thin splitter plate L/D 0.67 1.0 6. stud (relative chain diameter) Chain stud less (relative chain diameter) 2.33 1.0 Re ~ 105 3.48 1.333 CDS 2.36 1.6 1.0 .250 0 0.9 1.D.0 2.25 2.0 . (1984) Applied Fluid Dynamics Handbook.40 1.1 2.47 1.29 1.2.021 0. Rectangle in a channel L/D n 0 1.15 1.2 .0 1. Rectangle with rounded corners L/D 0.33 0.0 Re ~ 105 L/D 2.1 Re > 103 5.2 1. Adopted from Blevins.4 0.1. April 2010 Page 85 APPENDIX B DRAG COEFFICIENTS Table B-1 Drag coefficient on non-circular cross-sections for steady flow CDS.6 0.50 0 0.9 2.4 .5 2.2 2. six strand Wire. spiral no sheathing Wire.6 2.5 CDS L 1.0 R/D 0 0.2 2.8 1.2 0.083 0.107) e CDS 1.30 10 1.1.46 1.89 0.39 1. spiral with sheathing Chain.5 R/D 0 0. Wire and chains Type (R = 104 .0 4.3 2. Krieger Publishing Co.2 2.25 1.33 1.25 0. R.8 2.167 0.1 1. D = characteristic width [m].8 1.8 1.1 2.43 1.6 1.4 1.167 0.4 T/D 5 1.2.3 0.5 .4 0.2 0.6 2.

Thin flat plate inclined to flow ⎧ 2π tan θ .235 0.0 6. Rounded nose section L/D 0.D.0 4. 90 o ≥ θ > 12o 1 ⎪ ⎩ 0.283/sinθ CL = CN cos θ CDS = CN sin θ DET NORSKE VERITAS .1 1.4 Re ~4.335 CDS 1.015 0.5 1.90 0.8 1.3 40 2.16 0.8 1. D = characteristic width [m].5 1.9 2.0 2.68 0.4 45 2. Re = uD/ν = Reynolds number.9.5 1. Diamond with rounded corners L0/D0 0. Geometry Drag coefficient.167 0.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103. Inclined square θ 0 5 10 15 20 25 CDS 2.3 1. Thin flat plate normal to flow CDS = 1.7 1.70 0.1 Re ~ 105 Fore and aft corners not rounded Lateral corners not rounded 8.0 2.7 × 104 7.040 0.167 0.1 30 2. θ < 8o ⎪ CN = ⎨ .2 2.5 1. Adopted from Blevins.64 9.222 + 0. (1984) Applied Fluid Dynamics Handbook.1 1.118 0. Drag force per unit length of slender element is f = ½ρCDSDu2.2 35 2. Re > 104 10.0 R/D0 0.7 1. R.1 1.021 0. CDS 6.5 1.083 0. Krieger Publishing Co.0 CDS 1. April 2010 Page 86 Table B-1 (Continued) Drag coefficient on non-circular cross-sections for steady flow CDS.

0 CDS 1.95 1.00 2. (1984) Applied Fluid Dynamics Handbook.13 1.15 1.90 14. April 2010 Page 87 Table B-1 (Continued) Drag coefficient on non-circular cross-sections for steady flow CDS.3 0.10 0.25 Re > 103 15.22 0.67 0.65 1.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.80 1. Geometry Drag coefficient.6 DET NORSKE VERITAS .9 or 2.D.25 0. Re = uD/ν = Reynolds number.5 1. Two thin plates in tandem E/D 2 3 4 6 10 20 30 ∞ CDS1 1. Thin lifting foil CDS ~ 0.9 Re ~ 4 × 103 CDS2 0.125 0.20 1.65 1. D = characteristic width [m].9 1.50 1.85 C DS = for 0 < D/H < 0. Drag force per unit length of slender element is f = ½ρCDSDu2.9 1. R.0 15.0 5.96 1.0 3.0 1.0 1. Ellipse D/L 0.01 CL = 2π sin θ CM = (π/4) sin 2θ (moment about leading edge) CM = 0 about point D/4 behind leading edge 12.9 1.33 1. 13.6 1.9 Re ~4 × 103 multiple values due to jet switch Drag on each plate.10 2.0 CDS (Re ~105) 0. Adopted from Blevins.00 1. Thin plate extending part way across a channel 1. Two thin plates side by side E/D 0. Krieger Publishing Co.52 or 2.76 0. CDS 11.9 1.4 ( 1 − D / H ) 2.70 1.0 2.42 or 2.0 10.

1 1. Isosceles triangle 1.05 θ 30 60 90 120 DET NORSKE VERITAS . R.15 2. D = characteristic width [m]. Geometry Drag coefficient.4 1. (1984) Applied Fluid Dynamics Handbook. Adopted from Blevins. Krieger Publishing Co. CDS 16.9 2. Isosceles triangle θ CDS (Re ~ 104) 30 60 90 120 17. Drag force per unit length of slender element is f = ½ρCDSDu2.D.75 CDS (Re = 104) 1. Re = uD/ν = Reynolds number.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103. April 2010 Page 88 Table B-1 (Continued) Drag coefficient on non-circular cross-sections for steady flow CDS.6 1.1 2.

L/D 2 5 10 20 40 50 100 Sub critical flow Re < 105 0.97 0. April 2010 Page 89 Table B-2 Drag coefficient on three-dimensional objects for steady flow CDS.0 2.50 1.95 0.93 0.90 0.91 0.98 ∞ C DS = κC DS Supercritical flow Re > 5·105 0.90 Re > 103 Rectangular plate normal to flow direction u B H Circular cylinder.0 5.82 0.0 4.95 Re = 1.80 0.99 1.99 Re > 103 L/D D u D 1. Geometry Dimensions B/H 1 5 10 ∞ CDS 1.74 0. Drag force is defined as FD = ½ρCDSSu2.0 1. C DS is the 2D steady drag coefficient.62 0.87 0. L/D u L Square rod parallel to flow D 0 1 2 4 7 1. D DET NORSKE VERITAS .80 0.15 0.68 0.82 0.5 2.87 0.87 0.5 3.7·105 L Circular cylinder normal to flow.90 0.98 0.85 0.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.12 0. = uD/ν = Reynolds number where D = characteristic dimension.00 κ κ u L ∞ κ is the reduction factor due to finite length.58 0. S Re = projected area normal to flow direction [m2].0 1.16 1.20 1. Axis parallel to flow.

8 2.0 Cd2 1.5b 2.6 -1.8 -1.8 1.0 -1.8 -1.1 -1.9 0 45 90 135 180 1.4 0 0 45 90 135 180 1.2 -1.8 0 0 45 90 1. the total drag and lift coefficients on the profile are given by Lift force Incident velocity C D = C d 1 cos α + C d 2 sin α C D = −C d 1 sin α + C d 2 cos α Profile α α (deg) 0 45 90 135 180 Cd1 1.7 0.0 0.6 0.4 0 0 180 1.7 0 0. April 2010 Page 90 Table B-3 Drag-lift force on two-dimensional profiles for steady flow Force components are defined as Pd1 = ½ρCd1bU 2 and Pd2 = ½ρCd2bU 2 (note that the same characteristic dimension b is used for both components) where U is the incident velocity at angle α.3 -1.8 1.5 0 0 1.0 0.1 Profile Drag force α (deg) 0 45 90 135 180 Cd1 2.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.1 1.6 0.1 0.7 0 0.9 1.9 -2.1 -1.6 -1.4 0 45 90 0.6 1.5 b 0.1 2.0 -1.2 -2.8 2.8 -1.9 2.8 -2.3 0 0 DET NORSKE VERITAS .7 0.9 0 -1.5 1.7 -0.8 1.8 0 -0.0 1.6 0.8 Cd2 0 0. as shown.9 0 45 90 135 180 2.0 0 0 0.4 1. If the lift force is positive.

0 999.60 DET NORSKE VERITAS .94 1.7 995.56 1.9 999.165 1021.41 1.270 1027. [kg/m3] deg [C] Fresh water Salt water Dry air 1. ρ.55 0.50 0. [m2/s] Fresh water Salt water Dry air 1.52 1.247 1026.2 20 1.83 · 10-6 1.Recommended Practice DNV-RP-H103.7 10 1.184 1023.31 1.05 1.36 1. sea water and dry air Temperature Density.1 15 1.7 998.00 1.32 · 10-5 1.80 0.8 0 1.89 0. ν.45 1.293 1028.2 997.0 5 1.14 1.0 25 1.6 1000.226 1025.205 1024.85 1.6 30 Kinematic viscosity.9 999. April 2010 Page 91 APPENDIX C PHYSICAL CONSTANTS Table C-1 Density and viscosity of fresh water.35 1.19 1.79 · 10-6 1.

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