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# OUTILS ET SYSTEMES EVOLUES POUR LE CONDITIONNEMENT DES POUDRES ET DES LIQUIDES

FRICTION

A friction coefficient on its own is not enought to characterize a material. Only a material PAIRING can be used to identify a coefficient. Then we need to distinguish between slip and adhesion. The former is a characteristic of resistance to displacement during an established phase of movement while the other analyses the force required to put the elements observed in motion from a static position. That is why a motor vehicle comes to a halt faster when its tyres do not slip, that is to say when roadholding conditions are good. The friction coefficient is the expression of the F/P ratio where F is the force needed to enable the moving component to slide and P is its weight. The friction or slip coefficient value depends on: (by decreasing order of importance)  the pair of materials in contact.  lubrication.  the surface finish of the materials.  temperature. The adhesion coefficient value for a given pair of materials will be equal to or greater than the friction coefficient because of the greater impact made by the surface finish. Nevertheless, as a first approximation and in most cases, it is perfectly reasonable to combine the two figures. The friction coefficient value does not depend on:  the geometric nature and the dimension of the surfaces in contact.  the intensity of the normal effort. The adhesion coefficient value can vary according to:  the geometric nature and the dimension of the surfaces in contact.  the intensity of the normal effort.

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FT_L_015 Friction

S.A.S. au capital de 1 440 000 €  R.C.S. Lyon B 954 504 742  Siret : 954 504 742 00030  N• ident. TVA FR 33 954 504 742  Code NAF 2562B

.03/0.25 /0.S. .15 0.1 0. The slip effort rises with the level of the friction coefficient or of adhesion factor.05 0. .05 0. . 0.23 0.45 0.C.17 0.07 0.08 0.11 . TVA FR 33 954 504 742  Code NAF 2562B .1 / 0.09 0. .OUTILS ET SYSTEMES EVOLUES POUR LE CONDITIONNEMENT DES POUDRES ET DES LIQUIDES FRICTION COEFFICIENT FOR THE MAIN MATERIALS N.12 0.065 0. Steel XC35 XC35 XC35 16NC6 steel Steel Case-hardened Chilled cast iron steel Case-hardened Chilled cast iron steel Steel Cast iron Steel Cast iron Z30C13 steel Grey cast iron alloy 16NC6 steel AU4G 16NC6 steel AU4G Hardened steel Hardened bronze Hardened steel Hardened bronze Hardened steel 16NC6 steel Chromiumplated stainless steel Chromium plated stainless steel Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel Graphite steel Graphite steel Hardened bronze CuSn12Zn1P Aluminium Aluminium Tinplated copper Tinplated copper Sintered metal Sintered metal Ferrodo Graphite Teflon Teflon (PTFE) lubricated lubricated lubricated lubricated lubricated 0.1 0.075 0. .A. .1/0.2 0. Materials Steel Steel Hardened steel Hardened steel Materials Steel Steel Hardened steel Hardened steel Contact grease oil oil under pressure water oil water lubricated lubricated oil water vaseline lubricated oil under pressure water/vaselin e Friction coefficient 0.08 .08 / 0.06 0.09 0.35 0.09 0. .2 0.05 0.12 0.1 0.11 / 0. . 0. .08 0.12 0.12 .4 Adhesion coefficient 0. .25 0. 2/2 FT_L_015 Friction S.1 0. Lyon B 954 504 742  Siret : 954 504 742 00030  N• ident.05 0. . au capital de 1 440 000 €  R. .25/0.2 0.12 .1 0.11 0. .15 0.S.B.05/0.

21 0.20 0.43 0.6 Grey cast iron Machined ductile alloy cast iron Grey cast iron White cast iron alloy Cast iron Bronze Cast iron Rubber Burnished cast Leather iron Burnished cast Leather iron Burnished cast New rope iron Bronze Bronze Rubber Burnished cast iron Rubber Average floor Rubber Average floor Rubber Average floor Rubber Average floor Tyre Road Tyre Road Asphalt at 25 Tyre km/hour Good condition Iron wheels asphalt Iron wheels Stone slabs Iron wheels Dry rails Iron wheels Wood slabs Iron wheels Stone slabs Stone slabs in poor Iron wheels repair Cobbled road in Iron wheels good repair Cobbled road in Iron wheels dusty conditions Friction coefficient 0.003! /0. . au capital de 1 440 000 €  R.06 0.80 0. .65 0.08 0.11 0.80 .15 .10 0.3/0. .023 0.018 0.80 0. .2 0.80 0. . .03 0.5 0.075 0. . .2 . . Lyon B 954 504 742  Siret : 954 504 742 00030  N• ident.80 0.20 0.A.C.1 0. TVA FR 33 954 504 742  Code NAF 2562B .1 0.13 0.79 0. 0.8 0.OUTILS ET SYSTEMES EVOLUES POUR LE CONDITIONNEMENT DES POUDRES ET DES LIQUIDES Materials Materials Contact water lubricated water oil oil oil oil oil fat wet muddy very wet wet 3/3 Steel Teflon (PTFE) Stainless steel Graphite teflon Steel PTFE bearing block Steel PTFE bearing block Steel Polyethylene Steel Nylon Steel Nylon Steel Nylon Steel Acetal Steel Polyamide 6. 0.15 . .S.5 0.25 0.S. .010 0. 0.02/0. . .43 0.02 0. .43 0.028 Adhesion coefficient 0.12 0.02/0.15 0. .033 0.20 0.006 0.10 0. .05 0.35 0.20 0.5/0.43 0.6 0. FT_L_015 Friction S.3/0.80 0.30 0.

A. experience has shown that results are similar to those recorded for steel. .003 0.65 . TECHNICAL CERAMICS Friction coefficient for pairs of materials involving ceramics are not available at present.OUTILS ET SYSTEMES EVOLUES POUR LE CONDITIONNEMENT DES POUDRES ET DES LIQUIDES Materials Iron wheels Iron wheels Iron wheels Iron wheels Oak Oak Oak Oak Oak Oak (grain direction) Beads Pebbles Bearings Ball bushing Materials Uneven cobbled road.S.52 0.C. Lyon B 954 504 742  Siret : 954 504 742 00030  N• ident.05 0.80 0. .005 0. 0.16 0.44 0.15 /0. . . TVA FR 33 954 504 742  Code NAF 2562B .54 0.26 0. muddy Earth track in good condition Earth track in poor condition Sand Oak Oak Oak New rope Leather Iron Flat Flat rail Pins Contact rubbed wet wet - Friction coefficient 0.25 0. au capital de 1 440 000 €  R.43 0.34 0. .S.30 0. . 4/4 FT_L_015 Friction S.71 0.08 0.035 0.16 0.002 Adhesion coefficient .33 0. However.