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INTO

CHINESE

SUPERSTITIONS
S.J.
•*••

By Henry Dore,

TRANSLATED FROM THE FRENCH

By

D.J. Finn, S.J.

Second Part
THE CHINESE PANTHEON
Profusely illustrated

Vol.

IX

TAOIST PERSONAGES

T'USEWEI PRINTING PRESS
Shanghai

1931

X>3
7JL/
v.

9

3

1

*i

8 4 «

CONTENTS
SECOND PART — VOLUME
IX

Contents
List of illustrations

I

Preface

VII XI

CHAPTER IV
limrtorlal Ciodis, Oienii

(Taoism)
Article
I

Yuen Shi Tien Tsun (T) The Eternal The legend of Yuen Shi
genealogy
of

(1)
1-3

T'ien wang.

...

4-5 6-8

Appendix — The
Article II

Taoism

Yuh-hwang, The August (Jade) Emperor The modern Jupiter.

I.

II.

Yuh-hwang Yuh-hwang

in

legend
conferred

9-10

in actual history

10-12

III.

Honorific titles

on

Yuh-hwang....

12-16

Article III
(1)
is affixed

T'ung-T'ien-Kiao-Chu (T)
)

17-18
this letter

(T

means that

the temples of the divinity to which

are kept by Taoist priests. (T. B.) that they are kept by Budhist priests also.

When

the letter B. and 0.

are

alone without

(

),

they are meant to

show that the

divinity is also honoured by Budhists and, or Confiueianists.

—u—
Article
Article

IV

Hung-Kiun-Tao-Jen
Hiien-Tien-Shang Ti

(T)
^T B)
skies.
...

1!)

V
VI

The sovereign
Article

of

The Gloomy

20-26

Muh-Kung and Kin-mu (T) The god of the immortals and
Preliminary notions

his Consort.

...27-29

I.

Tung-wang-kung.

28-30
31-34

II.

Si-wang-mu
The eight Immortals. Pah- sien
List of eight immortals
Classification

Article VII

(T) B. C.

35-36

and distinctive features

.36-37
39-40

Han

chung-li

Lii-tung-pin

41-43
.
.

Chang-kwo-lao
Lan-ts'ai-hwo

44-45
46-47
48-51

Han-siang-tze Ts'ao-kwoh-kiu

52-55
.56-57
...

Ho

sien-ku

T«ieh-kwai-li

58-59

Li of

The Eight hundreds

— Yung

Yeu-Kiiin-ping Tung-Chung-shu Ko-Yung-kwei Chang shen

— Fan

C'heng60-62 63

General Conclusion
Article VIII

Liu-hai-sien

(T.B.)

C
64-65
...

Thejmmortal
I.

Liu-hai.

II.

Name and Legend An Apparition of Liu-hai
IX
Chang-tao-ling
(T)

66-68

Article
I.

Chang- Tao-ling, according to the Taoist Book ... and Works of other writers.

.

69-76

II.

Chang-Tao-ling

in

history.

76-79

III.

Chang-Tao-ling according to the Histories of the Three Kingdoms. — Origin of the
title

"T'ien shi" ^Bjjj (Heaven-Teacher) 79-86

Article XI .

IT.. His Doctrine. 139 140-141 Article (T) Appendix I. king. III.g-yuen-shwai Generalissimo P'ang 164-165 Article XXVII XXVIII Liu. His Doctrine. 147-149 Appendix his I. II.. Li-yuen-shwai Li (T) Generalissimo Article 166-167 Liu-t'ien-kiiin The Heaveanly Chief 168 . 142-145 Article XXII Chwang-Tsze. III. — The work historical Chwang-Tsze ^^ and 150-153 The man. — Historical notes II. 3E Sa-chen-jen. (Tj . Article XXIII Hwai nan tsze (T) The sage from The south of The Hwai River— 145-157 Appendix I. The Literary School of Hwai-nan-tsze The works of Hwai-nan-tsze ^ f& ir 158-159 Article XXIV Wang-yuen-shwai (T) 160-161 Generalissimo Article Wang (T) XXV XXVI Sie-tien-kiiin B 162-1^3 (T B) Sie the Heavenly Leader Article Hwun-ki-p'ar. Wang-lin-kwan. The II. H^ fg IT 133-135 136-138 A (T) Article XX XXI Chen yuan the Immortal (Sien) Lieh-Tsze.— IV — I." Nan-Kwa-Chwang-Sheng Author of The "Nan-hwa145-146 is T'ao-chow-kung's son (|5^^^) condemned. — The author. His Works. His work. historical Lieh-Tsze and Ids works.

." shwai . 172-173 Article XXXII Tang yuan Generalissimo (Tj Tang 174 (T) 175 (T) Article XXXIII Generalissimo Article Shih yuan shwai Shih XXXIV Fu-ying-yuan-shwai Generalissimo Fu-ying B 167-177 Article XXXV Yang yuan shwai Generalissimo Yang (T) B 178 Article XXXVI Kao yuan shwai (BT) Generalissimo Kao (a faultless healer) Chang-yuan-shwai (T B) Generalissimo Chang. Wang- (T) and Kao . 192 . Averter of The Small-pox 179-180 Article XXXVII 181 Article XXXVIII Sinning.. keu yuan shwai (T) C 182-183 (Thunder Department) Article Article XXXIX XL XLI XLII Tie yuan shwai (T) B 184 K'ang-yuan-shwai Generalissimo K'ang (T B) 185 Article Mung yuan shwai (The Merciful) (T)B 186-187 (T) 188-189 Article Fung-hwo-yuan T'ien yuan shwai Generalissimo T'ien (of the Fire Ministry) Article Wind and XLIII Hiu-Li-hu-Sien Genii of (T) 190-191 The Article The Nine Carp Lake (T) XLIV Wang-Shi-Ch'en.—V— Article XXIX Wang Kao Rh yuan shwai The Two Generalissimos.. 196 Article XXX T'ien-hwai-pih yuan shwai Generalissimo T'ien hwa-pih T'ien yii 170-171 Article XXXI yuan shwai (T) The Generalissimo "Field Rain..

204-206 Article LII Tsien-li-yen li Shun fung-rh (TB) 207-209 210-215 Thousand Article LIII Article Eye and Fair wind Ear (B T) C Kiangtszeya ( LIV San Mao B T) The three Mao brothers 216-218 Article LV LVI The LVII Kin-K'eii-shang-ti and Yuh-K'eii-shang-ti (T B) Article 219 Wu-lao live Ancient of days better ..— VI — Article XLV Lii-Shan. 220-221 Article Some Immortals. Lu XLVI Hwang-Sien-Shi Hwang the Immortal XLVII (T) 195 (T) 196-198 Article Peh-Kih-Ku-Sie-yuan Executive of North Pole exorcisms Article XLVIII Peh-hoh-T'ung T-ze The White Crane Boy (T) 199-200 Article XLIX L Yang-sze-tsiang-kiiin (TB) 201 Generalissimo Yang Sze Article Chih-KIoh Sien (T) The Bare Foot Immortal Article LI 202-203 Wen-yuan-shwai Generalissimo (TB) . Wen . of 'Saints" in Taoist 226-227 .. honoured known or more 222-225 Article LVIII The usual grouping Temples.K'wang-Feu Sien of Sheng (T) 193-194 Master K'wang-Feu Article Mt.

Ho T'ieh-kwai Li 58 152. 150. 66 that of "the five 155. the Pearly Emperor.VII LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. Tsao Kwoh-kiu Han Siang-tze T'ieh Kwai-li.. 134. 147.. The tortoise and the serpent Chen-wu. 138. travelling on the lakes . holding in his hand the three pills which he gave to Lao-tze. Chang-kwo-lao Lan Ts'ai-hwo.. hand up flag 22 30 137. 46 4^ 52 145. 151. Chen-wu after his victory. 143. No 131. his rolled 19 135.. . 153. holding in his 20 136. Han Ts'ao Siang-tze Kwoh. Page Yuen shi T'ien-tsun Yuh-hwang. 149. Hung kiun Lao-tze (the Great Putter). . Han Chung-li The Fairy Goddess Ho.. This picture is Chang 60 60 62 62 affixed in 154. Yueiishi t'ien tsun and T'ungf-t'ien kiao-chu lay at his feet. The king and queen of the Immortals Excess in the cups among the Immortals 32 36 139. 141. 142. 144. 132. families as a protective and luckbearing talisman Picture known as T'ien-shi and his insignia.kiu The Fairy Lady.. Han Chung-li Lu Tung-pin on Kwei-sing's kraken Chang Kwo-lao Lan T'sai hwo . 140. 146. T'ung-t'ien Kiao-chu 10 18 133. 148. The Immortal Liu-hai.. Lu Tung-pin. The eight Immortals at their awaking 40 42 41 . venomous animals" 80 Hsii the Immortal. The Goddess Si-wang-mu (the Western Royal Mother) Tung-wang kung and Si-wang-mu.

the peerless doctor Generalissimo Chang. The Immortal Chen-yuan Lieh-tse 170. 183.124 164. the 164 166 176. 172. 160. the heavenly king 158. 134 136 138 140 146 169. 168. 163. 159. 178 180 who protects from smallpox. moat coming . 167. 180 . the heavenly leader 162 The Generalissimo Hwun-k'i-pang Generalissimo Li Liu. Ving Ch'eng-siu Heng-hah.. The blowing and sniffing Taoist Monk. 173. . the heavenly king T'ai-yih Chen-jen 100 108 S V 161.- VIIIPeg Xo 156. Generalissimo Fu-ying Generalissimo Yang and his military attendant.. (in the Yuh-hwang Monastery) The God of the White Tiger star. Wen. 185. 171. 157. Eul-lang 128 Wang-ling-kwan (In a monastery Sah Chen-jen and the God of the out of the water city T'ung Chow). Generalissimo Kao. Hwai-nan-tse. Li. the heavenly king Chao. the tower-bearer 96 96 98 98 Ma. 162. 165. 175 176 . 179.. Kao and Wang The Generalissimo Tien hwa-pih Tien-yu Vuan-shwai (Generalissimo Tien-yu) Generalissimo Tang Generalissimo Shih 170 172 174 180. (In the 126 Hwang Monastery) at 126 166. The two Generalissimos. 186. 154 160 Nan-hwa Chwang-sheng (Chwang-tze) Sieh. Generalissimo Wang . 181. The God of the Bine Dragon star — Cheng Kiu-knng . 177. 175. 184.. 174. 182. Teu-mu Na-to San-t'ai-tze 112 . heavenly leader 168 169 178.

. eldest . 210 Written charm burnt honour of the Three Princes 216 . Wang-shi-ch'en brother Yellow River. writer of magic charms.. 190. 192.. 201 204 -08 Wen Shun-fung-eul in 198. San Mao 201. Yen Chen-k'ing. The The three Brothers Musicians raises a flood in the 191. The Four Patrons of Longevity (Another 220 manner of representing them) 202. 196. that exorcises canonised.-IX No 187.ng-suh .192 teacher Kw'ang-feu of Lu-shan. the first officer of the Ministry North Pole 196 200 195. Page Generalissimo T'ieh Generalissimo K'ang Generalissimo Meng „ 184 184 1N6 188 189. The divining youth Peh-hoh (White Crane) General Yangsze Generalissimo Ts'ien-li-ven. 199 200. and his Kw'd. 197. 194 194 193. 188. The Three Princes San Mao 216 21!) Kin-k'ueh Shangti and Yuh-k'ueh Shangti 203—204-205—206. Hwang the Immortal. 194.. • «»- II .

.

XXII. The volume "demons" supreme its treats of the contribution made by Taoist to the Chinese Pantheon. because Fr. legend and doctrine. The present translator must therefore confine himself to giving a faithful rendering of the French text. few new matter to Articles VII. That is to come later in a volume. Dore's monumental work. the translator of the first eight volumes of Fr. Dore has given "The Three Beliefs are M a hint at the head of each article by the use of the letters T (Buddhist). which will deal with Lao-tsze's life. The text and illustrations of this volume represent those who beside Lao-tsze claim veneration or worship . XXI. he has himself added considerable I. Dore is alterations: happily with us still and has reviewed these still better. quasi-divinities or even such have connexions rather with Taoism than with Buddhism or Confucianism. spirits (in celestial rulers as Greek sense). IX. has laid clown his pen and gone to the sure reward of his labours. Kennelly's work. This volume not an account of Taoism in its historical development in China.PREFACE Fr. namely. heroes. Kennelly. the working principle fffj ^ — " are Of course the traces of One" f§ H? H evident again and again and Fr. Dore's pen. Another comes to resume the task though and confessedly incapable of adding learned. is (Taoist). succinct notes called from such wide reading as distinguished less qualified Fr. B C (Confucian). preface in XXIV and LVII. now under Fr. The hope of helping the reader to an orientation amid such masses of material and also to appreciation of translator adds this the some features of the book which otherwise might escape notice. those worthies. Such petty changes as he has made are not distinguished.

he seems to he is as recent died in as the battle of Marathon B. metaphysics and — Tao-Teh-Eing (the Book of the Principle and of (1) its Action). As divinity and there is the Lao-tsze of history. the T'ai among the Immortals f[Jj.— xir — from the Taoists or the eclectics of to-day It is — or yesterday. most potent A few word about preface. a a historical personage. reigns in Lao-tsze The historical gave the initial impulse to a school of philosophy that produced Lieh tsze and Chwang tsze in the fifth century B. This is the Lao-tsze who ^if. .year of the Chow j§] Dynasty which he had helped with his magic to establish itself: he had taken a leading part in warring down all those other demons. ^ regions beyond the Western Passes in 1030 B. that is in the earl_\. to could claim ethics though always very obscure and tending to esoteric mysticism. make a dichotomy there is the Lao-tsze of legend. This latter Lao-tsze may be found for example in Articles the III. XLV and LIII. Lao-tsze will help his the purpose of this To understand : appearances in this book. XXII. in fact. and Hwai-nan-tsze in the second (see Articles XXI. Confucianism and even a primitive magic (a fourth China but has been is not officiallv counted in ). — for have that same year 490 and he King was probably the author of the doctrinal treatise the Tao-TehAs a mythical personage. he left China for $j[ $£. C. and thaumaturgs who supported the Bhang tyrant. (1) therefore a puddingstone conglomerate of fact and fiction in from history and myth under formative influences streaming "relis'ion" that Buddhism.C. The classic of Taoism is the — XXIV below). See note at end of preface. some hold that its sources are to be found farther back and probably outside China altogether. This is the Taoism that be a philosophy cosmology.. Ts'ing -fc Third (Lowest) Heaven. a we must magician. Lao-tsze then being to this foreign thought what Confucius was to the traditions of the earlier Chow. C.

these probably being an inheritance from an earlier strain of Chinese religion. It it has recently been recognized records for us Lao-tsze's thought if not his actual writing: it is vague and difficult in the It centres about an Absolute. a monist principle that the identification in itself of ?v. of Non-interference (4ffi The book XXI. The Saints M A fjf Middle Heaven: Shang Ts'ing J^ (Upper Pure) |J RULER: Ling pao T'ien tsun\ Tao-kiun ^f POPULATION: the Heroes m A (who have perfect rule over Nature). But far from remaining a difficult monistic philosophy with mystic elements. twofold repetition of Lao-tsze As a guide to the hierarchy of worth studying in Vol. It postulates in 3$). Taoism into which one must fit the personages described in this To said to — volume. witness the importance attached to Kiang Tszc-ya and the Eight Diagrams as well as the attachment to a of "rebus" writing bronzes of Shang or Chow. the author's table of here :— I. man attitude of quietism. the same doctrines as developed by the later writers. Ill — English edition — Vol. this Taoist Triad is reproduced Highest Heaven: Yuh Wing: 3£ ^ (Jade Pure) RULER: T'ien pao: iYuan-shi T'it n-t sun (Art\o\e I)or \Yuk-hwang (Article II) ^ ^ POPULATION: II. style that is reminiscent of the earlier this type of Taoism belongs the Triad of Divinities — which is be merely a. Taoism now presents a whole arsenal of magic devices (see the charms explained in Vol. all extreme. V of the French: those spells are in the main Taoisticj. existence. of obscurities. is prolific The reader will find in Articles XXII. VI. demands contraries. attained .— XIII — after to be a two millennia of book of verse. that borrowed from and at times lent to Buddhism. a Pantheon and an eschatology. Taoism developed or absorbed a ritual.

XXXI. XLIX 2. Lowest Heaven: T'ai Ts'ing ± ffi (Great Pure) RULER: souls Shen Pao : 7|ilj} '-$ Lao Kiiin f|[) % A "f* e. XL Chow dynasty against the XLVI. 206 B. e.) XXI. there fact must be there a corps of Heavenly is Officers. II. IV. -255 B. V. XLVIII. .) endowed with divine powers. XLV - (a pupil of Lao Tsze) LVI I (the The Ts'in (255 B. g. XXXIII. VI. POPULATION the Immortals (i. XXXIX The Chow Dynasty (1122 B. XLI. C. XIV. XXIX.) this seems to be regarded as the emergence of Taoism from myth to history: a kind of "epic" moment: see Articles III.) 4. C. XV is one who first come in the train of Buddha whereas LIII historically belongs this period. The most numerous The personages described have places Taoists.C. As a guide classification to follow A which the reader may wish division by periods up for himself the following may be of use: Articles I. LIV. 3. be of and study of all these personages would interest but would take too much space here. in 26 in number.C.) : XVIII. XI. Na-ch'a (Article (Art. XXII. in this in this volume are supposed to hierarchy consisting of some 800 "deified" After Articles below a term "Generalissimo" is to XV be found frequently in the headings: the reason is obvious: as the Chinese Heavens are the prototype (to be understood as "copy") ot the Chinese realm. human class. XV (a (Really a borrowing from Buddhism) : XVI. XIII. XXU. This period apparently condensed myths in itself: it attracts both from the earlier and the later periods. LII seems to be pure myth.— XIV — 111. LII. XXX. XV) first in their Marshal and Wang Ling-kwan XIX) is the dignity. XXXVIII. philosopher Mih Tsze. of the : The period wars of the Slmng (1122 B. 1. LIII. A completely mythical period: XII.C. (?) LVI. XX. Chinese Herakles). XXXVI.

XLVII. A. centre of interest where imagination works on definite details the seventh is — close up to distinct vision where as the third tends to fade away into mythical obscurity.D. must not forget recommend the display of illu. L. D. XXVII.— XV — 5. As this preface I is intended to be the to showman for the production. or that of the For the magic of fairy friends Wang and Kao (Article XXIX). That is. C. LI.) XVIII. XXXII. the eight is the immediate fore-ground. Taoism had settled down — its active formation was going on in the Han period. may have Many of these tales have a human interest — and as samples one might recommend Chwang-tsze and his wife (Article XXIV) or Mong the sympathetic (Article XLI). of "Eight Hundred" Li VII ^A of Lieh Tsze (Article XXI) and of T'len-hwa (Article XXX) present in themselves a sliding about of dates that taken place unrecorded in many other cases. Sui (590 — 618 A. : W — ) 7. one might count the first and second periods as a back-ground of hazy lights.) IX (the very imporXXIV (Hwai-nan-tsze).220 A. XXXVII. personages have human traits. tables. LV .- . 6. (618 907 Eight Immortals except Ts'ao) : — XXIII.: X and XXVIII. (LIV). Tsin 265 The E & 420 A. XXXV. tant . XLII. XLIII (9 Carp-Lake Immortals). of these XXV. D. D. XLIV. (almost the view-point) the fifth is the . of the tals in VII) The Sung (960 — 1228 A. XXXIV. Most (7 a) 8. Eight Immor- Looking at this panorama. by the end of the Sang dynasty. The Han (206 B. and VIII belong to the transition (disorders) period. VII (The and T'ang Dynasties. there is the story of Na-ch'a (Article XV) or of the Nine Brothers (Article XLIII) or of "Television and Listener-in" (Article LII). The period is typical for magic Taoism. (in Article The legends "§"). Chang T'ien-shi).) (One XIX. XXVI. D. LVII (Chang Hang).

we see a constellation token. 196. 137 becomes an ornament in Si-wang-tmi's hair. 156. the head-dress in the various pictures deserves attention: there is the hat of state mien ^distinguished its slanting flat top Ping %£. Fig. 192 as for the J|j£ JjE ^ . ^ on Fig. Fig. it Yuan 201. Many other the head-ornament that hair the within a figures carry gathers little case or cap admitting of various forms of decoration. 182) there is the hat of the ministers : and scholars._XVI — trations. of 138. a 173 there is the yak's tail. ll-l) we have the out-door hat for sun and rain popularly called a "Gong" hat 1$ $% l|)f Among the women's head-gear. at the back. shi T'ien tsun carries in Fig. projecting at the sides (Fig. Among important is the implements or symbols to be noted. 190 as for scholars |j^ £). Fig. for the ingenious touch by which the "phoenix" (1^ or If[) of Fig. they form rare antiquities. Once (Fig. puh-t'eu shun yang kin ^j| fjf (e. Considered in "rcalicr" — themselves. as the next highest nobles had only nine symbols omitting the sun. figure denotes an emperor). often now regarded worn specially like by Taoists. one of the twelve symbols Jp: on the Emperor's tablet. moon and constellation. [^ j^ Chu-wei. 132) there is of a soft material (leather: cf.Figg. Figg. present various forms. 3pj by its pearl strings liu tail dragon-head and . pearls etc (Fig.g. 133. a very album of fast becoming style of First. 168. For the greatest part the other hats worn are the puh-t'eu but with the projecting "feet" turned up into horns Then there are the helmets of which Figg. symbol of conversationalists of their tongues) (leaders of the herd by the constant wagging . In Figg. or Fig. 132. 173 seems as to be the $§ [\]. 138 is noteworthy . : g with raised ridges which were then decorated -^f-) put together with gold. On Fig. we have of the tablets that were part the ceremonies of Jjifj imperial audience or of office as tokens of investiture flfj. this ^. the most ji: the £p Jii-i. 131. the jjfc. 132. a sceptre originally associated with Buddhism example^ or as one of its seven Precious Jewels. 159 ^ and 133 and 199 are representative. |$ the Chung-tsing kwan /£. 155. 139 etc.

156. 135 and 136 of which the unwrapping will cause and rain ^ l| jj£. have the arrangerather would that have Kiang expected might ment attributed to Wen-tvang). There is a "star flag" in Figg. work p. Armour can legs this division -can distinguish clearly the : be seen to advantage in Fig. Doubtless the Pah-kwa will If not. notices at once the left right exposed in is arm In Fig. : II N° 241 Vol this present figg. as will by those who have read Vol III (English ^ %)] ^ fjij. ft spirits. 182).-XVII of the command not to kill living things. 179 are called "wind-fire wheels"). Fig. 143 The instrument carried by Chang and 150) was described for me by a ~£ it Cantonese as (or$q) but he could give no further explanation except that of a tongs-like thing in a the purposes of the magic control of "wind and was some magical apparatus consisting case. There and it diagrams are Ji to be found fig. 190 can flick all demons away (as a Kiang holds a flag charm /ft) and (#%%*) a staff that (4T j$ $|5) of use against demons." that is the meteorological elements ^ >X. 162). 193) holds a charm. The fans in Fig. 153. 174. of "nine joints" Alp edition). 184). 167) carries one Hwang (Fig. 159 where one three pieces shoulders. trunk and — seems to be followed in the leaf-cape. In fig. I must or refer to them II to Mayers: Chinese Reader's of in Manual Part 223. one may find the weapons 185) i| (Fig. — a battle-mace. leaf- girdle and the trousers of Na-ch'a (Fig. 199 below should be noted that fit 153 presents the arrangement known as 199 shows the Ji scheme (though one fig. (the wheels in 162. be familiar to readers. known as ^ (Fig- = % (Fig. a Chinese eye covered with civilian dress and the of very high armour as the mark army rank: Li all higher in rank than the other three. 154. In Figg. 153 and 199 the Pah- whereas % III . are the inevitable formula of command Kivoh-lao over the (Figg. 152 carries a In pretty specimen of the "Wolf-tooth banner" other pictures. 190 are for fire. be easily recognized the characters — Wang Ling-kwan (Fig.

272. figg. Vol. 1 p. In Fig. 215. But at first sight this interest seem so to be altogether absent art. VII fig. the allusiveness of the plates is not by any means exhausted nor their value as illustrations of culture. VII Fig. Fig. An explana153 would be too long. the bats emanating from Liu's breath probably refer potency in calling to his upon the rains (cf. With these antiquities and indications. subjects of Lung-wavg. 201. also Vol. Vol. 107). 90 where frogs." (Cf. from productions for the might most part crude when judged as . The children in Figg. In the series 141-148. there is reference to a combat in which the Eight Immortals overcame the sea-monsters.e. figg. few pictures call for special notice. V. A beings. turtles are bringing : M offerings of valuables to Si-wang-mu) i. but we note that the use of black and red in the "Twelve Branches" were nail down the good-luck all the characters on indicates those figures that are "opposed" or ''congruent''. tion of may 7j< |jt zji ^£. 275. 177. come: away. the thunder will be dreadful.kini as it win — Fig". wealth would be secured by the presence of "Fleaven's-master. 276: Vol. his feet are objects that are usually to be found in the Chinese cornucopia 'M $t (see Vol XI. the Hero of the Dragon-Tiger Mountain. 224). 154 seems to be specially aimed at enticing wealth to come The black tiger is a wealth emblem and beneath the user's way. the twin coins under the tiger's left fore-leg. Health (the chasing of the venomous animals) and malign!"). the "fiery-pearl" under his right hind-leg and a pair objects (identified left : by some as horns that startles the latter heavens) under the this object also is out of the cornucopia's store: the tiger's right fore-leg laises the the Heaven-master" (the imprint "Seal of being Blessing. 1G9 and 185 seem to refer to help in child-birth from these indicate in as a whole are supposed to Chinese calenders whether weather phenomena in the year over which they individually preside will be mild you : The "generalissimos" judge by the general look of the picture: if the year's special Generalissimo is fierce.

X). X). Fire-spirit (Vol. Temples regarded as worthy or unworthy of official recogni- A fg 2 3rd. %. Tung-yoh # -fr (Vol. 192S. Ts'ang Hieh (inventor of jz writing). The 4 Rivers \® jf Ta-ti jf| River Spirits (Vol. Hwang-ti lr iff- (Vol. 1930 Feast of St.). Canton 29th Sept. tion. Fuli-hi {fc i|g (Vol. Polytheistic religions # f$ ffc: of Sahyamuni and Christianity l(l> of Lao-tsze. XII): Yoh-Fci gj Jfe (Vol. XII). $jj. Michael the Archangel. 1.) cf. XII). to be kept up. X. XI): Kuan of (B) ££ tion: religions teaching theism with pure and right inten- credence is admissible. Lei {x tf[ TsuMM H (the Yii rearer of silk-worms Heutsili J& : Vol. T'u-ti ± ^ The Dragon-kings H 3: (Vol. Genii of the mountains. earth. X. divides temples into two classes. VII).). Xote. XI). X. XI). Shen (first Nung || (Vol.— XIX — With this. : The 5 Holy Peaks: XI). a) b) II. "^ to be suppressed. Monotheistic: Mahometanism and Temples A. VI): Hu-o-shen # (Vol. T'ai-shan %k Uj (Vol. XI). Below a note is added to set on record here the official attitude of the Xew China to all that forms the matter of these volumes. decree of the Government of the preservation or destruction of temples Nanking (Home office) relative was published in the Shi-pao to ^ Nov. Those of (A) ^g *f sages and worthies of preceding jfa ages. It I. VI. M Mencius. the Hearth God fefc jjfa . Dore's fullness. we must close a preface that has grown too long and allow the reader to enjoy Fr. (Vol. Kicei-sing ® g and Wen-ch'ang % g cult of the battle-flag 2. Ch'eng-hwang J$ (1 (Vol. %M Mrivers. jjj$ |£: in which purely legendary personages are worshipped with no practical utility whatever. Kung Shu-yan (Vol. iff-. moon etc. X). and A ffi (Vol. $g (harvest-patron): The Great -£• Yii irrigator): Confucius W. 1$t *Jjp(: $& #E (Vol. Temples -X of Stellar Spirits: sun.

e. of ^ i. £7» Ts'ten B# jg (Vol. JJY« fifoen ^ 5^ ^ §| (the Monkey Sun Eh lang Heu-tssc & -?- ^# (Vol. X). Ts'i-t'ien-ta-sheng (Vol. I): Ts'ai shcnfft (Vol. IX). V).£ if (god of riches Vol. g|> Yfc (Vol. Eiien-Van . (trustworthiness). (Vol. .= $|: and v* z fg * ruler: father -fc and son: husband and wife: and the culture of the f§ ^ (benevolence) (justice? right) jjj| (propriety). B.g. Eu-sien (fox-spirit Vol. Chang sien jjflji 5ft {|l| (Vol. XI). by playing on of credulity of people for gain etc. V). The i'r/ffi . XI): Sungtsseniangniang £g ~ M (Vol. the devotion to the ethical relations of the . XI).Ministry of Thunder etc.— XX — 3. XI). V. M: Temples offending against Temples «£ -f- public morality e. A the Cantonese paper of 24 ffc ftit| 9 30 adds the assurance that Chinese cultivate a '"religion"^ lo all these classes-under free from superstition-superior name ruler 3£. ^ (wisdom). X).

His Heavenly Excellency. origin followers. According no over-lord. in the Taoist triad. name. and function are pure to is inventions of Lao-tze's beginning. First principle.dr IS ^ IV (1) CHAPITER (TAOISM) Mi IMMORTAL GODS. Yuen Shi T'ien Tsun owns himself the principle of no all things. hence the name Yuen Shi. (1) (for Lao-tse: see Part III) . but them. GENII ••u amm I — ARTICLE YUEN SIU T'IEN TSUN j£ ^^^ (T) THE ETERNAL Yuen Shi T'ien Tsun. the First Principle. is a Taoist god often described as the first person This personage has never had an existence.

#. (2) The Taoist adepts had triad : to set up a rival to the Buddhist not to be beaten in the display of the marvellous. teaches at each revolution of the spheres new Kalpa) the mysterious doctrine that confers immorAll who arrive at this knlowedge mount step by step to tality. So. 2. the Yuh-ts'ing 3£ fpf. the actual highest sovereignty is in dispute between Yuh-hwang 3L J^ and Yuen-shi T'ien-tsun. Tuh shu hi shu # Roei-Shi. Thus they ^f .19) Cf. above all the heavens.2 IMMORTAL CODS. and Tao-Kun (3) In modern times. they found two personages to partner their Lao-tze. (at source of all truth. en (2) (3) (4) m m *£ ±. limitless. The temples it is true. 1*^ book: T'ai yuen |Jpf clicn yih pen tsi Icing: jz yt JE <L >fc %£ (Book 35 p. of (1) The author the Sui situ king tsih chi |5^ H" $g H ± provides him with surname and name: "Loh tsing-sin" ^| jfj? 'fg. invisible. each everlasting of life refine themselves like spirits and in the full light day turn into Immortals. $f while Lao-tze occupied the throne in the third heaven Tai-ts'ing •% $f. m m at m w. formed essentially of air No one has been able to trace back the beginning of his existence.§". in the the (Jade) Yuh-ts'ing ^ ffi second (Superior) Shang-ts'ing J. UoJi If ^ SI $£ g Book 43 p. The description then goes on he was born before all beginning. self-existent. : his substance is indestrucible. erected thrones for Yuen Shi T'ien-tsun and Tad-Kiln. 17. 9 (French edition) . % t. it is increated. & % Cf. Yuen Shi T'ien-tsun was installed in the first heaven. abode of the saints ?g J\ he is enthroned . the August (lade) Emperor. He it is who. usually honour the latter as the first person of the Taoist triad but actually the supreme governance of the universe (4) is assigned to the former. GENII Thus of the the Taoist teaching' represents him as first member heavenly Triad. the ?t #. sovereign ruler of the third heaven. the in two highest of their three heavens. See schema of Taoist Heavens in Vol VI above p.

. 131 Yuen che t'ien tsuen Yuan shi T'ien-tsun.Fig.

.

To complete this notice. 2 (1) Cf. p.YUEN SHE TIEN TSUN 6 Yuen-shi T'ien-tsun cannot have been always part of the Taoist Triad: his primal place was above the three Heavens. Like a rock unshaken amid the fury of storms. . no change all existed through the cosmic revolutions. This and his staff. Ming-shi E$ See Chinese Superstitions. his faithful Chief of Secret Service. the suggestion of a lotus-leaf cushions. Vol. represented by Su-p'u ?£ #g (president under the Ming PJ3) on the question: "The three Pure Ones (the three members of the Taoist Triad) Is it not the a fictitious invention of the Taoists. 131 shows some Buddhist trappings: on the fore head. has left this unrivalled god somewhat out in the cold and turn preferably to Yuh-hwang. above. we give here the Taoist legend of Yuen-shi T'ien-wang which seems to have been the basis for all that has been written about the god Yuen-shi T'ien Tsun. ^ . Modern practice. above the three Pure Ones. First Lord of the skies. and for an executive officer of justice he commands Lei-tsu the jjjft service of the President of the Thunder Department ^ His ministers have heavenly palaces in the seven of Stars the North Pole while their establishments on earth are on the Sacred Peak of the East and other holy mountains. seeing the storms of Yet he can keep count of the works good or evil of each family by the help of the hearth god. are critical is A view of the Tribunal of Rites merely height of absurdity to take Li-lao-tsze (1) $|t as one of the Three Lords of Heaven". he was superior to all upheavals or renewals of the universe. Our fig. the Joh-i sceptre. this god knowing no beginning." VI. Tsao-kun Hf ruin expend themselves impotent at his feet. no end. 102 (English Edition) In a list of 2 4 other Budhas worshipped by Chinese Buddhists (taken from a litany) is & apparently 3E Yuen shi T'ien icang which occurs the name jc j& but an absorption of the Taoist divinity into Buddhist wor- ^ the pearl ship (syncretism). Book 181 p. as noted is the theory of the Taoist books.

GENII THE LEGEM) 7C Kin-hung in the fifth Ol YUEX-SHI jt£ T'lEN-WANG 3E 3i ^ &j\ the divinity of T'ai-shan ^ ijj . he used to reply.. The First Ancestor of the (2) Sombre Heavens" (up Article V below). the of fire.|f thus and ill among themselves: "Since there is a genius spoke called Yuen-shi yt jfe. those two genii climbed holy mountain. teach his followers on the mountain peaks thanks to his teaching my brothers and nephews were enabled to arrive at the true doctrine. let us go to visit him. . "Whoever would know." instruction after some words of .4 IMMORTAL CODS. Then must thou go higher and ever higher even to the sphere of nothingness and being. where dwell. descendant generation from P'ai-ku ^ ~jfc tells the legend thus: Once upon icaiuj a time there lived a man called Yuen-shi Ti'ento who dwelt in the mountains and was wont ." When (1) they reached those immeasurable heights. Now this man used to speak of the most remote ages as if he had been an eye-witness of the events which he described. he used merely to point to the skies and then iridescent clouds would wrap him about. in the plains of the radiant spirits. even if we must pass the I ^ ^ bounds of of the universe begged the them 1 to give me and go beyond the outmost stars. for he dwells without the bounds of this world. Ch'ih-ising-tze #^^ (1) and came down upon the summit of T'ai Shan Hwang-Iao . clouds: the thou must fare beyond the confines of heaven and earth. ascended thence highest peak into the vault of sky and cried to me from the heights of heaven's "If thou wouldst know the beginning of Yuen-shi. When asked where his home was. teaching which to welcomed with of respect. Thereupon 1 seeing that the vast heavens are void to find who can thought to myself tell me where him at home? But two genii. evolved two Hiicn- The god from Yang and Yin assisted by hilen-Shang-jen. must fly up to I these immeasurable heights".

"be reborn in order to regain a visible form and preserve my original shape. P'an-ku captivated by her virginal purity seized a moment when she was sighing to enter her mouth at as a pure ray of light.7. who keeping her virginity was living alone on the mountain The air and rainbow mists were the Ts'o-ngo-shan |£ ||$ |jj. she was a hermaphrodite combining active and passive principles in herself and each day she climbed to the of sun and mountain top to collect there the flowering quintessence moon. Cf. She was with child twelve years and the end of that period the birth took place across her spinal column. &p 5R 3E an avatar of P'an-ku (1) $ (2) Originally jz The Great Principle. 6. ''I about in the void must perforce".8. From the first moment of his existence. I said the soul within itself. his soul shed its tossing mortal envelope and found without any point of support. M# is ("Holy Mother Yuen-shi -£. 4 p. is speak and his body was surrounded with a cloud-glory in five He took the name of Yuen-shi T'ien-wang his mother . sole food of her vital spirits. A in down appeared in front of them. I will tell you. . Shen-sien-tong-Uen meant a vast period 1 of time like a geological epoch. this child could walk and colours.YUEN-SHI T'lEN-WANG genii caught a glint of light and lo! 5 Huen-hiien-shang-jen ]£ 5 J. usually called T'ai-yuen sheng-mu jc 7C of the First Beginning") So. . best show your gratitude by to You wish know the story of Yuen-ski. . When itself period of primitive chaos finished P'an-ku $£ ^f had in the his work. on the wings beheld a holy of $j -^ there woman called T'ai-yuen ^c 7C (2) of some forty years age. 1 Else until a first get a rebirth in a mother's womb it shall remain mere empty. T'ien-wang x. Art. (2) fji f|I| M gg Bk. The apparition answered their (1) greetings in words: "You can imparting my doctrine to men. of the wind reached Fuh-yii-tai So his soul borne jjj . unstable being". The two genii bowed homage and gratitude.

P'eng Tsu's disciple. Musician. Yin Tan \s disciple. S^M.B. 179-157. Wu-xlunig chen-jen Yin Hi. SfiiAII $'jr A ^ $ *$i*A?*S /\ Si-jji(Ji chen-jen Fung-Ch'ang. 130 B. T'ai-Wei chen-jen Yin Teng.C. Lao-tze's Disciple. Yin His cousin. AfaMA^fl * ® HI A i* *fc T'ai-hwo chen-jen Yin kwei. T'ai-ts'ing chen-jen Avatar of P'eng Tsu. *1pJ ± 5t A AHW£ 17i)-157 Ho sluing chang jen (Ho shang-kung 1A^14 j* M± + -f- &)• C. B. GENII APPENDIX THE GENEALOGY OF TAOISM. hi's disciple. Yin Pah-su chen-jen Chow-Lianh. Kao-shang Lao 522 B. 130 B.C. Hilen-chow chen-jen Yao Tan.C.IMMORTAL GODS.j? jjif %^ Yuh-ts'ing Yuen-shi T'ien-tsun 3i jfc ffe 5^ jg IV » shang Yuen Kiln: Mother tze -J- of Lao-tze. C. * 1 I Fn-li Yuen-shi T'ien-tsun I T'ai-shang Tao-teh T'ien-tsun Shang-ts'ing Ling-pao ^% icJiMf^^^ T'ien-tsun A i fn it ££ jfc . Hwang-ting chen-jen Wang T'an. Si-yulx sien-k'ing Li Yih. . Ma Ming-sheng. Chen-jen C. 176-157. T'ai-kih chen-jen Tu Chung. Chen-jen Ngan Ki-sheng. ( tne Methuselah of China) T'ai ts'ing chen-jen P'eng-Tsung.C. Sung-Lun.

Tan Ch'u-twan.GENEALOGY* OF TAOISM After the Christian Era: Chen-jen Yin Ch'ang-sheng IA1I4 + 122 A. C. 3EP§MA3:^— ^C "& M A |J5 A M ft^. -f.2e 1139 Mew chen-jen Hsieh Tao-kwang 1159-1169 S'ui-hu chen-jen Ch'en SJiMAi^iitt l|| Hai-kiiing chen-jen Peh Nan -f.KA#J^5 4^i?MAJiii •Jl Yuh-yang chen-jen Wang Ch'u T'ai-ku chen-jen yih. -f 1175 Ch'ang-chen chen-jen + SlIAili In If fllj 1 Ch'ang ch'un chen-jen K'iu Ch'u-ki. A 3E lii + H92 Chung-yang chen-jen Wang Chit.D. 150 Chen-jen Hsu Tsung-shi Chen-jen Wi i Pch-yang A.3i U 31 M.D.D. IE . -f-CJSO 869-874 Hai chein chen jen Liu Huen-ying 911 Chung-yang cheng-jen Wang Chit Tze-yang chen-jen Chang Peh-twan +1192 10H2 IH^AJl ^ A $f + ffi $t FH $j IIIA 51 f6 #fa Tze-yang chen-jen Chang Peh-twan Ts'ui-hiien chen-jen Shih T'ai. ffwe7i h« chen-jen -\- 156 Luh-tai eh en jen Wan-Ch'ang Chao Shing Li Ya. 7'.1224 Yuh Chen ~\1208-1229 1218 Hoh-lin chen-jen Pung-Sze. . -f-j- 156 156 Hwa-yang chen-jen mmmxmmm *fi Cheng-yang zhen jen Chung-li P§& A g& M A £ 3& IflJ Shun-yang chen-jen Lii Yen. Ts'ing-tsing sien -f-4- 1227 1182 M -^ ^ ^ ku Sun Puh-eul. MAf&#Mf &A#Lfoffi 121-168 A. m.1203 1193 Tan-yang chen-jen Ma Yuh. + 1212 1222 Hoh Ta-t 'ung -f iH if| A f9- Jii& #»§ Ch'ang sheng chen-jen LJn Ch'u hit en. £i«A3EJI SI1MA1I- Cheng-yih Ti'en-shi Chang Tao-ling. K'iien.

All these personages are table is in their whom The above Taoist Canon (j|f taken from the new edition of the ^ Tao tsavg. surnamed Ynh-pin-ize 3£ the ^ ^f. the ancestors of Taoism "Tao-shi". N° 6S1) The author Teng indicates in his I ff|) §fi. Commercial Press Edition. genii venerated by the "Tao-ski" in temples together with K'iu Ch'ang-chun's 18 disciples of a list is given below. Vol.Immortal cobs. : according to the preface the table of was attributed to an ancient The work dates from 1298. -»vw>- . Wieger's Edition. 370 X° 704. named Siao Ting-chi ^ ££ 3£ without the least scruple about chronological order. general lines of Tao Idt-king ^' $£ in the chief [ore-bears and the most celebrated masters Commentary on ^ Taoism up to the 14th century.

AP. to be to have child heir the her the to let him queen implored crown. the • Pure August Over-Lord. a order to secure an heir for the night. he is sometimes known as the August Pure One. was favoured with Lao-kiin j£ ^ appeared to her." said he to the queen. plant their flags and recite their prayers in throne. Another title of his Yuh-hwang-shang-ti 3£ j|l ^. on her knees and thanked him. ^ (Taoist priets or adepts) to the palace that there they might perform their rites. THE AUGUST (JADE) EMPEROR 2 it THE MODERN JUPITER. . "Yuh-hwang" means the Jade Emperor. at the end of a year. she knew she was pregnant. he gave proof of compassion and generosity towards the poor. riding on a dragon and carrying a male child The in his arms: he came flying through the air towards her. On (1) Book I p. of the year Ping-ivu ptj 4 (52nd of the noon she gave brith to the royal heir. take him. Jade being the symbol of Purity. ^ ^ : . the queen During the following vision. he distributed all the palace wealth to the people of poor condition. "Willingly. Yuh-hwang life in Legend. She fell On waking. 1. 7.TICLEjII YIH-H\VA\G. In the Chung-tseng-sheu-sheng-ki of 1g jf| ^ |$ f£. 1& the queen IS whose king was Tsing-teh f^g was called Pao-Yueh ^ ft Though past her prime she had as So royal edict summoned the Tao-shi •£ yet no male child. at first moon. (1) the following legendary Yuh-hwang is given: Of old there was a kingdom called Kwang-yen-miao-lohhwoh itWf. From childhood on. on the ninth 1 day of the cycle).

) bestowed upon him all the posthumous titles with which we him in this £ (998-1023 A. left the 0^ and kingdom and took to living as an hermit at P'u-ming on the mountain Sin-yen According to the Ming Annals $£. came to the Emperor. he ascended the throne few days reign he resigned the sceptre to his prime minister. the Sung Emperor Cheng-tsung had been compelled to sign a dishonorable treaty with the Tungus jgj ~fc y\) and the dynasty was like to fall into disfavour. This gives us the clue to the origin . The Sung emperors C hen g-t sung ^ jH and Hwui-tsung <% (1101-1126 A. In the year 1005. the Emperor of fade. ^ ^ ~ '111 * IS ?£• Book 34 li p. of his minister. the politic In this.) %^ find him honoured 2. E." Soon this promise was fulfilled and T'ai-Tsu -j^ jjj§ the founder of the dynasty. he days in healing the sick and saving people's lives: passed his death found employment.. Yuh-hwang in actual history. After attaining "perfection". the August Pure One. GENII but after a the death of his father.D. 23. am now about his ministers of the visit. D. in our own day. Yii-wang and others were merely to secure obedience. 25.10 IMMORTAL CODS. the mountain P'u-ming (about 30 miles) west of Micn-hicn in Shew -si: the mountain Sin-yen is 100 li S. the letter ran. the and announced solemnly that he was with the Heavenly Gods. Book 87 p. emperor turned visionary in direct communication he was following the advice and sceptic who had made to and often expounded to him how Wang kin-jao 3£ the supposed revelations politic shifts ^^ Fuh-hi. called together his ministers and gave them an account of a dream in which an Immortal had brought him a letter from Yuh-hwang. of the prefecture of Yungis situated 90 ping in Yun-iuni. Cheng-tsung immediately informed sent tsu) you I two . D. (or K'i-tan ^ In order to confirm his authority. "I have already Heavenly Letters by your ancestor Chan (T'aito send him to visit you in person. finally in the The emperor studiously conned his part tenth month of 1012 A.

Fig. the Pearly Emperor. TEmpereur auguste. 132 Yu-hoang. . Yuh-hwang .

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"the this wine. was apprehensive of being taking to task by his minister. The Emperor K'ang-hsi of the Ts'ing dynasty K'ang-hsi 0." Cheng-tsung. "It at this date that the name Yuh-hwang to figures for the first time on the list of divinities be worshipped. 11 full Ynh-hwang. once pledged to the trickery. him "I want". It is probable that the legends glorifying him date also from this period. namely the is creation of of new divinity. $E (1662-1723) when giving the imperial approbation to this official history. to his table. the takes up his brush again: commentator K'ang-hsi "Wang-tan is guilty of two faults. he was born of a piece panoply from the imperial brain. he added. and Wang-tan complied. and made him drunk with a choice wine. the Tze-chi-i'ung-kien kang-muh % fa >I t£ M @. am as a present. imperial . Nothing of is known about whom no the beginning or end of this personage information is available. To remove to record this all doubt. Here.VUH-WANG ot IN ACTUAL HISTORY of knavery. a Here is his note: "If is evil impute falsehood man. the scholar Wang-tan 5E J=L- So he resolved to pledge him to a golden silence. the great history thinks it proper a important event. is it not horrible to impute it to Heaven? Cheng -T sung was a poor simpleton and his minister Wang-kin-jao was guilty ot a great crime". this was to be an expiation of his guilty connivance with deceit. is and issued in the judgment passed by the official history of China. death-bed indeed he demanded that his head should be On shaved and he should be clothed in the dress of a bonze . the Emperor's At this passage. judged it his duty to add it a comment on to this very to passage. for instance." The his Wang-tan's gratitude was to be shown by silence. minister Wang-kin-jao was a mere scamp. so I members of your household it to taste sending you a cask of cask was delivered but full of rich pearls. He invited overpowered him with marks of affection and esteem. Sun-chen-tsong was a knave his who cheated Heaven sacrile- giously.

Hence giving the title "Shang-ti" to God. of rites. orders were given at the build everywhere Taoist temples and received In order to cap his the make "August Pure One. the title of same emperor conferred on him the pompous "Supreme author of Heaven. a title that set Yuh-hwang on a level Sovereign on High. Ti ^ '•§' which was honour of this it he visited god: in person. and offered sacrifice with the rites usual for the adoration of Heaven. among others the ' 'Cheng-ling -weiof M it M M> set Yuh-hwang on the throne the Third Heaven." 3° Honorific titles conferred on Yuh-hwang. secondly when death was coming he tried to flatter Buddha. the Sung Emperor Cheng-tsung had set it a statue of built of Yuh-hwang Jade Pure ( cast )ne. destinies. As far as the people is concerned. and up in the palace or temple the in Yuh-ts'ing kung. GENII in his life-time he proved himself a vile flatterer of his sovereign. In 1013. The worship of Yuh-hwang as the most popular god of all as a real Jupiter. A number yeh-tu" i$L of works. the Emperor conferred on him Sluing Ti J^ most lofty dignity of all. In 1015. dates from that period. the August Heaven 3^ of the scholars. of and of the WAY. the Yuh-ts'ing 3£ jj| (the Jade Purity) and give him the primary in the Taoist Trinity. of the Universe. in Sung-hwui-tsung had a magnificent temple built honour of Yuh-hwang who of an right to wear the dress statues of the same time to to the people to by imperial script the emperor. usually "God" there is is identical with Yuh-wang.12 first IMMORTAL CODS. high sovereign of Heaven. ^ Chief Ruler with the of the Universe. accompanied by his whole court. of human Good. as worhipped by Christians: for this title is preferentially used in difficulty in . purest August One." In 1115." the title of exaltation of the Yuh-hwang.

(2) Article V." (1) remark of a There author: '"the a touch of impishness in the Chinese emperor Hui-tsung who did so much to spread the cult and exalt the memory of Yuh-hwang was ill paid for his services. In their pride the litterati. make a point of honour to recognise only the gods named on the official lists for sacrifice. mean that they ignore gods who are not inscribed Adequate proof of the point at issue here would be some document prior to Cheng-tsung or some proof that Yuh-hwang was already acknowledged by Taoists or Buddhists. Textes historiqueg. Why did his divine protector allow him to perish miserably in Sha-moh desert?" It would not probably be amiss to surmise that vague legends of Yuh-hwang had already existed before the reign of Cheng-tsung . had drawn upon them to serve his own purpose. The Buddhists do divinities in fact claim that Yuh-ti is one of their borrowed and appropriated by the Taoists. perhaps this emperor. this does not the rest. proves merely that this occasion on which an emperor formally ordered honours to be paid to this divinity. fact is certain. i£ $ ii fg $i| H Wieger. times endeavoured to foist Taoist a on the gods worshipped by the Bonzes and actually for whole year succeeded thanks to the intrigue of Lin Ling-su ^ m m(1) (2) Cf.481 . but merely that officially the do not receive recognition from the government.HONORIFIC TITLES CONFERRED ON YUH-WANG reference to 13 Yuh-hwang by is the people — "Yuh-hwang-shang-ti. Tse-chi-t'ung-lcien-kang-muh. One titles the Taoist-priests several namely that under the Sung dynasty. even in it our own time. conversant with the fables of the Taoist priests and the bonzes. Vol III. (below) p. the first time of that the The statement of the historians that this is name of Yuh-hwang figures on the list was the first gods for worship.

But which one? Tentatively. following titles: of Indra Yin-to-lo g| called in Chinese by one of the fg. or simply Ti ^. in the modern "Manual of Buddhist Regulations and Festivals" identified with the well of Shakra.14 ( IMMORTAL GODS. Neng-T'ien-chu tt~3i 3z (the Powerful Master of Heaven). GENII >ne might advance a theory as explanation of a possible borrrowing from Buddhism. T'ien-chu ^ £ (the Master Heaven). It is an easy step to add Yuh JL to the title Ti tf? or to change this Ti for the synonym Hwang the m Who then first called god Yuh-ti 31 %? ? Was it the bonzes or the Tao-shi? Certainly divinity as theirs in the it is the call bonzes who now-a-days if?- claim the and him openly Yuh-Ti 31 His place Indra. is. or Indra. 1st known Taoist divinity Yu ti". p. Cheng -t sung might well have selected from his store of superstitious lore a Buddhist deity to serve his purpose. the Jade Emperor and company with Fan-wang $£ set him frequently 3£ Brahma. (Vol.g. e. facing Brahma. See article on indra and Brahma. editions of Pe-chang-ts'ing-Jcwei god of the atmostphere. (1) It will % : of of Joh-kao #p the £f| purity of be granted that these names are suggestive and that the D y the Tao-shi Yuh-hwang 31 and Supreme of Heaven of Master that with exactly corresponds role conferred on M Sovereign. . Chinese Buddhism. VII) At the end of the is a reproduction of the two statues [Yuh-ti and Fan-wang) as they are to be seen in the temple of Ting-hwui-tsz. gives (1) temples. Birthday month 9th day. in ' famous temple of Ting-hwui-tsz 1§ ^j' (Kiangsu) where they are especially jealous Buddhist traditions. who is the regulation pendant of some colour to the suggestion above. (2) article. a slight 1 suggest that the Taoist adepts simply took Indra from Buddhism and made him their own by is pfc change of name. (Fig 58) there (2) Shakra. call him Yuh-ti 3* on their altars the in ffi. Ti-tthih Modern bonzes if? f| the Buddhist Sovereign. 210. Edkins. Cf.

In a temple dedicated have found the 3 6 T'ien-Mun ^ to Yuh-hwang at Hai-men-t'ing & f"j Jj* ^ or Taoist genii arranged along the walls at each side of the central altar. as much as to claim him for an ancestor of the family Chang $| (1) Chang Tao ling jjg $| |§| and all who : have succeeded to him with the title of Master line. that There are the same Taoist genii shwai. e popular books.HONORIFIC TITLES CONFERRED ON YU-HWANG 15 The pagans when speaking. I with its incline rather to the belief that the Chinese never thought of these charming fancies. Thus Emperor. we shall describe in succeeding y chapters. the great ruler of all Nature: the queen Pao-yueh ^J is then the moon.of this god usually call him Chang-Yuh-hwdng. . the god of the sun. which in fact are not to be found in any Taoist book. ' I Note. receives the ambassadors gives them his orders. would be the sun.jtjf born the beneficent living power that decks nature array of plant and flower. the fair queen of the heavens: of their symbolic wedlock is . his father. below \% UJ (2) ik ^ SI M note Cf. of Heaven ^ fr]j claim to be his descendents in the direct The theory has been sugested hwang was only a that the legend of Yuhthe symbol of ancient Nature-worship. Sun hen ts~e Chu-pa-Mai. Ma Yuan the moon. e. Si-Yu-Tci BfjUtE: Nan-hai-Jcwanyin-p'usah-chwan $j an d a H tb. The Tao-shi and all the people regard Yuh-wang as a personal god who keeps a court and palace. (2) ( 1 ) of other inferior gods and See p.g\ the Thunder Departof ment. Tsing-teh ffi $*.

GENII ooooo Yuh-hwang . a Kj rs =Q so &H 5 Ml IS # I* At ft K o o o o Two officers-in-waiting Two Eul Tcung ts'ao Eul-lung officers-in-waiting ts ao ~ V) V.= -*.16 IMMORTAL GOt)S. 0/ Two Generals Eul ts'iang -levari Two Generals Eul-ts'iang-Miin s 7. - J» ~ m .

(3) to attack H^ j]\l 5f . T'ung- t'ien-kiao-chu' s buffalo falls and the rider has to escape hurriedly into the air (1) amid a dust-whirl. . armed with her stick % Kia-ch'i-wu ^ jft . ^ His palace Pih-yiu-kung || $| stood on Mt.KlAO.CHU m T'ung-t'ien-kiao-chu 3c }j§ m ± ^ |fc £ (1) is in modern Taoism regarded as the powerful genii. T'ung-tien-kiao-clin then to rally the army. p.) and helped him in his Wu-wang |e£ 3£ first of the Chow B.3£ last of the ^ struggle with the armies of Shang dynasty (1154-1122 B. (3) See below. but he had and was struck to the ground ^ by his adversary with a blow of his Heavenly seal and had to and save himself by flight. ffc 'TI Also called T'ung-t'ien-l'iao-tsu jg Jz fift (2) j[Fung-shen-yen-i it Jft Wc.C.C. 31 He was the Choiv general. Article LIU.t'ung-t'ien-kiao-chu 1? AETICLE III T'UiXG-T'lEIV. of the most His master was Hung-kiiln-lao-tsu $t |=J f| his dress was a red robe embroidered with white cranes he rode on a Kw'ei niu a one-horrid monster somewhat like a buffalo i\=-. Kiang-tze-ya.). gods came The first with his Maritchi) was Lao-tze •? who struck him twice or three times staff. Book G Hwui 73. and one ^ : . Tsz-Chi-ya $& . first of the patriarchs." (2) to fight Kwang-ch'eng-tse J| J$ To-pao-tao-jen carried out these instructions. came to defend his disciple of Unfortunately a whole troup to support the Magician. Dynasty (1122 jen First of all ^fIA to Kiai-p'ai-hwan ^- he sent his disciple To-pao-taof$. the "Citadel of all the Immortals. |fj and entrusted to him four valuable swords along with the plan of a fortress which he was to build and call Chu-Sien-Ch'en f^ fill |B|£. This genius sided with the infamous Chow-wang &J. then came Chun-ti ifl $| (the goddess of light.£ jH.

p.IZwMi 77. had been taken. (1) T'ung-t'ien-kiao-chu planned a new camp outside T'ung- kwan •}§ H| and endeavoured staff to renew the attack: a second time a ijjt Lao-tsze's wound in stopped him. p. master of all three spirits. p. for would Hung-kiiln-lao-tsu took off T'ung-t'ien-kiao-chu with him on the clouds and the meeting broke up. made in them kneel before him and lectured T'ung-t'ien-kiao-Chu at length on the iniquity of helping the tyrant Chow. 5.l Op. see air and swooped suddenly upon him. The discourse finished. seeing : them engaged combat. (2) Ewni 82. 17. 89 sq. 131) or sceptre and Chun-ti-tao-jen waved the tree branch of the seven powers: on the instant T'ung-t'ien-kiao-chu s magic sword crumbled and he had to seek safety in flight. a Buddha.cit. (2) (1) Op. Bk. GENII The result of the worthy: Jan'teng-tao-jen Vol VI p.Bk. Bk 7.cit.7. . 1A with a violent stroke of his pillar that steadies the sea Jan-teng flung- him down to earth and compelled him to give up the struggle. Bk. Hung-kiiin-tao-jen then warned effect of the pills When one the the pills them that the would be to kill instantly the in who would pill harbour a thought of discord thereupon burst within him.7. )»!OJ .18 IMMORTAL GODS. p. later regarded (see fig.7. his heart. Hung-kiiin-tao-jen.) rent the Hf combats was decisively against our (Dipanikara. determined to bring about a peace so he assembled them under one tent in Kiang-tze-ya's camp.77«'wi 78. 25. he gave each a pill to be swallowed at once. then he bade all three live henceforth in perfect accord. Yuen-shi-t'icn-tsun inflicted his shoulder with the precious stone Jou-i jtfj as a staff originally a Sacred Jewel. Hwui 84.

133 A It i. T'ong't'ien kiao tchou.Fig. . T'ung-t'ien hiao-chu.

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134 Hong kiun lao tsou.Fig. holding Lao-tze. Yuan-shi t'ien tsun in his hand the three pills which he gave to and T'ung-t'ien kiao-tsu. Hung kiun Lao-tsu (the Great Potter). . II tient en main les trois pilules qu'il donna a Lao tse a Yuen flu tien tsuen et a T'ong t'ien kiao tsou.

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(1) Hence he usually called Bung-Hun lao-tsu ^ f|. Ewui 8.) historical basis nor He is a pure fiction possessing neither show in genealogy of his own. 7.HUNG-KIUN-TAO-JEN 19 ARTICLE IV. 24. "Hung-kiun the primal ancestor. The Taoist books his hand a bamboo staff with a gnarled root-end forming a kind of crosier. The palace or paradise where he is reputed to live is called Tsz-siao-kung ^^ ^\ Taoism who has formed by is He is the primal ancestor of his lessons the very founder himself (Lao-tsze). a % the name of a Hung-kiun-tao-jen (or Lao-tsze jjj§) is mythical personage whom the Taoists assign as the common master of Yuen-shi-t'ien-tsun. p. he of the gfc f£j the first is patriarch and the most powerful genii." (1) See Op. Lao-tsze and T'ung-i'ien kiao-tsu (see preceding ad fin. . Bk. HUNG K1UN-TAO-JEN (T) m m m.cit.

After fourteen months he came forth. Shan-sheng Kingdom queen ffi. : THE SOVEREIGN OF THE GLOOMY This Taoist god is ^. '§£.§". One very towered over the whole lofty peak called Tsz-siao $| mountain massif. i. holy the T'ai-hwo ^c fp llj to put the disposal the a of the patriarch. presented |X| him with a magic sabre which he wore in his retreat on .e. 25 Ming-yihfung-cM —M^ Bk. Yuh-ts'ing 3E |pf' Some authors add that a celestial him marvellous doctrine. HUEN-T«1EN-SHANG-T1 £ jpt J|g Ji ± # SKIES. p. the third and the ninth Chinese months. called is: Hiien t'ien-shang-ti or Chen-wu i?E ffr Peh-kih yiu-cheng-chen-kiun 4b is Hiien-Pien-shang-ti a reincarnation of Tuan-shi t'ien- tsun (see Article I) who on a ray of light entered the womb of *$* |^. its name was changed to Wu-tang-shan (1) f^. Jade Azure. on the actual in 1416. On the very top of the mountain. . Yet another name jf| . Chen-wu % ^ is alone capable (1) Cf. (2) Chen-wu^ ^ at Wu tang-shan $: ^f LU is one of the most celebrated pilgrimages in all China. Every year pilgrims thousands come together there especially in the second. 120 li to the south of Kuai-chow j£j j'\]. Chen-wu jH jj£ alone among men is perfection If* UU because itself (2) (a play on the words: Chen-wu-tang m. of.20 IMMORTAL GODS. On reaching his fifteenth ^ of the of Tsing-loh year. this Its original name was T'ai Yah name when Hiicn Pun got orders M%M m but stay it to here. there jstands the pagoda of gilted bronze built year of the reign Yung Loh in tens of ^ 6?! (Ming dynasty). Tse hu who came down from to teach spirit third heaven.fcfp This mountain T'ai-hwo-shan is T'ai-luvo-than.) It was on 0J3 this high peak that for forty 60. GENII ARTICLE V. he left his father and mother and betook himself himself at to Mt. in the prefecture of Siang-yang-fu -fr Hu-peh changed (fft). the 14th peak.

. tortoise and the serpent lay at his feet. Chen-wu after his victory.Fig. 435 Tchen-ou apres sa vietoire. La tortue The et le serpent sont a ses pieds.

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dynasty).11 Chan-tsze-kiang Jg ^ }X Hu-wen-chang Mung-pai-king Wei shang -k'ing tl?_h^l Ming-wen-chang H^j^ljt flji] ifE^JipJl Hiicn-Pien fought the demon-king at T'ung-yin [^ (The Grotto of Gloom). $f. Yet Yuen-wang and his heavenly army won the victor}-. Here are the names HI as of the twelve officers of the Heaven iz tf as they are given by the "Lao-kiiin-luh-kiah-fu-tu $£ quoted by the Tuh-shu-ki-shu-lioh f| Sz-ma-k'ing * M $ p. Hf-ft^F. with hair unbound . Kwei-wang 3'(i 3E at the head of their legions were then ravaging ^ August) Yuen-shi t'ien-tsun ordered Yuh-hwang (the Pearly head of the twelve great chiefs of the heavenly legions and send him down to earth. %f> in Szechwan |5I )\\ : The victor then ascended to his golden palace in a Heaven and Yuen-slii-Pien-tsim as reward gave him the title Hiien-t'ien . Huen-t'ien complied and entered the golden palace of Heaven. overran the enemy and flung the devils in chains into the abyss Fung-tu §f> that chasm is reputed the mouth of hell. bare-foot. % fi J| J|p Chao-izc-jcn Chang -wen-t'ung Shih-shah-i'ung $13cM Tsan wen-hung Ts'ui shihk'ing #£^t^ Jji^5"JJ|p MM ^"H Wang wen-k'ing Hi^tfdJ] . Mo-wang J| 3£ made out of air a grey tortoise and a huge serpent which fought on his side.C. he wore a breastplate of gold over a black robe and amid the black clouds he raised his black standard. % % Bk. Pie went to put Hilen t'ien at the the universe. That was in the reign of the emperor Chow &J" (B.43. 1154 the last of the Shang $j or Yin The demon kings.HUEN-TTEN-SHANG-TI years he practised perfection: he reach that he could fly 21 Such a degree of "subtlety" did and sent invite Yuen-shi-Hen-isun (the Taoist Primal) got to hear of him five dignitaries from among the Heroes of the second a Heaven and company to of Immortals from the first Heaven to him up Heaven.4.

jgj IE Bk. name Hiien-tvu j£ ^ is name of the Polar — 1022 A. written square and (apparentlv was a mere farrago of fables and rubbish got numerous taoist temples built with ousting the teaching of the bonzes and avenging the insult he had suffered at their hands. Hwui Tsung yfc $fc rfc (1100 A. (1) The Yuan (Mongol jfc ^ tc dynast}) emperor Ch'eng Tsung (1294 A. he ran away and become One day on begging expedition to a monastery. the story p. native of prince and master Taoism. and Majestic. First Lord of High We must now turn to the supposed apparition of Hiicn-t'ioi chang-U to the Sung Emperor. priest but being ill-treated. 28 his Star. IMMORTAL GODS.D. 6 . ^ Bk. Such is 1. to fool the people.) This emperor was an ardent Taoist: he requested the Tao-shi to register in f[f him in their annals as the emperor. a Tao-shi. Cheng-tsung whose name the character . p^'s name p^ and by that name he was known for the future. Wen-chow ^ a j\\ Che-kiang man was He had been Buddhist a a a Buddhist Tao-shi." Lin-ling-su intimated to Hwui-tsung that he from heaven a book in characters it "old seal" cloud-like.22 shang-ti ]£ in the '£). occurred. this (}#}). he was maltreated by the bonzes and in consequence kept a lasting grudge against them. 241. "He had a special veneration for one Ling-ling-su ^ in ^. In 1118 Hwui tsung on a visit to some Taoist priests. enlightened and intelligent master. GENII % J^ ^ : First Lord of Heaven. heard from them such praise of Ling-ling-su that he conceived a high esteem for the the title.D. At first he the He avowed aim of (1) Sui-yuan-sui-pih fl @ pi ^ Bk G p.) changed ~t£ One of the in Sung emperors.D. p.D. to 1307 A. if Chung-tseng sheu shen-lci According to the Suh-wen-hien t'ung-kao $| g ^ # the 12 (J^ % jffj. to 1126 A.D.£ to j|| ^^ hiicn (997 A.D.) conferred on him a fuller title: "Holy Beginning good Heaven". man and bestowed on him had received "true.

136 main son drapeau enroule. holding in his hand his rolled up flag. Tchen-ou tient en . Chen-wu.Fig.

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to obtain this favour must along with me summon Jjfjj) : to the palace is the Master of Heaven of (T'ien-shi ^ jjjf Chan-tsing-M who the successor Chang -tao -ling midnight." said Ling-su. The latter on his return to the palace lodged a complaint with his father. An but imperial order decreed banishment reached him. if he himself. dismissed Lin to his native district local emperor that the called officer and gave orders mandarins. At the moment when at these two were performing their rites sky Suddenly lightning rends the skies. One day. he was dead before the order Now." The thunder crushes is — tortoise and serpent are gone —a a huge foot second visible on the threshold. desire to see Chen-wu. The everybody. Chu-chow. : : . the thunder rolls. "I darkened. il (the sovereign pontiff of Taoism). ''Your majesty. the Emperor Hwui Tsung told him he would like to see Cnen-wu's person. his hair was unbound over his black dress which had sleeves sweeping down to the ground. he declined to yield place to the prince. The emperor makes prostration and offers incense begging Chen-wu to condescend to show himself more manifestly. round his head there flouted an aureola of light — the ends of . that this personage plays an important part sacred in our present matter. his face was stern and striking. In fine. he wore a breastplate of gold and a belt set with jewels his hand brandished a sword his feet were bare. a grey tortoise and a serpent are dropped amid a blaze of light at the treshold of the palace. but they fell 23 partnership with the Tao-shi Wangout and Ling su poisoned his fellow. he sees standing before him the huge figure of a man some ten feet high. encountering the heir to the throne. This got definite evidence of Lin's vicious proceedings and a report send Lin's to the to emperor. he become insufferably arrogant and was detested by One day. That moment. Kiang-iwan-pen. the M. then offers incense and but deign to reveal says. should make enquiries about him. The emperor casts himself down. especially the Wen-chow mandarin.HUEN-T'IEN-SHANG-TI carried on his trickery in yiin-shang.

(1023 personage. M ^^ Vol. that is to say. 20. VI work.) 5^ ^ Book 296 p. for sacrifice to the Holy and helpful true Master of ^ the Polar Star. A $| I_Lj when he was going J([)fl. GENII were floating' on the air.24 his belt IMMORTAL GODS. The Taoists have life fabricated without any historical foundation details of the of this and deeds an incident #. In this jjj|i (1) Si-yiu-Tci ig mo-t'ien-tsun /% M.Lang-ye-tai-tsui. The Ming Annals a Bk.f|) was one Kung-tao-fu /ft in King-yang-fu J| descendent from Confucius in the 45th generation.pien p. set to Huen-wn (a name charge for the Seven Stars of the North) by Shang-ti in of "The True Northern Regions. Sung-shi % : Jfe Bk 111 1 . met on the Mountain Pah-p'an-shan (1) 2 9 p. seven on each Of these the first eight are the brigands he side of the altar.). Now a serpent suddenly appeared in the temple of Chen-wu and the inhabitants all worhipped it % as a spirit. all the officials both civil and military made libations of wine and prostrated themselves before the animal. folk pagoda and crushed At first the were The novel. Si-yiu-ki Bf $1 IE everybody praised his wisdom. He remained long enough for (1) the emperor to sketch him and then vanished. would have it that the marshals at at the Tortoise and the Serpent are two this divinity: the story will be the disposal in of found page quoted the note above. j'\] — The mandarin at in the prefecture Kansu (fj. (2) The Sung Annals. D. In the more important temples of Chen-wu 31 jj£ it is not unusual to find fourteen figures supporting him. Thereupon Kun-tao-fu went horrified. assigned 1064 A. relate to the reign of the Emperor Jen Tsung fz Ning-chow 3k.18 make mention of (i. 16. ho is named: "T'ang- . 0^ j£.D. Human generations called him Master" Cheng-Kiln IfL . 50 p. but soon to the the reptile's head with a blow of his official tablet. 9.MffiBk. 463 p.l. 9.e. . temple built in the thirteenth year of Yung-Loh 7^ 1416 A.g" and set at his feet a tortoise The — the — is tortoise identified with the "White Tiger" and the serpent with "Blue Dragon" and a serpent.

GENII to Si-t'ien Hf Ji to 25 and wanted money. worship Buddha. Tao-shi claim that these are merely lour military officers civil officers and two attached to his suite. their desire to Buddha. .IMMORTAL GODS." With that. he explained. These robbers stopped him 4< I have no money. the brigands showed accompany him." I am on my way genii. became his disciples and afterwards The other six are demons whom he made subject to to worship himself Some by his famous victory over them and their legions.

GENII o o o o o o o .26 IMMORTAL GODS.

where another. the mountain-solitary. the corpse is merely a transition stage it is the outer-casing of the change. an immortal? Their immortal is a man who grows old but does not die. In order the better to understand this notion of the Taoist ascetics. they are more alive them ever. What. though apparently dead. I. in is in their case but a metamorphosis their bones are process of After death. do not really do What . transformation. (shan). Etymological Lessons 25. The character consists of a man \ (\) The immortals. . and a mountain they die. is Preliminary notions. It is like : : . Some of them shed the corpseshell before they are put into grave others can fly in the air before their hair begins to fall out for all. their feet do not become livid. (1) Wieger. (1) — The term Sien filj (or a might suggest graphically. Hj Huen) means. is called a corpse. the all its new process by which the butterfly emerges in when transformation has brilliancy from its uncouth pupa-shell taken place. the skin remains fresh. older former explained as one who by Taoist practices rose above mortals. their eyes do not lose their light.MUH-KUNG AND KIN-MU 27 AETICLE VI MUH-KUNG and KLV-MU * * ± # THE GOD OF THE IMMORTALS AND HIS CONSORT. man who lives as the in the character mountains. according to the Taoists. it is well to recall briefly their classification of the super human See beings who live in this universe. though in semblance so. is Characters. they retain all the properties of the living being.

a regime of is necessary first : there is a is hvgiene of soul as strict well as all body. This second degree is The hero or perfect man higher still. possible gymnastics. a superhuman man. such are the negative conditions. to render himself independent of matter. has nothing to fear from sickness or death. the vital spirit. there are degrees: a) — The immortal — This first degree consists in begetting and bringing to birth in one's self the superhuman embryo. of matter and yet is not completely changed into a pure . But abstention does not carry one far.28 IMMORTAL GODS. sexual indulgence. chemistry. enjoys all the blessings of glowing health. the adept has to "spiritualise" himself. issue from the old body (like the cicada from its first skin) this degree is the : Taoist ascetic. The immortal can travel at will through the universe. is The requirement of abstinence from that calculated to use up the forces palate. the Immortal. of the body viz. eats and drinks in amplest measures b) — is perfectly happy. that sought to store up in a "pill of immortality" This search gave birth to an alchemy all the elements titution of a necessary for the development of vital forces and for the consnew transcendent man. In this scale of perfection. methods must be devised for conserving these. When the maximum of vital forces has been elements . medicine. The body is here no chrysalis shell to be shed and left — behind but is itself it so spiritualised. this should. secured. on attaining perfect development. the essence of the constituent Yin and Yang must be strengthened in all ways hence special application of dietary. has become so subtle it so transcendent that can fly through the air: is borne on the wings of the wind or sits on the clouds and so travels from one world to another and takes up its abode in the stars: it is freed from all the laws spirit. GENII In order to attain such degree of transcendent qualities as is accessible to human nature. pleasures the ambition. for protecting them from the ravages of disease and death in fine..

Wieger's exhaustive handling of Taoism. also Muh-kung . the saints. see Fr. there are the eminent saints: Sheng Immortals light of for (1) of the first rank are transformed in the full day place at those of second rank. there The saint.MUH-KUNG AND KIN-MU c) 29 the heroes. (Taoism) (2) Cf. the metamorphosis takes midnight: those transformed in the morning or the : evening become the masters of the world: everything in fine depends on the degree of infused knowledge with which they have been favoured (2) For fuller (1) treatment. of the Immortals is Si-wang-muh glf . Amongst are certain superior beings. Third degree. 1° 2° Thus there are three distinct categ-ories The ascetics or immortals: Sien The heroes or perfect men: Chen jen j|| : f[{j A 3° Among the perfect lg. The queen called Kin-mu ^ #. Tsih-sien-luh p. 5. Shi-wen-lei-tsii (ts'ien-tsih) % (K'ang-hi-tsz-tien The king also of & T'ai-ping-kwang-ki £ ^ ^ IE Bk 58 Shih-ming ^ ^ % $g |g M Bk 34 under the word Sien ££ ^ $ $)• the Immortals Tung-wang-kung ^ I 2 called H f|l) ftj > P- 1 - i\h is 1 .fc £•. and virtue : these endowed with extraordinary genius constitute the third class of superhuman beings.

Article Vol IX XLVI. His palace is in the clouds.30 IMMORTAL GODS. He is often called: Tong-hwa-ti-kiiln J( ip ^ . 214 p. p. Tung-wang-kung. Suh-wen-hien-t'ong-k'ao $f % f£ M ^ Ill Bk. blue clouds its walls. Tung-wang-kung j}£ 3E & The god of the Immortals. ("the prince f[(j I|S So Tung-wang-kung often designated. surnamed Muh-kung ^ £ (Ruler of the Element Wood) is also called I {£ and Kiun-ming . . is Yuh-hwang"). No 572. See also: Chinese Superstitions Vol. He has as man-servant the "Young Immortal" (Sien-t'ong) ji and as maid the Immortal. Mayers: Chinese 256 (English Transl) Reader's Manuel. below.§" B£] (1) In the beginning. Yuh-nii (the Jade Woman) 31 -£:. violet clouds form its dome. 2. 508. the primitive air congealed and at first remained motionless: then it : set itself to achieve a crowning merit by producing beings it began by fashioning Muh-kung Jf. GENII I.g\ (2) (1) (2) Cf. Yuh-liwang-kiun The roll of the Immortals is in his hands. fe from the most pure substance of eastern air and then establi- shed this being as the Sovereign of the active principle $§ and of all "Yang" the regions of the East.

Fig. The Goddess Si-wang-mu (the Western Royal Mother) . 437 La deesse Si wang-mou.

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creative results of Others accounts interpret their origin as "the first created and the powers of nature in their primary process of 1. and undyed. the snow-clad chain K'lvun-lun 2° It is planted on the lofty peaks of H a -fir- A rampart of li solid gold surrounds the twelve blocks of storied structures. it covers 300 miles. ponding seven distinctive colours of dress: red. passive principle and These two principles by combining. thousand in circumference — The right "Kingfishers Stream" wing stands on the enchanted bank of the Immortal it is the usual abode of the — left wing is that beings of the male sex while the neighbouring corresdivisions seven are There of their female counterparts. Si-wang-mu was fashioned of the western air. (1) all the beings of the universe and thus become the two principles of life and of the subsistance of all that exists. beget Heaven and Earth. ." -g| . purest quintessence of "Shen West) in the legendary. green we shall shortly have to tell of the fountain made of to — gems — annual banquet of (1) the Immortals held there. black. 258). Ho fpj name "Wan-kin" %fc ifc.SI-WANG-MU 31 II Si-wang-mu W 3E # (Queen-Mother of the Chow" Mother and her (ffi j'\]) 1. development (Mayers of Heaven and Earth c): or born of Yin and Yang beneath the influence (Vol. Si-wang-mu' s Palace. There is there a marvellous violet. yellow. born is of the air is the female. She is often called: "Golden ^ -££ variants: Hen first Her family name has three chief Her own name is Hwui [p] Yang j§fr. . of the Tortoise. blue. is all built of precious stones: this rampart that is. sovereign of the air of the West. active principle of the air and ruler of the air of the East: "jfff 3E ££. Ill p. Origin. Tung-wang-kung Si-wang-mu ifc 3£ Q formed of the eastern western air is the male.

(So.Ed. (2) a panther's tail. Images sometimes depicted details : Cult Si-wang-mu H 3E #• She is human shape but with some distinctive teeth. before taking up his residence. Chekiang and at the "Si-wang-mu" Cgf 3£ "90 But this request of his minister Wen-chang an in *' ie western suburb of his Muh Son of Heaven may have been a prime 1.C. M. (2) Chavannes) V. of Ts'in 623 B. 3° But and in that of the merest fable spinning. pay first of all a visit to Si-wang-mu. and entitled Muh-kung . C. side by side. Kii-tsien pj jg| of the kingdom Yueh %& (the modern Chekiang Wu ^| (modern Kwang-si) created altar to (1) $Jf jj).fc ^ and At the period J5J. of the feodal wars. Cf. Tung-wang-hung 3E iV an d Si-wang-mu flf 3£ -££ are usually to be had on one M "Chi-ma" $£ J^ Kin mu 4fe -Js£. parts of Anhwei. Muh-t'ien-tsze-ch'wan 1& jH ^F % d) to Si- Here is the text of the famous verses attributed to wang-mu on visitor : this occasion: they are addressed her imperial In the heavens hover great and white the clouds On Long earth below are jagged hills and mountain peaks: is thy way climbing heights and breasting floods Die not therein but unto us once more return.C. below Article LVI. at the / end of the Chow of towards 400 B. and conqueror of the kingdom of Kiangsu. tiger's In the "Chi-ma-tien" (paper-talisman shops) $£ J^ j£. dishevelled hair.. The "Sien-fo-tsi-tsung" tells us that Muh-wang lived in % 3E of the Chow Dynasty (1001 B.) paid a visit to a -££ who the mountain Jg -^. GENII But every Immortal must. C. . Taoists writers have to enchant Muh-wang ^ all made of Si-wang-mu a second Calypso 3i much to the detriment of his is imperial office.32 IMMORTAL GODS. — 946 ~\R\ Western queen named Si-wang-mu 3£ group K'wang lun Shan (some have suggested Babylon!) and that he had a famous interview with her on the magic border of the delicious fountain "Ydo-ch'i B.

Fig. Tung-wang hung and Si-wang-mu. Le roi et la reine des Immorteis. 138 Tong-wang kong et Si-wang-mou. the Immortals. The king and queen of .

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C. but he is the ninth. (1) Vol. the reign of Ngai-ti 1$ of the Earlier (Western) Han "^f fH. 28) £ ^A . 5.6 9 5 . they are served with peaches from the goddess's orchard such as are endowed with the myterious power of conferring immortality on all who have the j|| IE describes in happiness to taste of them. Once 1% Hil> Si-uang-mu Besides such exquisite by the magic fountain "Yao-ehi" entertains the Immortals of both sexes. a year viands. trace no is there above p. the peach-harvesting and the setting of the feast. a revolt broke out in Shan-tung on the occasion of a great drought. could be found: title Chen-jen (perfect man. offered and incense with a view to obtaining a image vear. P'an-t'ao-hwui |j§| the Feast '§}'. in & H special worship carried stalks of sorghun (Indian millet) in their hands: these Si-wang-mu (2) they called 4° Sons and daughters of Si-wang-mu. as bear's paws. Si-wang-mu He had and longevity. The Si-yiu-ki H romantic style the garden. 33 sacrifices offered to her to ask for happiness This become a usual practise: Si-wan-mu was depicted as a noble matron and sacrifices were offered to her. monkey's lips. see Hilen-siu 1| bearing the of other brothers.C. dragon-liver and phoenix-marrow.SI-WANG-MU. The rebels paid dj to this goddess. ^ of the peaches. 1. Textes Historiques 1 Vol. offered sacrifice to her and In the year 3 B. (2) Wieger. prostrations are made. prolongation of life. complete as the author could wands of Here is a list as Only one son.p. Legend relates that in the year 110 B. came in M 1^4 $? person down to the palace of the Han Emperor Wu-ti on ms birth-day and made him a present of seven peaches that confer immortality. This is to be linked with the account of the annual feast. Ch. (1) is Possibly of offering an it due to these fables that a custom has arisen their fiftieth prayers are of Si-wang-mu to women when they reach Before the image. make it. capital.

'' used at the death of an emperor. Lady. In the imperial palace there were pictures of Tze-wei as incarnated in the emperor). ijl $t her first as such she Jl j£ popularly entitled Sheu-sing lao-t'eu-tze Head of the Star of Longevity.42 11 p. "the Old name "Lady of Chung-lin ftji $t and the title Yiu-ying-fu-jen is ^ 1%. Hence the phrase "a star has fallen from heaven. her prefix $fc is ^ and she is entitled (It is this star that Lady was incarnated of the Star Tze-wei H^ the the person of Emperor.i." It was she who gave to Yu |J| the great. 23 Kwang-yu-ki Jg $L fg Bk. 1220 . Bk.p. ^\ of : Right hand beauty": her abode \h- on Mount Ts'ang- lang it i% The Yu-yin (1) Jfc twentieth is called Ts'ing-ngo : ^ in $$.e.14 p. 4g p. 97 #% f|lj $£ Bk. The twenty third of her daughters. Chen-ehen pien-wang Yin-yang-tsah-tsu Sien-chivan-shih-i §)|| ifL p}$ ffl. the birds gather to hear the melodious harmony: she rides on the white dragon and travels over the sea at will. kih fu-jen ]|j |!| ^ \. 13 (1) See Vol.52.p. GENII More daughters are to be found.p.i Ming-yih-t'ung-chi BJ —$^ Bk. The fourth is Hwd-lin name is Yung-chen ^ Lpl and her title is :"NanShe is consort of the God of longevity. XII p. Yao-ki J$L #[£ bears the title of honour.2: Bk.31 IMMORTAL GODS. Her palace is on Mount Yuen-lung j£ pgg pj at Yu-ye $fl §ff." The thirteenth of her daughters is called Mei-lan 1$ ff with the further is H HI *? .67p. "Lady of the Flowery Clouds. the collection of formula for unvoking demons or ghosts.2 in j?| |^ jjr T'ai p'ing-kwang-ki k T M 1 IE Bk." Cf. The youngest daughter Yuh-chi-fu-jen 3i J& 5^ or as T'ai-chen-wang-fu-jen named Wan ^ is known as A ' "lady of the Jade Flower (? plant)" -fc jH 3£ A> "The T'ai-Chen King's ^ Every time she drows music from her violin.

first of all a In this section the reader will find of the catalogue a names according to the various lists . Among the various names of the Pah Sien A f[Ij. some are those of historical personages while others belong to the realm Below the different sources are distinguiof romance and fable. fig the famous in fj| in his works he gives reason The emperors of li which then grew rapidly in the title of "True Male Principle :" to Lil-tung-pin jgj| |H that of "Pure Active Principle". division into categories with charateristics all general afterwards each of and these worthies will have a notice to himself. Our author declares that there is no trace of such observances before the Yuan dynasty. p. 7.). shed in our brief notices. Ho sien-ku ffi g jf£ -][p) Yuan dynasty favoured Taoism influence. writer Hu-ying-lin fy support.D. 33. Lists of the "Eight Immortals" 1° According to the Shi-wu-yuen-Jiui fjf ^ !$) ^ -§ Bk. Han-chung-li Chang-Jcwo-lao f| $f Lil-tung-pin g |£ -}|j5J ^ %j $f ^^ Lan-ts'ai-hwo ^ . They gave to Han-chungf[jj H H then was taken to be his pupil and gradually this came to the accepted opinion. It be was at this epoch that for the first time the Eight Immortal were brought into the comedies and into congratulations on the attainment of the fiftieth year of age.35 ARTICLE VII The Eight Immortals PAH-SUV (T) BC A There is fill the Eight Immortals before the no reliable evidence for the legend concerning Sung period: it even seems ^ very likely that it was invented Such and the in the is time of the opinion of Yuan a 7c dynasty (1280-1368 A.

three different groups of A are to be found: Primitive Immortals. ts'ai-kwo. in great part differing from any Li-rh ^ fifi 5 frf- Yung-ch'eng * jJH jff £ !§ "gj Efe. 18 T'ung-kao-ts'uen-shu 5^ ^ ^ in tfr (Wai-kiien) Same names except Li-yuan-chung that ls T'ieh-kwai-li $^ ^ 7C 4 1 - ^ ^* s in ^ })j replaces that has established itself popular representations and 3° the lists as usually eiuoteel. in f[ij Thus Pah-sien the representations. All classes of mankind are represented among is the Eight. the infirm the needy Lanhave provided the lame T'ieh-kwai-li and Ho-sin-ku. tive of military Han-chung-li of the literati the representa- men. In the work Y en-pu-tsa-ki list i $ BE Bk. The womankind nobility contributes Ts'ao-kwoh-kiu. Lii-tung-pin and wealthy. Greybeards are represented by Chang-kwo-lao. ''Mediaeval" . 47 gives the following: Han-chung-li Lan-tsai-hwo Ts'ao-kwoh-kiu ill "i? 1 mmm 1 Lii-tung-pin g ff£ -j|0j H ^ Han-siang-tze T'ieh-kwai-li $p: j$| #J ij! ^ •? find Fung-seng-ko 4° M ft # Hilen-hu-tze j£ 6.) grandson. Tung-chung-shuTJt Yen-kiiin-pHng J| Chang-tao-Ung Li-pah-peh Si t » ^^ ^ f|[| /\ Fan-chang-sheu fa 4^ H Koh-yung-kwei Jf 7K Ifi wung H Classification and Distinctive Features of the Eight Immortals. Han-siang-ise.36 IMMORTAL GODS. youths by Han-yii's (I? M. 16 we the following's other : of the Eight. GENII Han-sian-tsze Ho-sien-ku 2° fa #M? M fill Ts'ao-kwoh-liu f/ gj %\ Li-yuan-chung ^ ^ 7c + According to the (Yuen-lung) p. 3. 241 p. p. 1° Classification. The Suh-wen-hien-tung-kao list: ^£ jgg ~j| ^ Bk.

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symbol of the mountebanks. the shape a horse's This Taoist emblem a taken of the at will. d) Han-chung-li 3fc f|| .THE EIGHT IMMORTALS. he ^ castanets. to destroy the life of anything Encyclop. f#| ^ $j| carries a basket of peaches of immortality or a bouquet of flowers. 2° 37 Characteristic a) emblems of the Eight Immortals.^Tan Lu. This p'ou-sah or Immortal had Ts'ao-kwoh-kiu was in fact access to the free entry to audience with superior deities. is Lan Ts'ai-houo |* ^ c) Han Siang-tzc $$. long clackers or castanets complete the portrait. commandment not p. b) this Immortal Two fp usually is playing on the flute: the street-singer. Immortals and Modern Immortals. f!| ^ (||) a kind is fly-whisk. g) T'ieh-kwai-U is H })} ^ %. See. e) Lil-tung-pin drive his away the is armed with g demons Chan-yao-kwai -}[FJ ^ his '|§^ iffi ^ of magic sword and he carries in to in hand his Yiin-chen tail. 186. (1) power to fly in the air and to f ) walk on the clouds Ts'ao-kwoh-kiu ^ §f| Jf is sa ^ to hold in both hands his Yun-yang-pan (or Sheu-pan $i) or ^j Hwuh a kind of tablet which had to be held when one was admitted to an imperial audience. is Chang-kwo-lao $f ^£ depicted with his ass on tail. the In Buddhism. 151. ft he fans himself with his feather-fan also found holding his (Yii-mao-shan f$ ||) is peach of immortality. (A gourd (1) $ jg Hu-Lu tail depicted with an iron leg and a and the crucible is .£|. signifies obedience living. which sometimes he rides with his face a towards the animal's less He carries in his hand phoenix-feather and frequently a peach of immortality. In our figures 146.) It is of Also called yak's % Indian origin. it It is used by to both Buddhist and Taoist priests. Sinica . |f ^ or }Q ^. connected with the imperial family and had Emperor's presence. (1) holds his usual symbol. is : gourd.

p. our pictures he has also his His image is ordinarily used cities. 733. Note: may be of interest to give the names of the Eight Tew aili (in 140: : from right (in green). She is a free-and-easy g ^ gave her find her way. (1) See Part It Plants and flowers. In containing crucible for making his potions. to left they are: Ho Sien Kit: T'ich yellok) Lan Ts'ai-hwo: Ts'ao Ewoh-Mu: Chang Kwo-lao (back Lii to front): Han Siang-tsze Han Chung -li: Tung-pin. a Chinese musical instrument. . GENII magic remedies. and drinking wine. hsi-mou-tan g ^ (Vol ^ j^ V iff f\ Lie-tung-pin admires a peony. as a sign for pharmacists in Chinese h) Ho-sien-ku of the -}|pj jp] filj ^ is shown holding in her hand a bloom ping magic lotus or else with the peach in the which Lil-tung- mountain gorge to help her to playing the Sheng |jg. Figure 231) in Fig.38 IMMORTAL GODS. Sometimes she is beauty and her protector Lu-tung-pin is the scholar of still freer morals as may be seen in the attractive picture called by the Chinese: — Lii-tung-pin (1) I.

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I p. 30 li N. the whole meaning. title: "Sole independant under heaven. (2) dynasty. 2 . 33 p. K'uen and his first name: Yun- in the district of Hien-yang-hsien "0f $% ^c ffi a sub-prefecture of the some-time capital Si-ngan-fu "gf . LIS). he retired into solitude on Mount *fc ft \[\. he was defeated in a and fled to Chung-nan Mountains $$ East ^ \\] where he found five heroes. At the opening of the T'ang dynasty Jff. Shi-wuh- yun-hwui. On Yang-Moh attaining old age. &# $J Passim.Han-chung-U not a man's name but the name (1) of a district. 3. the flower of the who taught him the doctrine of the Immortals. (2) #1 M# Bk. Ting-wei-tsa-luh %T Wi H $% Bk. SM-wulc-yuen-hwui ^ ^# Bk. (3) Cf.E. "Chung-li of the Han is period". in Shen-si ffi He became marshal of the empire. 7. 2 Cf. Chung-li-k'iien Uril'jfl of the was only Jg] a vice-marshal in the service battle Duke Chow-hiao ^ . $f[ fang || 2f Jf£. (3) Cf. Han fj| indicates title under the dynasty of that name. prefecture of P'ing-yang-fu ^p (1) 2. His family name is Chung-Li fg that he lived of his origin gj| : and life. of Yih-ch'eng-hien J| jjfc Jg$ in the |JL| |§§ $f in Shan-si W. (Bk.He possesses the honorific title: "Imperial prince of the true active principle". His personal name He was born .HAN-CHUNG-LI 39 HAN CHUNG-LI g| fj| There are different acccounts given 1. Lii-tsu-ts'iicn-shu Jf? g ififl. 33 p. Han-chung-U taught this same science of immortality to I. p.u-tung-pin g -j[5j ^ and took the invidious 3. Han-Chung-li. also called K'uen lived in the T'ang Jf He has been wrongly confused with the Han marshal is Chung-Li-mei (($0. in the year 2496 (Chinese cycle).

H JH latter and He was a beggar who took the title. Master Chung-li who gave Lao-chV ^ ^ a pill of immortality. (3) Kiu-t'ang-shu tf J}f & Bk. This il his had barely swallowed the pill when he became mad. (2) left These two opinions «4». Wang-lao-chi-ch'wan 3c. them are mentioned (1) (2) in the Old Annals Sungshi-ch'en. GENII This "immortal" must be the same as a Taoist adept. fl|. . & %& % 5fc [f$ f$ . wife and attained immortality. «5» and the works that authorise of the T'tnig (3). by who was present at the celebrated name.T'rvan-chwan Cf. 8 p. (1) H ^ ^ 5.40 4. IMMORTAL GODS. 23. Chung-li-tze $jf interview between Ch'en-yao-tze $f{ J& with T'wan ]%.

141 Han Tchong-li. .Fig. Han Chung-U.

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It ^ was during "gEf a journey to the capital in Shen-si |$ (Si-ngan-fou the $ fff W Chang-ngan that he chanced to meet 4£ ^ Immortal Chung-li-kiiien $(| ^f (Ean-chun-li ?H fli g$Q. It was at this period of his life that he uudertook a voyage to Mount Lii Jt[ jjj in tne prefecture There he met the hero of Kiu-kiang % ?x in Kiang-si jx "Fire-Dragon" who gave him a magic sword. He came from jpj cfa Yung-loh-hsien Shen-si ^^ §£ in the prefecture of Ho-chung-fu /Jrf |$ Hf. was T'ang-Tek-tsung fy. he grew to be five feet two inches in height: at twenty years of age he had not yet married. supervisor of the river "Ho-tung" ^) under the T'ang His grand father Wei ffi was president of the Board Rites and his father Jang was prefect of Hai-chcw i% ^ j'\'\. This happy state lasted. some fifty years: suddenly a grave crime brought 6 .D. a cup oi Chung-li was in an inn and was engaged in heating as it were ravished in an was wine. of the present sub-prefecture of JjE Yung-tsi-hsien .E. His great grand-father Yen-chi (fpf was Eastern ||. Lii-tung-pin sorghum H a high dignity and ecstasy. so he thought.£ ^ of It f|. First Version: is — Lii g is his family name.) of the T'ang emperor l-tsung.$| 9^ year of the Chen-yuan j=| 7^ period (798 A. thanks to which • W he could at will hide the title: "Pure in the skies: it was then of that he took his active". 120 ij| li to S. in his other name either Tung-pin or Yen $. At 64 years age.). D. he passed examinations for the doctor's degree: that was in the LTsien t'ong )& jH period (869-847 A. on the fourteenth day of the fourteenth month that Lii-tung-pin came into the in the reign of in the fourteenth world.^%.LU-TUNG-PIN 41 LU-TUNG-PIN g }|jf Lii-tung-pin seems like the preceding Immortal to have once really existed notwithstanding the differences in the dates assigned to him by different sources. and dreamt that he was promoted to blessed with all the favours of fortune.

daughter criminal eases.11 in the reign of the T'ting emperor T'ai-tsung twentieth year of the Chen-kwan period (^ fH) His father 646 A. he followed Han- chung-li to Hoh-ling (Mountain Peak) || ft( at Chung-nan #§.D. he a start. ~k in the : ^ was Jang gf and his mother one Wang 3E ne was eight feet two inches in height he wore mustaches and side-whiskers and : was slightly pock-marked. Thus. they drink wine ffr j@ and may is let a thousand years pass j*j unnoticed. I p. The two figures beneath the tree are Lii-tung-pin and Han Chung-li. task of necking the elixir #fc )f While doiim s<>. GENII about his own exile and the extirpation of his family.15 . g iH ^ iB #$ Whole of Bk. so that : Han-chung-li's wine literary allusion to was not yeh fully heated (1) the "dream of the sorghum wine. There is the jr[. Lu-tsu-ts'iien-shu-pcn-rhwan. (2. Afterwards he was Second proclaimed: "Imperial Prince. : ^ at last in the second year of the T'ien-shou would seem to ^ |g period of the (1) Fig. 139 above allude to this. The other two are These immortals are engaged on the llan-sieng-tsse and Tiek Tcwai-li. It was sighing a little bitterly when he awoke with fell had been but time since his asleep. title of The Sung Emperor Hwui-tsung 1115 bestowed on him the hero of Wonderful Wisdom. there he was initiated into the divine mysteries and became ^ Immortal. 1. he of married a young girl named high court judge of flj. all alone in the world. )f or external sublimation and the ft- or the internal sublimation which here helped by the wine cup. certain protector" (2) Version: —A fable relates that Lu-iung-pin is none other than the ancient king Hwang-tan Jl Ipt who was said to have reigned 250 years after the primal chaos and to have been reincarnated . At the age Liu of twenty.42 IMMORTAL GODS. He failed three times in the doctorate examination a Nieh-t'ai j|. Cf." hence the Thus won over from the ambition for human dignities. on the fourteenth day of the fourth moon.

Fig. Tung-pin on Kwei-sing's . sur le gnao de Koei-sing. 142 Lit Liu Tong-pin. hraken.

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p. Id. 3 p. followed li ^ him to Mt.E.D. 8.D. almost always life the same: and the fanciful additions of this doctor of the made by legend to the T'ang dynasty do not change it in mortal (4) f|l| its essence. Lu-tung-pin was born in the twelfth vear Chen-yuan j=( 7c period of the T'ang Emperor Teh-Tsung M' W> tj^ ^96 A. him to present himself again for examination. (2) (3) (4) (5) above. Rg was born in the district which then was included in Ho-nan . he in the prefecture of became sub-prefect Kiu-kiang ji of Teh-hwa-hsien t^ffcjii During voyage towards Mount Lii jj ill in the same prefecture. 14 Ch.pJ now in Shan-si W to the S. (3) In all these is references be cited. Version: fff — Lil-tung-pin % jjj P'u-fan-hsien It is j$f. . His father became prefect of Hai-chow $| and so Lu-tung-pin established himself there.LU-TUNG-PIN 43 his father T'ang Empress ft fa Wo-hou (691 A. ordered He was then 46 While passing through the capital city Ch'ang-ngan $£. l. as jjjtj] M It Bk. After taking his }>\\ of the doctor's degree.). Cluing Yen r^H with the fore-name Tung-pin 3rd gave him a new name ^tj\ -jjpj (1) of $j. there visible a historical and others which could easily foundation. Version. a simple who enjoyed no preternatural privileges. He was just a scholar. tJ< \$ in the prefecture of P'u-chow (2) 4th. years of age. 19.l. he met Chung-li-k'uen §g $| 4§| in an inn: he took this latter as master and taking leave of the world. Shen-sien-t'ung-kien Lii tsu-ts'iien-shu.19 Ch'en-t'uan-chwang |8fc Worshipped by the barbers as Lii-Tsu %% g jjjfl. Bk. Hoh- Ung S| #i at Chung-nan $fe fg. p. he met Chung-li "the True Active Principle" and by him was a ££ in Kiang-si yX If- initiated in the secrets of immortality. (1) Cf. of fff '}]] Yung-tsi-hsien Jfi.

he was to be seen on •^ [i§ Mount Heng-chow in P'ing-yang-fu Ht- On his journeys he used to ride a white ass: but he had the happy knack of folding up the ass like a sheet of paper and laying it aside in a serviette between journeys the serviette : could be kept in a travelling bag and the ass could be prepared for use by the spraying of a little water from his master's mouth." the T'ang j*g. T'ai-isung invite him In the -j^ ^ (622-650 court: to he usurper agreed to leave his retreat but seemed to be struck dead at the door of "The Jealous dignities. But shortly. thanks to his magic. and Fah-shan spoke: "Kwo-lao a preter- . In vain did two of the T'ang A.C. he was commissioned to go to Loh-yang (^ and was elected Grand Officer of the Academy with the honorific "Most perspicacious Master. to shall if do not dare Your will instantly bring me back to life.D. GENII CHANG-KWO-LAO gj| ^ ^ Mount Chung-tiao 4 of 1 Chang-kwo-lao lived as a solitary on fl£ iJU |Jj |f |5§ he was to be seen constantly travelling between Fen-chow ffl j'\\ and T sin-chow ff He declared he was some centuries old. grand !). reign of the Empress ^Yl( Hon (684-705).) of Emperor Hiien-tsung Jf ]£ ^. in high favour at Court. to the amazement j'g jli'l men.44 IMMORTAL GODS. fe H The Emperor asked him: ''Who replied is this Chang-Jcwo?" I "I know.) and Kao-tsung refused emphatically ^ ^ all (650-684) Emperors. Majesty deigns to give me an assurance that Your Majesty will go bare-foot and uncovered to make petition to Chang-kwo-lao. fall the magician. your speak. In the 23rd year of K'ai-yuan f$ ?£ period (735 A. He claimed to have been. he I at — Your Majesty. a prefecture Shan-si j'\'}. in an earlier existence. : in P'ing-yang-fu Zp $f. vizier of the Emperor Yao (2357 B. feet but if I tell dead But. he at last Woman" temple: his body decomposed forthwith and became of all the spoil of worms." Hiicn tsung made him is the promise demanded.D. : shan i|t This was the moment when the famous "Tao-shi" Yeh-fawas.

143 Tchang-kouo-lao. .Fig. Chang Kxoo-lao.

.

CI) (1) Cf. 30 p.l.l.19. Sometime after his burial. 20. Hiien-tsung went bare-foot and bare-head to suppplicate Changkwo-lao and ask him for pardon for his indiscretion. Chang -kwo-lao fell sick and returned to Mount Heng-chow fa j'\\.CHANG-KWO-LAO natural white bat that has issued from the primitive chaos". 23. Ming-yih-t'ung-chi — %t J& Bk. 45 So Scarcely were the words spoken when he fell dead. is. Mayer's Chinese Header's Manual. Shortly after.Bk.20 p. p.fg f£ Bk.He died there in the beginning of the T'it n- pao period (742-746) of the same reign. Kiu-t'ang-shu ff |f B/j U Bk. Changkwo-lao sprinkled Fah-shan's face with water and revived him. his disciples opened his grave but found it empty.S p. T'ai-pHng-Tcwang-Tci jz 2p . N° .

The years like weaver's shuttles fly. j| ^ TpP this ^^ hermaphrodite is unknown. Suh-wen-hsien-t'ung-Tcao Shen-sien-t'ung-Men jjjiji f|I| g ^C f i f Bk. 14 6. $?£ . he were given cash. Suit slicn-sicn-chtvan £f jjji}] f|I| $ (T'ai-ping-kwang-ki) Bk. Yet ever men are born more and more. His foreand he lived towards the end of the ragged clothes. A strolling singer. in winter he would snow and his breath went up burning hot like steam from a boiling cauldron. His constant was: Who So! I will dare say that man cannot be pregnant? have been so these ten months! In an inn of Feng-yang-fu JU.46 IMMORTAL CODS. 8 p. his belt first flinging to earth and his tablet. May one on earth his equal find! Youth is a plant that tastes a spring. the other in a boot. (1) (1) Cf.22 24 2 p. The generations pass nor come again. his cloak. % Jft (fix) in Anhwei he got drunk and disappeared in a cloud after his boot. is Cp. a blue cloak. one foot bare. M Bk. a belt Here is his style: made of black wood three inches wide. he held in his hand a tablet (or a wand) three feet long: people at first sight took him for a fool which he was not: as he walked. sleep in the wearing quilted clothes in summer. p. his one boot beat the measure of his song: Ta-ta-ho! Lan-ts'ai-hwo. he threaded them on a string and in the road without refrain If dragged them after him or strewed them bothering more about them. CENII LAN-TS«Al-HWO The origin of name was Yang-su T'ang J|f. 6. begging his living in the streets.

Lan Ts'ai-hwo. .Fig. 144 Lan Ts'ai-houo.

.

He went back in to his hermitage 2. record that 23 li north is Wu-chih-hsien the tomb of the Immortal (female) Lan Ts'ai-hwo HJ £} tt( still shown in the village of Lan-fung-ts'un * Kuen XIX p. 3.LAN-TS'AI-HWO In Chinese comedies. sometimes as The characteristic symbol fairly commonly used is the pair of clappers (castanets) held between the fingers to play a primitive accompaniment to the singing (Cf. see Wu-chih-hsien %^ p£ hermaphrodite is sometimes depicted as male. p. 0'' about that time he was summoned at to Court. Pao-chcng % f§> frjf to finish his days.) fg This female.D. Plate Lan Ts'ai hwo is none other than the Taoist adept Cken Ts'i tze |$| -^(also called Ch'en Fuh-hiu (g ff.) of the T'ang Emperor Teh-Tsung 1. Eiai-tsze-yuan hwa-ch'wan. as above. Lan-ts'ai-hwo is 47 dressed as a It is female easy to but speaks with a man's voice or vice versa. jft [Sfc The Annals of the Sub-prefecture of Wu-chih-hsien {$_ tff f£ the of prefecture of Hwai-Tcing in Bonan. 2 9. 14. is understand that this hermaphrodite ribaldry.) . (1) the occasion for unpleasant (1) Lan Ts'ai-hwo fi 5£ 3D The Taoist books give two different accounts personage: of this legendary According to the Kin-Tcai sin teng M '£• M Kuen I p.) who was living in the regnal period Cheng Yuen 0_ yt (785-805 A. & (T'u HI) -fc- [ij£ /If W.

). also j£j called iE £-< oi tne district Nan-yang-hsien officer |Q§ $£ in Han t'ui-chi Hunan (fH). Han-yu. ''What then do you learn?" I learn to make excellent wine without any previous matter existing and to call flowers into existence on the instant. "My object in my studies is different from yours". was the nephew $¥- of the celebrated Han-yu ff. Thus Han-yu came to understand the two lines and added eight others himself in explanation. asked Han-yu". were two verses: £g). indeed. When Siang-tze parted from his uncle he of sent him the following verses. Han-siang-tze was as a child confided to the care of his uncle for the study of literature and preparation to One day he said for the public examinations." So Siang-tze put some earth in a flower-pot and forthwith there came forth a bouquet of perfect peonies of gleaming red: on the petals of these flowers. ^ fell so heavily that he could go no further.D. are the men name who have . "Many. Then Siang-tze appeared to him. swept away the snow and opened a road for him." "Let me see. written in gold." Han-yu was sent chow-fu \$ j'\] at the foot of Kwang-tung Lan-kwan ]§£ §|. will the know in good time. GENII IIAiV-SlANG-TZE ||£ jijfl ^ fjij Han-siang-tze whose fore-name is Ts'ing-fu 5^.| and my horse will not push on These two mountains are of in Shen-si |$£ "JUT in the district is Lan-t'ien-hsien J* ffl M- meaning of these verses?" in — "You "What". H.48 IMMORTAL GODS.. || Clouds shroud Ts'in Peak (^ where now ) is my abode? Snow is piled on Lan-Kwan (j. snow jfl\ in disgrace into the prefecture of Ch'aoWhen he had arrived ig. a famous scholar and high under the T'ang Emperor Hsien Tsung jf gf 9* (806-821 A.

145 Han Han Siang-tse. Siang-tze.Fig. .

.

there seen a grotto called "The Western Cave Siang-tzt the little truant is said to have hid. Suh-sien-chwan #f f|i| % J|$ jft :# Bk.MAN-SIANG-TZE served their land. just anger saw him back at home for was about to beat him when the youngster little His uncle's birthday the celebrations. and the uncle in said will . body ^ (1) Cf. (1) the grand-nephew of Han-yii According to another account.. 10. and of gain watchful : Thou shall on the alone and a day come when heavenwards soaring. . Suh-wen-hsien-i'uny-lcao #| Cf. Han-siang-tze ff." jfjfc ^f. (2) fi? Yuen-Hen-lei-hav.242 p. but you shall be restored to your former dignity". recorded "$* in the Kiai-tsze-yuen-wah-chwan *? S 4 1W- re l ates tnat Han-siang-tze after proclaiming himself disciple of Lii-tung-pin g ^. thou shalt cleave thyself a passage gleaming midst the azure clouds. fell from a peach-tree a metamorphosis. $|J -^ was he fled from school and his ff: ^ : whereabouts were for a long while unknown. he underwent his After and was killed. And so it befell. but 49 who midst them is You have won place of the peak of dignities — and your master in letters? in now art buried a damp and fog. (2) "Don't be annoyed: just give me a flowers blossom on it forthwith. is still If the Ming-yih-t'ung-chi 0^ Shen-si $i in it "jM — we may to be of trust in ." Han-yii on his part And verse: "How many ! here below are drunk for bidest bade the nephew farewell in love of honours straight path. But Siang-tze consoled him and gave him a drug assuring him that a grain would enable him to endure the miseries of that damp." Han-yii was saddened by the thoughts of exile in a damp climate and brooded over the thought that he must die without seeing home and family again. "Not only shall you come back in perfect health to your home." branch and I make Another legend.

as not his nephew's son and his that of a diviner. 4 p. to be sheer inventions of finds those verses ]§ two works. (1) Now $j| here the verdict of the scholar Tlu-ying-lin #] of ^ on these proofs praeternatural power cited is attributed to Ilan- siang-tze. The authority the poetry composed by Hanat siang's uncle. and Ts'ing-so-kao-i ^ Jg ^ f| : and these inventions came to be taken as historical truth. in text Bk. 8 . This person was then his nephew. GENII sought out his uncle Han-yii and boasted of his power to create an exquisite wine or to produce flowers instantly. (1) Opus cit. he that magic power and probing heaven's works".D. a caster of power was mentioned merely — and horoscopes so. nephew deo-ree of Han-yii and as having been admitted to the the Doctor 823 A. in the reign of T'ang Emperor in Muh-Tsung of Rites. M% 9* and is later on incorporated to the Ministry No allusion made magical powers. Since the inscriptions were in existence before Han's banishment to Kwang-tung Ji ^ he cannot then have written them. the poet adds. said than done: before his uncle's eyes a cup fine And no filled sooner was with a wine and a bouquet is of water-lilies burst into view. 'tis my relative. The occasion for this legend seems to have been a poem in which Han-yii addressed once to a nephew of his j\\ who lived Siu-chow-fu % of Jfl\ Here are the words: "Who boasts knocks upon of my door? Ah. Han-yii when they were together Hu-ying-lin the foot of the Lan-kwan J* §| Mountain.oO IMMORTAL GODS. sih-piao Hit cites in St- support the T'ang-tsai-siang-shi- m% m#n of ilus book describes Siang-tze as the son of Lao-ch'eng % $. Yiu-yang-tsa-tsu % $£ £§.

8. traits Most pictures and with hair is of this personage depict a figure with certain feminine tied in a knot girls The type ft fil in most use that from the painter Li lih-ivung ^^ Kiai-tse-yuen hwa ch'wan 7r -fm about the year 1G79. 32. c) With a pear-tree beside him in the picture. 8." There to is not question here of the grand-nephew on the journey Kwang-tung. the author explains the different symbols or "attri- butes" by which this Immortal may be recognized. (1) Cf. b) coming back to life. Riu-t'ang-shu t§ ^§ Bk. such as young wear.IIAN-SIANG-TZE "I venture not to enhance your gifts to see 51 I — have but one desire. So Han-yil does not testify to any magic power of Han-siang-tze (1). state that . . Ss-tsih U [/C] of the H p. a) With a basket With a basket to spring of peaches. caused flowers up suddenly in order to give his uncle proof of his preternatural powers. He is represented.j£ Han Siang-tse's grave is 5 li east of Mung-hsie% (formerly Ho-yang-hsien). because he fell from a peach-tree of flowers.. in Ho -nan. 23 The Annals f| of the prefecture of Hwai-king-fu in Honan ^ ® flf M Kilen IV. In his account. you a loyal officer.p. because after and he was killed. p.

) had two younger brothers. one Yuen-wen-cheng Ch'ao-yang-hsien $j (1) ^ ^ IE of % §& (Ch'ao-chow fu IB ti •$] j'\] Ift in Kwang-tung Shen-sien-t'ung-lien /[$ f|Il Bk. 1 (l$ i§f) fe Hi Bk. There was a graduate. gives Lung-t'u (shen-twan) kun-ngan || more circumstantial yet more legendary details about this pair of brothers. GENII TS'AO-KWOH-IiU The Empress Jen-tsung 5J5 li? Ts'ao ^ Jl . 9 p. King-liiu f^ remained aloof from affairs of state. Han-chung-li in his solitude ^ fl J|| and Lii-tung-pin g pj ^ff him 'T and asked him. jp. "Where is this heaven?" his heart.52 IMMORTAL GODS. The elder brother. of intense application. The elder of these. IS eh. . haled him before a his court and condemned him. hid himself in the mountain. smarting under this disgrace./p. the conduct. 8. His visitors smiled and rejoined. they imparted to him a prescription for perfection and for attaining foremost place amongst the Heroes. "The heart is heaven. "What are you doing studying the Way?" "What way? Where is the hermit merely pointed to heaven. (1) Another work IB intitled.D. younger King-chih jft yfjf was notorious for disorderly Several times had the Emperor ineffectually taken to task: he him sharply as homicide." So then and there. His visitors The hermit moved his hand to urged. he attained the happy state within a few days. in the Province Ngan-hwei ^ He. made himself head-covering and the life clothes from the wild-plants and resolved to live of a perfect hermit. ^ (1023-1064 A. wife of the Sung Emperor fr. pursued his course and even went as far (£2 tzls) The imperial Censor was Pao-wen-cheng Q "^ jE known among the people as Pao-lao-ye & % ffi. One visited day. here?" way?" — The am — is the Way you have seized the truth. By dint and heaven . 7 p. a native fj^ of the district Hoh-fei-hsien fe % in Lii-chow-fu J| )>[\ /ft.

Fig. Ts'ao Kwoh-kiu. . 146 Ts'ao Kouo-kieou.

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The elder brother King-hiu the jp. he did not that of Pao-lao-ye. But the graduate's soul appeared to the Imperial Censor Pao-lao-ye j£ ffj and demanded vengeance % for this foul crime. all On . He has Ts'ao-king-hiu arrested immediately. the woman palace the for husband and wife followed determinedly and at : the husband was strangled and to the prince endeavoured to force the woman he his will. lao-ye has On him thrown of the entreaties the into a dungeon and turns a Emperor and Empress: within falls deaf ear to a few days. j$[ had the woman flung into star but the T'ai-peh-kin-sing -fc £3 £ J| it in the figure of an old man drew of a her out. well sources of incrimination and so prevent further The young rake -Jp. top of this. she advanced venture to refuse the accusation but on the pretext that the woman had been guilt} of grave disrespect in not standing aside for his cortege to pass. she thinking to met the cortege mandarin on the road be and presented her accusation. he writes an invitation to Ts'ao-king-chih: the Paolatter comes to find himself confronted with the woman. fa seeing that the impartial Censor had taken up of his brother's guilt. the Sung v|5 Emperor Jen-tsuny over the empire by receipt of the edict. puts him into the pillory. He was on The younger brother of the Empress caught sight of and was fascinated by her beaut}' an invitation to . The Censor gets her to draw up a formal accusation. The mandarin however proved to be no other than Ts'ao-king-hiu the murderer's elder brother. ^ all which then proclaims a sort of jubilee those in prison are pardoned. young murderer's head fH beneath the executioner's sword. As she : was escaping. Again she revives and this time she succeeds in reaching Pao-lao-ye. In order to extricate Ts'ao-king-hiu.ts'ao-kwoh-kiu 53 M his way to the examinations in the capital 30and he had with him his wife whose maiden name was Chang %. advised case and the knowing him to do away with woman and get a deep rid of all prosecution. he had her beaten with iron-tipped whips and left her for dead in an adjacent lane-way. and loads him with chains. She in refused last had her shut up a deep inaccessible dungeon.

The Sii-chow Annals (1) written in the reign of K'ang-hi Cheh(1662-1723) add that in the reign of the Sung Emperor Tsung 5^ g. among those related to the Imperial house we find no other personages bearing this name \\U Mence we have to deal with pure legends for which there . of was mandarin under $|. in the year 1097 A. ^% in great part to the above story. comments very much pfl M $1 The Sung Annals. says he. the Sung Emperor Jen-tsung and died at the age of 72. a god This function he owes of the is honoured in many temples as Pao-lao-ye tH nether world.3 A. GUNII sets Ts'ao-king-hiu free.) ffi ifg he Sung was 7& Bk. make mention of the Empress Ts'ao T|f £ jg\ wife of the Emperor The elder's name was Ts'ao-fu ~% ff: and the younger fft.D. brothers of Jen-tsung. 26 ^ jg ^ 908-102."» I IMMORTAL GODS. he was canonized as Yih-wang iJy 3i.B. $S» 50 lis S - E - of the sub-prefecture Siao-hsien |f $|. becomes one of the Eight Immortals. N.The Annals make no mention of Ts'ai-yih his Ts'ao-fu was prefect posthumous title Kung-heu Yung-chow |j| j\\ and received the ^ becoming an Immortal : and yet. The work Ngan-shu Tao-shan-ts'ing-hwa so ^ jjj iff fj speaks of one the that ^ ffi. famous for his learning (under Emperor Chen-tsung (1) 58 p. was Ts'ao-yih "H at Their father was Ts'ao-pin iff ^. Pao-lao-yt as it This latter finding himself of a were risen from death devotes himself to the practice hermit and profiting by lessons from perfection. becomes a Hero. Historical critique : The to the historian Hu-ying-lin point.%*. Kiang-nan t'ung-chi Sii-chow Jisien-chi yl j£ & 'JH fill . a high dignitary the court of the Sung Emperors T'ai-tsu ($£ -k fl) and T'ai-tsung (# ± £*) 960-998 A. the Lord Justice of the other world.D. Ts'ao-kwoh-Hu ig" |U J| came to dwell in the temple Yuh-hu-kwan 'K M... is no Historical foundation. I).

10: 264 p. Sung-Shi Jfc A Bk.S. 34 p. : Hence Hu-yin-lin whole story (1) is well justified in concluding that the of Ts'ao-kwoh-hiu f | | Bk. 242 is purely legendary omance. 24. (1) Of. "g" he is not connected with the Imperial family.25. 1: p.TS'AO-KWOH-KIU 55 regarded as a reincarnation of the Immortal Ts'ao-pah-Peh ^jff A but even if we suppose that this latter worthy ever existed. 25S p. . Eai-yu-ts'ung-Jcao & ffc ft # B.

D. 4. Bk. the usurper a stone called "Mother of Cloud Stone:" Yun-mu-shih H -££ ft. to come to court but was invited by the Empress Wu-heu ^^ when half-way on of the reign of the became an Immortal. ft -^: #| 20 li E. As soon as she tasted the fruit. f| period Chung-tsung Jf + £? (707-710 A.). up and eat it: She was then 14 She obeyed and in addition promised never to Henceforth she was to be seen flying from one peak marry. Ming-yih-t'ung-chi $ — % Wt §f Suh-ivcn-hsicn-t'ung-lao $g & Bk. 32 242 . she suddenly disappeared and It was then the King-lung jp. She herself soon felt no longer any need to eat and She her style of speech became as singular as her behaviour. to another.D. GENll IIO-S1EX-KU Ho-sien-ku ipf f[]j jpf -f|Jj tt 'fpj jfc was of the daughter of one Ho-t'ai ^ in from the sub-prefecture Jpi ]||. a spirit bade her pound this stone thus she would attain agility and immortality. Tseng-ch'eng-hsien in the if ^ g$. journey. 79. and soon also received the of Immortality. p.66 IMMORTAL CODS. (1) in According to another view. Every day she brought her mother fruit from the mountain. M pg Bk. recorded H'J Liu-kung-fu-shi-hwa ||j? 5t 3Cff p&< ner birthplace '}\] She led a vagabond Jffi Yung-chow-fu 7j< existence on the street and high-roads.the T'ang dynasty (684-705 A. 65 p. One day she ventured into the mountains to get some of pfiT. of the Tseng-eh'eng sub-prefecture for her abode. Kwang-tung jj£ She lived time of the Empress Wu-heu during. In a dream. 7: p. or 15 years old. was Ling-ling in Hunan #Jj ^ in the prefecture tea : there she lost her way but there came to her help a stranger (supposed to be Liu-tung-pin g \$ ^). she was possessed of the gift of foretelling the good or bad fortune gift of other people (l) Cf. This mountain yields fa.). He gave her a peach to eat and showed her the way out of the wild gorges into which she had strayed. She chose the mountain Yun-mu-Ung. On her head she had only six hairs.

147 Ho Sien-kou.Fig. The Fairy Lady Ho. .

.

If however we look II e. in the Hai-yii-ts'ung kao p£ #^ Bk 8 .D. under Jen-tsung % fc ^ (1023-1064 A. we that she flourished in the Sung three centuries later.D. Even if we suppose her to have existed. historic fact. details 3f. cannot accept as facts the deeds attributed to her. we Other and texts are preserved 34. ^ £.HO-SIEN-Ktt 57 This is all dated about the year 710 A. we may conclude that there is nothing of certain is a heroine of romance or a taoist myth the fairy kind. into the Tseng-teh-cheng-tuh-sing-tsahfind chi #^ g^ period. under the reign of Chung-Tsung. i.). Ho-sien-'ku of Here two.

taught His lady-patron made him a as "Ruler of the Chinese East. Nearby to start off to visit her. jjitjj The book p. ling f$ ^f that if after seven days the body was to be cremated. because he carried a pills: gourd containing magic he is remembered as a kind healer. (l) Lao-tze begged him not to which he had slipped inadverdo so and gave him a golden (Yuen-lung)Wai-kuen p." K'ung-muli iJL present of an iron crutch Chung-li-k'Uen and commissioned him in to find out H |£jf f|| (Han-clumg-li ^ it (H) the capital and teach him the science of immortality. (1) Pictures of T'ieh-kwai-li are often to he found as the sign of a druggist's shop.Si-wan-mu |§3i# cured him of an ulcer on the him the art of becoming. To his amazement. he found himself possessed of a black face. Chap. At sight of this dreadful exterior huge eyes and a he wanted to rid himself of this coating into tently. Before his departure. 18. identifies Shen-sien-tung-kien -fiJj jj§ fjj£ Bk. 3. Shortly after this favour.an Immortal he was canonized leg. by the temples and took possession. anxious he burned Li-ning-yang' s body premathe soul came back in due time but that result the with turely in a forest a hapless only to find the ashes of its abode. Li-ning-yang' s wandering soul found entered the untenanted body. T'ung-lao-ts'iien-shu M^^ # . woolly matted beard and first hair. his soul left his body for a journey to the mountain Hwa-shan |j| Mj.. GENII T1EH-KWA1-L1 This Immortal's family ||£ ^^ /. wretch had died of hunger: a pointed head.58 IMMORTAL GODS. Six days had barely elapsed when the disciple got news of the illness of his mother. T'ieh-kwai-li with Li-ning-yang ^ % who was in honoured by Lao-tze with an apparition and instructed by him the doctrine of perfection. Cf.5. $£ 1.' name was ^ : and his surname 9. he gave instructions to his disciple Langhis soul had not come back. crippled leg.

148 T'ie-koai Li.Fig. T'ieh-kwca Li .

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found his eyes as large as rings. : the critic of the Immortals. flg ^ fj|. Hai-yii-ts'uvg-kao -^ |f % loc. kwai existence. treats as so much fiction "no trace of this fabulous personage to be found either in the Histories or in any other serious \fy work. he was seen digging out a cave for himself with his iron crutch he was changed into a $j£ $%. He led a hapless : dragon and flew up Hu-ying-lin all this is to the skies. Li-k'ung-muh ?L SPopularly he was called: T'ieh-kwai-li. Li On to help his walking. begging a living. ^ $£ })} lived at it the time of the Sui dynasty ||$ lit (590-618 A. 241 Li-t'ieh-kwai p. cit.D." Cf.) i He was born Hiah in Tung-hu-hien $f in ^ j#j M H 4b- n the sub-prefecture I-ch'ang-fu H Hu-peh His special name was Hung-shui $t 7^ and his "milk" name was Kwai-rh #} ^. and he had still another name. hence he came to be called "Hollow-Eyed Li". 47. ^ Another legend is to be found in the "Suh-wen-hsien-l'ung- *™ (5f f^tl^Bk. roaming through the towns. In the end. . T'ieh.T'lEH-KWAI-LI circlet for his hair 59 and an iron crutch putting his hand to his eyes.

said he licks this ulcer. he covered 800 li at one lived 800 years. "My malady".C. "can be cured only if some one So Kung-fang got three servants to do the repulsive service. Li now demanded that the prefect's wife must do the same as her husband. 10 li X. have flourished at the po. The devoted Kung-fang satisfied he came forth from his request and this time.) or the have beginning of the Chow Jg) (1122 B. Kung-fang ordered cure did his wife : but when she had of the obeyed.1800 B. "said Li to Kung-fang.C.60 IMMORTAL GODS. I "Know. at times in the towns. the not come. Li was cured : the bath hale and hearty without a trace of his previous affliction." that I am an Immortal: knew that you were in want of a master and I came to put ." to Kung-fang. Thereupon Li Eight Hundreds demanded three hundred thousand quarts of excellent wine in which he would bathe.E." mountains.C.) he dwelt on the mountain ££ W- In the the Chow Emperor Muh |Jj % shan by the banks of the torrent Ch'eng-tu jfc ^ ^ Kin-Vang^ ^ Kin-t'ang in the prefecture U 1 in Sz-ch'wan B JH- He chung-fu (ifS) learned that T'ang-kung-fang ffi $ £ |$ Mang 3£ \fc prefect of 3|^ Han- ^4 m 1 tne reign of \Yan(j %fc 9-23 A. GENII LI Ol THE EIGHT HUNDREDS $ /\ 1" Li-pah-pch to ^ A g" (Li of the Eight Hundreds) supposed end of the Ilia jg (c.D. secluded He lived at times name "Eight Hundred. But Li declared: "Servants won't do: it must So Kung-fang himself complied but be done by a wise man". his whole body was afflicted with such an ulcer that no one ventured to come near him. speed to Shen-si offer his Shortly after his arrival. of the town of of Shui-chow-fu tfft jW fft in Kiang-si reign (1001 to 946 B. He devoted himself to the study of alchemy on the mountain Hwa-lin-shan hence the in the lp # lU .) was looking for an all the Usurper experienced master: so |f to he betook himself with services.) and reputed to If he started to move.

Fairy Goddess Ho. Chang-kwo-lao. 149 Fig. Han Chung-li. Ho-sien-kou. 7Vie Tchang-ko-lao. Tung -pin. 450 Liu-tong-pin.Fig. . Lit Han-tchong-li.

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when under the Western Han took service with Kung-fang: and in the 10th century HM lie A. for Immortality. & $.D. back he came f| to black the white heads of changing youth. G) Ming-yih Vung-shi m —& M Bk - 34 P. in the (1) Shen-sien-chwan %%{$\M (.. the prefecture of Pao-ning-fu {$ ^ Jff in Sz-ch'ivan & thi> latter drank the drug and found Immortality.D. the I shall teach you the recipe Then he ordered Kung-fang.C. at Master court. in iff (Honan) became disciple but — History not written — Li-Rh ^ % (See is was soon such contradictory variants: Tao-tze) life of — Chang-tao-ling ^ M ^ Yung (See his life. B. On Yiin-t'ai Mount |§ J{ |Jj at Ts'ang-ki-lisien ^ them youth. 7. detail This personage claimed to have been of Hwang-ii fift and a high dignitary one time the in that monarch's The Suh-wen-hsien-Pung-Tcao |f viz. p.c." his Now.LI-PAH-PEH 61 you to the test — to see if you were worth teaching. (1) diction. # ft jl 3§ adds a typical that Emepror Muh gifts of renewing about 1010 reign of the Chow He had the useful to this world. all of wife and three sarvents. In these fairy tales there is patent absurdity and contraLi was already 800 years old under the Chow ffl Emperor Muh-wang f| ^. he was still the under the Sung Emperor T'ai-tsung % ic a certain high that find we same in the Sung Annals ji| — ^ % official Ch'en-tsung-sin ^ \% ^g from Yung-ch'eng-hsien fig ^^% his in the prefecture of Kwei-tch-fu %% disillusioned.Tai-ving-lacang-li Bk. he was still only 800 years old in 8 A.m )\\.C. to take a bath in the wine into which he had plunged: in turn came forth glistening with freshness and Then he presented Kung-fang with a book of magic (tan-king f\ ^) with which he could compound the draught of immortality.39 ' 22 ' . MM. article IX) ch'eiig. 1000 B.

130 li E.) of the Hem Emperor's Wu Ti jft $?. Fau Chaug Sheu U^^ No document known to me.62 of elders IMMORTAL GODS. ^ to (156-140 B. on the streets of Ch'eng-tu )$ ^fl' and on earning a hundred cents.) probe the laws of nature by examining any extraordinary or calamitous events that occurred. Tuiig-cliuiig-sliu Jr 1ty $f- Born at Kwang-ch'wan J| (fnj Jl|. of Tsao-kiang-hsien M #j£ $r< i" Chihli it || still ^k). From the Ch'un-ts'iu ^ #. Ko-vimg-kwei tK Jl was also The Wan-sing -t'ung-pu H #£ j§ known as Kejh-sien-wuny ^ f The Ming-yih-tung-shi §ff assures us that he he [Ij f| and that lived under the Tsin ff (255 to 206 B. the south of the Min Mountain [lj^ Sz-ch'wan.C. tells us that a mountain Ko-yung-kwei-shan fa Jj| Oj 4o // X. he his would return home.C.C. he became Lao-tze's master. J5 )\\. practice Yen-kiuu-p'iiig His was jg M¥ He was born $g he used to at Lin-k'iung His other name was Tsun gpfr j||. GENII and of making their missing teeth grow again. of P'ang-hsien i£ J$£ got H in the prefecture its Ch'eng-tu $ 3$< the name as memorial of . we learn that while a youth he was a mandarin: he was a sage of the time of King-i'i ^. youth he studied under the $ in a hermit who dwelt on the reign. J£) — |fc ^.). m tne present prefecture of K'iiing-chow J5 'M m Sz-ch'wan ffl According to the Yih-king ^ practise as a professional fortune-teller the provincial capital. master Yang-yung During fife. Later on. in Yuen-ting period yt ^ (116-110 B.

Fig. . 152 Lan-ts'ai-houo. Lan Ts'ai-hwo. Tsao Kwoh-kiu. Han-siang-tse. Tieh Kwai-li. Tsao-kouo-kieou. Tie-koai-li. 151 Fig. Han Siang-tze.

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will often be recognize them for cups. wholly to the magic safety peach given her by the Immortal Lu. C Few able to subjects have been so often represented by hinese artists as these Immortals. Reference Rooks: Wan-sing-i'ung-pu £[ $£ M H Bk. different fans and pictures. 22. 7. ^ of || Bk. only three are genuinely historical personages viz. tea-pots. # (£ T below 82) M # Pjk 56 1: Bk. P- p. 1: p. 72 - 241 p.D. most it may come from the end of the Southern Sung. LU-tung-pin.g. . yet the tells owed her she was lost in the mountains. p. Re: liable historical sources that refer to these three. 20 Bk. any praeternatural power possessed by them. 10 p. General Conclusion. that the last half of the 13th century 2. 9. U7 67 p. when The called first series of plates singly as travelling over the sea representing these Immortals on various sea monsters are popularly "Pah-sien-piao-hai in A -fill M $* • The second series depicts them couples with their distinctive symbols. 1. have never made allusion to 3. Bk. The legend the "Eight Immortals" at does not go farther back than the Yuan dynasty. We have therefore reproduced specimens which may be helpful memorising the types. A.KO-YUNG-KWEI gift 63 of Immortality given to Ko-yung-kwei while he lived on the mountain. The experienced eye on vases. 1. 2 p. at These legends often are : gical sequence e. 1. Ho-sien-ku story-teller had logger-heads with chronolodied before the birth of us that she Lu-tung-pin. Suh-wen-hsien-t'ung-kao §f flR Heu-han-shu f£ $| Ts'ien-han-shu Shati g-yiu-luh m ffr # M 3t Bk. Han-chung-li. Chang kwo-lao. or very is. Of the "Eight".

his clan According to Lii-tsu-ts'uen-shu Lit |?lj g f^f name Bk. Immortal is usual represented with one of the following attributes: a) He holds in his hand a motley string to which is tied a Shan i||f. his own name as fltji 18 Ch. $ji. much less as to and deeds. court and buried himself in a mountain solitude between Chung-nan-shan #£ T# (Jj and T'ai-hwa-shan in Shen-si f|lj -Jk "gEj".B. to his There his acts is no agreement as name. GENII AETICLE L1U-HAI-S1EN VIII (T. name as Liu-hai $J. Ts'ao 3. b) He wears an oblique sash made of eggs and gold pieces strung together. 1.64 IMMORTAL GODS. name was and his personal Ts'ao He fjj was Fort said to Ji have been in tne a Minister of State > under T'ai-tsu I MW-iM ea r 916 A. Peking was The Kwang-yil-M Hg ^ ^ Bk.) C m m m THE IMMORTAL This LIU-HAI. The following legend 1. his clan a ffi gjj* The Shen-sien-i'ung-Men }§ f|£ Bk. 37 gives his fore-name as Chao-tah £i . 6 p. I$£ |Xj in the prefecture of Si-ngan-fu Hf -^ B. p. A. Name and Legend. a three-legged toad (an emblem of money-making). when the latter proclaimed left Lii afterwards himself emperor of the Liao $££ or Ki-tan §>1 ^.D. gives fflj with fore-name Tsung-ch'eng 9^ $• (1) Liu-hai %\\ #| was originally from Peh-king 4b (1) M (-ft ^p) in Chih-li jf $$ IE (jpj 4fc ). will explain these attributes. -Jfc 19. %%.

was the The host immediately cut short the interview. "Yes. of Few. ?£ Emperor Shun-Ti jl[| $? in the 6th year of 1340 A. (2) with his As the king turned a deaf ear to his remons- trance. is a hazardous business"." in 2) Hence the bandolier worn by Liu-hai The T'ungMen-Tcang-muh M $£ *H @T'ai-tsu jz ffl Chinese pictures. the Immortal gold got Lii-tung-pin secretions into pills of immortality. (1) apartment. conferred on him the posthumous title: "Loyal Prince (1) of Intelligence that searcheth the great Doctrine. "That less ticklish retort.. In accordance with Chinese practice pleaded illness in order to surrender his seals and resign. received a visit from Cheng-yang-tze iE ^ IH ^p.D. g ^ |J) he the recipe for changing The Yuan Chi-yiian jg %. D. the Illumined (to wit. king who had usurped the title of emperor and upbraided him act.LIU-HAI-SIEN called of old Yen-shan $S mj 65 of and was the capital the little kingdom of Yen ^. says Bk. and Ts'ao ^ took the hint. and that the king Sheu-hwang ^ )fe usurped Emperor in the first year of ''Kien-hwa" ^ -f^ 911 A." "Hai-shan-tsze #$ ||ff ^jr. 54 p that the sht »/- Emperor of the Later Liang &m had granted Liu K'ai -ping period Hfl hwang the title of King of Yen in the 3rd year of the the title of 2p 909 A. under Liu-sheu-kivang |?|J ^ -fa Nature and Destiny were the ordinary topics of his discourse and he honoured the old emperor Hwang-ti jir and Lao-kiiin. cried Liu-hai.D.up a pile of ten eggs one on top of another but each time with a piece of gold between. He. . 43. He presented himself before Kwang %. the Sea-toad. a minister This Liu became king of Yen $$. the Immortal Han-chung-li jH) and the reception of ^ f| the visitor took place in the state The visitor set himself to building. He changed his name . but than being minister to that prince of yours". to Hilen-ying 3£j&: the Tao-shi call him. one day. He then started to travel in search of perfec- tion and meeting with Lil-shun-yang g $£ % (viz.

(2) the stranger day of the first Chinese month. two hours each.66 2. witness of to this strange nightjust One day he was given . It is this latter. he was take it. a young stranger {$ knocked at the door of Pel's house and asked for work. Those have a vivid memory of the drum right announcing the watch: e. At Su-chow dwelt Jr . wages but declined Moreover it had been noticed that sometimes he did not take any food for days together without for all that suffering inconvenience.. Kwo Art IV siao-nien jg p. the task cleaning inside the vessels (1) in an instant he had turned them out. GENII An Apparition is of Liu-hai.£ in the ?$C- outside the Nan-hao ]$ y^ suburb. IMMORTAL GODS. (1) Two kinds are in use. V (3) 642 (Engl. See above Vol.D. On Lantern the fifteenth festival. The family was most anxious. But he turned up in the third watch. In the first EE. serving for stool: the other of the urine-flask type as sick-beds in our to countries. all the inmates of the house bore astonished trait. a Drang Gate |M] PI there man called Pei-hung-wen been held in This family lived by commerce and in it virtue had honour from generation to generation. proved to be very offered his He was to industrious. t\> ^ (Spending the little New Year. g. is The night divided into six watches of who have lived in Chinese cities will all beats wandering about for the third watch. given employment and After a month or so. The following legend (fung-hia-pih-t'an) taken from the book Hg : Mung-lai-fu ^^ !ft j)i'| Tf (^ $ f$) p. trans). the took his master's child out in his arms to show him the illuminations: suddenly he disappeared. three taps . of which there (2) question in the narrative. made is earthenware and indeed difficult keep clean. (3) The master scolded him roundly. One of of the "commode" ussd for type. 44. j5pj year of the reign of K'ang-hi J^ who gave his name as Ngo-pao 1662 A. like a football still cover: the witnesses of this device were of course more amazed.

153 Lieou hai sien. is affixed in families as a protective and luck- . The Immortal Liu-hai. This picture bearing talisman.Fig. Cette image est affich^e dans les demeures comme un talisman pr^serva- teur et porte-bonheur.

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Li-che (as above or %h 1£: aiso }f to live 4fc Tan che). parti-coloured cord several feet long. it joy. Our figure 153 is suitable for the (2) Nephelium punicum Trees said shell. Since Liu-hai wears a string of coins. a Some months later on." replied the supposed servant. help is sought Images for pasting up. . he caught when he was drawing water from the well. 153) are intended a one on each of the side-posts of door so that fifth the one faces the other. is th chees cannot be got as early as the Chinese first month. They refused to give credence to this as Su-chow is hundreds of a li from Li Fuh-chow. substance that is is an oblong nut surrounded by a white fleshy Libest very juicy and pleasant. his for the success of business transactions. bade fa (2) freshly plucked and offering them to his parents them taste the fruit. hundred of years. Thereupon the child produced half score of ches ffi. put it three-legged toad a He tied it with went home leaping with been looking for have caught it". the capital of Fuh-kien fig -5t has it been a success so I took your child there to see it." do you get angry? This year the Lantern Feast has been wretched all over China: only at Fuh-chow flg jl'H. of Liu-hai with his frog (see fig. on his shoulder and I have "This animal had escaped : in vain for many So all round the a year and to-day at last 1 neighbourhood the tidings spread that Liu-hai was in the house of the Pei j| family his : an immense crowd assembled. A small with a light inside its marked with a shagreen pattern: the shape round. fruit is Greatly esteemed. Then Liu-hai raised hands to thank his master Pei and from the middle of the courtyard went up into the air and disappeared. May beginning of their season. It does not ripen north of Fuh-kicn.LIU-HAI-SIEN 67 "But why. The door of this dwelling in Su-chow is still noted by people passing as a souvenir of an Immortal's visit. Then they understood that the stranger was an Immortal.

V p.68 of the fifth IMMORTAL GODS. GENII month (5c) (1) as the inscriptions refer to the "the their muywost leaves increasing- the five blessings by charms written red with peach-wood being the happy cause of the Three "superfltiences" (good-luck. r Chinese Superstitions (English Ed.732: 71 ." Above is the "Pah Kwa" with the command that breath" and the diagram should (1) fix for ever good-weal (?j< H^ %). old-age.) Vol. male issue). 646.

his descendents as living Chang-tao-Iing. founder of the Han &. had in fallen into the hands he attempted ousted vain to avenge the wrong's of his couutry and then enlisted under the victorious standard of Liu-pang gi] fft. at P'ci-hsien ft|i |£ in the prefecture of Siichow-fu #| in Kiang-su Q M- He is known as 5C Jfc i% Duke Perfect Gentleman. in The empress to eat. and sought out the sorcerer of # living without held him food and of spiritualizing his body. . These facts are to be found. dealt in with the life. p.CHANG-TAO-LING 69 AKTICLE IX (T) CHANG-TAO-L1NG The following account of Chang-iao-ling will hardly support attempts to find in such a charlatan a parallel for the first holder of the Papacy. (1) in the Taoist his books and (2) in in certain other works that have China. the general histories of (3) records of the Three Kingdoms Period which mention him and in that period. being born in Yiichow the prefecture of K'ai-fung-fu f»J M ffl- When he saw that the kingdom of the Ts'in ^| dynasty.to obtain from him the secret the Ts'in ^. In was conferred upon him. the of "Duke" {$ §| Chang-liang thereupon retired from political life Ch'ih-sung-tsse j$ -f. 58 etc be remembered that Chang-liang was from Honan #| in province. I. fft Eight years afterwards he Yf. in which he was born. according to the Taoist Books and Works of other writers. died. (1) Chang-t'ien-shi would be a descendent of Chang-liang iJH J^ in the eighth generation (2). To-day the mere statement of the historical facts should suffice to make such companion odious. Chungtseng-sheu-shen-M (Note) It will M ^ V& 'ffi JPt IE xI Part. Lii-hcu 3 Jfi' high esteem and constrained him His grave is much indeed against his will as he could not refuse such a high personage. 51 H (1) (2) ftp According to "More Divine Beings". who title return for his services.

his great-grand. of blue in dragon and white pill mysterious union whereupon Chang-tao-ling succeded of the producing the of immortality. all favour a mystic book containing lizing oneself. of a though he was sixty years of age. capital J=l $T (76-88 A. ffc (cloud-brocade) at Hing-ngan-hsien J& # W- Jf£. see to be more likely. belongings to Kwang-sin-fu Chcn-jcn Hk ft Hi in H- The title of ^A : "Hero" . came back again Kiangsi on the Lung-hu Mountain f| jlf. He left as his seal heirlooms his magic-book.70 IMMORTAL GODS. Y un-lin-tung Here he worked at alchemy |g $$ eve j|jrj. driving away devils and goblins. In vain the emperors Chang-ti : f£f fl-f. After pilgrimages to the most famous mountains.D) and Hwo-ti last to the fp (89-106 A. sorts of recipes for spiritua" or changing shape Finally he left at will. in the Kwei-k'i subprefecture ft. Upon eating this. Mount Heaven's Eye ^^ to at jff Lin-ngan-hsien $$ in %M in tlie prefecture of Cheh-Jciang #jf f£. . And the birth-place is said Kwang-wu-ti it have been Mount T'ien Midi Ji g |Jj.D. a collection of his magic-sword. Kwang-sin subpreFrom the mountain heights around -jg in the ^ the torrent. he came at ^ U^ his ^. and His son was named Chang-heng Chang-lu last jj|| »jjf ||f\ his 3J| ||. Kiangsi for Szech'wan )\\ where abode on the "Cloud Terrace" Mountain Yun ( Ts an-M-hsien |f this ^ $£ in the to From mountain he rose Pao-ning Prefecture heaven.son to live Chang-shing grand-son This jj|. There are Hang-chow other opinions which we ^ f\\ shall Henceforth he devoted himself to magic and lived on Peh-mang-shan 4t t\] \\} to the north of Honanfu fij of the Ho-nan. fJHf.D.) invited him to their court. became as fresh as that Moreover he received as a special mark of divine boy. ^ |i|.place in the tenth year ic 35 A. fecture in Kiangsi fx. the stream Yiln-kin H JjSf. he took up his T'ai ft jf at fj£ 3|f|fvf. charms. for three years until the consummation tiger. GENII of His birth is given as taking. his face. ranged over a wonderful view and he proceeded to follow up the course of the stream until he arrived at a grotto.

p. J2$ (under K'iung-chow J[$ j\\). or "Perfect 71 of men" belongs to the head the family in each generation. his pille upon starting compound Just as he had resolved of immortality. Nan-siu-chow in the Fung-yang %^ He was a distinguished scholar.]> it "the Youth of the Eastern Sea. there with a long train of mounted appeared a heavenly messenger men. He sought instruction in the recipes — — by which Hwang-ii exilir. B. (1) possessing the national literature. E. The account given Immortals "Shen-sien-chwan in the f|Jj ^ |>$ "Biographies of Genii and Bk. folk Chang soon succeeded (1) overawing the common who called V." He in imparted to cure of and wondrous recipes for the all Chang certain secrets manner of ailment-. A parasol was borne in front of this notable who was seated his followers rode tigers and dragons. One day he hurst into a "What use is literature for prolonging one's life!" and sigh fortwith abandoned letters for alchemy. tains in that he betook himself there with a train of followers and reached Hoh-ming Mount $$ o| mj in the Ta-yih There he composed district ^ go. in a golden chariot while This visitor announced himself as Chu-hsia-she or Lao-tsze ?f£ f j£ ^^ or as Tung-hai-siao-Pung %% . He could not count upon his family and relatives for the expenses of his researches in alchemy. 4. his book of magic recipes to in 24 chapters. Now at Kiang-sU . Chang was quickly brought of the devote by the cost necessary ingredients. is as follows: Chang-tao-Mng was originally a native of petty kingdom P'ei ftff in Ngan-hwui (to the N. jif ^ to had once upon a time concocted his preparation of this to a halt himself to the Determining wonderful draught. 8.CHANG-TAO-LINC. tilling or cattle- Hearing however that the people of Sze-chivan were simple and credulous and that there were many famous mounland. Ti-li-yun-pien -Jfe S M^ X. fully prefecture J^ $§ #F/). for he was of the poor farmer class that lived from hand-to-mouth by rearing.

boating on lake . a mission from Heaven thus command He himself took good care to foster the idea. From that time These simple on. One a of these in personalities henceforth spent front of his dwelling. people was a sort of "revival in which fear held back from wickedness. According to his instructions anyone suffering from a malady. than Chang led these multitudes more by their sense of shame by punishments. and mend bridges: to get the people to disobedience brought the open up infliction on the recusant of an illness as a punishment. firewood and the like. he had thus secured the necessary resources. he ate of the pill only one half as he did not wish yet to enter heaven but chose rather to enjoy several personalities at once down here its on time earth. his pupils could now be counted by hundreds of Faced with this vast body of disciples. his and he published regulations turn to go about requisitioning writing-brushes. utensils. which the When people of Szech'wan were not slow to bestow upon him. Thanks this device. he set himself again by means of alchemy to compound the pill of immortality. folk to were persuaded that Cluing had their service. the people quences It of began to regard maladies as the consesins and were ashamed to go back to sinful ways. Chang-taoby which his disciples took Jing devised a regular hierarchy it rice. — he Chang-tao-ling netted substantial gain from this procedure charged five bushels of rice for treating a case of sickness: hence he won the nick-name of Rice-thief ^ %fa. in He also used position roads. paper. everybody rendered him absolute obedience. Such a one had to life as guarantee of his sincerity. him "Master. had to write act a confession of all the faults he the document had committed during his whole life and then holding in his hand. On achieving the task. plunge it into water and swear before the Spirits never to also to pledge his commit these faults again. GENII thousands.72 IMMORTAL GODS.

" (that the apparatus reputed to have been by the Emperor for concocting his elixir). the courage to gather these peaches. Tao-ling stretched down hand.your family." These were three hundred disciples there. extending it miraculously some thirty feet. like me. to your life. he it seventh the first be on moon". yet no one volunteered. advice "You cannot. "I "Hshall have given will to my disciple. Chao-sheng |j| _^. As for Hwang-ti's used it crucible. these grew a peach-tree: it reached out like a an abyss: it was now laden with the peaches. Tao-ling distributed were there the peaches: each ate one and Tao-ling kept one over for Chao- his burden sheng. from out sheer rock-face. After Chao-sheng had come up and had eaten his peach. you shall obtain the favour of drinking a potion that will add some centuries is. Exactly on time.CHANOTAO-LING 73 (the Tao-she) and other visitors flocked to These were received by one of his "selves" which entertained them and spoke with them while the real Chang-tdosee him. At their feet. The latter then led all his disciples to a the highest peak of Yiin-i'ai j| jf. The adepts The visitors got the following ling stayed out on the lake. On the slippery rock his hands could find no grips and he had to lighten himself of of fruit by flinging then up to the company above. To his assist this later to regain the group. He was whom Chang-tao-ling had announced. But now came the problem of the ascent.ff. three hundred and two peaches. arrived from the East. that leaped boldly down from the rock-peak upon the tree he at once and sure was his foothold into out stretched space: began to gather much fruit as he could stow away in his clothes. renounce the world and quit it : but surely you could imitate me in regulating. If you do so. Chang10 . until Chao-sheng |§ . Wang-chang 3E the Later on. man's arm over The Master then "I will teach deep mystery to anyone of you who has spoke. there take of it come from : Eastern lands one who shall for his use his arrival then day proceeded to trace the portrait of this new-comer in advance.

and even promised him the title of Duke But Chang could not be tempted: he went Ki-hsien. D. it on Peh-mang Mountain \c ^|5 lib north A white tiger brought a charm between Chang-Tao-ling's feet. first He had Icf. made final arrangements and then came back to the mountain where all three disappeared in full midday into the sky while the others were looking on. Hoh-ming |§ (Ta-yih-hsien Jft to ]\\ % j\\). wished to take of him as teacher. One stood on each side of the master and thus the two were taught there by him the mysteries of his doctrine.D. repeated the invitation three times." than done — but now he was followed by Wang-chang 3£ 4J[- and Chao-sheng. invited him to court: %| tf? A. He f£ sub-prefecture dependant on K'iiing Chow was the teacher of Wang-chang 3E -If: who was well ^ go versed in astrology and had entered into the secrets of Hwang~ti j^ ^ (1) (1) and Lao-tsze %^ three . Lou-she-keou-ki? . 4 p. the works of the in the air. 9) furnishes details. Yiin t'ai 3jk ^ gave him magic spells by which he could use dragons and tigers as mounts. GENII looked Tao-ling down the precipice and said with a smile. water and the stars.he had got the magic retort for making the pill that conferred the gifts of spiritualisalion and of flying Hwangti's skill. "Chao-sheng has been able to jump down courageously upon 4< I will try it myself that tree and his foot did not stumble: Xo sooner said aiul I shall have the right to get a big peach. he understood the Tao-teh-hing additional : M of 13§ $£ an d a " the life lore of earth. From his master Kwang-ch'engtsze 10t jfc ^f.74 IMMORTAL GODS. He lived the of a hermit }pf j|f his teeth Ho-nan-fu and j=l ff\. Cf. Three days after this revelation. Szechwan and lived as a solitary on Mt. they returned to their homes. laid at The Emperor Hicu-ti Chang-ti 89-106 ^ 76-89 A. viz. C hang -tao-ling' s name was Fu-han ff ^| when he was seven years old. received from the Master Ts'ing-k'iu ^f Emperors and a treatise on astrology. The book Shang-yiu-luh $ % §$ (b. Fao-p'u-tszechen-yiin #J #" -^ i|| gg.

-. every virtue of this hat. Another name the mountain house of Skeh (Mansion) because there is a grotto or rock in its side. pill the mysterious book. this pair of sabres. finishing the task." his pupil spent three years in common entitled: "Of the Dragon and the ( A crucible in blue dragon and a white tiger kept watch over the Mi which the concoction of the drug was going on. chequer-apron and red sandals. which of power bilocation and of invisibility. Once he heard strains of heavenly music from on high. in the Grotto of the Immortals tains %$ lib" .-. Here it was that Chang received his is g message from the gold-clad Ambassador. In a cavern hollowed out in middlemost of the mountain's three peaks. this epitome of also this collection of charms. about 10 to the north for Honan. Tao-ling first underwent purificatory ceremonies and then made his way into the grotto pill as indicated: he found there the recipe for the famous So he accpiired the he succeeded in producing. Chang was on %£ if f£ in a visit to Mt Sung li ^ [[\. the of Sacred Mountain of the Teng-fung-hsien North. six huge |§ P| and spoke with Tan-ling: demons are assailing the inhabitants of Szechwan. of immortality. Hwang-tVs crucible and the alchemy formulas of the "Three Pure Ones": with the help of these he was to make the Pill of Immortality which he should eat and then mount up to the heavens. there were the books of the first three emperors. Lao-tsze %^ |Jj : forthwith came down to earth upon the summit of "Just now. Chang took the drug and his old age was forthwith changed into fresh youth. this seal possessed die. Take from my hands prayers of "the further spells for the this Three Pure Ones". One day. Let me appoint my next meeting with you for a thousand days in the K'wan-lun mounhence. Go and master them it will bring you immeasurable merit and your name shall be for ever engraved on this mountain. one of which is male and the other female.CHANG-TAO-LING (0 Chang ~Tao-ling and composing the compound Tiger.

D. he learned the immortality and took up his abode on the Dragon-Tiger-Hill ^ llj in Kiang-si. to the heavens. T'ien-muh art of % @ lU.76 IMMORTAL GODS. "The High Cave of the Immortal": one on the Cave of the Immortal. journeys in an attempt to find a perfect solitude.D. minister of Liupang |flj ip. founder of the Han family fj|. their Mt Lung-hu Kiang-si jX M- This Taoistic legend is confirmed (or rather repeated) by the history T'ung-hien-kang-muh (cheng-pien) )§ fjg |p] @ (IE fjg) Bk. GENII Chang accepted the gifts. a Before mounting up Mt." II. responsible for two caves in the Mountain: one and making a Thus he was half-way up. ridge. "The plane Chang-Tao-ling the p in history The account given by che-t'ung-kicn-kang-muh official history of China "Tse- ^ f M H $$ M runs as follows: — Chang-Tao-ling was a descendant in the eighth remove from Chang-] cany ijjf fsi marquis of Liu fg $|. Born on Mt. attempts to attract him to court. prisoners of the generals of the eight departments of devils and slew their six great kings. Alter this exploit he iXl M in $ He made betook himself with residence on Wang-chang f| J& \\} to in Mt Yiin-t'ai |1| jj. struck Chang -tao-ling boldly called halt half-way of Yiin-t'ai. he marshalled thirty-six ^pf thousand spirits and led them to Ts'ing-ch'eng Mountain Kwan-hsien }f£ f£ (Ch'eng-tu-fu ffl ^f in Szechwan). In the course of these wanderings he came upon the grotto Yun-kin-tung The Emperors made He made various U f^ -j[0] in which an immortal was then busying himself with to of alchemy. By help of these. the granite-face the mountain passage for himself came out at the very peak.) and Hwo-ti fp if 89-106 A. elixir: at last the So he devoted three years happy combination the elaboration of an Blue Dragon and White . 24 p. 83 Kang-muh-chih-shih $\ @ Jf with the addition % of some curious into features. making pills of jf| "Heaven's Eye Mountain". fx. M Chang-U fruitless ^ ft (76-89 A.

So he had enough to brought back ad finem). Lao-tsze %i 1 now sent him a heavenly messenger charged with this message: "You have overstepped the mean in your massacre of the devils and as a punishment the Supreme Being six is prolonging your days. Chang.D.CHANG-TAO-LING 77 Tiger solved the problem. regained his youth on tasting the elixir. Hoh-ming (Crane Cry)§| % |jj in Sz'ch'wan ffl )\\ where he lived as a hermit immersed again in researches into the secrets of alchemy. By 156 A. carriage and reached the came forth to meet him but alas he ! A party the ripe Immortals was not yet to be understand their language <1) Cf. year. Tao-ling of mounted his Palace. To make a livelihood. mid-day as hermit day redrobed messenger from heaven. inviting him on behalf of the Tao-ling escorted Gods to the Palace of the Immortals. already sixty years old. by his disciple Wang-chang and by some twenty years Chao-sheng. "Rice-thief." Lao-kiun j£ jg (Lao-tsze) himself bestowed on him a work containing charms still more potent than he yet possessed: so with some choice companions he delved still deeper into the mysteries of alchemy. retired to Mt. I earthly existence by three thousand hundred will await you in the palace of Shang-ts'ing J^ fn". Hoh-ming and spent was visited by a he about One there. he carried on a medical practise in which his fee for each case was five bushels of rice: hence the nick-name. the story (1). Yun-T'ai and passed out by the summit leaving the two That same caves. Chang -Tao-ling. on leaving his laboratory-cave went off to Mt. on the 9th day of the 9th. He also fell in for a bequest of talismans and whose spells enabled magic-books him to do Protean changes. below of Ewui-n&n-tsse (Article XXIV . he had attained a high degree of perfection and was almost completely purged of baser matter: so he pushed into Mt. to banish in demons and work trans- formations others at his will.

Then he handed recipes over to Chang-heng his his his magic equipment. In M the time of the Northern Wei 4h f%. nee Yung |ff J£. no talismans. recognition was awarded The Confucian the official history. "this precious gifts. The central authority was helpless at the so obliged to endure what they could they gave him the title of Prefect of Han-ning fj| 3g£. of no there was hugger-mugger. his amulets. in Hu-nan jflj and Hing-ning-hsien M.D. GENII on Mt. % >)>\\ ^ The other books particular merit. In the reign of the Han Emperor Hwan-ti fj| $b iff 157 A. protect the let my dignity pass from father to son without ever leaving the family". aerial flying. latter had himself entitled Master-Prince and called his adherents ^ "Demon-Soldiers" over "Directors". chase kingdom. books. spirit propaganda: down to the Earlier . his pupil Wang-chang and by Chao-sheng Yiln-t'ai f| jf ill : up to heaven from the summit of years of age. Heaven" was conferred posthumously on him. D.'' His gang was only a branch of the rebels known as Yellow Turbans. It of history in add that he was reign of a man of of no was the the T'ang monarch "Master Hilen-tsung of the official title 1?. bring peace to the people and hobgobbins. From the founder Lao-tsze's time Han. Chang -King carried on the magic and This transmitted the profession to his own son Ohang-lu |f-. chow fg| moment: and not cure Pin- now jf. seal and two sabres for decapitating demons. scholar who has added the commentary to history of sighes over the Taoism. accompanied by his wife.78 to earth again IMMORTAL GODS. went fjjf ^he was 123 After his death. one mid-day Chang-Tao-ling. 'M that in 748 A." said he. for immaterialization. Yang-p'ing son. had been called Master formula : of Heaven but it was then an empty official it was only under the T'ang that to the title. there had was almost no there developed only some thirty-seven schools. whom he set chiefs called "Libationers. the Taoist priest K' eu-k'ien-chi % M 2. off '"Take. all %^ |1|. kill demons.

revolt known in history as that of the "Yellow Ling-ii Turbans" broke out tf? in the reign of the Han Emperor ^ promoter was Chang-kioh 5S a follower of Lao-tsze who had been studying Taoist magic. 1. A their very intelligence a gift of to themselves the title of II T. Wei-sJiu || 51 fg - m M P. Bk. 114 p. 17. born of a father and a mother? audacity! . could claim equal rank with Confucianism and Buddhism. 433 Bk. 50 p. "Tao-shi" ^ -^ and Master of Heaven "T'ien-shi" ^ £jjj. The ft f^. Textes Historiques V. 2 p. p. fljj Heu-han-shu Liu yen-shwan 75. . D.CHANG-TAO-LING no magic.. 3. 1. 35 p. What wretched charlatan dares usurp the title Were not Chang-Tao-ling and K'euof "Master of Heaven"! Is not k'ien-chi mere men. p. the practices Whoever wishes of to get an accurate idea of Chang and his immediate descendants should read with care what the different histories of the Three Kingdoms record on the subject. tt Chang-tao-ling according of the the Histories Three Kingdoms.8 -- Bk - 3 - *> l3 - 73 - Sung-shu Ming-shi H %# & Bk. about 184 A. 18 Bk. Heaven? of How dare (1) the}- arrogate "Master Heaven". The chief (1) For further details see: Bk 24 @ JE T'ung-Men-Tcang-muh Wieger. Its worst crime would be the entitling its teachers: Masters of the on ChangChina and Way. 916-9 2 3. under the All these distortions later 79 in came with Chang-Tao-ling Han and henceforth propaganda for the sect made enormous strides among the common people. $ M# %\ M $J (Commentary) §£ Bk. One Taoist priest of Mt Sung ^ a disciple of Chang-lu (the grandson of Chang-Tao-ling) claimed to have been favoured with apparitions of Lao-tsze title of and announced that it was the sage's will that the "Heaven Master'' ^ Sffl should be conferred Taoism spread like wild-fire through Tao-ling.

adepts.D. He styled his doctrine: the "Doctrine of Universal Peace". their incredulity was responsible. Chang-kioh claimed to have found an infallible remedy. Ch<n\g-pao >JJt first ^ the second with the his title of Duke-Marshal of Earth. one was to be deposited on a willingness to amend. also a disciple of ^ . GENll a moment when the plague was causing wide-spread havoc. All three suffered defeat at the hands of General Hwang-fu-sung and perished. the patient must find a place suitable for perfect recollection and there ponder upon the sins of his life-time: follows: then his name must be written on three documents asserting his That these three declarations might be brought to the cognizance of the Three Prineiples(jE:'jt' San-kwan) of Heaven Earth and Water. Lao-Tsze j£ #?. Chang-leang. viz. if examine their sins scrupulously and drink If ashes of the charm in a draught thev got well. 184 A. the cyclic numbers of the year when peace was to be realized. proclaimed a universal peace. off the victims of the scourge all These had then of water.000 followed his His recruits to the number banner wearing yellow turbans his ^ |ji. their recovery was due to their faith. in earth the and the third sunk in There were All those officers to share control of his bands of who submitted fee of five bushels of rice: to the treatment had to pay a hence Chang-siu got the name of Five . of 500. another insurgent leader appeared. youngest brother. Thanks to this procee- ding. was in charge of the third group and was called: Duke Marshal of Men. he drew a kind of charm on a piece At of paper which was to be given to the to prostrate themselves. He Heaven. the second buried water. not. At Siu </M this period. he won an enormous number of adherents. Using a stick with nine knots in it. Chang-kioh himself led the of divided forces into three groups. mountain. Thereupon he and got posted up on doors the two characters: Kiah-tsze ^ ^ .80 IMMORTAL GODS. Lastly. corps and called himself the Duke-Marshal commanded His second brother. He also set Changabout His system was as popularising his recipe for curing the pest.

Fig. Picture l five venomous animals" . 154 des "Cinq venimeux\ Tchang-t'ien-che et ses insignes. . Image dite as that of the known Chang T'ien-shi and his insignia.

.

wiped out Chang's family but Chang installed himself as governor Here he so effectively won over the populace at Han-chung.g\ His troops were styled: Demon-soidiers Kwei-tsuh % z£. About Chang-luh. but where avenging spirits smote with sickness violated the those who abused the hospitality. Libationers ^ ]|f in hierarchies under "Grand Libationers. tion. son of Liu-yin. 11 . The adepts and were graded chief precept of his teaching were called. his to superstitions that they styled him the Teacher Prince gjjj . in this case too the sick were exactly like the Yellow Turbans. officials of the replaced the ordinary Everywhere the Libationers Government and ruled the common people. faults as the source of their their to make a full confession of illnesses. 8. Chang-luh ling tjj| jj|| ^ grandson of Chang-Tao'jj| |H followed in the foot-step of Chang-siu historian of the Three fij?." The was blind faith without an attempt at dissimulation.CHANG-TAO-LING Bushels Master. Liu-ehang glj JJf. in order to reap all the glory for himself had his colleague Chang-siu murdered and then amalgamated their armies. the cradle of the Han }'J|. The Kingdoms the people tells us of Chang rice Tao-ling the well-known details of his stay in Szchwan where he composed Taoist books to stir up and of the fee earning the "Rice-chief" nick-name (Mi-tseh Jfc ji$). where travellers got rice and meat free. He was grandson he gives us more informafrom Fung jg P'ei (to the Xorth originally his 'jiff of Nan-siu-chow in Ngan-hwei). But Chang. Those who thirce The Libationers founded free inns order's laws were put to death.1 His bands were only an off-shoot of the general ~$| Yellow Turban Revolt. He was also called Kung-k'i ^ jjjjL The prefect of Yih-chow flt (now Ch'eng-tu-fu jj£ entrusted Chang-luh with a Sz-chwan) one Liu yen |pj military command and sent him to attack the prefect of Han-chung ')]] in ^ ^ % •§* cf 3 (in Shen-si).

He was styled Fu-ehen (1) L HiH an<^ n ^ s home was Ch'ang-p'ing-chow Cf. ^^ ^ of the Han Emperor ^| J§ft ^f and Chang-luh had to retire to Sz-chwan.D.) on the Taoist priest. Ts'ao himself got into trouble and had to afterwards Shortly confer on Chang the title of "Marshal Pacifier of the South." Chang-luli died in 216. T'ai-wu-H -jtt 1L ~k H& ffi (Topatao) of the Yuen-wei j£ dynasty (424-452 x\. Chan g-lu-ch van. ^i Mdistrict m Ho-nan. the central government had to (in Shen-si). the History of the three Kingdoms. H K' eu-k'ien-chi ^g f$j . The hereditary title of T'ien-shi Ji frjj (Heaven-Master) given to Chang Tao-ling and his lineal descendants was first conferred by 8hi-tsu. has to say about Chang Tao-ling. tolerate title of what it was too weak to prevent : so he was given the Prefect of Han-ning attached to Pin-chow $£ j'\] assailed him in 216 A. The to his historian has not nothing to say about Chang-heng 3H$£f the son of Chang-T ao-ling beyond the fact that he succeeded father and followed the same profession.£. GENII For thirty years Chang-luh and his in Libationers ruled the districts to the (in fit west of Pa-hsien £ j|| Chung -k'ing-fu JUg/fit Sz-chwan) as well as the prefecture of Han-chung-fu ^| tf5 lust then. Origin of the title "T'ien-shi" ^ fiji (Heaven-Teacher). is ail This that the most authentic source. under the reign Hien-ti III -Jl 3|£ (now Hing-ning-hsien Ts'ao-ts'ao i& in Hu-nan fj$ $t). H gg ^ Bk. Sung-shan |1|. Liu-yen clncan % f% §%M fl?- . San-Tcwoh-che 5 p. This worthy was then living on the southern slope of the sacred mountain. Chang-heng and Chang-luh. (1) them "rice-thieves". 13. charlatans and All sources agree in calling rebels.82 IMMORTAL GODS. San-hwoJi-tien-lioh = m $K- §• Eeu-han-shu. : Wei-shu. situated ^ in the north of Teng-fung-hsien Q.D.

Lipu-wen |H -^r bestowed upon him a book of magic charms and it was this collection that K'eu-Jc'ien-chi went to present to ftfj ^ "Heaven-Master". Later on. however T'ai-wu had him put to death with the vilest of indignities. he delved into magic and claimed to have been favoured with special apparitions of Lao-tsze ^. 53: Bk. received the built -'Heaven-teacher" at Ta-t'ung-hsien A temple (then was by imperial orders [p] % called Vin-ch'eng ^ ifcjc) i° Shan-si and given to K'eu to be a centre of propaganda. A ^ the Emperor T'ai-wu. HJJ 3 p 72 Bk. T'ling-lcien-lang-muh (cheng-pien iil - H Bk. When K'eu appeared at court no one believed his statements except the chief of Imperial Kitchens. Bk. 24 p 82. Chih-li.) as chief magician and the next monarch T'ai-wu placed great reliance on him. 26. By him he had been y)] H % selected as the head of "T'ien-shi" Taoism and was to bear the title of grandson of Lao-tsze. Ming-yuen-ii ± ^ BJ j£ ^ (409-424 A. SO. In his youth. p. 7& Ming-yih-fung-che Shi-u'uh-yuen-luvui — Wt !$} Bk B1< - - 1 P.CHANG-TAO-LING 83 attached to Peking (Peh-ping). 24. Ts'ui-hao Ts'ui-hao had been summoned to the court of Jfjjf. Tao-ling. 11: Bk. Sung. ^ T'ai-tsung. . H he had become the intimate of the Immortal Ch'eng-kung-hing jl'li ^ $ and after many journeys together they had finished by Like Chang settling down on the southern slope of Sung-shan. who now presented the magic-book on The emperor was greatly pleased and and his deputed Ts'ui to offer K'eu-k'ien-cJu sacrifice of silks got title himself of and victims on Mt. It was ts'ui-hao behalf of K'eu-Jc'ien-chi. Sz-me-Jcung in his History notes the advent of this new alchemy (1) The historians cited above assure us that the title of "T'ien-shi" granted by T'ai-wu to K'eu-k'ien-chi empty honour and was only (1) officially was only an promulgated and recognized Cf. D. 22 p.52 If? M~ H - 3 5 p. p. hocus-pocus accepted and Ji A" gjjj. 1.

) of the Ming dynasty BJ % jjfl (1368-1396 A- deprived Chang-cheng-ch'ang 3| jE of ^ Chang -Tao-ling's lineal replacing it descendant.) Down mandarin to the end of the Empire. Under the Sung dynasty. called gjp or Heroes. confirmed officially by Hwui-tsung The Ming princes gave them the (1101-1126 A.D. D.) % ffi ^ of style True Men.. D.84 iii rMMORTAL GODS. the Sung Emperor Chen-tsung $z (0L i£ ^ conferred on the Taoist priest Chang Cheng-sui |jjf IE |M the tit: e This was a direct descendof "Teacher of Perfect Seclusion. Ml ft official list. the great-grandson of Chang-Tao-Ung had settled there. minister of state Wang-k'in-joh HI got for him a house temple and landed property to be held should also have titles of honour. remarked: of his minis- How could . Princes Master. in the reign of the Tang Emperor Huen Tsung }$ In 1016 A. become the Chang-cheng-sui was magician and sooth-sayer and got a hold on the people by his craft. the court deputed a to offer sacrifice in the temple. fji 9* %^ 1068-]0[6 A." ant of Chang-Tao-Ung and lived ou Lung -hush an which had seat of Chang's descendants since Chang-sheng ^§^. The Emperor. for ever: his descendants The Annals of the Ming dynasty add the following details. I). by Chen-jen m. ^ on the fifteenth of the month the birth day of Chang-Tao-Ung although this sacrifice did not appear on the The founder I). The Emperor was deeply The wedded to all such practices and sent for Cheng-sui.. first Hien-Mng-koung. ters. the title "Heaven-Teacher". "Chen-jen" $[$ l^ A- According the first to the writer Shao-peh-wen fg $£ (Sung dynasty) three of Chang themselves Shi-kiun la- (Master-Princes. in the hearing "Heaven is the noblest of beings. GENII 716 A. A (Hero). Chang-Tao-Ung and his heirs received the title of True Princes (Emperor Shen-tsung %.

common-sense Chang-Tao-l tug's epitaph might. poisonous " is called. He claimed to have his magic recipes straight from heaven. It was he who opened up the source of revenue in the pills of immortality and the talismans to cure all sorts of illnesses. holds in its paw magic seal (1) of which another Below are the latest variety (2) the serpent. 17. the the beasts: lizard. his descendants Considerable sums of money were even on procuring as remedy or a talisman which should have the seal of the Grand prophylactic Master of Taoism. 154 bis: The Seal of the last Grand Master of Taoism. be written with the characters — "Stealer of Rice" % J$. 34 # p.CHANG-TAO-LING it 85 of have a master?" in (1) Yet the since that. and exploited that source of revenue. . The on a tiger picture here reproduced depicts Chang-Tao-ling riding and holding magic sword and it magic potion the (elixir) The tiger. the hence the the and toad picture centiped spider. Bfl S of # #S (wu-tuh-siang). Pagan households now generally treasure one or more charms of this kind to protect them from evil spirits or epidemics.& (as jg Kang-Tcien-yih -che-luh: (2) chit fi & % quoted above) S£ Bk. Ming-yih-t'ung-CM — . 14 See fig. in the vigorous of Chinese. in the name even Heaven-teacher has the always been (Hero) title use though ''Chen-jen" the had been usual Yuen jc dynasty (before Ming). Copied in the year 1928-9. of Thus it appears that Chang-Tao-ling is the real founder modern Taoism with its preoccupations with magic. In fine. fifth the month (old (1) Ming-sM B% jfe 5 tfe p. be noted. of our plates reproduces the five : picture of the five poisonous things It is often hung up on the fifth day Bk. (2) till recent times spent So successful was this line of business that the Buddhist monks followed the lead and turned out talismans written in red ink.

expresses abnormal incorrect influences). 203. (Text.86 IMMORTAL GODS. GENII ward off the calamities calendar) to and illnesses that may come with the heats of summer. Fig. 2) See Fig. (3) The inscription on the ''Blessings descend! (Sie. 616-7. V.) (3) . p. (1) seal 1 is |2£ jjjg gpji !fli. 154 bis See Chinese Superstitions Vol. way with the evils!" the last character.

perish forthwith details were furnished by the Rev.St flljhis at Teh-hing-hsien ^§ $| |£ in is worshipped Kiang-si. J. 3£ Jz jj| f|I| ^E jlfc ii EP all ants! great Genius Wang is here. ch'ung i tsieh sz. de Bodman. Wang-Chang.CULT OF WANG CHANG 87 AITEXIUX CULT OF WAftG CIIA\<. He is also invoked against the Mung- ch'ung ^H a kind of evil that causes mildew on rice. they as people notice the presence of white ants in write on a strip of paper the characters: Wang a fa chen sien ^£ The These tsai is'z. a disciple of Chang Tao-ling under the title. The peasants come in multitudes to worship him and beg protection against epidemics and public calamities but especially to be free from the white ants whose ravages destroy the wooden frame-work of houses. Wang Ta-chen-sien 3E ^C . . S. 40 li temple of from the town of A Wu-yuen-hsien (of Hwui-chow) has become a famous pilgrimage. 530) Wu-tjuan current in Ngan-hwui % %k The P each legend is still among the people. As soon house. H missioner at (p. P.

8$.) of Tsin Emperor Wu-ti f| |£ it. himself dutiful to his parents and temperate in At the beginning of the regnal period T'ai-k'ang -j^ (280 A.) that is. to the iJL ^ North of the actual sub-prefecture of Chi-kicuig-hsien j'\] ^ in Hu-peh $] -ftunder King-chow-fu $J #fDuring of tiles into gold in his touch turned shards o! years drought. The authorities are not agreed as to his birth-place. the child was studied the magic of the Taoists Wu born. Some say nan was from the prefecture of Jil-ning-fu '$ 5|£ jff in Ho The author of Kwang-yii-ki Ji. order that the distressed might to his pay their arrears of tax.D. he was named This ancient town was situated sub-prefect of Tsing-yang ]jt£ [IJ§. In the second year of Ch'ih-wu -ff J^ (239 A.f|f and his grandfather's His father's name was Hil-su §f His mother had a dream of a phoenix with golden ffo.D. f£ on the contrary holds that he was born at Nan-ch'ang-fu jff J| j^f in Kiang-si that he }p[ ffc. the founder of (Wu-ta-ti . He resigned office during the dynastic troubles and to the south of Yang-tsze-kiang went where he entered into intimate .88 IMMORTAL GODS. he manhood.. : in early During his youth. he was usually called Sun j|£ and his full name was King-chi %fo £. plumage the bird was carrying in its beak a precious pearl and Hu-i'an §£ : ^ dropped it into her bosom and so she was with child.jf| reign of Sun-k'iien — ^ ^ dynast} -^). . in the the -fc *$?. Thousands were indebted talismans and charms for reco\ery from epidemics. he proved life. GENII ARTICLE X IIU-CIIEi\-KlUIV (T II) C ft The family name of this M M personage was Hu f^ .

Hm the Immortal. . travelling on the lakes. 4 55 Hiu-sicn en promenade par les lacs.Fig.

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Jfr Ngan-hwei. becoming (3) of being. ch'an-fu (Nan Yu-chang Kiangsi and recognized that he was a dragon and actually the cause of the floods that devastated So he planned to get rid of him. alligator in those parts. Now. Hit-sun Having got as far as Lu-kiang -k' eu |j| ft p went on board a boat which two dragons the sea and then lifted up to the clouds.a kind of spirit or demon. daughter of the high court judge of T'an-chow jjp >)\\ (i. storms* sails amid the clouds. I. Art. ffi. One day Hii-chen-kiun met capital of him at %^ | 1 If. Kiangsi. the dragon rains. the favourite retreat of Europeans from the summer ( 2 ) The character known already from its use for the Fox-demons % 11 $. 677 sq. The young Every year couple occupied quarters the rivers and lakes in spring and summer. The boatman out of curiosity mountain peak and fled.) . in li Kiangsi ft south W Lu-shan \\] Mountain \s) 25 of the town peeped out to and the dragons motor wonderful the look at steal a power boat on a the to this dumped profane scrutiny objecting Kiu-kiang ji ft. Together they betook themselves to the minister Wang-tun 3E fie who had revolted against the Western Tsin. he- first drew off to In a jiffy they had over the of taken it off to Jj|£ Kiu-kiang-fu ( \ ft (1). Shen-lang swept over at the back of the tribunal.V p. ruler is a See Dragon "Article" In Chinese folk-lore. at will causes (Vol. there was dragon or transcendent (2) itself into a which had transformed young man calling himself Shen-lang ft J}p\ This young man had married Kia-yuh i. (1) The Ruling mountains. Hil.e- M Chang-sha-fu ^ ty If?'. droughts and floods V Chapter X. Kwoh-poh merely succeeded in irritating Wang who got him beheaded.sun flung a made it dance about in the air: cup up on the roof-beam of the room and while Wang-tun's attention was slipped away. in rivetted on the strange capers of the cup. over the waters. (3).HU-CHENG-KIUN 89 relatione with a famous magician Kwoh-p'oh fj$ g|. has indicates that an animal has ascended in the scale an intelligent being . the capital of Hunan). heats.

how dare you hide yourself here under a borrowed shape. Hu-chen-Jciuw after his victory over the his Dragon assembled whole family. Then he commanded Shell's two sons to spirits to kill him. numbering forty-two persons. on Si. Kia-yuh was ordered to quit her appartments immediately and at a given instant the whole tribunal disappeared into the earth leaving merely a lake to mark the site. Shen-lang came gives notice to Shen-lang that he : forth and resuming began to circle his proper shape as a transcendental "alligator about the hall but Hit-sun ordered the warrior. Hit adopted the shape of a black ox and started The yellow to beast tried to it a well but the black one jumped in after and away Chang sha -|f.D. them wrote out on slips of (I) An action easily recognizable by at all who have watched Chinese spraying machine. laundrymen work.90 IMMORTAL GODS. and imperiously upbraids him "Dragon. f)r and the yellow beast jumped out where he resumed his human shape and residence in his father-in-law's "yamen" Hit-sun on following to him to the town. went up to heaven in broad daylight. taking outside the walls of Nan-ch'ang-fu ]fj ^ fl^f — U with them their dogs and their domestic fowls. straightway repairs the official court and must come forth and show himself. His own temple in Hit's compatriots and his clan came and built a honour.). The mouth is used as a also the account of Chang Kwo-lao's steed. to Hii-chen-kiun and so he changed into a yellow ox hide in off.sha n yj and all. They collected the hundred and twenty pieces of poetry he had composed. come out from their dwelling and by spitting some water from his mouth on them (1) made little dragons of them. Hit was 133 years of age. . GENII Shen-lang was not slow to understand that his behaviour was known and made in pursuit. in the second year of the period of Eastern Tsin Emperor Hiao-wu-ti Ning]j£ tf? ^ (374 A. (See Articie VII). It was the first of k'ang ^ |§£ the eighth moon.

In these pits there was an inex- haustible supply of water and it was Hil-chen who with charms them so effectively dislodged the Dragon returned no more. admirable and beneficent prince" and built a pagoda for it by imperial edict. D. But there one was mention of a second hole and a second east. pillar .- In the middle of the well there is sunk an iron pillar said to Dragon's mischief.U /j!f ~fe ^ facing the temple of Longevity. be drawn The Sung Emperor Hwui-tsung (Ir£ % ^^ in 1111 A. have been cast by Hii-snn to stop the So the foot of this column are attached blocking the the eight chains tying up a vein in the earth and (1) His adventurous deed has been Wu-ts'uen-tsieh celebrated by the poet ^ is £s |p (Yuen Dynasty XIII-X1Y centuries). hiding in that he (1) Chinese geomancy.HU-CHEN-KIUN 91 bamboo which they by worshippers put into a tube to provide lots to for their guidance. Dragon's den. make themselves felt and into which the Drag-on sinks . of fp regnal period) canonized Hit-sun under the style "Ecmitable. Fung-shui or }$. Wind and in water) pays particular attention to these veins arteries the earth from with earthly influences as into his den. also is known as the Palace of the Iron Pillar. SITE OP THE WELL AND CAVE Hli-SUN OCCUPIED BY THE DRAGON THAT The OVERCAME- traditions relative to the Dragon's well and cave are (1) Suh-wen-hsien-t'ung-kao BJ reported as follows by two works: & ft IS M< (2) Min-yih-t'ung-chi In the town of Nan-ch'ang-fu . the other west of Fung-ch'eng-hsien ff $c M> a subprefecture of Nan-ch'ang-fu. there a bottomless well with blackish waters whose levels correspond to those of the Kiang fx. ?J< (lit.

he developed a sort of carapace and scales. The place of the captivity was Nan-ch'ang-fu before the Longevity temple. Soon he felt himself as of a strange it were encased. he succeeded in marrying a rich-man's daughter but this in man was made aware of the truth by Hii-chan-Jciun and consequence showed his son-in-law the door: the latter never came back." So all three had to mount to the upper floor At down he disappeared. Hii-chen-kiiin came to the house-door under the guise of a mendicant Taoist priest. the water is coming. woman was known to be for her confinement was just at hand. The people of the house begged to be excused for not giving anything . and in three days was a real dragon. "The water is coming.92 IMMORTAL GODS. At the period when Hii-sun was still only a novice in tru high science of the way jtf (Taoism). They Thereupon the vicious Dragon cast a look back over his shoulder and pointing with his finger said. island sea. "Look. So the the refused him admittance. ^ mm in i>- 45. |J§ He made jj. two women retired to the inner room and Dragon followed them pointing a second time and repeating. So he retired into the Kiang f£ and only came forth now and then as a fair young man to seduce women. it his aim to turn the P'o-yang lake i& of Kiang-si "g into an Hence Hii-sun in the general interest got hold of him a column of stone at the bottom of the water." Actually the flood had risen to the front door. he had a friend who was and fantastic temper and whom he for all that kept duly admonished. and bound him to Later on. One day this man went to an island in the Kiang £t to hathe and found there an egg as big as a pumpkin: he pierced the shell and sucked the contents. as we havo seen above. GENII Another version of the Dragon story is given by the work: Mung-lai-pu (Fung-hia-'pih-t'an-ych-lung-pien) it ^ ^H "^ (^ Eg. Finally he sought out two poor women living on the banks of the Kiang fx a mother-in-law and her danghter-in-law. pregnant but when the time Shortly the and there the ruffian spent the night.

yes. absence dirtied Jfl. (1) the Taoist priest il jg Wang-t Sung-shu (1) jfc jfe T'ung-Jcien-kang-muh (su pien Bk. you find an old woman. 9 p. a title of honour. This latter version mer was told me by a comes from Teh-ngan-fu. will About half a mile (over to the south-east. the time of delivery kiun head.Htj-CHEN-KIUN 93 because of domestic troubles: they promised to be more generous another day. causing devastating storms. at a terrific Hii-ch'enoff its the door. "Oh. So Chen-hiun was touched by this piety and determined to do no more to it than dock its tail. 9. while the forThis authority added: Kiang-si man. 462 p. f{- As soon as one of m. a very clever They took his advice and midwife: get her to come to you". returned each time to its mother. This was done and the dragon felt so much 4b- pain that it it fled away to hide in a deep pool in Hu-peh M Every year According revisited the mother in the third or fourth moon. M V. cut This proceeding was repeated until eight were disposed of. Sui-chow district is mountainous a dragon. came. so that it removed its lair The bordering on Ying-shan (also under Teh-ngan-fu). 1g who was standing ready was amid the Dragon's sons was born." said the visitor "I know you are in distress and it is precisely in order to free you that a li) 1 have come. . 93. When storm. it dwelt first in the subprefjg fecture of Ying-shan Jg [Ij Jg$. The peasants taking advantage its temporary to Sui-chow pool. A last one appeared and after making several attempts to mount up to the skies. same account in You can of find pretty well the the new edition Wan-shu-kung-chi H H ^ !&• % ffc The miserable Sung Emperor Hwui-isung ized i£ canon- him and gave him According to two works. induced the old woman to come : she proved to be the old Matron of the Lit it Hills (jg [Ij). |§§ fo abode fit with many ponds. (under Teh-ngan-fu of its # fit '" Hu-peh). to another legend. Bk.

Probably it him and got him cast into prison was on hearing of the wondrous book and then after call the that the credulous Hwui-tseng canonized Hii-sun two vears of wonder at the prophecies decided to Taoist Waiig-tsse-sik to court. . p. 8: f& $1 fE BK. 38. fE (± : ^)p. 3 Chung-tseng-sheu-shen-ki j| i$ Ming-yih-t'ung-chi VR — ^ # IS. Kwang-yu-H ^ H BK.49 p. GENII sih a A. high at court. 52.49 p. Yuen-kien-lei-han $j] BK. 14 p. 13. The minister Ts'ai-king ~$£ft. 241 p.1)4 IMMORTAL GODS." The foolish man wanted to be honoured by snares for the other $fc Taoist-priests and this brought about his ruin. 15. claimed to have received 3E f/.19 28.22 $t ^ d BK. rAn-ling-su jealous. 30. BK. laid his ft ^. References: T'ai-pin-kwang-Tci ± ^ M fE BK.D. got where he died. p. There he was "Master Searcher Mysteries. informed the monarch who had hailed as Wang-tsze-sih summoned of all to court. BK. 318 p. 31 p.12 Suh-wen-hien-t'ung-lcao ^ # || j§ ^ BK.i=t in tne y ear H13 mysterious hook enabling him to declare the future: this had come from the hand of Hit-sit n who had been canonized three years before.

Their names. (East). Wit flft Other versions of their names are: Yirupalsha West). (P'i-p'u-tung-ch'a) t'ien-wang (P'i-p'u-poh-ch'a) t'ien-wang (T'i-t'eu-lai-ch'a) : ^ : II. (3) I. t'ien-wang : IV. (4) (Fourth Hwui) fr I' (K p. crystal (south-east) II. (P'i-sha-men) t'ien-wang ^ % 3: ^ j$ % ^ 3f if| ^I ^ 3: It ^ PI gijj ~Ji 5fc Sheu-shen-ki || There are the names to be found under the heading jji$ f£ in the second book of 3E.e. in the : The well-known West Jit -31 story of the Journal of the Voyage (4) Hf 3i j|| !£. Its sides are of gold (east) (2) and agate (north-east).SZ-TA-t'IEN-WANC. ^ 3E.T. apparently ^ (1) See Chinese Superstitions (above) Vol. T'o-Pah-li t'ien Virudhaka) and ££ }£ Li the Tower-bearer. li. of Heavenly Kings I.) 394-408 for a full account of Indian origin. $# # H 4 Dhritarashtra # & |"j Yaishramana (North).") AETICLE IX SZ-TA-T'lEN-WANG ffl (B. it is the Mountain of the Four Treasures. . . 2. J| St Virudhaka (south). !).) ± 3i 3E (1) THE FOUR GREAT HEAVENLY KINGS I. furnishes two more names (i. Jg III. (i. Their residences.e. VII (Eng. The four heavenly kings have their palaces on Mt Su-mi 2Jf$8Li]> the Su-Meru where the gods dwell in Indian legends.Tseng-chang Picn-wung wang. (2) (3) Bit 5ft Tuk-su-M-sJiu-lioh ff '& £E $£ M- Bk - 12 p. T'ien ^ Wang. Its height is three million three hundred and sixty thousand silver (west). 15. trans.

by imperial edict officials had to sacrifice to P'i-sha-men. 21. said he. Li-shi-ming succeeded to his father. period (712-756 A.D. A large number of temples in honour of the King of Heaven were divinity and to have built all over the Kmpire. These Heavenly Kings are styled the Taoists and are represented as in Li. Ma.name Tsing ipf. 159. T'ai-tsung of the T'ang dynasty Jf When ming ^^ (or Li-shi- ^ -Jtt. (3) p. For the Buddhist figures see Vol.D.96 IMMORTAL GODS. a His name is Yuen-pa yt if! and his tore. its Fig. second son of Kao-tsu)^ ^ jjf£ was still fighting to establish the T'ang A. be recognised tower (1) (See 156). and account of the Kin-hang of Buddist temples.D. "p under the heading 5c 3E at the (2) end of Bk." In pig and a trunk hand he held an elephant: So when all procured peace wherever he appeared. temples were called the T'ien-pao (3) many Buddhist emperor in ^ 3E IsL Temple of the Heavenly King. VI p. 394 sqq. :# p>. 34 Bk. 0£j). (2) According to the Hai-yii-ts'nng kao. ££ # $ . II. GENII same : the as Virupakasha or Vajrapdni).) of the T'ang the barbarians raided Si-ngan-fu W ^c M This tower is perhaps a confused reproduction of an Indian (1) original thunderbolt (see Article on Na-ch'a below: also Chinese Superst.42. Wen by 158. Chao. 156. by the symbol he carries. In 1023 A. See: Sheu-shen-ki •££ j\$ fP.. 97: Mayer's Handbook N° 820)." to help his like you to reestablish peace a monster with the head the divinity in the of a kingdom. This latter is very popular he may fig. Vol. In ^ ^ j£ Hiien-tsung j|f ^"-*. VII pp. ^ [iS]lJ Ill Worship. (^ 1|) the build ordered all prefects to temples Sung emperor Jen-tsung ^ fc i£ in honour of this same the letters ^ 3£ T'ien Wang (Heavenly King) inscribed on the facade of all new Buddhist temples. 157. a spirit dynasty inaugurated by his father in 620 came down from heaven and introduced himself as ?*] P'i-sha-men T'ien-Wang J£ f> Ji 3£ "I wish.

the tower-bearer. Li. . 156 Li porte-tour.Fig.

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: clad in golden hreastplate appeared the priest announced that P'i-cha-men T'ien-wang's second son. prudent monk of the Throe Mysteries (= %£). a in 774 famous title: honoured with the title of Royal Duke. died Sf ft H. Fuh-Tc'ung. erudite. 13 . After a short while assurance was appeared given to the Emperor that all was well. all roads. Immediately a divinity. The Emperor thereupon gave orders for the image of the Heavenly King (3) to be set up on priest.sz-ta-t'ien-wang Shen-si and the (1) to use his 97 charms Emperor ordered Puh-k'ung-san-ts'ang 5fc Jg ££ He to drive them off. for T'ien-wang J^ 3£ had in the North-eastern district and had swept away the foe. D. by name Tuh-kien #$ #|. (9th year of Ta-lih ^ M in reign of T'ai-tsung ^ Posthumous sagacious. had set out to help the defenders.

98 IMMORTAL GODS. GENII rt 3 S 3 r» .

158 Tchao. the heavenly king. Le roi du ciel.Fig. . Chao.

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le roi celeste.Wen. Wen. the heavenly king .

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IE M % li B. both in spring and in autumn." renewed in the suburbs to the south-east of the capital of Chang- ffi (|^ ngan -^ #. One of the court-grandees came upon the Emperor one day as he was on the point of quaffing an elixir regardless of the sacred : person. He had U Then there came one — Miao-ki p fe. "Nay. Your Majesty owes me 28 reward SJii-M-tseh-i £. (1) % -gj). first of all heavenly spirits. the Supreme One. "In ancient days the Emperor used to sacriseven days. The Emperor "since I was ordering I his death. potion compounded with vermilion and immortality. elixir. The precepts of to the The scholars enraged at seeing the emperor falling a victim quackery of the Taoists. the Great One. determined to counter their wiles. a Taoist adept who persuaded the monarch that his failure was due to not sacrificing to T'ai-yih -fr £. he was wont The emperor ordered these rites to he- fice to the Great One. however a am (1) still subject to mortality. Wen-hien-t'ung-kao M #• Bk. that is Si-ngan-fu ^§ Miao-ki were to be followed minutely. 4 . p. 24. one after the other. he snatched the cup and drank the potion. Sire. in the south: eastern suburb in to offer seven victims..t'ai-yih 99 ARTICLE T'AI-YIH XII THE GREAT ONE The Han Emperor Wu-ti Taoist priest with all (T) ^^^ was supplied by the for sorts of prescriptions first to restored youth perform sacrifice to Tsao-kiiin the Divinity of the Household-hearth and then to quaff a fj but without success. him from whom the Five Sovereigns ^Yu-ti 3l >$? take their start. Bk. 80 p. If have drunk the you cannot put me to death./ said the culprit.

From about this time From the Dynasty of nothing more on. GENII for proving that the potion is worthless and that those humbugs have been cheating your Majesty. H? the ffj Han Emperor Yuen-ti 48-32 B. (I) T*A1 Y1H: the Sovereign of the Five Heavenly Emperors T'ai Yih-fc Zj 1s tne noblest of the prime Ruler on whom of Heavenly Spirits. 3 6 1. p. do we come again upon traces of the cult. H Bk. l. the Black the North and the Yellow of Shang-ii _ the is Middle." The Emperor forewent the punishment but was not disillusioned.sent a memorial to the Emperor for the suppression of all is If? sacrifices not officially canonical. at least in official circles heard of these sacrifices. The based on the Great Unit. A. That becomes the equivalent ^ the fj| Supreme Being.. Ts'ien-han-shu |ffi (2) Cf. 12 p.C. Cf. T'ai-yih begins to sink into )f| the Western Han "jjf to the is Sui [§§ inclusive. the White of the of West. ^ M # Bk. . he Fore-name Che-hwei ^f ^.D. a native of Yih-hsien jk? §g in Shan. 9. Now this Supreme One is an invention of some Taoist : the divinity represents an abstract conception that has taken on different connotations at different times or in different places or contacts. the cult of (1) petitioned for the abolition of oblivion. it ffi. T'ai-yih T'ai-Yih's throne rises above those of the Five. Jf BH.100 IMMORTAL GODS. . ^ Only under the T'ang Emperor Ming-hwang (Hiien Tsung) 713. Shi-wu-yuen-hwui Wu-li-t'ung-Jcao J| if Bk. Cosmic Matter before Rites are its its dispersion. Under K'wang-hen T'ai-yih. the depend the Five Emperors. the Red of the South. Heaven and (Passive and Earth date from subdivision its revolutions constitute the p|§ two principles (1) of ail beings Yin and Yang |^ tung UJ ^. 81 p. (2) (t£) T'AI-YIH. the Green Emperor of the East.

Fig. T l a i-y ih Chen -j e n . 160 T*ai-i-tcheng-jen.

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entitled it the T'ai-yih:. Three and One. is spirit. Earth and T'ai-yih make a Triad in which the unique spirit is the "Great Unity". An unknown 49. p 24. 1. 5 Wen hien-t'ung-Jcao ft Bk. jfe # Jfe & 1*1 BE H il Bk - 1K 24. 8 ShH-i'Cheh-i M Bk. m% Bk. p. 4 p. Heaven. was uniquely one Yih — : so it is T'ai-yih "Great Unity". (1) (3) T'AI-YIH. Another view would regard T'ai-yih as the noble Heavenly once one in himself but three if one considers his union with Heaven and with Earth. otherwise The Ming-shi W j£ Bk.28. Spirit.T'AI-YIH 101 Active : a sort . Li-M-shu-shu-U-yun Cf. of the seasons of its parts. unknown spirit who (5) allows him to be some popularly so named. "Immensely Great": before dispersion. spirits It is its changes produce "matter" and '•from") and demons J^ are born of the subordination . the Spirit of the First of Nine Constellations. Spirit of the Pole Star. T'AI-YIH. Others would allow him to be the spirit of the Pole Star. (2) (1) ft IE Yuen-lien lai-han 6 ffl MM g& IE Bk . venly him the Five Heathe pivotal constellation. (4) T'AI-YIH. Shi-M-tseh-i Cf. (3) the on abode Sovereigns and he has his (6) T'AI-YIH. Hence he has under Pole Star. earth and the seasons. Earth and Great One: they gained their point (2). them The Nine constellations. p.2 - Cf. palaces in the Constellations of which there a set of points of the (1) compass IE eight being question form directions in the is . 2 7 p. the principle of heaven. at The Taoits addressed the a memorial on this supposition to Han emperor Wu-ti Son of ]J| jj£ ifr. . stellar The Taoist having invented allotted certain divinities. 18. They represented that formerly the Heaven was wont to sacrifice an ox every three years to the spirit One and three : heaven.

of the Officials. Green „ „ .. Shen-tsung made the spirits. is. E. GENII heavenly sphere and the ninth being the centre.D. Black S. His son and successor Su-tsung erected in H^ the 756-763 A. 8. 3 p. 9. (i) Lang-ye-tai-tsui-pien !fli ft 2jf pft Bk. — fg. N. .. -^ -fa -jc — — — of the Nine Natural Agents. 8.. Spirits. White. Tszshi-tsing-lnca =f- $£ fljf Bk. of the Great Journeys. East. of the Petty Journeys. The The The The The The The The — -fa -fa — ±— — -fc of the Five Blessings. W. l p.102 IMMORTAL GODS. The Sung Emperors Jen-tsung Shen-tsung (1068-1086 5jc (1023-1064 ^ f- ^) and # t£) set One of the West and ft the One of up respectively the Great the Centre this latter was : entitled Wu-fuh -fc total of 10 I. W. „ . £ 2. 6. of the People.. of the Prince.. 2. 4. E.D. 5. „ Chao-yao „ T'ien-fu ^^ ^ ^J J&jfc Centre. The Ten T'AI-YIH 1. 1. inspired by the Taoist priests offered sacrinine of Jf- fice to these which -^- £. „ . White S. of the — jg|! Four ffi Spirits. the Five Blessings. usual are a fixed convention. T'ien-chu T'ien-jen ^ -^ ^ ^ f£ -Ji . 5. 3. (Star) T'ien-p'ung 7^ j|g dwelling of T'ai-yih „ Sheh-i'i „ . Rlen-yuen Jf $g 4. the Chief. Ufa. 9.. North. 19. T'ien-ying ^ is „ T'ien-Yih ± ft ^ £ Tha T'ang emperor Ming-hwang (j£ 9t?) (Hiien-tsung) J^ B£) j|l 713-754 A. T'ien-nei 3.. South.fr „ „ „ Ts'ing-lung flrft „ Hien-ch'e „ T'ai-Yin . 6. (1) -j^ AY. White Red Violet T'ien-Sin 7. Yellow N. had a separate mound honour of Great One that sacrifices might be separately offered to him. The colours as The list is as follows. 7. Blue T'ien-heng T'ien-fu T'ien-kin ^ ^ Ji ft || $| Hf jjtjj .. .

at the empire from the very year 112 B. locusts.in Ss-ch'wan. Suh-wen-hien-t'iing kao $f % M# Bk. There was moreover the revolt and every year added a new <»f the South ]fj ^j| Nanall yueh. The Emperor that recognized is ^t $? Wu-ti in his old age. denounced all that the cult When it the Ming as heterodox.C.e. to offer sacrifice to T'ai-yih "Kan-ts'uen" ^J"^§| that year brought an eclipse of the sun.43 P Born at Tsing-yen-hsicn ft Wi M. ." (3) For Emperors.T'AI-YIH 9. Cf. Meu-tsztsai £p. ^ z% (2) protested with a very dignified and outspoken this Taoist invention. drought. 103 10. second-last year of Shun Yiu $| jjjfr) the Emperor Li-tsung % g| ^ ordered a temple to be erected towards the West for the Great One. In 1252 A. and on the third of the tenth month. late. reign up a T'ai-yih of the North and during. (i. of the one Earth. His minister.D. 108 p. "Your Majesty not : only imitating sorrow to your most loyal ministers and that causes him but even surpassing him still more is storing up bitter regrets for the close of your life." this cult is bringing us no goodduck. The The — — ± -fc of the one Heaven. Tuh-shu-M-shu-lioh 0f # Sfcfi M¥ Jg£ Bk. bursting of dams — scourge. all memorial against to the fact He called his attention to that calamities of sorts began pour in upon £.D. floods. (1) The Sung Emperor Ewui-tsung set %%^ 1101-1126 A. when the Han emperor -fa Wu-Ti -fH jj£ ^ went himself . 1. but all too he had been cheated. (1) (2) (3) Cf. with Hun inroads and brigandage in the East and the painful instances of witch craft which had caused such disturbance in the royal palace "So. he concluded.the devotions grew in respect of the new spirit. he himself went in person to worship. was continued under the Yuen =>£ of the Rites P^ came a President So a compromise was effected (to and henceforth this save face for the older emperors) T'ai-yih was to be honoured on the same altar as the Heavenly Powers 4.

the only T'ai-yih known to the worshippers in Chinese temples of our days. clouds.y.wind. 'The Right Way of Installing Divinities" . 4:* p.104 IMMORTAL GODS. (li (2) Cf. Cf.. always title of practical.). Ming-shi ^ . abstract conceptions into a heroic personage to be worshipped in their temples under the T'ai-yih-chen-jen (The Hero T. GENII thunder and rain but not on a separate controlling.\i-YiH-ciii:\-Ji. His adventures as related have made him famous. (1) T.\ i-iA converted these rather The Taoists. in the Fung-shen-yen-i is ^ f$ jiff H is (-) The reader referred to the notice of Practically this Na-ch'a-san-t'ai-tsz in Article XV below.& Bk. special altar of his (S) own. 18.

h-shen A ETICLE XIII.-•' 1 TEl = -t — x se = = J=.\G-K] IH-SH1 \ + r t ¥ » The Twelve Ting Riali spirits of Taoism. - 38$ . A" ^ f= - IluiA-^ E - K (1) = TT ei- ^T ±H F "•"II. I Tu- The Taoist have twe e spirits = 1 Buddhism ~_ ' g to : . I TS .K coi - used in rombinat To each I. TV - '-Kg he Sis Kiah Spirits tt" - A: 3 -. ^ Sis 1 ing Spirits - ear nan Pei - Fil : . SHIH-RH-T1.'- : - T^ ' *$ :• - -' ~.. p. -r "? :«-:.: :-?::: -:-::. the stems ere used two of Z - first I s:e: used in con: nrst six E irthb rancr t - ^ji t ^ and then the Branches. : -r - However : instead oi :::: g Ten _ Stems 5^ ^p olv Heavv twelve Earthl. ^p . %^z & I '_•.

241 p. 3. j|l Certain Taoist writers assert that the first six are feminine and the latter masculine. (1) Usually they all are represented as masculine. GENII Kiah-ch'en-shen Kiah-yin-shen ^ ^ J| 'j£ ijiifj Mung-fei-k'ing ]fc B£] ^ J}(i|] t$ Ming-wen-chang #. .106 IMMORTAL GODS. These play an important part by the following curve in : talismans where they are represented (l) Tuh-suh-Jci-shu-lioh ff # ffi Suh-wen-hien-t'ung-lcao $f % % ¥ Bk if M -% - 43 P.4 - Bk.

^ ^ % >fr 2. is greatly honoured in Buddhist temples but for all that she is a stellar divinity of the Taoists as one can see from what follows. Mo- heard report of his renowned virtues. and as well showed an overflowing charity for the help of poor human beings. 7.e. 9. . 5. married him and had nine sons. Besides her family name is given as Wan M< her personal name as T'ai-yang ^ |5§. 6. India. Tien-chu ^ Ji }£ ffi ^^ j£f T l ien-fu T'ien-ch'ung ^<# 8. she roamed over the seas. 1. her presence radiated light.. said them: "In tbese See Mayers: Chinese Reader's Manual p. i." Mother. Tao-mu jg their to When these children had been well instructed by the (1) (2) mother all transcendental sciences. Having attained a deep insight into heavenly mysteries.) Teu-mu. Teu-mu reigns in the J\- -fjj: was the mother of the nine human sove- known as the Jen-hwang \ || who are said to have reigned fabulous era after the Rulers of the Heaven and those of the Earth. travelled from sun to moon. T'ien-jen T'ien-k'in ^ <£ 3. T'ien-chuh-kwoh ^ **r g]. of In one of the Northern regions the Universe l/j] there lived one Ch'en-tsu-ts'ung J& #£ ?£. (1) She was called Mo-li-che the ^ TJclJ }£ (2) and was born in Western Realm. li-che King of Cheu-yii §fl. T'ien-jui Ji T'ien-p'ung -$-. ^H in She all is also called T'ien-mu ^ she #£.T. These were : — T'ien-ying T'ien-sin 4. the "Dipper. 384.TEU-MU 107 ARTICLE XIV THE DIPPER MOTHER TEU-MU (B.

T'len-ying was raised to the throne and is sometimes called Kiu-t'eu-shi but % Hf J£ — "the eldest of the nine" more generally Jen-hwang \ Jl "The Human Emperor". 2 p. Ed. (2) to one of lateral altars fflK. jjjijj f|l| &g $g Bk. She wears a crown of Buddhas she possesses three eyes and eighteen arms: in these she holds mystic symbols. Vol. Chinese Superstitions. 15 Art. Her nine sons live with her and Her consort Teu-fu-t'ien-tsun if- Ch'en-tsi-ts'uny living with her is entitled ^ ^ %. T'ai Temple a similar statue forms a pendant |i| Our ^ ^ Chun-Pi ip $| (Marichi) these two are on supporting P'i-lu-fuh f| f$. In the main hall of the Mt. 1. took them to be genii and chose the eldest as king. (1) the corresponding Dipper Mother revered Fig. 4 (2) See. GENII all northern regions. a : monkey's head. fiery wheels. 3 Art. 1. a flag. Dipper Father Deva worthy. Art. 2. Che Sin %% ll] . her consort and her nine sons to the joys of the installed her in the palace Teu-ch'u J\>f}§.$.108 IMMORTAL GODS. an arrow. rule over nine constellations. Hence is derived the title of "Dipper" Mother J\. a bow. Engl. And title of the of Queen has Heaven. a pearl is — and ^ she has the lotus flower as her in picture copied from a statue at Ju-kao ffl a nunnery temple outside the South Gate. as she dwells near the Dipper Star. the inhabitants seeing their chariots and garments. 1. Hinge (on which all the stars revolve) and conferred on her the title of "Queen of the Doctrine of the Primal Heaven". . better dwell in the So they went off to the south of Mt." too few. throne. Yuen-shi-t'ien-tsun 7^ #fj Then Heavens He ^ j|t came on earth and the Polar raised Mo-M-che. Art. the dwellers are South. 119. 5 p. 161 gives an idea of the usual representation of Indian type in Buddhist temples. (1» Shensien-t'ung-lien Bk. VI p.

Fig. 161

Teou-mou.
Teu-mu.

TEU-MU

109

Teu-mu
thology
:

is

derived from the Marichi (1) of

Brahmin myof

the Taoist

have made

a

stellar

divinity

her

and

provided her with a consort and a palace amid the
(2)

stars.

See, Chinese Superstitions, Engl.

Ed

Vol. VII
']$

p.

303 —311.

Marichi

is

there identified with Chung -t'i

$g.

110

IMMORTAL GODS, GENII

o

Ill

ARTICLE
T

XV.
(T.B.)

NA-CH*A-SAI\ -T*A1-TSZE

m
1.

nt

=

*

7-

Birth.

Li-tsing
local

^
J}$

ffi,

a

general

under Cheu-wang

j$ 3£,

was

the

commander in Ch'en-t'ang-kwan |^ |gf g| at the time when murderous was ushering- out the Shang dynasty jgj broke out.
J£ gave birth to three sons, Kin-ch'a
^s;
P-"£

His wife Yin-shi

£

|f£

the eldest, Muh-ch'a

the second and

9J(I

F£,

Na-ch'a

known

as "the third prince" j£ -& -p-

He

is

a hero of romance.
jf\\\i

The author

of the Fung-shen-yen-yi ij

-/j^

H

has piled

up the marvellous in describing the deeds of this incrediblecharacter. His mother was with child for three years and six

months without being able to bring the child to birth. )ne night she saw in dream-vision a Taoist priest entering her room.
(

Full of indignation at this, she cried,

"How

dare you enter

my

room

so rudely?"

The Taoist answered by bidding

her receive

the "child of the

unicorn," and, without giving her time to say anything, he thrust an object into her bosom. She awoke in a what she had just fit of fear and aroused Li-tsing, telling him

seen in her dream.
pangs.
Li-tsing

On

the instant,

she

was

seized

by

birth-

withdrew

to a hall, puzzled In

the whole affair;

everything seemed to be of evil presage. Shortly two servants r an up distraught crying, "Your wife has just given birth to

wicked monster".
Li-tsing took his sword and entered his wife's room.
It

was flooded with
smell.
like a

a

red

glare

There on the
wheel.

floor

Li struck at

and permeated with a strange was a mass of flesh whirling about it with his sword, cleft it open and
of
light.

there issued a child

The

child's face

whose body radiated red beams was verv white: around its wrist was

a bracelet

112
of gold

IMMORTAL GODS, GENU
and about
jts

middle a

band of red

silk

from which

streamed dazzling'rays of golden light. This bracelet was the ''circle of earth atid heaven," this silken band an embroidery of earth and sky in fane, two precious objects from the grotto of

by its inhabitant the Hero i- e. jx. Zi) preceding article on -^c when he had visited the mother in her sleep. The child was a
Kin-kwang-tsung -^ ft
T'ai-yih ic Zj
:

^\ presented

M

A

( s ee

reincarnation of Ling-chu-tsze ft 3& -?

The

Intelligent Pearl.
Li-tsing's permis-

On
and he
2.

the morrow, T'ai-yih

came and asked
said

sion to see the child.
shall be

"His name,"

he, "shall

be

Na-ch'a

my

disciple."

Youth and Misdeeds.

Na-ch'a at seven years of age was six feet high. One day he asked permission from his mother to go for a walk outside the town. She agreed on condition that an officer should

accompany him, and impressed on him

that he

must not remain

long outside the ramparts lest his father should be displeased. So Na-ch'a went out with an officer as escort. It was the fifth

month and

so hot that after

walking

a

li

he was bathed in sweat.

On

ahead, there was a grove of trees, and he

was assured by

his

escort

whom

very cool Pushed on
his dress, a

he had sent on to investigate, that he should find it Na ch'a was delighted, there under the willows.
got well
into

to the trees

the

shade

and undoing
the willows,

proceeded stream g-entlv ruffled by the wind
:

to enjoy the cool breeze.

Amid
the

rolled clear,

green

waters
of a

inviting him to bathe

the waters played about

sides

mass
ced

of rocks.
to

The youngster bounding along
that

the bank, announthis

his

guardian

he

would bathe from
if

rock.

"Make

haste then," said the officer,"

your father

is

back before
his

you, he will be very displeased.

"Na

ch'a took

off

clothes

and them made use of
as a bath-towell, that

his red-silk band,
is,

some seven

feet

long

dipped it no sooner had

as the Chinese are so fond of doing he This band was a mysterious object: into the stream.
it

touched the surface of the river that the water

Fig.

d02

Na-touo

san-t'ai-tse.

Na-to San-t'ai-tze.

Kiu the Eastern Seas: Wan Ho \ $f was waters now grew red and its touch with of the palace Lung-wang || £ swayed on (1) supports and began to crumble. Vol. Na-ch'a looked around and caught sight down below if in the water of his teeth a creature with green a face and red hair who bared axe as to strike him.NA-CH'A 113 began to boil. in the River with the Nine Bends. VII pp. and was brandishing brute is it. The Dragon King palace Shui-tsing-kung 7^ crack and sway. So Ngao-kwang's third son. Chinese Superstitions. burst through the waters. he slipped aside bracelet threw so that it and taking off his golden landed on Li-king's head and crushing him dead on the rock Na-ch'a got hold of his bracelet again and laughing said. and earth and sky shook. Li-ken came to the all mouth in of the River of the Nine Bends child and saw the waters red: yet there silk dipping a strip of red was only a the water to wash there Li himself. a squad of ••marines" and holding Ngao-ping |Jr ptj at the head of submarines of swift flotilla this forth: issues his trident several raises mountainous waves that caused a sort of "bore" killing of the courier feet high in the ment (1) Na-ch'a stood up in amazeand on the instant caught sight of a warrior riding on a sea Nine Bends River. its This -/pj" river. 15 . "His blood has stained my He sat again on a rock and precious circle of earth and sky." caused a second disastrous this but water the in it clean washed his brain stretched quake that demolished the Dragon-king's palace. demanding what this might be that was causing such disturbance. his officials brought news by a child. great "that j|{( "What said of Na-ch'a speaks thus?" 3£ Then seeing it this police-officer Lung-wang making for him. 409 sqq. so he sent a police-officer Li-ken Ngao-kwang |£ ^ seated in his Crystal H ^ 'gf was surprised to see the walls He knew it was not the time for an earthquake ^ ji| to visit the borders of the sea in order to find out the cause of the disturbance. "How is it that my messenger is not back?" said of Ngao the kwang: and at that moment.

Li-tsing. GENII monster. denied his son's guilt: Na-ch'a was in the garden busy dragon-sinews for his father. at then he summoned Na-ch'a. "Who of killed my envoy?" cried the apparition." There here complete. came here him !" to cool myself. Come and explain yourself. "What misfortunes." to take out your sinews. I will flay you and your mud-eels. "And who to insult yon?" so "I am I Na-ch'a.114 IMMORTAL GODS." shouted Ngao-ping and he struck with his trident. "I a am belt going. if he wants them. The killed what had befallen assumed the form man's escort reported to the Dragon King his son and the King himself thereupon of a scholar in order to seek out Li-tsing and demand of him reason for the killing first of his son. "T'was are I". said Na-ch'a. third son of the Dragon "Such bragging! If you dare touch me. he . 1 is no need to be afraid: his son's sinews are shall give them back to him." "You would make me choke with rage. Na-ch'a opened up his silk strip upon the air and thousands of fire-balls burst out from sides it. To his at plaiting the belt of father's amazement he father. Coming face to face with Dragon-King. the "was Na-ch'a' s cynical reply. now offered it to him." assailant was. He came know me and was that a kill 1 killed "Ruffian. ignorant of the whole happening. said Na-ch'a." cried the "have you brought upon us. Na-ch'a dodged the stroke and demanded who alive his King. third son of Li-tsing Ch'en-t'ang-hwen $M $f §fjj. The Dragon-King's son falls finds himself hemmed foot on bracelet in on his on his back. do you that did Li-ken Heaven? boast of How it?" you dare to with messenger of the King of him and even still worse tried And Ngao-p'ing to strike his trident into Na-ch'a. "Ngao-p'ing." This he did and brought home his spoils to the great terror of the officers in the fortress. Na-ch'a plants one victim's head and strikes him with the golden all and whereupon the real dragon shape is disclosed. and make of dragon-sinews for my father's breastplate.

three years and tested : "Allow me once I for all to declare that of I am not an ordi- Zj iH AThese magic weapons which I hold from him have brought upon me the mortal enmity of Ngao-kwang ffc )£ but he shall not a nary man. offered a few bare words of apology and offered to give him back his son's sinews. terrified by the brought into the world." Thereupon he set out for Kien-yuen-shan %i ^ mj. "You have not begotten such a son and yet dare to deny his guilt: do you hear his cynical confession. There." said Li-tsing to her in anger." he added. to sob loud. The master realising the serious consequences of these deeds. Then come and molesta- consult me again that we may save your parents from ." The poor mother then with streaming son. flung himself on his knees and promonths. are whom I bore in my womb for you for whom I suffered so much. On the instant enormity of these crimes. overcome by the sorrow of both his parents. bade him bare his breast then with a brush he traced a magic talisman on the skin and gave him certain secret recommendations. To-morrow the Monarch he left. began His wife having heard the sound and learned the "What a harmful being you cause. am disciple T'ai-yih-chen-jjen -^ prevail. 5 ^ shall hear of Yuh-hwang. one of them being'the Dragon King's son: to-morrow Yuh-ti 3£ ^f will be told of it and in two or three days that will be the end of us. he sought the cave of his master. Jade this from me". who must face the penalty." one alone. eyes reproached hesix ''You you now to be for us all a cause of ruin and death?" Na-ch'a. Li-tsing . to moved at the sight crime. is To day guilty the It 1 am going to seek counsel of my master. came to find her husband. "he has already killed two spirits. "go to the £ Gate of Heaven and wait for the arrival of Ngao-kwang on his way to lodge his charge with 3£ 1$ Yuh-ti. "Now. not his parents. T'ai-yih k" and told him what had befallen him. of these tokens of the The turned father.NA-CH'A 115 greeted him. Li-tsing.

jj| ^j* they had been deposited there since the Emperor had made use of the weapon to overcome the Ch'i-yiu ^ it- Na-ch'a history but he mused with himself that he knew nothing about their must have some pra- . I have his assurance that he can protect us. The only answer was abuse and blows. "1 am" "the predestined of the gods. Thereupon Na-ch'a demanded that the king himself into a small serpent that could be led arrived at Na-ch'a's home. to follow had and Lung-wang complied Na-ch'a home in the guise of a small blue dragon. in search of amusement issued by the North Gate and climbed the tower overlooking the gate. Then Na-clra proceeded to an extreme of outrage. The king now recognized Na-ch'a and taxed him with so man}' crimes." Na-ch'a arrived at the Gate it shut. All these Dragons Kings can do nothing. CENI1 your escapades. Then he changed into a gale and vanished. Li-tsing was dismayed by this piling of woes on woes but said he." Li-tsing was perplexed by the words as much as by the happenings. Lung-wang had not yet come. he tore open the King's garments. Na-ch'a ran up to the Dragon-King and struck him to such effect on the loins that Lung-wang fell to the ground and Na-ch'a started to trample on him and revile him. Na-ch'a would have him be of Q-ood cheer. Heaven and found Alter a short while Na-ch'a saw invisible because of T'ai-yih's him coming. There he came across a ma^ic bow and three magic arrows Hwang-ti rebellions . lifted his breastplate and tore off some score of the Dragon-king's scales from his body so that blood flowed copiously. This made the King cry for quarter which Nach'a granted on condition that the accusation before Yuh-ti was must change fear without away of its making its escape. and my master is T'ai-yih-chen-jen.c 116 tion on account of of IMMORTAL GODS. Being himself talisman. Na-ch'a went out into the garden and. accused Na-ch'a of having assaulted him and declared that on the morrow he would present himself with all the Dragon-Kings to lodge his accusation with Yuh-ti. As soon as they foregone. the his Dragon-King Ngao-hwang resumed normal shape.

the Goddess So the Goddess Li-tsing of course was the guilty one. and now he had to Li-tsing swore he was innocent but Li-tsing find no arrow was eloquent testimony. the Goddess to allow him to go at liberty and avail for the ''If I begged the culprit. Na-ch'a struck him at roughly. 117 to secure in as his master warned him. in launching against her a globe of nine fiery dragons she changed into encircled the Goddess and burned her : these stone.'' she knew that it came from Ch'en-t'ang-kwan ($ jg jfg. silk strip." Again Na-ch'a cheerfully owned to being the guilty -person and followed his father to the Goddess's grotto. Na-ch'a fled to his his magic bracelet master and the Goddess pursued him. Na-ch'a This enraged Shih-ki-niang-niang and she rushed with a sword quickly she had stripped him of : armed and magic to death. if. But as he arrived at the entrance. you shall take my life. The arrow pierced his throat and he fell dead. he were destined the future the fortunes of the Chow dynasty ffl against the Shang the south-east. Now "said T'ai-yih to Na-ch'a back quich to your parents: the four pragon-Kings have lodged their accusation with Yuh-ii . She was preparing him for immortality and had helped him to worldly honours since he had killed her attendant. There she set him kneeling before her and upbraided him with his criminal ingratitude. left his lonely mountain . mounted her blue phoenix.NA-GH'A ctice. A She demanded delivery of the culprit to put him struggle began and but T'ai-yih-chen-jen succeeded . cannot find him. "the Arrow which troubleth the Sky. The bolt sped whistling through the air leaving mark its passage. Just then an attendant of % $1 of Shih-ki-niang-niang to il J| by name Pih-yun |§ §| happened fi£ be at the foot Mt Skeleton K'u-lou f£ Mj i„ front of the Goddess's grotto. the second attendant Ts'ai-yun-t'ung-rh 9& HI S% upbraided him. Immediately came forth and examining the arrow which bore the inscsiption. sped over Ch'en-i'ang-kwan and took off Li-tsing to her cave. a trail of red to So he bent the bow and shot an arrow to jtj.

" said his Master. Na-ch'a or six nights and spoke very plainly. "return and beg your mother to build you a temple After three years of away on Mt. "It is I. a He scolded her for her blind attachment to such woe. to Ch''en-Pang -k wan is not your abode. Ts'ui-p'ing 1-3 Jp| dj . The mother a in tears awoke and told Li-tsing. ( )ne day. let us all appear before Yuen-shi^ 3E an d abide the result. If you do not give ear. I will rip up give back to my parents what I got from them. evils will come upon you. monstrous son who had caused them such for five But the apparitions continued last occasion. Will you agree? If not. "This forty li worship. Na-ch'a's mother was deep sleep when her son appeared and admonished her to build his temple that his soul might find an abode. off his parents." said he." Lung-wang accepted a sword." Na-ch'a began to weep but T'ai-yih whispered him some secret advice and assured him it would save his parents. Li-tsing at the wondered "These masses of pilgrims of spirit in with his troops passed that way and all ages and conditions on the reads leading to the temple. six "Where are these people going?" months the the mountain-temple has been . 3. cut off one of So Na-ch'a on the spot carried out his part: he took his arms and then fell senseless after performing the hara-kiri. GENII and they are about to seize your parents. "Do not forget that I am savage by nature. belly and tear out my entrails. t'ien-wang 7c io the offer. Death." About the in third watch of the night.118 IMMORTAL GODS." So the mother got the temple built secretly: in it was a statue of Na-ch'a and soon it attracted crowds of pilgrims on the by wondrous happenings. your can be reincarnated. cut off my limbs and scrape my my bones. Na-ch'a found the four Dragon-Kings bent on taking son. His soul borne by the winds reached T'ai-yih's cave even while the mother was still engaged in the burial rites. "who have killed I your shall Why molest my parents? i will pay the penalty. ( )n his return.

Li-tsing in violent anger set to it whipping and reviling the evil. he must go again to Now a sensitive life. T'di-yih a been cruelly maltreated and declared that agreed that he had way must lie found to get Na-ch'a ready in order to help Kiang-tsze-ya was shortly to leave his mountain and establish a 4. had from him. to be degraded for introducing a heterodox cult to a false divinity.wonders and people are streaming here from all sides to pray to him. figure. dant spirits who waited him "Ah! He Ch'en-t'ang-kwan. on hearing this. Why does he come given him back what I had got to demolish my gilded statue? I have no more ties to bind me to him.NA-CH'A 1 1!* doing. On arriving home. "If ever you want end to build a relations with you. "Who has destroyed my in temple?" he asked of his attentears. back win to begun consult T'ai-yih how to carry on. Not satisfied with being for after us a cause of death. T'ai-yih-chen-jen procured two water-lily stems and three . ordered the temple to be burned." "What is the spirit's name?" "Na-ch'a. I have burned that temple 1 will let sever all : that be the Na-ch'a had been its away from the temple at the find moment of destruction and he returned to merely a heap of smoking of ruins. Li-tsing taxed his wife with building that temple and thereby exposing him. £ ^ 3jp who new dynasty. of the matter." you v\ould deceive these people the statue till it you He whipped fell to pieces: with kicks. Rebirth of Na-ch'a." temple again for Na-ch'a." Li-tsing. went to have the evidence of his own eyes and found that it was really Na-ch'a-hing-kung I'jjld^ffgr- He entered and saw that the statue really represented his own Na-ch'a." Li-tsing. warned the people not to worship such Then he a wicked man who had disgraced his own family. her husband. overthrew the attendants. commander I has outstepped his rights." the soul <>f Na-ch'a had During that half-year of worship. Beside it were the usual two attendants.

I shall arm you. Na-ch'a would force this old fellow to vield up It his refugee but he has not was Wen-shu-t'ien-tsun ~$i ~fy%. No 520 Originally Buddha's wheels & tfj. sped off on his under his feet wheels to Ch'en-t'ang-kwan. and two wheels (1) of fire and wind to serve as vehicles (like roller-skates) and an ingot of gold in a panther-skin wallet. GENII leaves and with them In this formed on the ground a sort of he slipped Na-ch'a's soul by means of magic charms and there arose a new Nd-ch'a. Na-ch'a insisted to protect him. (1) pillar. skeleton-man. In a fight Na-ch'a disables his blow of the golden ingot on the loins. coming vengeance. finely sharp. that he had given back his his grievance out filial relationship and will now have brother with a with Li-tsing. This Taoist by use of magic implements got hold of Na-ch'a. After went weapons mutual abuse. full of life with fresh complexion and ruddy lips and fully sixteen feet in height. In the twinkling of an eye. Li-tsiug was worsted in a combat of arms and took to Might Na-ch'a pursued relentlessly and just as he was about to Li-tsing got When warning of the mounted his horse. "Presently in my peach garden. the latter's second son Muh-ch'a ^PTj intervened In answer to Muh-ch'a's rebukes. Na-ch'a follows his victim but there is now no trace of Li to be seen in the grotto." said T'ai-yih "and there he gave him a fiery lance. On a sudden.120 lotus IMMORTAL GODS. . he had passed a golden collar about his neck and two chains this about his legs and had him fettered to a golden one of Wen-shu's attendants gave the turbulent drubbing. took his overtake Li-tsing. Then boy a good See Mayers Chinese Reader's Manual. So Na-ch'a after having thanked his benefactor. the voice of a Taoist adopt calls him to take refuge in his cave where he will be safe. reckoned with his new opponent. and T'ai-yih has planned to teach Na-ch'a a lesson. Then he of Li until the latter resumes the pursuit and is loses hope of escape about to kill himself. H H^. he and to meet him.

"will be high officers to render Na-ch'a impotent for the But attain immortality:' future against Li-tsing." he went to takeover the reins of governement.) in the new dynasty and both of yon will on. and produced from flung himself at the Taoist. home and after a Thereupon T'ai-yih bade moment. unrestrained as a wild cat. takes Li under his protection and forbids Na-ch'a to do him any harm. confident of getting his own worthy appears. he admonished him to live on good terms with his father while however taking the father to task for having burnt came to visit the pagoda of Ts'ui-p'ing Shan. so the Taoist produced r But of a sudden. It was now Li-tsing's turn.NA-CH'A Just at this humiliating 121 moment. Na-ch'a. a representation of a Li could be Vajrapani. off in pursuit of Li-tsing. thunder-bolt: the vajra of 16 . T'ai-yih as if by chance Wen-shu and making Na ch'a stand before Wen-shu and Li-tsing. ordered Na-ch'a off to Li-tsing his own But rushed back. Na-ch'a still w as untamed. The Taoist turning to him office that he might become an promised him a retreat from who were shortly Immortal and be enabled to serve the Chow "Both of you. Na-ch'a was now in a paroxysm of rage. The Taoist made him promise address him as to live on good terms prostrate with Li-tsing. full of resentment and thirsting for revenge. a Taoist some mysterious object that mounted up in the air and then fell at Na-ch'a's feet wrapping him in a shroud of flame that scorched him cruelly. At last he yielded and begged his sleeve for mercy. to father and now to himself at his feet in order to be reconciled with him. I?. wishing to spear him but this latter a white lotus-flower from his mouth and the spear was checked. he bade this latter kneel and then at Na-ch'a's bestowed on him the magic object that had burned of tower a was it gold (1) reason: feet and brought him to the reason and of the Li-tsing become symbol and this has — (1) originally Indian mythology. return grotto.

Article XI fig. grand-marshal of the heavens. So Wen-shu above and P'ou-hien ^f S£ (master of one of Litsing's sons) are the Marijusri and the Samantaihadra Buddhas (see Chinese Superstitions Vol. the fights at the establishment of Chow dynasty are full of the marvellous deeds and fantastic Li-tsing combats in which in and Na-ch'a figure as heroes. 14. The fabulous romances about the the stories of the gods at war. Fung-shen-yen-yi ft JS ig Bk. Chinese Superstitions Vol XI jjiifi 262 this (3) Funy-shen-yen-yi Jf Jg fg Bk. (4) See Chinese Superstitions. (2) The Sheu-shen-ki ^^|E gives a shorter but more obscure legend which seems to have a similar core. 6 Ewui 76. illustration in jjfl fc£ g Bk. Vol. 13. 156.122 for his usual title. (1) jjft (2) Shen-sien-t'ung-kien jjjiji fill $§ $g£. above. (1) ft IMMORTAL GODS. and guardian of the gate of heaven. Fung-shen-yen-yi $$ Cf. VI p. GENII "The Tower-Bearer" T'oh-t'dh Li-Vien-wang £&H 3E. 126-130) Cf. VI p. They always share the campaigns of the gods. 2 Ewui 12. 89-90 Dipamkara or the Light-bearer). -fy jjft (4) Sheu-shen-ki It ( /tio h'/fn T iff) p. fig. Na--ch'a was the he was sixty feet in height he had three squire of Yuh-ti 3£ heads with nine eyes in all in his eight arms he carried magic ^ : : : weapons: task the his mouth belched blue clouds and his voice made (3) the pillars of the sky rock and the bases of earth tremble His was to reduce to subjection the Demon-Kings who of harried earth. The Taoist who bestowed the tower was Jan-teng $k $£ and Taoist legends would make of him the teacher of Buddha (see Chinese Superstitions. tales. Yuh-ti made him generalissimo the twenty-six heavenly officers. 12. 2 Ewui 12 p. He owed new shape to his master T'ai-yih. 4: Ewui 14 p. 61. .

was stale- mate until Na-ch'a !%$?£. Here we have that to deal with one of the marvellous legends struggles grew up Chow Dynasty about Jfft. the Hero) From him he had which sucked learned the marvellous knack of browing forth from his nostrils. two columns of light up men. Thanks to this marvellous power. He was pardoned and enlisted on the Chow side as Quartermaster-General of Commissariat and General of five army-corps.HENG-HOH-RH-TSIANG 123 ARTICLE XVI HENG-HOH-RH-TSIANG i? ~ "fc -jnp Marshals "Sniffer" and "Blower". Ha "the Blower" was Marshal ($f) Cken-ki the last Shang Cheng-lun was the Quartermaster-General for the Commissariat of the Armies of Chow $\ He had as j§j Emperor. But when "Sniffer" faced "Blower". Thus he cut lanes through the battalions it Chow. that he had learned the magic trick of storing up in his chest yellow gas which he emitted through those of the his mouth and so destroyed who faced him. the terrible ushering in the Heng "the Sniffer" was Marshal ($f) Cheng-lun f$ ffc^-. he found himself opposed of to in the sort anticipation of poisongas warfare: "flammenwerfer" versus gas) who was also commissaThe "Blower's" special qualification was riat commandant. One day however he was worsted. fettered and carried off to hi s J?|J camp by the general Teng-kiu-kung gft % ^. jfo. with the resonance of a bell. body and soul. the infamous (jf| master a famous magician Tu-ngoh $£ /ff hailing from the Ivwun-Lun Mts j=£ $} lX| . On Ch'en-ki the Chow Blower side (a now. on the Chow side. he was able to win victory after victory over the Chow fighters. \. wounded the "Sniffer" .

Bk. Ox-bezoar is supposed produced in the stomachs of certain kinds of cattle when they have eaten on the mountains a plant called Ling-cJii-ts'ao H S Bezoar is a costly article in the Chinese pharmacopeia.43. was his adversary and he had the gift inners the Niu-hwang ^- ^ of ^c an in his ^ producing the Ox-bezoar stone. by the Chinese (2) Cf. . 31. 74. 55. 9. 13 p. Bk 19 p. Bk. 20 p. 1048 Niu-hwang. Art to be XXXVII p. The "Sniffer's nostrils were crushed in in and he was thrown to the ground and then hewn two. XI. he threw in his face him out of action by spitting with the noise of thunder a bezoar-stone big as a rice-bowl. So at the entrance to Buddhist temples you may find the Sniffer with nostrils expanded drum-wise and the Hlower with eyes bulging out of their sockets with his effort. (Popular edition divided into Ilwui or chapters) 57.124 in the IMMORTAL GODS. 15 p. The Marshal Kin-ta-sheng Ox-demon. 32. Bk 99 [SI. 30-1. Ij?. 1 p.|f fRe ^ in lanced him through the middle.42. Cheng-lun the Sniffer with the in his turn was killed battle 3\- Shang ]$}. Bk 92. 19-20. Fung-shen-yen-yi $f jjjiji ^ g| large ed. GENII shoulder and then the general Hwang-f'ei-liu . Kiang-tsze-ya After the establishment of the 5f- Chow H : f- (see Article LIII) canonized these two worthies and assigned them the guardianship of temple doors. 40. 61. (2) (1) See Vol. (1) Face to face with the "Sniffer". Bk 15 p.

. sniffing Taoist The blowing and Monk. 163 — — Heng-hah Heng-ha le Souffleur et le Renifleur.Fig.

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and his daughter Shan-yuh -/ifT %\i HI figures the romance Fung-shen-yen-yi ft f$ j§.pf f|| to Na-ch'a (see Article left XV) and Hwang -fei-hu J*. stellar divinities. PEH-HU 125 ARTICLE XVII TS 1NG-LUNG. T'u hing-sun cured his wounds marriage to T'u hing-sun (1) After a bancpuet Teng-kiu-kung promises his daughter in if he wins the day at Si-k'i. a stone of Wxe fires. f gg This spirit of the Blue Dragon star was originally one ±\. T'u king-sun %f Jjfe as a healed wound and fracture. neck put (1) her to flight. Kiang-tszelung-shen-yen-yi %\ i\$ J^ S- Hwui 53 p.TS'ING-LUNG. i£ ill [ID Teng-kiu-kung' s army was encamped at San-shan-kwan when he received an order to march to the battle-field TjEf |I|£. which she threw with good aim at Yang-tsien j§j f^ full in the face: but he was wounded and his celestial dog leaped upon Shan-yuh and biting her too. 6: 54 p. . he had his with his magic bracelet. chief generals of the last Yin Emperor j)£ (or Shang in the dynastic struggle inaugurating the Choir who figures His son was in Teng-siu gfl %§. PEH-HU C At the gate article. these like two divinities of may be found as guardians the Heng and Hoh the preceding The following notes trace their origin and how they were canonized as I. subordinate and this ^ one quickly Shan-yuh then took the field to avenge her father: she had a magic weapon. arm fractured by Na-ch'a Fortunately he had a famous magician. of Si-k'i Opposed there . it. Teng-kiu-kung (see preceding article) f$ A one of the j§j) JIJ. The Blue Dragon. of Taoist temples.

So they set about satisfying him and laid an elaborate plot to steal the girl away from her father. Teng-kiu-kung was assailed. 66. why he it T'u confessed that fought against the new was to obtain the hand of Kiuthus kung's daughter. p. After her marriage in the Chow camp. taken prisoner and executed the enemy's camp by order of the general K'iu-yin Jrft §|. 11. the Chow aspirant is uneasy in at the repeated success of this up magic. Yu-ch'eng fa and Sun-pao |£ 3|. 33: 99. Kii induced his pupil to come to Kiang's camp and demanded of him dynasty. The White Tiger Peh-hu. Teng W. g j% The siu Wi (1) $ over the White Tiger star is Yin-ch'eng^. Finding out that his master was Kit liu-sun. Officers disguised as plain soldiers were sent to present a list of wedding presents: one of those opened a box containing weapons and exploded a bomb. Fung-shen-ycnyx. spirit ruling p.17.. ding him to transfer his allegiance to the "rising sun". Kiang-tsze-ya in his canonisations assigned him the ruling of the star Ts'ing-lung. Huui 56. Shen-yuh returned spend a few days with her father and she succeeded in persua. he begged this latter to call his pupil over to daring officer. (2) (3) Hwui Fung-shen-ycn-yi Huui .12l IMMORTAL GODS. was attacked by Ch'en-ki He was dehorsed in by the gas-attack. (2) In a subsequent combat. . "Go be! tweens" were sent to Teng-kiu-kung and flren a trap was laid. GENII ya. 14 . ^p. .one of the colleagues of Teng-kiu-kung (above). It was an arranged signal. 73 p. beaten and forced to flee leaving Shan-yuh to the victors. to wit n$ The Blower (Article XVI). so well the 'Tight" side. 32. (3) II. (1) Teng to now fought vigorously CJww-wang famous ffi against the troops of his old master anc j killed with his own hand in the different J£ battles at Ts'ing-lung-kwan (Blue officers Dragon Pass) ^ fI £ ffl three Peh-hien-chung ^ Hf fc.

164 * M w-Tchei _ i jrod of ike Blue Di star —C g - - .-.7 .

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165 Esprit de l'etoile du Tigre blanc. Ying Ch'eng-siu (In the Hwang .Fig. The God of the White Tiger Monastery). star. Yng-tch'eng-sieou (Pagode de Hoang).

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he was canonized as the spirit of the White Tiger star.wang £}.3£ and was sent by him to negociate terms of peace with Kiang tsze-ya.TS'IENG-LUNG-PEH-HU 127 His father Yin-p'o-pai }$$£$£ occupied one of the highest posts Chow. The marquis Kiang seized him and put him to death. As a sort of delayed indemnity. So Ch'eng-siu wen-hwan || -£ at the court of ^ his son attacked Kiang wen-hwan to fell but was defeated in battle and avenge his father's death His pierced by a lance. enemy sent his head as a trophy to Kiang tsz-ya. (2) (2) Fung-shen-yenyi Hwui 9 5 p. . 25: 99.

140 B. 89 p. . yY.) named Li-ping prefect of Ch'eng in $% in Sz-ch'wan. 8 jH p. Irrigation Mouth. 1. human sacrifice to the river god.C. % f£ a native of Lii-lciang sub-prefecture of Lu-chow-fu in Ngan-hwui towards the closing years of the $L was appointed prefect in Ss-ch'wan Ban Emperor Kingti (g| || if?) 15C . and made a new bed for Jjg '{1 in the £ the Tsien-Tciang fel tL by piercing a mountain. hence his own (1) Mt. to give an outlet to the waters of the river Moh inundations and draining the marshes. Kwan-l'cu is 26 li to the JiSc north-east of Kwan-hsien Jl|. Ming-yih-t'ung-shi t$ — jjft § Bk. cult. legend. 67 ZVin Hem £7ra |w^# Bk. In addition to these services he seems to have abolished the barbarism of canonization.T. Such facts as seem The to rest on historic basis. is Divinity of Kwan-k'eu is one Li-ping ^ #Jt and the Rh-lang divinity In his son. the mountain Li-tui J$£ J$. Cf.128 IMMORTAL GODS. GENII ARTICLE XVIII (B. the third century Hg before 3E Christ the famous Ts'in ^ in Emperor Chao-Wang (255 B.) I4YVAN-K«EU-SHEN AND RH-LANG-SHEN iS u W of — SB W Bh-lang. thus preventing ^ Then he dug two canals across the town Ch'eng-tu: these were navigable and also helped general irrigation purposes. The Divinity following 1 Kwan-k'eu (1) and naturally /ws sow The article divides itself into three headings: historical facts. Hence the name p. one // Li got an opening cut south-east of the town Kwan-hsien. 2. }|g $£ in tha sub-prefecture of Cheng-tu #|i in Sz-ch'wan Wen-wung. C.

. 166 Eul-lang & Eul-lang.Fig.

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A of this marriage. 1 The Embroidrey of Legend* We mountain sacrifice to hear first of a combat there in countryside of a devastating dragon and chains Li-tui. offered a cup of wine mounted the — but there was steps of the altar and no response. The Marriage of the Count. of X p. he cried.^l Bk 10 p. It was a human The sirls were elaborately dressed bridal garments. 7 SO. 45 jfc Kia-k'ing. Sz-ch'wan-t'ung-chi-yii-ti VH )\\ jg ji. With that.5 (jll| p. 2. p. her sumptuously and committing her to the waters. 2 Ts'ien-han-shu II. which Li-ping rids the it up under the (1) Then is a ceremony of its j£j of the River is and an account abolition. Bk.& Bk 23 & |E $] H Bk 29 p. and seated upon a bridal couch in richly decorated backs. Cf. he went to the temple of the River-god. (3) million cash were spent on the ceremonies He clad Li-ping offered his own daughter. then they were taken out to the deep and drowned. The Chinese text is not too clear. . f[J jpT human The (2) following version from the Shi-ki-ho-k'ii-shu ^ #. In anger. # $| # Bk. Shi-M-tseh-yi &. Is not this contemptuous!" It was really 17 picking a quarrel. "I have See also Vol (4) given you — and my daughter in marriage. have offered you the wine of rejoicing you are boorishly silent. .kwan-k'eu-shen and rh-lang-shen (Sources) Pei-wen-yun-fu-iui-tsz %% -*£ 129 |fj /ft M^ % 67 p. IE ^ Bk. The above is the explanation capable scholars and seems right. 10 Jjg p. "Sovereign of the River: you are insulting me (4) let us have our quarrel out!". 2 9 p. 9. "The Five Saints" "Chinese Superstitions Vol XII sacrifice. The meaning would be. 32 Ming-yih-t'ung-chi Shi-ki-tseh-yi $)—#£. 1100" in for a description of the ceremonies of Marriage with the River-god. Cf. In the waters of the channels cut by Li-ping for irrigation and drainage there dwelt a spirit to whom two young girls were offered annually. 29 p. he drew his sword and (1) (2) (3) Tuh-sing-tsah-chi |gH| Bk.

Rh-lang. in the Emperor Wen-tsung the following titles: 7c ^C ^ first year of his reign. probably because of the popularity of the Si-yiuki |jj jf[| f£ (6th Hwui p. . am dead-beat with fighting. 4. virtuous. and a toll-duty on them brought in twenty million cash. The of Hai-yii-ts'img-kao [$ f£ H ^§ records that the Divinity temple of "Eminent Virtue" Kwan-hsien in Sz-ch'wan. the whole prefecture made contributions Even officialdom esteemed for the banquet and processions. All the people of Shuh §D (Sz-ch'wan) held the temple in great veneration and performed In a single year 40. 882 3 5 p. in beneficence and wisdom. (1) Cult. magni- and kindly. T'aip'ing-yu-lan t£ Hai-yii-ts'ung-lao & ± ^^ -f ffl M Bk. dear to all. you do not come to my help. the divinity. his followers person to I and said.000 sheep were offered there sacrifices there." A Thus the scribe went and stabbed the bull on the north. p. River-spirit died and that HI. the Yuen conferred on Li-ping and Rh-lang Li-ping: ficent The King hollowed.130 disappeared. GENII But on the river-bank two green bulls were seen — being of course Li and the River-god — and Suddenly Li-ping returned "If in combat the bout lasted long. See there to the south.D. at Yung-k'ang-kiiin that This divinity was entitled King and had a mandarin assigned to take care of his temple. 22) which gives this account of him: This (1) Cf. 20. In 1329 A. Rh-lang: King magnificent whose renoun is unbounded. Bk. in deadly IMMORTAL GODS. good and generous. was the last heard of him. At the birth-day of the God. Kwan-k'eu was worshipped 7J< J|t If? in the is. that bull with his flanks girt in the white wrappings of my seal is myself. eminent latter Rh-lang was in recent times more honoured than his father.

. 1'chao-kiny flung himself waters with drawn sword to fight the dragon. The hero emerged brandishing sword waving about the head in hand and with the other of the monster. There is however another version 1 of his relationships in the Si-yiu-ki Bk.45. in the fifth month Chao-kiny $g tackled the question: he During the flood came noise by into with a flotilla of 700 boats. the two heroes began to recite their titles and Bh-lang said. he resigned and disappeared. (2) grand marshal.kwan-k'eu-shen and rh-lang-shen His name was Chao-kiny |§ Taoist adept Li-kioh jj? 131 of the ffi tfj jH'| and he was a pupil ffi }|f The Sui Emperor Yang-ti (605-617 A. (1) a heavenly So P. of Yuh-ii £ ft &$: himself that I (1) The popular name Sheu-shen-ki dog is Ying k'uen. (2) (± %) & jjjiji IE P. then there came as it were stood on the banks and sion that cast stones into the air and a rumble like men who the watching an explothunder. ^U^^fight deputed by Yuh-hwany 3E§I fronted. was According to this. Bh-lang is Yang-tsien jjf fffc. a temple was erected for him is at Kwan-kiang-k'eu }|f /X And he generally known as Bh-lang of Kwan-kiang-k'eu. Those saw the wathers grow red. under the form of a bull. A dragon. nephew of the divinity.D. the eagle-hound. a thousand troops and ten thousand made a deafening shouting and drumming. He was twenty-six years of age when he performed this deed but when troubles came upon the national life.) appointed him prefect of Kwan-chow JJ. He Conto Sun-heu-tsz. living in the rivers jjg Leng Ijj- and Yuen caused annual floods. Hwui 6 p. Jp. the people of Kwan-chow saw him amid a fog mounted on a grey horse and crossing the waters attended by hound. However in a subsequent period of swollen waters. ^ in Sz-ch'wan. 22. "Do you not know It is that I am is the nephew of Yuh-ii 3£ fir and that my posthumous name by order for the Hwui-Ung-hien-wang-rh-lang M fi J$ 3E Z2 |R.

D. is And in Bh-lang identified in the temples with Yang-tsien. . titles A few more samples of the posthumous : held by Bh-lang are ~ Rk-lang-shen-sheng-chen-kiiin Jjft f$ §f| jflL . GENII to attack you". flee at once or I must kill you! your this it follows that Eh-lang as Yang-tsien is the son of life is Yang-kiiin and nephew fact.) and the T'ang Emperor titles (Hiien Tsung) (713-756 A.§" l|| Ts'ing-yuen-miao-tao-chen-kiiin $f ])$ ^$ ^g" Ch'ih-ch'eng-wang ^^ 3E These Chcn-tsung laste two % Jgf j% 0^ Ming-hwang £ H were conferred by the Sung Emperor (998-1023 A.132 IMMORTAL GODS.D). the Chao-yao-king Pg %fc H (The Devil-exposer)." the younger sister of Yuh-ti daigned to I remember that come down to earth and married Yang-kiiin jjjfo ig by whom she had a son. So that is you! If From dear to you. come "Ah! said Sun-heu-tsz. of Yuh-hwang. recognizable by his attendant dog (see fig. 166) or his famous mirror that discovers lurking demons like a search light.

). first among the twenty-six heavenly marshals. . D. the title was changed to "Temple of the Virtue of Fire" and Wang received the title of "True Prince Glorious and . m * ^ II tV Wang-llng-kwan.T. the Emperor Yung-loh fa ^ have been a great promoter if not the actual inauguraIn his reign an antique statue of Wang was found on the shore of the sea and the Emperor worshipped evening. there was a Taoist adept famous for skill. He also had sacrifices performed in it morning and Wang's honour to the west of the imperial of his petitions. D. This ang-ling-kwan was the pupil of Sah-sheu-kien (see below W I and he in turn was in the reign of Sung Emperor Ewui-tsung &% seems tor. one Cheu-sz-tih.) a pupil of the notorious Taoist adept ffi Lin Ling-su f| ^. At the court & the sub-prefecture of Ts'iuen-t'ang-hsien || ly of |§. 9j? (1101-1126 A. As to for the cult of a Wang.$/. D. of the town as a thanksgiving for the hearing He had a temple built for him called "Temple Heavenly Marshal". president of the Heavenly Ministry of Fire. He seems to have been pupil of Chang-yu-ch'u ^g ^ the 43rd Grand-Master of Taoist. but he attributed his adept practice to the tradition of Wang-yuen-shwai 3i 7C Bffr otherwise Wan-ling -I wan. 3E The the statue of this as worthy fft] in most Taoist temples plays in same role K'ia-lan ^ does Buddhist temples. Of his history as a historical of details. more accuratea Hang-cl\ow $l j\]). a gate-keeper. the Ming ty] reign from 1403 to 1425 A.) C ^ m ^ I.WANG-LING-KWAN AND SAH SHEU-KIEN 133 ARTICLE XIX WANG-LING-KWAN AND SAH-SHEU-K1EN (B.j$£. personage we have but faint Yung-loh fa |^. In the reign Siian Teh Iff gg (14261436 A.. )g] a native of Cheh-kiang province (from ffi.

Jffj But when one Kou-kioh f|f J£ and his son Ku-lun by Wang and Sah. the robe and dress statue were of temple Every three years. D. 594 it may be noted (as in fig. Sometimes he is a staff-officer for the gods. tfc :# Bk. and on New changed. in a sometimes he enjoys the principal place temple as chief object of cult therein. the affair became a source of disorder. helped often by the K'ia Ian (2) or by Wei-t'u." Every three months. changed the name of the temple to that of "Palace of the Virtue of Fire" and added two characters MM Hien-Ung to the worthy's titles. the sensible arrangement was made that the various were to be kept in the monastery and not it was to be an affair for the temple exchequer. 313 Weit'o % ffe is Veda. an Indian . 36. the Great ^ 1465-1488 A. However. 7& Bk. meaning as much the as "Thaumaturge. jade and silks. practice. Year's Day. Hai-yii-ts-ung'kao fa tfc (!) Ming yih-t'ung-chi ty — %. Celebrations were held on Fajijf's birth-day. carries a club to drive away evil spirits. p. and Wen-i denounced the llung-mo $fc $e£ (Ming period) pretended to be possessed ^ % cult as a built senseless it. the tion of Summer Solstice and the Feast Wang and Sah. certain parts were consigned to the fire and every ten years the whole the costly outfit was destroyed and renewed with all its pearls. temples for But as preceding emperors had on one ventured to abolish the sacrifices. Then two presidents of the Tribunal of Rites. 172) that Wang has three eyes. and the government had to exile these two men. GENII This emperor had also the characters for. VII Art XII importation of Buddhism). (1) destroyed: sets of gala dress In fig. (2) flm jg See Vol. sometimes even in a Buddist one is door-keeper in a niche opposite the He entry. 24 etc. The emperor Hicn-tsung B£j jj§? Kindly". hence his place in a Taoist temple.134 IMMORTAL GODS. 38 p. 35 p. officials were deputed to j§g of the Appari- offer sacrifice. "Palace of Virtue and the Resplendent Intelligence" set on the facade of the temple.

Wang-ling-kwan (In a Tnonastery at T'ung Chow).Fig. . 107 2- f f f^ Watig-ling-koan (Pagode de T'ong-tcheou).

.

THE TEMPLE OF WANG-LING-KWAN 135 o o o 1 «3l o « .

the third. Sah became tha famous magician. is investigate.D. "It an evil spirit. a spell giving power at will to make a thunderbolt strike. the second gave a recited. each gave him a talisman. XI Art III p. gave him a charm that each time. am going to burn his temple. made the reciter the possessor of seven cash. One Kiang-nan Hii-tsing 1^ hoping to learn at the feet of the Taoist adepts 3Ef#^. who had died a few days before. his prescriptions Sah renounced his practice and left for and patient fx. Lin-ling-su and Wang-shi-ch'en . and thanks to a was no other. three. GENII II. he found all in mourning for Hii-tsing." the lightning flashed and the temple He is (1) Ch'eng-hicang J$ [!£ is the tutelary spirit in charge of a town. he sought had already left this earth : to console his grief. Sah-chen-jen. On arriving at the Grand-master's dwelling in Kiang-si. for written letter. by a slip of the pen. But when he got as far as Shen-si j^ff his purse proved to be empty. T'ien-shi letter ran and it was the handwriting of the great gjjj (Heavenly Master) : ^ who had The Hii-wang and Lin have met Sha and each You can safely send up his of us has given him a talisman. Hii-tsing. on being it recitation of the charm a hundred times a day.)was killed a native of Si-ho in Hwui-tsung $fc ^q (1101-1126 Sz-ch'wan and was a doctor by profession. the Heavenly Mandarin of the place. See Vol. covered his expenses and even could bestow alms. lo ! The new-comer just died. Sah-sheu-kien parted from these good people. . jfj ^ A This Sah-sheu-kien Lin ling-su H^ "g" |g said to have been a pupil of ^ if ^ in the reign of -/pj A. #|| |f| Having learned (in that in in town of Siang-yin-hsien f£ Hunan girls §\ ]ft the district of Chang-sha -fsk $? ) young boys and |5g were offered he went to I in sacrifice to Ch'eng-hwang J$ (1) in a temple. We name to the Emperor a for promotion. As soon as ever he said. a day. Three Taoist worthies met him and told him that the Adepts whom j$f |jf. 874. presented his letter.136 IMMORTAL GODS.

Fig. 168 Sa tchen-jen et le Tch'eng-hoang chen sortant des eaux. . the Sah Chen-jen and God of the city moat corning out of the water.

.

But now (fig. which our illustration 168) Sah wished to put the river between himself and possible : consequences. if ^ and have got orders to track you for three years your conduct." pray. 29. "Why. you".WANG-LING-KWAN AND SAH-SHEU-KIEN 13? was past saving. 171 18 . (1) would he kindly Sheu-shen-li find a subordinate position for this ($ f4 tH) _fc # p. (2) Kia-ling-hu-nan-t'ungchi Hf gj $j gj JS J& Bk. follows something better refers. it explained that it was the right hand. "When I am the foot of gone out. Sah-chen-jen stayed in that same temple and during the night the Ch'eng-hwang (or local tutelary god j$ |?Ji appeared to a villager and ordered him to eject an obnoxious Taoist adept from his temple. It was never rebuilt. a saw figure rising Lung-hing-fu f1 J& Jff This apparition had a golden-breastplate and held a whip in its In answer to Sah. He introduced himself as the the divinity of burned temple : "I have accused you before Shang-ti J^ and." the The result was lightning bursting from to incense-burner and the destruction of the temple as in the other account. if the three years are not run yet?" "Because your flawless honesty I find the slightest flaw in in using the ferry has inspired disciple. Sah standing on the edge from amid the waters. (2) me with the desire to follow you and be your Another variant again to this is found in the Sheu-shen-ki of the river at (see footnote above). Sah-shen-kien met him. p. just light this at Ch'eng-hwang' $ statue. When the villager got as far as the gave him some sticks of temple gate. "But. incense and said. (1) Another account runs as follows. river-flood Straightway a figure armed with a golden axe rose from the and greeted Shen-kin. 35. and that he had been divinity of the temple of Siang-yiu-hsien behaviour those twelve fruitlessly spying to find a defect in Sah's as Sha was shortly to be admitted to high heavenly years: dignity. I am to strike do you come to me to day retorted Sha. but there was no ferryman so he steered himself across and then deposited the fare on the thwart of the ferry.

a coffin. "Would your divinity cruelty and wickedness his do me any credit?" The swore to mend ways. : When his mortal remains were enclosed in the coffin to be it was remarked that was so heavier than before it was opened and found So it was known that he had become an immortal. entitled Sah's True prince empty. Shen-kin went on toTs'ing chow $| a )]} ^ to be allowed to and there he received message from a group of heaven's officials that orders were just coming from heaven summoning him to take up his high divinity there. . The Ming Emperor Siian Teh B£j m. On the word he rose and became immortal. GENII divinity?" Sha retorted.138 IMMORTAL GODS. eminent and beneficent. W. and Sah made a successful petition to Yuh-ti 3£ employ him as marshal.

169 Tchen-yuen-sien.Fig. . The Immortal Chen-yuan.

.

1. Ngo-mei |1$ m Hi (Sz-ch'wan pg )\\). he went Sz-ch'wan.'< distinguished for skill in government. had finished that course. His sons were Tu $t> and Chang ^t. (1) T'ai-i-Mcang-jen Jived in some time after Jen-hwang A M. Bk. 2. he was elected emperor and reigned for over four hundred years. 6-8. Ngo-mei ||$ ||| Both of the of them were among the guests is at the great banquet gods given by Wang-mu (2) Ji-fy for the feast of P'an-t'ao-hwui That to say.. Bk. 6 p. legendary ages.CHEN YUAN THE IMMORTAL 139 AKTICLE XX (Sien> CHEN YUAN THE IMMORTAL £R 7c fill This immortal was a younger jen (1) lX| $^^ A' frfi of brother T'ai-yih-hwang- He l lived a hermit's life on Mt. (2) Shen-sien-t'ung-Jcien j$ -foil M IS Bk. 9 p. . When he to attend his brother's instruc%$. 2 p. 2 art. 1 art. tions in the temple Pch-yuh-lcu £g ~£ in [Jj on Mt.Jc at Si-t'u ]§ J. He studied the science of immortality on Mt. Wan-sheu HH H . they the were both ranked as immortals. £fc His master was Yuh-ch'en-ta-fah-shi 3£ wno as usua trained him in magical arts. art. 5.

140

IMMORTAL GODS, GENII

ARTICLE XXI

LIEH-TSZE

(T)

m
The legend
Till

*
a literary
title
(

Lieh-tsze

is

for a
ft.

man
In

of the
first

tribe (|^)

whose name was Ma-tan
in

^

his

existence he had been

charge

of forestry

under Hicn-kung

^
and

&

(882-811 B.C.).

But when

this prince destroyed the Tih,

put Kung-t'ai-tsz

^ic^

to death,

Ma-tan

%ft
=f

fled

from court.

In the time of Chao-silen-tsz j&

W

(595-576 B.C.)

Ma

reappeared under the name of Tun Jjf. He mounted his chariot and entered the capital of Tsin ff. The prince Ling ft had intended to bestow office on him, but as the prince was guilty
of

some

lack of deference,

Tun disappeared

in a whirl-wind.

So

the people of the North worship him.

Now Tun
Twice he was

rebuffed,

endeavoured to become a pupil of In-hi J§£' some months later he was honoured with
with a smile and
finally after
five

^

a look, three years after that

more years of aspirancy, he was accepted and how to become immortal.

In-hi taught

him

Tun married

a

young woman named Cheng f$ and then

sought out a new master, one

Hu

K'iu

tsze lin

jjg

^^

with

whom
>)\\

he stayed nine years.

Then he removed

to

Pah-chow

^

where he studied under Lao-shang-shi $£ jgj j£. Here he became the intimate of Peh-kao-tsze f£j -^ and attained perfect

^

knowledge: he could now walk about the sky on wings of the wind. Again he assumed a new name, Yii k'eu ||2 ^g and retired
from men
It

for 40 years in the

kingdom

of
[jg

Cheng
ffl

f§fl.

was

at this period in Pu-t'ien

that he

composed

the eight sections of the Lieh-tsze 7?\\ :f, afterwards called the He had considerable numbers of pupils Chung-hil-king ?#jt3f|[.

Fig. 170

Lie-tse.

Lieh-tze-

LIEH-TSZE
especially at the period of

141

Duke Muh ^^. Word was brought that he had living in his mandarin Tsz-yang district a man of worth who was poor and would be a fitting Person on whom to bestow alms. Tsz-yang sent Lich some scores of wheel-barrows laden with grain, but Lieh thanked him
to the local

^^

and declined to accept.

When

self-denial, he explained that

his wife was annoyed by this though the mandarin had just then

believed good reports about himself, he might in the future give ear to evil critics and so he preferred not to take any gift-

Shortly after that, when the people of Cheng put to death Tsz gang and his adherents, Lieh-tsze was not molested. (1)

(1)

Cf. Sken-sien-t'ung-kien i$

i\]\

M&

Bk.

6 art.

1

p.

78.

142

IMMORTAL GODS, GENII

APPENDIX

THE HISTORICAL, LIEH-TSZE AND
1.

HIS WORKS.

The Author.

No
life,

precise date can be fixed for the
all

period of Lieh-tsze

but pretty well

are

agreed

that

it

was

in

the

period

immediately following the death of Confucius, that is, after 479 B.C. Others say that he was compelled to leave the territory of

Cheng f|J$ by a famine in 398 after he had lived there and obscurity for 40 years.
His
but
real

in

poverty

name was Lieh

Yii-k'eu

$\\

%

%.

Some

critics
?

have taken the name of the work "Lieh-tsze" to be a nom-de-plume
in all probability the eight

chapters contain for the most part the actual teaching of Lieh-tsze though edited by his immediate disciples and later on modified or added to.

The

actual

work

is

clearly

a

composite arrangement by

several authors

who have

put their

own
p]

ideas

into

it.

But

to

conclude, as a critic of the Sung
existed in as
of him,

%

period did, that Lich-tsz never
J| jg

much
to

as Sz-ma Ts'ien

makes no mention
Rather, there are

would be

go beyond- the premises.

so

many

semi-historical legends about

him that he must have

existed.
2.

His Work.
Lieh-tsze

elusive,

and Chwang-tsze %£ vague doctrine that is the Too

^

both handle the

same

of Lao-tsze

(^

^f) in the

M

IJcH

$*•

However

the

works

of

these two are those of real
writers.

thinkers, a rare qualification

among Chinese
is

They have

developed the Master's doctrine and that

found to be enriched

and enlarged by the process.

THE LIFE OF LIEH-TSZE
Lieh-tsze's Treatise
tf& jgg

143

was

first

entitled;
Jit

Chung-hu-king
~&

#fi

In 742, the

Emperor Hiien Tsung

tk

named

it:

Chung-M-chen-king ty were added and it was

^^

$g.

Later on, two more characters
hii-chi-teh

called:

Chung

chen king

tyi

jjfj[

mmm
XX

«•
into

These works have been translated
In French two are available:
p.
les

many

languages.

282

sq.

:

Wieger

S.J.
:

Annates du Musee Cuimet, Tome Taoisme II p. 69 to p. 200. Partial

translations into English

F.H. Balfour in Leaves from
Taoist Teachings

my

Chinese

Scrapbook
(1912)
3.

(1887).

Giles:

Wisdom

of the Fast

His Doctrine.

On the

origin of things v.g. Chapter

one hand, profound and difficult speculations on the I. The nature of the primal Too 3f
,

a begetter not begotten, transformer nor itself tranformed everexistent,

in the universe in virtue of the two-fold law, of the

ty of

immutable beyond sensation, whence issue all the beings two fold modaliYang p§ and Yin |5fj (the Active Principle and the Passive).

On
and
the

the other hand, complete incertitude as to the origin

end of man.
;

"The

state of death

the dead

living know nothing know nothing of their

of

their

future

future state of

(an insinuation of metempsychosis). Also there is a rude pantheism, "Thy body belongs to the skies and the earth
life"

new

of

which

it is

a morsel.

Thy

life is

an atom of cosmic harmony

:...

thy children and babies are thine but belong to the Great All. Life is a theft from nature: all men though they be not culpable
thieves, yet live

by stealing from sky and earth."
course of the work the two more prolific ideas conduct

Added
everywhere of Taoism:
in politics
life,

to this mixture of shallowness and depth one finds

in the
first,

the idea of unconstraint, free-and easy

and morals; secondly, practices aiming at prolonging etherializing, refining away the body and arriving at the

condition of an immortal genius.

We

find constantly these

same

144

IMMORTAL GODS, GENII

tendencies in Chinese Taoism, even here in what are after the
Tao-teh-king the fundamental documents of the doctrine, Lieh-tsze

and Chwang-tsze (Article XXII). It is these characteristics which become more and more marked as we approach the charlatan Taoism of Chang Tao-ling ijg §£ (1)

&

The
349
of

text of Lieh-tsze

is

readily available in coll.

348 and

the

Commercial

Press's

new

edition

of

the

Taoist

Canonical Writings.
Encyclopedia Sinica (coulingl Lich
Tzii.

(1)

Tsz'-yuan |$ $£ (Lieh

Jlj)

Wieger Taoisme,

Tom

II

(Les Peres du Systime Taoist e) passim.

NAN-HWA-CHWANG-SHENG

145

AETICLE XXII

NAN-HYVA-CHWANG-SHEIVG
Bf

(T)

* £ £
^
a

CHWANG-TSZE, AUTHOR OF THE "NAN-HWA-KING."
Chwang-sheng
Chivang-tsze $£
|j£

also

called

Chwang-cheu %£
of

f$

and

^

was

distant

descendant

Chwang-Wang

$£ 3£ king of Ch'u 3S (not his third son as the
Tffy

Sheu-shen-ki

^

T'ung-shan •$ |i| in the territory of Mung-hsien $& where he filled an official position. It was there that he professed himself a disciple of Lao-Tsze $£
IE
it).

would have

He

dwelt at

H

•^ (the historical

Chwang
a

died about 320 B.C.)
often
fall

During the day, he would
sleep,

asleep
gaily

and

in

his

he

became

butterfly

that

fluttered

about

the

garden.

On

movement

of

awaking, his shoulders were still twitching with the his wings. Puzzled he consulted Lao-tsze (the

historical personage died about 490 B.C.)

"Oh",

said

Lao-Kuen

j£1$, "do you not
that

know

that formerly you were a white butterfly

was to become immortal after having fed on the quintessence of flowers and so nourished yourself on the quintessence of but one day you raided the peaches and Yin |^ and Yang

^

;

flowers in the garden of Wang-mu-niang-niang 3E
the Blue Bird, (1) guardian of the garden, killed

#

£1 i&

a,K

'

you and you

had to be reincarnated."
Chwang-cheu, at
secret of his
fifty

years

of

age,

at

last

learned

the

being.
is

Lao-tsze

perceiving

his

virtue,

gave him

(1)

The Blue Bird

ter (the fabulous

farmer-emperor

a metamorphosis of Shen-nung-hwanfj-ti's daughj& ^r ifr dated about 2737-2697 B.C.).
jjiiji

She was drowned

in crossing the sea to join Ch'ih

Sung Tsse jr-fc^-

Then

she was changed into a blue bird and ordered to fill up the sea by dumping all sorts of things into it. Wang-mu took pity on her and made her the

guardian of her garden.

(Cf. Shen-sien-t'ung-Men).

19

|£ He stayed with his father-in-law in Ch'u for a j|| over a year. (3) little . and on the other two occasions raised it to 1000 but Chwang-tsze first At He suggested that if the king would have service from him. . was unmoved. Here also a man named T'ien-is'i ^ Keng-sang-ch'u )^ took him for his This was his third wife for he had already had and after her Chwang-k'iao %E 5$|. and took to writing. crossed over into Ts'i y^ and became the intimate of a rich merchant T'ao-chu-kung m * the »• (2) off to - where kingdom of Ch'u him as his C.. (1) left Lao-tsze. Wei-wang official to invite Then he returned io Ch'u j§§ produced enough writings to fill five of Ch'u Jjg sent thrice a high JlSt 3E king take office. The king fell in with this suggestion and the son became minister. He wheel-barrows. jlpj chapters with the collaboration of his friend EB ^ ^. The Sheu-shen-ki gives him as spouse Jo-ngaoshi ^ %c JT. GEN] I characters of the Tao-teh-king jg ^g $g (the he learned them off with the result that he saw Taoist Classic) his : body spiritualize and he was enabled at will to change shape. as a pledge commerce often occurs on the antithetic couplets (3) Tui-ls? §f presented to merchants. Miao-ku-she f£ J£ iLl (previously known as 'ft J!$ up a pupil one Ting-ling-wei $ T Ting-ku J |) a man of Liao-tung j§f ^. the daughter of one Ch'u son-in-law. So he resigned his office. then he left for the grotto of Lien-hwa-tung -j[ji] on in Chao-ti £g ^. and a son Chwang-chi-yang $£ ^ ^. he might call his son to court.. employed j|C prince master and here he wrote the Tung -ling-Icing fg $g in 9 the Later on he went ^ Hwui 3E 488 432 B. viz the wars of Wu-tsz-sii (2) ^ -f" Wof successful ^f-j The name. There he took Mt. (1) The Sluu-shen-li gives a political reason for his resignation. him to he offered a "retainer" of 100 golden pieces.146 the five thousand IMMORTAL GODS. ^ death he had married one Sung 5£ but he had put her away for bad conduct.

Hwai-nan-tse. 171 Hoai nan-tse. .Fig.

.

Fcu-k'tuwung ffi. There ho wrote the Nan-hwa-king i chapters. Interested as a sage should be. demanded back the gold. However Chwang went off to the that the only ners. but the advice was not taken. The widow was furthering her husband's last will for he had enjoined on her not to marry before the earth on his grave should have dried. He Chwang-sheng in order to get his instructed Ch'ih-sun not to meddle with the business letter beyond handing the and the gold to Chwang who was to act for his friend with the fullest possible liberty. He was arrested and was to he beheaded. So back he went and told the king that among the amnestied was one T'ao. Chwang gave it back but he was raging. who on being freed had circulated a story that the king had been bribed to open the prisons. he approached and begged for an explanation. he saw a freshly heaped grave-mound with a young widow beside it busily engaged in fanning the soil." Chwang-sheng handed his pupil over to a friend. Ch'ih-sun did not know of Chwang's action in the matter and thinking he had done nothing to help. Chwang- . guilty of homicide. Chwang-sheng told the young man he might go back home. A there.Here lle j\\ and retired to Mt. to the palace The king got T'ao arrested and beheaded.Si ft and went off witn nis wife to &un 9 *M. king and told him that an unlucky star was about to appear and method to avoid disaster was to set free all priso- So the king issued an amnesty. Ch'ih-sun buried the Ins body and returned home to be upbraided by father: "It is your love for gold that has killed your brother. humourous incident is connected with the sage's stay One day walking at the foot of the mountain. Nan-hwa p^ || [jj at Ts'ao-chow spent ^ his days in writing. letter So the father sent t«> his eldest Ch'ih-sun fp If£ with a and a quantity of gold help.NAN-HWA-CHWANG-SHENG T'ao-ehow-kung's son ( pflj 147 ^ £• ) is condemned. $jf? T'ao had three sons and the second of them T'ao-pien )% while drunk killed a man.

The lady was shocked at such unseemly conduct in a fresh widow. was her own Chwang- sheng she hanged herself for very shame." So she put off her widow's weeds and got ready for fresh Then Wang-sun brought her face to face with her nuptials. a discreat elderly man. "my husband is dead and that is all that is to be said. Chwang-sheng died and his grief strickA few days after the funeral a young man Ch'u-wang-sun fJ| translation) arrived intending to (Grandson of the King of Ch'u is the become Chwang's pupil. the widow approached Ch'u-w ting-sun's servant. walk the skies or the gods at visit astral dwellings. way of the world. en wife buried him. dining with ^ Wang-mu's (^ -f$). off he went to Puh-shui '0 y^ where he engaged in fishing. "What! Dead Then show me ! to the tomb !" And he did reverence to the grave. Chwang-sheng told the incident to his wife on coming back home. With him he loved to One day. protested under oath that was not her way. he settled down to study. scenting the sarcasm. "Your man is it risen !" She scanned the face opposite her and sure enough. said the lady. in the vacant tomb and struck up a song." it "Oh.148 IMMORTAL GODS. Finding an empty room somewhere there. Shortly ofterwards. "But". a stellar god dwelling vacated by Mao-mung ^ . Chwang buried her Having burnt his house. ! thanked him and went off on her business. rf* jfc |i| ^ j£ ~k (or % # Mother of Heaven). GENII sheng gallantly offered his services to expedite matters. "that's the usual His wife. difficulties husband's tomb and said. Was his master married? to act as "No!" Then would the man be good enough go-between? Ch'u-wang-sun in fact made some about the impropriety of unseemly haste. not at all. When half a month had passed. waved it and lo the earth was dry as a bone." said the sage. took the The widow fan. he was invested by Shang-ti J^ with the kingship in Jupiter and assigned as his palace the who had \%. Thence he went to Chung -tiao-shan and his mistress Hiien-nil where he met Fung-hen /H.

4: art 9 p. 2 jjjf ffl h J&) (I part) p. (1) (1) Shen-sien-t'ung-kien Sheu-shen-Tci •}$ jpji fill }j§ ( g£ Bk. 6.NAN-HWA-CHWANG-SHENG reincarnated himself in the 149 come back to claim his starry abode. of Chow dynasty and had not since Now Shang-ti recommendshould be ed that in future leave absence asked and not merely taken. 62-63. . art 5. p.

with the other characters chen-jen ]ff Tszc-hiu ij£ ^ j|| A His posthumous title is Nan-hwa fo. original thinking. Chwang went to the kingdom of Ch'u ^£ where he composed the Tung-ling-king ^\ f| Jg? in nine chapters. Shantung): here again he became rich trading and farming under the names of T'ao-chu-kung (If^ % £. Fan-Li fg |g having helped as Minister to the final victory of j^. ^ if| $?• The text will writings has be found in the i.150 IMMORTAL GODS. and he merits the "chen-jen" by his vigo- rous.. II. According $~ some authorities he was originally from Liang Jf£. . ££ =f- AND HIS WORK. at He was born Sung Chwang and went filled an official post at Mung-hsien but resigned Ts'i off to the kingdom of ^ where he formed an intimate friendship with Tao-chu-kung f$ ^^ (1). the duchy of to Mung-hsien ^' $£ in Sui Yang f}f| |^ in and lived at Tung-shan y§£ dj. GENII APPENDIX THE HISTORICAL CHWANG-TSZE I. D. His Work.W. It was in Ch'u that the king Wei Wang /$ J£ thrice offered him official position. and subsequently became f>£) Again he resigned and wandered off to T'ao (S. an important merchant in that country. In 742 A. From Ts'i. the T'ang Emperor Huen-isung Jf ]£ conferred on Chwang-tsze the posthumous title of Nan-hwa-chenjen Tfj" ^ Ijl jit A and consequently the pfr title of his over since been (1) e. Yiieh fj| over Wv. left Yueh in 472 for Ts'i where he became rich by comof Ch'e I tsz Pi ilj^-^ft merce under the name minister. Usually known as Chwang-tsze this famous Taoist's family name was Chwang but his personal name Chow Jg]. The man.

retorts that Chwang-tsze has flashes of wit. 3. ^ Wen-shi-chen-king (1) % % $&. the weak spot. He is an unrivalled master is not Confucius Even spared. torn XX 202-509. Legge : Texts of Taoism (Sacred Books of the East). Wai-pien #\> |f in 15 chapters. Tsah-pien $£ J| last The two sections are the work of pupils. art of piercing Having brought to the bar of the critic's justice that Utopian tales fair speaker from Lu. 349. 2. The 1. "TTT^Pr^bably the^vork of T'ien Vung-siu Efl ft through which Lao-Uze passed the guardian of the pass Ban-Tcuh jg £ out West. S. A.D. % . In English 213 sq.J.P. The critic. 350. in 11 chapters. and Wen-tsze's real -£ -=f T'ung-hiien-chen-king . 151 of the Taoist Canon under N° 687 II) in 351) . 1IT. p. Mystic. Chwangto the credit of Wen-wang # £ ^£ (c 742 A. Wieger. Taoisme II there is Giles: Chwang Tsu. Lieh-tsze's Yin-hi's f* fl\ Lao-tsze's Tao-teli-king =£ ^ jgj Tch'un hii chen king ty jg *& g gf. Moralist and Social Reformer. not of the master himself. com- position of the the ft Tung-ling chen king C.. p. French translations are found "Les Annates du Musee Guimet. H $g 349 of These two works together with :f fc %l $g. edition of the Taoist Canon).£ jg $g form the corpus of Taoist doctrine. that monger of silly "the politician and Wu-wang ". in Wieger (Taoisme to be : N° 665. (in in the vol.THE LIFE OF CHWANG-TSZE Commercial Press edition (coll. treatise comprises three sections: Nei-pien f^j ^ in 7 chapters: work of Chwang-tsze. His Doctrine.) Yin-hsi. slashing in the have passed into proverbs. Chwang-tsze collaborated with his friend Keng-sang-ch'u $t HM new commonly called Kang-tsang-tsze -j(5j % ^ ^.

maintain In this fashion one will keep one's to the very last." "to want to fit ancient ways to the ideas of one's contemporaries. not press to the extreme of any- thing. GENII concludes with this final sentence: "He may count as a not as a master of the antique. Therein is Non-interference. III. The Philosopher. he his — must moderate body till own life self. b) Too lively a desire of results and "If success. or it has come from nothing are alike inde- monstrable propositions." teller of the antique. The principal points of the doctrine contained in Chxcang-tss's works may perhaps be reduced to these heads: 1. 2. To ask questions about the principle or to answer them alike betrays ignorance as to the very Principle itself. i.e. a) Affliction c) Egoism. inaction." "One makes life last by using it only on that which does not use it up." Chwang-tsze professes to know nothing about the essence of the Chao |g." Chwang-tsze ch. of that Principle which he knows only by its external manifestations. you not live to be an old one. "To say of the universe "some : one has made it"." . always stop half-way. the origin of the world.152 tsze IMMORTAL CODS. support one's parents their death and last oneself to the very end of one's allotted span. Questions or answers concerning its nature are foolish and inept for they suppose in the people who make them a total ignorance of the nature of the universe and of the Great Beginning. "apathy": "If a man would last the way of Heaven. — B. Working over-busily at will making oneself useful. least At he has the honesty to confess ignorance as to the law that governs the great cosmic transformations.— Avoid what might use up the vital principle and worries. is running your car over the water and your boat over the land. you are a useful man. non-assertion. Surely a warning for commentators of the Tao-ieh-king and for those who would devise systems of interpretation for it. intact. long. cosmic evolution.

" in Pantheism. mighty crucible in which beings us leave the founder to do as he should accept in good part all that transformation fashions out of us. swim concentrate on inaction. ffl %& £ fill Vol. 4. The material of existing things has served will We and do serve in due succession full liberty to beings: let us leave for a quantity of different the transforming principle to Your body is merely the loan of some coarse matter its work. Lao tsze. will. 20 . c. the over-zealous down any one that has man is over-used.THE LIFE OF CHWANG-TSZE 153 "The axe spares the useless tree but cuts : got an acknowledged value 3. Let time work. 408-4] 1. jp|i 'S\\ #/ |. Mayers. Cf. Heaven and earth make undergo transformation. 67. Real science. ( J: % p. II p. Wieger Tom. jifi |g 1. real wisdom consists in maintaining one's to the it end of the years assigned by Chwang-tsze. Taoist to aid its action. References Chi-na wen Moh shi it. Chen-sien-lieh-chwang Ts's-yuen g$ '[]§. Fa Li (Chwang J| ). VI and XI. by one's own fault. 17-18 p. in text above. #). Shen-sien Chinese Reader's Manual: N° 92 Chwang Chow N° N° 336. 43H etc. life with the current. 43X. 21-22.— "All beings are participation a let the Great All". nature without shortening Chap. line with the Wisdom — Let Heaven act and do not attempt The crowning height of wisdom is to fall into march of universal evolution. t'ung-lcienjjft fill 127. which heaven and earth have made to you for a span of time* Your life is a combination of subtile matter which also you have from heaven and earth.

how he had in seen this young person long time before appearance to the king's and received he was one who made his One Wu-pei f£ |)£ brought this notice and the king had Wang summoned to court him with all honour. j*X- His younger In-other was Liu-se f'lj fl^. king of Lu-Mang Jg How the former came to get the title used above will be explained by the narrative. a work for of 100.000 characters. the Chung(The Mean) in 8 chapters and then the three books 'jjjf of the Hung-pao-wan-pih $| Liu ^ Jjl on transformations. 1 kingdom "i^ a young- man who a very called himself Wang-chung-Jcao fff and there was one very old in man who told . taught him the three treatises of }f| magician the K'in-sin 3p X<i-shu pit n pfcj ^| eh .e. a famous who -^p. to make the pickle f$.|| Liu wrote the >fr (The Tempering of the Heart). that fH the period Yuan-sheu 7c of the Han Emperor Wu-ti ^ ^f. last confided to the hwang-ti $f i|ig jir ^ king that he was the In-other of Hien-yuen(i.154 IMMORTAL GODS. SOI Til OF THE HVVAI RIVER This worth}. GENII AETICLE XXIII HVVA1 NAN TSZE =f m s THE SAGE FROM THE The Legend.of the in ^lj ^ and was is districts south of the jj'j- Hwai in 122-116 B. Wang at fact every generation. Hwang-ti or else an emperor from the . C. After a long time. was responsible famous cookery recipes: he taught the people to grind beans. "Tsiang-yeu -f| ^ and the famous bean-curd cheese Teu-fu If About this time people remarked in the 3E.was originally one Liu-ngan king. (The Inward Writing) in 21 chapters. Liu-ngan had the reputation of being well versed in learAfter studies under Kiien-tsze and ning especially in astrology.

Generalissimo Wang .Fig. 172 Wang yuen-choai. .

.

1IWAI

NAN TSZE

155

ninth
at
^§§

fabulous epoch) and that lie had retired to M't. Peh 4b because the Ts'in emperor She-hwang Skang-kuh J^

|Ij

@

%

Ijfa

(211-20!i
it

make

my

B.C.) had summoned him to write characters. "1 business" he went on "to teach men the doctrine of

immortality." The king of course immediately asked how that could be achieved. "My friends will come to teach you", said

Wang-chung-kao ]£

1

ftf

"|fj.

few months afterwards. Wang left the country and eight venerable old men with white beards and hair presented themselves
at

A

the

palace

gate

requesting an
a

audience.

Word was
official

brought to the king and he sent
interview
told that the king
tality,

smooth-tongued

to

these importuners and get rid of them.

They were

was on the look-out

for

three things, immorcraft for killing
of

deeper knowledge

of the Doctrine,

magic

*igers and rearing buildings, and, as old
furthering- those ends, the official

men were
it

no use

in

could not dare to usher them
smiled:

into the royal presence.

look at a king and old

The old men men might be

was no crime
all.

to

useful after

And with

the

that they turned themselves into radiant young men! Off went official to the king and King Liu in person crime out to the
in

palace door to receive them, barefoot, for he forgot
to
slip

his

haste
u t'ai

on
,§,
f[Ij

his
|fj*

shoes.

He brought them

into the S;-si<

Palace

and there prostrate before them, he professed

himself their pupil.

The
to

eight resumed their venerable aged forms and recited

him

wdiat they could do by

and the elements.

way of controlling winds, thunder The king asked them for the elixir: the\

explained to him the 36 books of the ////< n-ytih-tan-kingi Alchemy) ~p_ Ti -ft W. ail( every day escorted him to collect magic simp
l

On

the Pah-kung-shan, the Mountain of the Eight Venerabies
(Jj

/{

^

near Sheu-chow

^
ffi

l!'|

(Longevity

Town)

they concocted

the eiixir.
In 122 B.C. (jc

year). Liu-ngan's son, Liu-ts'ien

$\\

j|§

who

believed himself to be an incomparable

swordsman

challen-

1-36

IMMORTAL CODS. OENII
a military officer,

ged

one Lei-pei
In

f]f

fj£,

highly skilled with the
Lei-pei inadvertently

sword, to a fencing-bout.

the

match

wounded

the prince.

one of his friends

Fearful of consequences, Lei plotted with Wu-pei \\i $£ and forwarded to the Emperor

hatching a revolt against the throne. of this sent an envoy Tsung-cheng

Wu-ti a denunciation of the two Liu brothers, the kings, as The emperor on receipt

^

IE

to punish

them.

The

king of Lii-kiang, Liu-se,

the younger brother,

hung

himself on

hearing of this turn of fortune. Before the imperial delegate got to

Hwai Nan,

the eight

immortals came

to invite

Liu-ngan to go

off

with them. Liu not
first;

knowing

of his

brother's death, wanted to fetch him
loss,

on

hearing of his

he demanded the death of the false Lei-pei
for,

and Wu-pei.

But the eight dissuaded him
not
kill

said they, those

who would

even insects, could not be the killers of men. So they took the king with them to Mt. Peh-hung and all mounted up to the heavens. The} left their simples and their alembic
behind with
the
result

that

certain

hens and

dogs ate and

became immortal.

Now

the Eight led the king to a mountain
<T>

Thev beyond the seas where all the qenii were O gathered tooether. C5 instructed him to address the genii as "Uncle, Immortal One"
and to serve them with respect in the hope of being himself admitted to the palace of Yuh-ti 3£ *$?. TAu-ngan obeyed, but not having yet shaken off the royal
as

way, his manner of speaking and acting displeased the Immortals smacking of superiority and not redolent of due humility. So

was lodged with Yuh-ti, and the Heavenly Sovereign seeing that Liu was not yet ripe for immortality, was for sending him back to earth for reincarnation. Now the Eight came again
a complaint to

the

rescue and

suggested that he be permitted to

live for

three years at a distance from the Palace, alone and without any official functions in order to give him time for conversion. After

conversion, he

could be entrusted with
to

office.

Yuh-ti agreed.
It

The

first

step was

change the king's name.
of the

was now

that

he took the

name "The Sage from South

Hwai."

HWAI NAN TSZE

157

Now

whose death was such

Hwai-nan-tsze begged the Eight to save his brother a bitter grief to him. The Eight went off
a

upon the Western seas and got
this they

branch of

a fragrant
:

wood

called "the tree that recalls the soul"

made

a pill

and gave

it

Fan-hwan-shu jS^^j with to the dead man: he revived,

practised virtue and

was saved.
fiij

The Eight accompanied by Ro-heu
nan-tsze, instructed

\%

revisited

Hwai-

him

in all the

mysteries related to him, and

escorted him to Tung-wang-kung -f fe, king of the Immortals and he conferred on the sage the vacant post of T'ai-kih-chen-jen

^

illA
(l

(1).

Cf. Shen-sien-t'ung-Men

^

f|I|

M

$£ Bk.

8.

Art.

2

p. 3-7

158

IMMORTAL CODS. GENII

APPENDIX
HISTORICAL NOTES
I.

The Literary School

of Hwai-nan-tsze

ff|

p||

^f-.

The

court of the King- of Hwai-nan
all

-/fl

^

was

the gather-

ing place of scholars of

different shades of opinion but

Taoism

predominated. Magicians and devotees of occultism met there in great numbers. The prince himself Liu Ngan committed suicide in 122 B.C. on an accusation of revolt.

Liu

Teh

flj

fg

King

of

Ho-kien

pj f$

fostered a school
in

which formed an exact contrast with Liu-N gem's

Hwai-nan.

strayed from classic tradition and refinement and tended to Taoism and magic, the Ho-kien school

Whereas

the Hwai-nan band

worked
latter

at the restoration of the ancient canonical writings.

The

were Confucian, the former Taoist.
of Hwai-nan-tsze
/££

II.

The Works

]>j

"T*-

The works
the
title

attributed to Hwai-nan-tsze are collected unde r
;{£
]£j

Hwai-nan-tsze-hung-lieh-kiai
in the

-T-

£| ^J
at

fjfr.

It

is

included
the

Taoist Canon and
edition.
It

is

to be

found

1,200 of

Commercial Press

contains 28 Kiien

^

and

is

printed in the live volumes 863, 864, 865, 866, 867.
It is It is
1.

also called

Hung

pao wan pih

|J|

'jif

"||

H.

divided into three sections:
slut

Nei

pq

fl|

21 chapters.
,!;-

2. 3.

Chung shu Wai shu

47

'?,[

*

8 Chapters.

Dissertations on various subjects.

This work
tions of the

prince of

is a collection of some of the literary producmotley company that frequented the court of the Hwai-nan.

It is

or no share in

very probable that Hwai-nan-tsze had personallv little it. The accounts to be found in the Shen-sien-

THE LIFE OF HWAI NAN TSZ
t'ung-kien

159

ftjl f[[j j|§ |^ and other Taoist books as to his personal labours in the composition of the collection are at least very doubtful.

|flj

|nj,

Nevertheless this collection which we owe to Liu Hiang the Librarian and President of the Committee for the

Canonical Books,
it

is a very precious document for the reason that sums up perfectly the state of Taoism at the period 150-122 It marks a period of unmistakable degradation in the real B.C.
-T-,

Taoist doctrine of Lao-isze j£

Chwang

|j£

{,

Lieh

tys\

-^

and

Wen

^r

.^p.

Decadence appears
as

in insertion of

marvellous hap-

penings, the devotion to alchemy, legends.
lation

known

Hwai-nan-isze's
It
is

is

the

The work or compidawn of degenerate,
falling
of
off,

charlatan Taoism.
distinct

the

first

stage of

a

very
3f£

branching

off

towards the Neo-taoism

Wang Pao

JH and Cliang Tao-ling

^^

f^.

160

IMMORTAL CODS, GENI.

ARTICLE

XXIV
1 1

W ANG- Y V A X-S
3E

XV A

1

(T)

7C

All

GENERALISSIMO WANG
Generalissimo Wangr's father was
his
Wa-ngr-c/i'ew 2E

£

and

mother Chao-shi ffi j£. His father was already dead when the child was born in the Ping-shen year ptj E^ of Cheng k wan His parents lived in Loh-li -/g. jg. at period, i.e. 63f A. D. M

M

Siang-yang H|||. He was called as fore-name Tung-ch'eng iff f$.

W <mgr-ww

r

(ngoh) 3£

and also

He was
out
in

gifted by nature with

abnormal muscular strength:
If

but for study he had not the least interest.
fairs

disputes broke
to

and markets, he brought the parties

reason and

everybody was full of praises for his sense of justice. Otherwise, as he was of an impetuous character, persons who pushed their

own schemes
recting them.

detested him, and he could never succeed in cor-

At Fu-fung fa
i.e.

jm,,

there

was one Wang-heh-hu 5£

M

J&

Wang the Black Tiger. This man borrowed our hero's name Wang-wu (ngoh) 5£ ^ and under that name carried off women and sold them. So much in awe did the peasants stand of the real
Wang-wu
T.

^

that

they were afraid to protest, not knowing

that they were being fooled by an imposter.

The

real

Wang-wu,

getting to hear of

Wang-heh-hu and the people then gladly went to the criminal court to defend their liberator. But Wang-wu on appearing refused to kneel before the mandarin and so was condemned as guilty. He thereupon grew furious,
it,

killed 3E

H^

his hair stood on

end and he cried death

to all such bandits

and

deliverance for the people from their malpractices. He flung himself at the mandarin who was barely rescued by his body-

guard.

Fig. 173

Nan-hoa Tchoang-cheng (Tchoang-tze).

Nan-hwa Chwang sheng (Chwang-tze).

: he always keeps close to the Gate oi Heaven and as soon as Yuh-ti commissions him to redress any wrongs down he is off at once without delay. (1) (l) Sheu-shen-l-i ft # f. the Empire. He puts to death all the grievous wrong-doers he can discover and so people are on their guard against offending him. It was a cruel declared to be for the averting of epidemics. 21 . he straightway settled it. ten sheep and wine for the sacrifice. 10.E (T £) P. J\ (see Article XIX) appeared and countered it and the evil spirit had to take to flight.WANG-YUEN-SHWAI 161 Wang a once went to King-siang ~$\\ H. as ever Wang Yuen-shwai was most of their As soon the Taoist priests communicated with him any business by means charms. where he found that demon of the River (K'iang fX) dwelling in an old temple was befooling the people. month processions in his Every year <>n the sixth day of the sixth honour were held and people had to provide ten oxen. Yuh-ti 3£ ^ canonized him : with the title: Wang Saga- cious Generalissimo also he had a seal big as a man's head engraved for him with the four characters: Ch'eh~sin-chung-liang "Sincere and Conscientious". Then the evil spirit stirred up a raging wind but Sah-chcii-jcn [^ m. ten pigs. So Wang-wu burned temple and idol. He is of a very irascible temperament in the world. He also conferred iff '(? m£> $k '• on him the office of spirit protecting the capital of beneficent. imposition: people at times had to sell their children to meet it.

This latter then demanded of Shi-yung a present of a helmet and breastplate of The sub-prefect passed off on him an ox-hide with tinsilver. occuping the best commanding positions: sure enough. he foresaw that the rebels might immediately try a surprise attack. Sie-shi-yung |jt ft 1(1 fear. but his conduct was upright and he became sub- prefect of Shan-yin mj ]SJ|. He sent a memorial to the viceroy praising his enemy's military qualities and recommending him as the only one capable of dealing with the rebels. enemy returned but found himself overwhelmed with arrows and had to retire. A superior official in Liao-tung jjjg " (i a squeeze pressed for the remittance of the taxes in order to ^ thousand but of taels rather reported the from Shi-yung. The paying off superior officer now devised another scheme for Shi-yung. not in the it. But the latter gave nothing matter to the viceroy who visited his official of displeasure on the higher the two. When he was born on one first of the month during the period Chenhwan j=( fj| 627-650 A. plates. Yuh-ti 3[ Ja ^ canonised Sie as Hu'o-tch-t'ien of the Beneficent Planet Jciiin fc ^§ ^ has Heavenly Sovereign Mars. I ^ f SIK THE HEAVENLY LEADER jj|j- " Sie-t'ien-kiun's name was Sie-shi-yung ft $(k> n s ^ ore name was Lei-hing flf ft his father was Sie-ngen ||t J§.162 IMMORTAL GODS.D. fiery wheels fell from the skies over Shan-tung and lighted up the air with a marvellous light. GENII ARTICLE XXV S1E-T«1EIX KlUN (T) B. Endowed ^ : knew no with a violent character and very irascible. Being a careful commander... He stationed his soldiers around the camp. He . So Shi-yung was put in charge of the expedition and came off victorious.

. the heavenly leader. 474 Sie-t*ien-kiun. Sieh.Fig.

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(1) i is easy to distinguish him from Na- Ira (Article XV) fiery is depicted with six riding- on his by the difference of attributes. and his move on It wheels: in his hands he carries a golden staff.4-5. (1) Shcu -shen-li CP .sie-t'ien-kiun control of 163 summer. . Sometimes hearms and three heads (Tantra style) and wheels: so he is to be found on a representa- tion from the Hwo-sing Temple. lie feet is depicted as wearing a Tao-adept's fiery head-eear.# ) 1t if IE P.

a young woman came to the river. they found : . got her clothes dried.164 IMMORTAL CODS. rough and the boat capsized. 193 A. ninth moon on board been boat-people and the family Once a lady had ^ entire and ( would not accept the gratuity she offered.D.He was born during the reign of the Han : Emperor month.and nobody dared go across.) * 7C fj||j GENERALISSIMO PANG This worthy's name was P'ang-kiao ^| ^jj his fore-name was Chang-ts'ing Jt ffi.B. and on the thirtieth his father took her on board to But it was a stormy day. in the )n the twenty-eighth of the twelfth moon. His father P'ang-ting ^| % and his mother (Yao $fc was her family name) lived at Tu-k'eu $£ p by Han-kiang jj| fX. P'ang-kiao leaped into the waves. the River was bring her to her home. The woman had meanwhile disappeared. on the Kwei-hai bay (the number ^S ^) in the eleventh his ancestors had enjoyed a high reputation their boat and had passed the ninth of the left behind her a hundred pounds in gold. to cross evening. but it was she who really had saved them When the father it was Kwan-yin-p'u-sah ||| -flf |f(ft. Yet P'ang-kiao and the father managed at length quite exhausted to save themselves. She came back next day to recover them and P'ang-kiao /^| gave her back the sum among travellers. GENII ARJICLE XXVI IIWUX-Kl-PWXCI-YlJEN-SHU Al ffi (T. It was snowing. All Hicn-ti jH fljjfc ^f in the year Kwei-yeu cyclic ^ {§. bent on saving his father: thrice he brought him to the bank and thrice the wave swept them out to the depths. and son got safe on to the bank. P'ang-kiao gave her shelter.

Fig. 175 Hoen-k'i-pang yuen-choai. . The Generalissimo Hwun-k'i-pang.

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to all these ghosts leave the nether regions or other abodes and gather about rivers. Anyone of the ghosts that secures his victim. (2) Hinc illae lacrimae. to drown them (1) On the 30th day of the 12th moon. ghosts (1) weeping- around them disappointed that they had not been able (2). gives his place in blades to the soul of the drowned and himself enters a new incarnation. IE PN Sheu-shen-ki (T #) ^ # . This same is true of the 30th of the 7th moon. streams in order to drown anybody who ventures come there. lakes.HWAN-KI-P'ANOYUEN-SHWAI there scores of all 1()5 Kwei $% spirits of the dead.

GENII ARTICLE XXVII (T) L1-YUEN-SHWA1 * Li-fung the pff 7C ffll GKM:it\l. He set the ( women free and lectured the pirates on their robberies.explained that as officers of Lung So ivang j]j| 3E their business was to seize the water demons.160 IMMORTAL GODS.1 ^ ^'\ was born exacty (in the at midday on the fifth of moon in . they brought out a sword from their den.192 A. Here are some of his exploits. the bed of the river a monstrous devil. ( )n the Kiang fx. still )n another occasion. Li-fung became a formidable pirate on the Southern seas: he had fled from his home because he had killed the murderer of a irresistible neighbour's parents: to this step he had been led by an temper and herculean strength. and on the Kiang.M() 1.ISSI. Kin-kiang-k'eu f^ -/I. . He took refuge in a temple of a marine divinity cried out. he perceived in all about were huge waves stirred up by a terrifying wind. ( rne River) he one day spotted a suspect boat and went on board: it was a pirate-ship full of young women and laden with valuables. f|f ~ a river- — large as a mountain with a tail more than 90 Li-fung killed long and attended by seven other demons. a porpoise feet form of a colossal Kiang-chu fj. Li-fung jumped out of the boat and began to walk over the waves: a black wind raged iranctically hollowing out the waters the devil appeared face to : face with Li in the pig. ^ ^ of his birth.D. gave it to Li-fung and disappeared. year Jen-tsze f£ ^f. Jf and his mother's Sun-shi the place was P ^. saying. This vision kept puzzling him thereafter. and there five genii who saw him "Here's an angel coming !" Li-fung asked coming them how they knew and the}. during the Sui His father's name was Li-fang dynasty).

r Generalissimo Li. . 176 Li 3 uen-choai.Fig.

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chief of the advance-guard": he was assigned two marshals (l) as assistants (1). to recompense him for Yuh-ti did reward him by canonization with the title of "Generalissimo Li. all and the storm grew calm. thank him for The next to his exceptional services night a spirit and to assure him that he would beg Yuli-ti \[ $?. Sheu-shen-Tci if # IE ("F #> i>- 9.LI-YUEN S11VVAI 167 them came them. . 10.

he tor of the ^ A made himself the benefac- countryside and all the people went to honour him as a p'u-sah. At this time.D. was very poor. hearing that to him.168 IMMORTAL CODS. He a was born during.of the |||J£ f f in fisherman's boat at Min-kiang of the year Keng-tsze J^ T- yx on the 12th of the 8th moon (a cyclic number that might stand here for 340 or 400 A.). io. So he quitted the place but the peasants erected a temple to him and prayed to him with sure effect. GENII ARTICLE XXVIII n.i-T«n<:x-Kirx <t> * The work Tsah-M-cliwan $| Liu-fuh (HlJ ig LH. a drought affected the regions under the Eastern capital. The Emperor conferred on Liu the title of Huen-hwa-ts'e-tsichen-Miin 7/ ft ]§£ iff &^ : the Empire.managed to send him to who taught him the "five ifi study under Lo-chen-jen thunders" recipe by which he could control winds and rains. . One day when Kiang some yx> his ne fell into the water but mother was drawing water from the was so lucky as to cling to floating Though his family wreckage until his father could haul him out. Yuh-ti 3£ ^ IE ratified this title True prince merciful benefactor of and entrusted to Liu the Supervision of the Five Cereals. TUE HK. the}. By a public spirited use of this power.the dynast}. (1) (l) Sheu-shen-ki 41 (T %) p. The Emperor was in great distress and on Liu-tsun was an infallible help.\VEM.Y CHIEF ft} ffi calls him Liu-tsun a Sie §1] $? : fg) was his lather and his mother was Eastern Tsin ID". he went and prayed The drought was broken and the harvest was excellent.

Liu. 177 Lieou-t'ien-k'iun.Fig. . the heavenly leader.

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178 Les deux generalissimes Ka'o et Wang. Kao and Wang. The two Generalissimos. .Fig.

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shi 7C 6t THE TWO GENERALISSIMOS. WANG AND KAO. though just then he was power. 839 B. in exile and a sort of republic was in The two had become sworn offices in different JJSjt brothers: the} held various provinces of the empire but when Han-wang 3E took no account of their advice. was only Wang-t'ieh who met a tiger and he killed it. "Death or went off. P. thev resigned." answered K'ao-t'ung. "Do you not know that infested with tigers?" asked his solicitous friend. So he It and of course shortly his friend must follow him. the south of Yung-ch'eng {ft north of Ki-yung $j |f|. Wang was from names Kao the J)^ and Kao the from the living-. life is of small account. KAO RH YUAN SHWA1 169 ARTICLE XXIX WANG. anxious lest he be the prey of tigers and 'hey made the return journey together. conferred (1) them (1) the title of Superintendants of the Tiger $S Sheu-shen-M (T %) &$ HE. Doth were born the same year.C. This friendship it was that won the popular titles of Iron and Copper: so solidly was their friendship welded. In consideration of their braver}-. K'ao-t'ung went to meet his friend. 10-11. chwan" £)• ^ (<£ gives them Wang the Iron and Kao-t'ung ^ $fi. 22 . his friend that he One day Kao-t'ung informed away on a voyage to Nan-ling ]fj that district is was going jjj|. while Li-wang Jgf 3£ of the Chow dynasty was Brazen. in Yuh-ti 3£ ^f Hill.WANG. KAO RH YUAN SHWA1 ( I ) I I 1 The "Fung Wang-t'ieh 3E $£.

gales and rain but when the new-born babe striding a huge serpent appeared. wind and then a dreadful filled. lightning. Hwang-ti conferred on him the all and function of Dragon-master. . shi -}£ $$ ^ (1) was engaged in stopping up the north-east gap in the sky. took to human body in a field [33.terrestrial electricity. Luh-lu yen was at the time when Nil wo jg- (Windless Precipice). really being. Then he a It hermitage on Alt. to Hwa-siu (1) Henceforth he added Hiea to his name. the fusion was forwarded by the South water and primal rock matter. crash shook earth and sky. all the bees tied to feed him with their honey. GEA'II AR1ICLE XXX T li. terrifying portents: thunder. the finishing |)| touch.r\-ll\\ A I'lll VI V\ SHUAI (of Hie Thtmricr ffl Department) # of this 7C filtl GENERALISSIMO TIEX-HWA-PIH. she was not successful with her five-coloured earth. On growing birthplace bly up. The gap was Later. himself a This worthy. 1070. The names family name personage T'ien [33 and his other are explained below. See account of Nii-wo ix % R Vol. XII Art.170 IMMORTAL CODS. he helped Hien-yuen-hwang-ti $Jf£ M *& to reduce the rebel Ch'i yen %r it by showering on the rebel five-coloured fire amid a whirl of title wind and thunder. i|j|. But T'ien found this incompatible with being a hermit and declining withdrew |j| -pf. So T'ien-pih came to her help with a mixture of the essences of fire.His birth took place amid . XLVI p. Field) with the personal he took the family name of T'ien ( [33 name of Pih (i|| Complete) because his was a field set off with flowers of which he presumaretired to was the latest.

\ 79 Le generalissime Tien-hoa-pi. The Generalissimo Tien hwa-pih. .Fig.

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t'ien-hwa-pih yuan-shwai 171 the When in the reign of the Emperor Yao |j|.'e Lei-men-pih yuan shwai 7t fr}j. riding on the lightning and carrying in his hand the thunder-banner. H . (1) (1) Sheu-shen-lci ft jjiiji |£ (T #) P.trouble and tenor on earth. So Hwa with the tit. human perversity was the at demons again its worst. Yuh-ti 3£ by edict conceded T'ien-yuen-shivai the right ^ range over heavens. demon monsters and the ten suns were causing. He entrusted to him the supervi- sion of the twelve subdivisions of the }SL 'jj£ Department to aid Chen-wu to overcoming the demons of epidemics.e. attending droughts and floods. and putting to death criminals. to At the end of scoured the earth and Yuh-ti canonized T'ien pa P^ Jjl the Han jH dynasty. Porte). in Pih generalissimo of the Thunder Gate (i. Ministry or Department. sun and moon.

172 IMMORTAL GODS. GENII ARTICLE XXXI I'll A VL' YUAN SHWAI 7c BitJ eg w THE GEXElt ALISSIMO 'Field Rain. but bade the mother suckle As the rain and the thunder growled !/ii. did no harm to the child it had the head fell of a dragon.) & j§|. The pursuer found her though it. now blind. name T'ien Field Rain. the thunder rolled. at the moment of the birth in the field. Ts'e-tsi overtook them as the with child: the Green Dragon took to flight and the woman was woman hid He herself in a held. he it a flag: with this he coursed the skies to hunt out his enemy. of six Tien-yii : was entrusted to Chang-chen jen the science of to be educated his tutor taught him thunder and gave him the name Ts'uen-ling retirement on Mt. in %H he he came into being and asked a venerable Taoist adept to enlighten him. the child. Tse-hwa (Purple Flower Mt. there and caused the instant birth of the child by a frightening pass of his sword. was given the At the age $f m. . his Two of years after that. had in to hide in the grotto & 'M Hwang-sha-tnng (Yellow-sand Cave) Sz-ch'wan and there had taken to himself a beautiful woman called P'ang Jff. but there was no decision. This news inspired him with deep resentment for the pursuer of his father." who come If flying This fabulous personage was the son of the Green Dragon from the pursuit of Ts'e tsi chen Jciun ^| "M jH U. A. Then [Jj. to of he went to visit mother and in a fit resolution tore up the cloth of his tent and made avenge his father. was in Sz-ch'wan. T'i< n-yii enraged gave Twelve demons stopped his career and battle. His mouth exhaled water which became clouds and at the waving of his standard. Thus he learned that his father began to meditate on how was the Green Dragon and that living at Lung-i/cu pg| Yi his mother.

.Fig. 180 Tien Yu Yuen-choai. Tien-yii Yuan-shwai (Generalissimo Tien-yv).

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it is a royal commission.had stayed him from vengeance his subordinates. 180 shows : a character inscribed -^ on the triangular flag attached to a dart this is ling -^ . to now that the}.|jt Yuh-li canonized him as Hiang-yao-h'iu-sii yuan shwai f^ : ffi gjjj the Generalissimo conqueror of hobgoblins and exorcist of the left a obscene.t'ien-yu yuan-shwaj ) 17:! uh-li 3^ fjf- then summoned T'ien-yu and explained that had been aiming only at the genera] good by driving off the Green Dragon and so T'ien-yu must not bear him a grudge: Ts'e-tsi as for the twelve demons. Fig. though indeed the} deserved they death.12-13. He is represented as holding in his thunderbolt and in his right a yellow flag. desired become Now P$ $c . (1) (1) Sheu-shen-Tci (T #) -ft # IE P. .

it was deserved. rewarder of the good. proved to be above corruption: he meeted out justice be they relatives or absolute strangers. As symbol he carries a mace.74 MMORTAL GODS. It passed into a popular saying that if the Black fudge put a man in prison. child's Tang was three years a Commissioner of Inquiry and he to all. GENII AETICLE XXXII ( TANG Vl\\ SHWA1 I ) m % n GENERALISSIMO TANG This Generalissimo was born the reign of the at Hivai-chow \% #1 during Sung Emperor Chih-tsung ^ fJf '£ in the Yuan yen period {JtMi) 1086-1094 A." all The black but he was endowed with complexion was the talents of mind. (1) Sheu-sTien-Tci He is a punisher of evil-doers and a (1) (T ^') IE P. .Sfi.full -sing" —. there appeared on the high-road some thirty children with flags together with a new-born babe: the children explained that they were escorting "Yih-luli. All we know about his parents • is that his father had a #} ^ and that his posthumous mother belonged title Ho-Ma-tsai-siang the f[ij ^ the to Ch'en |^j. devil for He died aged 97 and Yuh-ti 3£ ^ canonized him.IS M "The lucky star for all the way. On day of his birth.13. and it became the theme of popular songs that nor man nor sheer awe could look at him without tears.D. and his skill in unravelling cases passed as miraculous.

.Fig. Generalissimo Tang. 181 Tang-y uen-choai .

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Generalissimo Shih.Fig. . 182 Che-yuen-choai.

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Shih So he took bath. . Shang-ti J^ fff put him at the head of the Thunder Department with the the evil (1). . The prayers in their distress.. Shih was suddenly changed into an immortal: only his garments marked the New arrivals now. Later on.C. he built a house south of Mt. were heard and rain fell.^jj the Pure Brightness Festival — birth. But during the prayer. ARTICLE XXXIII SHIM Yl W-SIIU \1 ( I ) 5 The seventh year 3E. 833 B. He bore the name (Divine rearing). they had met Shih escorted by over a hundred men with flags He bade them thank the villagers on his riding eastwards.. and the day called of Wen fit t£ yj" and a Han ff. Possessed of a pleasingexterior. Sheu-shen-fci office of rewarding the good and punishing (1) . mother.announced that place where he had stood. he went oft" to stud} under Yin-nil T" at Kwan-chung Shen-yuh $\i H ^ there. an alarming draught set in: the harvest was in jeopard}- and the peasants came a to consult changed bis clothes before burned incense and made (ritual proceedings worship).sum yuan-shwa] 17. is of the 7c arfj GENERALISSIMO SHIH Chow Emperor Siien-wang Shih's l/ij Vi* given as the year of was Ts'ing ming $f Bj].iHei f§ |Jj and stayed During the seventh month. prostrations: the people joined with him in worship. He was horn in Siang-k'i father ]fi of a of April. the 6th That day the dragons had great rejoicings and there was rain and wind.T 4?)W W IE P- 13-14. behalf and explain that Yuh-ti 3E •$? bad entrusted him with an urgent mission.

^ there % % in the first month of the year Jen-yin T: 'M during the reign of (]) the T'ang Emperor Hi-tsung %^ **.ISNMO FU-YING in Shan-tung At the foot of the famous T'ai-shan [Jj dwelt one Fu-ho-kung R\\ 'h and his wife Ngeu ydng shi g)i. The looking up from his books. GENII AETICLE XXXIV FU-YING-YUAN-SHWAI gl] (T) It if 7C fil|l GENERAL. 882 A. Now became dragon's and the room. The monster on the instant turned into a woman. the account there wrongly gives the date as 9th year of Kien-fu period #: it was the 2nd of Chunij-ltuo i|i ft : years long. failed. and now knocked the window but the fox like a the student did not a make any sign of attention. told the monster that lie knew quite well he was the same as yesterday's intruder but that it did not frighten him in the least. jaws a mouth like a tiger's: this monster entered a tea-table it and began to lire its eyes and recluse. They had a son T'ai yii H? '^. Grown up. nose with a fire brand which had in its hands. With that he flung his without brush for red writing at the Demon-fox full in the face. opened the door and wished to start a conversation with Fu-ying but the scholar would not take — anv notice of the intruder.176 f. one of the One night tails Demon-foxes— one with nine taking the shape of a man. The child proved to be of an energetic. thanked him and said: (1 "You ) are a high dignitary: is Yuh4i 3£ ^ ) shortly will put 14 but $£ Whole account from Shcu-shcn-li fp Kien-fu was only 7 ^ p. at Next day. He was horn j£. the fox came again. he stood for the examinations and So he shut himself up in his room and studied intensely. .M MORTAL CODS. choleric temperament.D. sat upon monstrous giant with eyes as big as bells. as he sat studying.

Generalissimo Fu-ying. 483 Fou-yng Yuen-choai.Fig. .

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FU-YING YUAN-SHWAI 1 i j vou I in charge of hope that you all spirits and hobgoblins in this region. May on." In fact. will pardon my faults?" a ''From leaf now replied the recluse. Yuh-ti's edict soon was published summoning Generalissimo Fu-ying and conferring on him the dignity of regent and notable of the district. "you must turn over new and practice virtue. 23 .

as a reward for his good and evil actions is charged with the rewarand further has a power of restraint On the whole. (1) Sheu-shen-Jci (l) (T #) $t & IE P. he of ding over the demons of the sea and of mountains. Whilst he exercised his functions at Yang Chow fy perfect integrity. "Little Tiger. 2) in our world. He was j|| Piao jjfc. GENU ARTICLE XXXV YANG YUAN SIIWA1 j| (T) It. of the 10th. over the granted him the post of terrestrial spirit is a military officer. and once when local mandarins tried to corrupt him with a gift of a thousand silver pieces. . "Tiger! Tiger!" Becoming a mandarin Han Emperors.178 IMMORTAL GODS.'' because immediately before his birth a tiger was seen running up under the — and the peasants to cry out. own observance of law. he obtained the pardon of a robber whom the Emperor was about to put to death. he distinguished himself for courage and Shang-ti J^ ^ and attached to him world. % w GENERALISSIMO YANG The information about this personage is more than usually His lather was Yang. his mother was Su f£ and he was one of vague. he has been elevated to the position of a formidable potentate. born the in Han dynasty given the name began Keng-shen J^j Eja (cyclic number) years under on the 16th. he went on with his resolution.15. He has authority both over this world and the world beyond: — 1) in the other demons of the five directions and over the ten rulers in Hades. month. >}\].

Generalissimo Yang and his military .Fig. son officier militant. Yang-yuen-choai et attendant. 184 ire.

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"Quite easy". "All very well. for every evil. simples you use would have produced seeds and from the seeds . This particular a He had remedy a immortal who had immortal. "said Kao. At birth he dazzled everybody with the firedike brilliancy of his body.T. Then the immortal proposed to him the : difficult task of providing but Kao had a nostrum in his issue for a childless grandee pharmocopeia for that too. Once he came upon an suppurating sore on his back: he got the wound to close by the application of the dew from the flowers called K'iung-hwa fQ f£ (ilowers of the immortals). bent on founding out a weak spot in Kao's art. "but you doctors only heal one evil by causing another. For instance he cured a tigers tiger of their of a bad throat by the application of the bone of a serpent. told him of an old cypress that was withered and dead and challenged him to revive it. and sprinkling it with Kwan-yin $|1 ^ lustral water. ) US 7C Bill GENERALISSIMO KAO Kao-yuan-shwai jf tc chen jen frj] (a faultless healer ) was a womb of one Mei. Yoh-shi-t'ien-tsun ^ f£ (The Deva Medicine-Man) saved. he made the tree live again. so his parents threw him into the River But fx as an evil genius.KAO-YUAN-SHWAI ^79 ARTICLE XXXVI K AO-YUAN-SH WA I ( B. wife of Kao-eh'un-kung £. maladies or wounds. jfa. serpents. For the date of his birth we have only the very indefinite data. the Kia-tsze day (E}3 -=f first (Article XII) in the ±£©A reincarnation of T'ai-yih- ^^ of a cycle) of the 11th month of a Kia-tsze year. him and took him as a disciple." said the immortal. Kao-yuan could cure monkeys. The boy grew up to be very beautiful and his master called him Yuan g and taught him all fr|j H kinds of wonderful spells.

^ found in the temples of the god of healing or in those where Buddists worship Yoh-shi-fuh H IE. Sup. plants might have come: you injure the plants to cure So Kao could only sigh. As Kao had on his voyages done an immense amount of conferred on him the title: Generalissimo good. Vol. The Healing Buddha. (Baishajyaguru : see Chin. . 115) (1) Sheu-shen-li (T #) #S # P. Yuh-ti 31 (1) His statue is to be Kao. 16-17.180 IMMORTAL GODS. frjj %. avatar come from the nine skies. GENII men". "True! One cannot save both at once": he thanked the immortal for this reminder and gave him a new recipe for resuscitating people. VI p.

Fig. Generalissimo Kao. Kao-yuen-choai le doctor. 185 medecin transcetidant. the peerless .

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Fig. Generalissimo Chang. . who protects from smallpox. 186 Tchang-yuen-choai le protecteur centre la variole.

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He was born at Ning-hai 3& ^g in his in 703 A. Yuh-ti 3£ i to guard infants against small pox. When the surrounding districts were ravaged by an epidemic.CHANG-YUAN-SHWA1 Jg] ARIICLE XXXVII CHANG-YUAN-SHWAl 3ft T. 757 sqq.e. (2) Chang his statue is is one of the male divinities of the small pox and to be found in very many temples. him to he exactly just and of a r ff knowing piercing intelligence. Ill p. 7c 6f|) GENERALISSIMO CHANG. conferred on him the title. Kwei-mao 2$ Q\) during the on the Kwei-mao ^ day Jj|J Chang had resembled handsome (1) HE face with splendid heard and Wang -ling -Jew an H 'g*. mother was Shan-tung of the 8th Chang's father had the personal name Kwei Jp and a Hwang f|. Vol. Chap. (1) See Article (2) Sheu-shen-hi Cf. He was his consistent justice.D. (T #) 41 # : IE P. becoming a prefect of the second class. X (below.20. He was possessed a clear intelligence and passed the official examinations. XIX above. . "Speedy Avenger Also he was of Injustice. a very ^ fe. During greatly esteemed for his administration many student- took their degrees for he was never severe towards them. V Art. his was spared and the residents built a temple and honoured him there. AVERTER OF THE SMALL-POX. i.B." and the office of watching epidemics.. the year reign of the Empress Wu-heu moon.

^ U^ mother. GENII ARTICLE XXXVIII sin-hung. "If the reason is that she was about to have killed your mother. One day in the eighth his mother. Shen-lei. kill me. A J| and with poor wood-cutter of Yung-chow named Sin-hing used to cut fire-wood for his the added name of Chen-yv." The old lady was quite unmoved by this prodigy thereupon the lightning flashed and she was : dashed to the ground. Thereupon. a Taoist adept appeared and said. Do not bear me I now ask your pardon. this time with fire-wood and wine and found He poor old mother lying lifeless on the floor. he . Just then the wind howled. month while cutting faggots on Mt. he gave Sin 12 was completely metamorphosed. But instead. Siu-hing came back his again. consideration of Sin's 1 piety." Sin swallowed them and any grudge : I am the Thunder-spirit and iron-pills. But hen spoke and said her: "Beware. he had the good fortune to come across five hens He took them off home to roosting in the depths of a cave. them over with cook it clothes. should have been killed or how she could have died so suddenly. Shen-lei (Mountain of the Spirit Thunder) the thunder-god was H wont to come forth out of the mountain-side at the 10th moon: during- summer and autumn he hid under the form of a hen. but she kept the other out to kill covering it and to for meal.IS'2 IMMORTAL GODS. I am the Spirit of the Thunder: you cannot eat me: beware of doing me any harm. His mouth became a beak. could not understand why his mother. keu vuw-shwai (T) (Thunder Department) C * m ^ jp$ 7c e* In ill In the prefecture of Ku-yung-chow "£ #1 on Mt. She put four a of them into this a crate-basket. so good an old woman. the thunder rolled and from amid the thunder-clouds the in outraged divinity was about filial to kill Sin-hing.

. That done. His to save his mother. the other a task first was The sovereign filial of the heavens canonized him for his greal of the member Thunder Department.g. (1) piety with the title: Generalissimo of the star Keu. Chang's statue along with be seen in temples of Chen-wu jpL of Pih-yuan-shwai is often to §£.SIN-HING. oi This (the spirit seems to be merely a doublet Lei-hung ^^ Thunder Divinity) and has no historical prototype. in that at T'ai-hing.21. (1) Sheushenl'i (T #) -8 # IE P. KEU YUAN-SHWAI 183 in grew wings: in one hand he held a hammer and wedge: beneath his feet were five drums. he disappeared. e. Along with Pih-yuan-shwai (Article XXX) he rules over the demons of the five directions.

(1) The name of the child Emperor was T'ieh-t'eu. . XIII) child for an order to send one of the six to earth to be born Ti)i</ spirits (see jfjf : from a Yen woman Pimj-ieu the the of there was SUi to lie no father. Lin Sin (1225-1219 B. From 7k.C.23.C. GENII ARTICLE XXXIX T«1EH-YUAN-SHWA1 (T) B.).by confiding to him the administration of the Northern lands and honoured him with Yuh-ti rewarded the title of "Fierce. ft T'ai-yih-chen-jen -jx. Impetuous Generalissimo T'ieh.184 IMMORTAL GODS. and if perhaps this may be meant as the is purely at random.). (1) Sin (1373-1352 B. The the not fall in either of falls on year year Fing-wu does 1155 B. early youth. The birth took place on seventh day the of the fifth month in the jf<fj year fkj ^f- ^ of the Shang dynasty. the last of the There were three Emperors of this name in the dynasty: Siao and the infamous Chow Sin dynasty (1154-1122 the first reigns: it B.C.C. of Shui-ying |!|. 7c aiti Zl iH A received "]' from Yuh-ti Ji ^f Art. |fj. he was remarkable for courage and his and daring strength was such that he could knock over nine So in a series of Herculean toils." (2) The whole story seems to be lacking historical basis. tamed a horse of (ire north Jgf- of Yin-shan [fji killed another demon at Ye-hwo-miao lk M> took a captive a Demon-fox at Tse-hii-leu yX- % ^ ||£ ( and destroyed Demon- snake of the Kiang his braver}. the dating (T #) \t t$ IE P. he killed a demon south oxen. (2) Sh< u slu n-Tci first year of Chow-sin: not.) It =£.

Fig. 187 T'ie-yuen-choai. . Generalissimo Tieh.

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V 4L If R'ang-yuen-choai. Generalissimo K'ang.Fig. 188 . .

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Worms and ants were the object.^!. spoken of as the So the Celestial -age four right Monarch confirmed cardinal points.) K'ANG-YUAIV-SHWAl Jjf 7c Bill GENERALISSIMO K'ANG An incarnation of the dragon-horse took £? : for its father Kwang-yeu §| Jf| and for its mother a Kin on the banks of the Hwang-ho (Yellow these people dwelt fir •jjjj. took place on the wholly mythical date of the 9th year of the Emperor Jen-hwang f. the title formally as: "Beneficent and of generalissimo. K'ang was remarkable harm to noble wine. 24 . K'ang.k'ang-yuan-shwai 185 AKTICLE XL (K T. bandaged its wing and nursed it: the heron grew big and one day brought in its beak a stem of the herb of immortality which it presented to its benefactor. So K'ang took it home. One day he saw a bird of prey swoop on a little heron ith a and carry it oft" but the little bird fell to earth again broken wing." and conferred on him supervision the his He is depicted as carrying a club in in his left..23. On the lips of the people.during the period Yen-teh j£ |g. hand and (1) a golden axe (~b (1) Sheu-shen-M #) J8 # IE P. for his compassion: he never did any living being. he all was "beneficent" for he cured sicknesses. River) The birth of the child.oi His one great pleasure was to drink a pure his tender care.

" their word. He died in the j^f . I will let you go home on the twenty-fifth of the twelfth moon. and told the immates how their state actually conflicted with filial piety. it happened that as mandarin thoughts turned to his old mother and to the mothers of so many prisoners in his charge. you free." the). C. These poor fellows. they were trustworthy they were even just in as much as they came back to pay their debt to : : human all justice. "I set ''Then." all swear that from now on. Then Mung made a pro"If you all promise to be back here by the fifth posal to them. The prisoners wept and asked for the favour of being allowed to revisit their mothers. but what have only one life and if I lose it about you yourself?" in saving hundreds of . "If I set you at liberty. It The prisoners agreed. GENII ARTICLE XLI MUNG YUAN SHWA1 Si Somewhere in the (The Merciful) firfl (T) 15 7C in the fourth kingdom Jjff- of jf[.186 IMMORTAL GODS. The are uncertain. So Mung began to meditate how these fellows were really good men they had filial piety. He was born on jT£ the 12th of the 8th moon in the Wu 12th sheng year The child's $ of a mother Kwok jf|) and a father Ki-hao name was Mung-shan ^ |Jj.jl-f^f. So he visited his prisons could not go to see their mothers. will "We you conduct yourself well for the future?" have been bad in the past. "but we will lead blameless lives.answered him. So one day he said to them all. moon of the Keng-ch'en year J|." said. were let go and kept became an annual custom. I is all very well for us. Chao ^ in honour century B. his Being very sympathetic. he reflected. a temple was built of Mung with the title of actual dates of his life Tsiang-Jciiln Marshal. we said the mandarin." The prisoners "That "Oh. of the first moon.

Mong-yuen-cboai. Generalissimo Meng .

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informed of what had happened sent for Mung shan. "I am ready to die.25. Mung now heard someone calling him out of doors on and going out. "Be assured. he found a chariot waiting him ready harnessed. now tears. one T'eng Jj|s. you will forfeit your life.MUNG YUAN SHWAI 1 ^ 7 others. but 1 cannot get back those eight-hundred.'' Then he seized a lance and set at liberty: tried to pierce himself: three times he tried and each time an invisible power struck it aside and only the lance-handle met his : breast. off and paid his respects to Yuh-li 3£ ^ who as: Magnificent Generalissimo of the of Kingdom decorated The heavenly sovereign placed two flowers on his hat and made him a present of with a yellow dragon." prisoners were freed from their chains.26. The higher mandarin on the event built in the immortal's a lance sent a memorial a to the prince of of Chao and this latter title had temple honour Mung (T and gave him the IE P. I have my own ways of managing. Mung-shan. what harm does it do?" The convicts protested that they had merited death by their crimes and could not consent to purchase their liberty that they said." Mung-shan replied. a whole escort with flags. seeing too in owed him many favours. So the to him The superior mandarin. of Marshal. did obeisance and left. Mung went canonized him of Chao. at the cost of his innocent life. had him punished and censured him "I order you to get back the 800 prisoners whom you have : if one solitary prisoner is missing. (1) (1) Sheu-shen-hi %)& & .

D. 24. GENII ARTICLE XLII FUNG-HYVO-YUAN T«lEi\-YUAN SUW \1 ( I ) M had T'ien-tsien 'k T'lEN U ffl ^c gi|i GENERALISSIMO (of Hie Wind and Fire . So he T'it n yuan shwai caused a large named "Shen-cheu" (Spirit-boat) f$ -fy to be constructed. the T'ang Emperor Hilen-tsung masters. This was to be manned by a million spirits under orders to keep beating drums. the once national of the fifth in the invention of event in China on the 5th month (1). The Taoist Grand-Master was engaged demons proved intractable. the harmony of their tones charmed him and he awoke cured. the their course across the sky. staying an epidemic but the consulted the three brothers. its took them as his music- They were formed for cantatas and dances. There were T'ien-hung-i 03 seniority. clouds stayed of their songs in they played their magic flutes. a scented flower opening in the 12th moon). . The din enticed the demons out from the town boat (1) Sheu-shen-Tci (f #) fl # IE p. -/it || matchless musicians: T'ien-sun-liu EH^-pa. and the harmony When opened the Lah-mei flowers ^ $J . in order of \)\] In the period K'ai-yuan jc (713-742 A. and were excellent flutists. depth of winter. M i. So he made marquises of the three of them. and T'ien-che-piao EB %1? $|.Ministry) of brothers) <J This generalissimo (or apparently this group as father and Tiao-ch'un-hi ffl §/£ T'ai-piiig-kivoh -fc ^ H- as mother and came from in all three brothers. The Emperor fell sick and in a dream he saw the three brothers playing the Chinese equivalents of mandoline and violin.188 IMMORTAL GODS. ?£ [r|j.).f£ (Chimonan- thes Fragrans. The)' are in one account credited with the dragon-boats.

.Fig. 490 Les trois freres musiciens. The three Brothers Musicians.

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332-295. of Taoism. B.C.e.) for festival. Trans.FUXG-HWO-YUAN T'lEN-YUAN to listen to the concerted sound. T'ien SIIWAI 189 yuan shwai seized them and drove them away with the help of the Taoist Master. marquises. gave helpers and adressed a memorial to the Emperor (i. see Article The great wizard IX above. 648 (Engl. Vol V p. (1) See Chinese Superst. The Emperor canonized the All the members of their (2) brothers with the title of family received posthumous titles of nobility. . the it usual traditional explanation of the Dragon-boat connecting with the poet (2) K'iili i/uen T& IW. t'ien shi ^f ~H frfi (1) recognizing T'ien's skill and certain craft. Ming-hwang Jjjf flfl Jl) to inform of these striking Huen-tsung Chang deeds.

There on the mountain Nine Immortals they devoted themselves to the hermit's life: nearby is a lake and on its shores they concocted the elixir.C. The king immediately sent for them. all. \ By to the lake is a temple where great crowds gather every year in burn incense honour of the nine brothers. ML there lived one Ho-tungin Fuh-kien Jft ft |g Hing-hwa-fu p an ffi )j| $\] with his wife Liw . pj (Bird-rock) On the ninth of the ninth in the year Ping-ch'en H (125 B.). GENII ARTICLE XLIII KIU-L1-HU-S1EN (I) -fiii a m w At Sien-yeu-hsien THE GENII OF THE NINE CARP LAKE a sub-prefecture in the district f[|| 3H J$$. fixes The account. The poet Hwang-mung-liang nir jg. he tells how the nine carps became nine dragons and raised the immortals to the heavens. the the brothers king gave a great banquet. (1) Having described the wondrous landscape that is the setting of the story.% ^ (140 — 86 B. the "Shen-sien-t'ung-kien" Tjiif) f[jj ij§ |gj a date for these events and adds picturesque details.C. King of 31 in f$ (Fuh-kien) -/H jj£ According to this Wu-chu 4te j^f. in a site of enchanting beauty. had a glorious palace built for himself amid the Niao-shih Mountains ^ in \\\. in the days of the Han emperor Wu-ti .s - . Succeeding in their essay. Someone told how Ho were engaged of the lake (1) making their pills of immortality on the borders below.). J| has commemorated the legend in verse. The father in despair determined to them the But the mother of the found a man to take them oft to mountains towards the north-east of Sien-yeu-hsien.190 IMMORTAL GODS. (T #) \t Sheu-shen-M # IE P- r.jvfv She bore nine children of ^ l whom the eldest was one-eyed and kill all the others blind. the Nine carp Lake. hence the lake they mounted each a red carp and disappeared: is called Kiu-li-hu $f $f\.

mountain and the Wu-chu 4ffi |g and his court on seeing this ascension of the genu had flung themselves on their knees and the fifth of the brothers From let fall : to earth the bamboo with which he had played it the dragon so the king treasured dj and on the facing mountain Niao-shih . Art 7 p. They answered that after a least on Mt. So they displayed their talents for the Emperor. The third letters there The like a fourth by a breath. they had gone off with T'ai-kih-chenand each had now a special gift of magic. On the edge of the lake he had another temple built where sacrifice was offered annually to the Nine Immortals. cup The second pointed split at one of the mountains forth. . S p. The fifth first uprooted flew aloft and changed it and then retired into to a gilded : dragon which a cave with a bamboo branch. The first made a pass on the air and immediately a golden rose from the royal table and plunged down into the lake. they were now about and nine carps came at nine brothers rode on the backs of the fish made to the lake. The the elixir. that on. wrote air again. : its rock}' sides and lotus flowers sprang the face of a precipice.% ft had a ferrace Ling-siao ^%m built to be a monument of these wonders. the lake was known as the Nine Carp Lake Now king as that of the Nine Immortals. out and stirring up the dragon changed him The sixth with a hand-pass made a neighbouring mountain move off to the east and then called a mountain from the north to shift into the vacant site. the wind ceased and the rocks returned to their mountain caves. Sii-mi The (Su-meru jen ic fe MA 2j| ftff [[}). the genius made as if to fish it back to a fir-tree again. up into the skies. So he turned his summons. stirred Hew up against and came down the a wind that whirled up rocks a fir swarm of flies : on a sudden. 1. (1) (1) Shen-sien-t'ung-Men jfa fill MM Bk.KIU-LI-HU-SIEN 191 brothers were asked whence they came and what their powers were. VII. he announced that as the brothers had already to depart. When the turn came for the seventh. S - Art.

) a temple was built for Wang in the town of Kien-ch'ang-fu jjg || f£f.XII.D. Wang was begged to command the So he took his sword. period Ta-yuan(no such name ^ 7^ in the usual was 1107-1111 A. a time. He was all When grown the country. (1) noted for a most unusual cast of features. It became famous for prodigies and was crowded with worshippers. Chinese laundrymen and others still do) and sprayed it like rain "Let the Yellow River rise three feet!" Three after.D. he took to travelling over One day he met a magician who gave him a charm the winds in movement and casting lightning-bolts." this important personage otten gifts to Wang but our worthy always refused. filled his mouth with water (as in the air. saying. the district of Once upon a long period of rain.XIII centuries A. for setting to manhood.192 IMMORTAL GODS. (1) In the epoch lists: ^ $g (l) Sheu-shen-Tci {~Y- #) 45 ft IE P. GENII ARTICLE XLIV WANG-SH1-CH*EN 2E Wang's real (T) # % Jifip : was an the official title name was Wang-wen-lc'ing J£ 3C (Majordomo).). Yang-chow ^ ^J'H suffered drought. He was born in Shi-ck'en the time of Sung dynasty (X1. This magician was the Taoist on whom the Sung Emperor title Hwui-tsung wished to % $ ^ (1101-1126 A.59. 1 .) conferred the of "Taoist Adept of the make Palace.D. the days mandarin of Yang-chow reported to the Emperor that a yellow rain had just fallen in his district.

Yellow River. raises a flood in the .Fig. 191 Wang-che-tch'en Wang-shi-ch'en fait monter l'eau du fleuve Jeune.

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from the Sacred Hill of the South. refusing the offices presented (1122 Wi K'- — lil by the Emperor Wu jj^ 3E 1115 B.C.§" Z|S -f- % MT. lie was born in the south of the Kingdom of Clru f^.shaft in shuh professed himself In the reign of K'ang-wang || 3£. named Tsze-hi ^ . ft\ % The noise of the drums on the imperial bark annoyed 25 the .C. three at Lil.LU-SHAN K'WANG-FEU-SIEN-SHENG 1!)..'! ARTICLE XLV LU-SHAN K'WANG-FEU-SIEIV-SHENG (T) * personal iii m .) returning I T Seng ft in Hunan.{- The younger brothers dwelt some time company with K'wang-shuh |T $|. There he taught his brothers About a thousand years later. the Han Emperor Wu-t* tality.). This K'wang-shuh |T $f| brothers: the eldest was K'wang-suh was the second eldest of five [T (ft. TAJ £ \ MASTER R'WANG-FEU OF This teacher's name was K'wang-shuh jfj[ and his second style Feu JfL. straw furnished barely with a couch and some visited built a hut of books. Here he was by Yung-ch'eng-kung the S§ $ & ol disguised as a young man who taught him secret the immortals. Mt.C. %. K'wang-shuh reentered Ch'ou L05S of Chao-wang Hg 2i where he arrived during the reign immorof doctrine the 1001 B. When Lao- the court to retire to Poh ^. 1078-1052 B. passed by P'ang-li (the Po-yang lake) ill he there a temple of K'wang-suh |g (ft to whom found and g|.C. Nan-chang Here he P ast which flowed the Tiger Stream f& \§l.). he retired to the south of Mt. (140-86 B. the for g| |S§ made he Siin-yang-kiang Thence paid his respects. K'wangail(1 eve " a disciple of Lao-isze -"£ T received from his lips left all sorts of magic recipes. When he Kiiln-p'ing vvith a still name was quite young he conceived the idea of living as a recluse and.

194 river-dragon the IMMORTAL CODS. Later on." said they. 1. who walked his being swamped. "that K'wang-suh has a younger brother K'wang-shu (Hi HO anc' this is probably the Immortal who has appeared to you. 6 p. 5: Bk. "We know. p. Art. "IE P. This genius has jurisdiction over the Ministry of epidemics and protects those who supplicate him in time of drought. the prefect of Kiu-yin fj| |§. Then there over the waters and came to the Very respectfully he told the sovereign that he had been sent by brother Suh (ft to protect the imperial person as the emperor had just been praying in his temple. The Emperor Wu-ti had a temple built in his honour on the bank of the Tiger River. to command dragons and K'wang-shuh had such marvellous powers as enabled him The five marshals of ride tigers. 9 p. ^fc) 5 tS # 1. . puzzled and asked his Taoist-adepts to explain. floods or plagues. Shen-sien-t'ung-Men 8 jjjfji f||j jffi » Bk. Art. epidemics had to submit to him and take his orders. killed it and disap- The emperor was peared.59. Lu H lJj. GENII who made the such a disturbance of the waters that point of boat was on appeared an archer imperial boat. Art. by name Hwan-i ." if IS Jz So the Emperor canonized him as Naii-kih-ta-ming-kuvg &' Most illustrious Duke of the South Pole (or : W perhaps here "Extremity" as the Emperor had been visiting the Sacred Peak of the South). 2. Then he shot some arrows into the dragon. (1) (l) Sheu-shen-li (~f 4. Bk. had it transferred to a site near the pass of Mt. having restored calm to the waters.jg ffi.

Liu-chan K'oang-fou-sien-cheng et and his eldest brother Ku> ang-suk. The teacher Kw'ang-feu of Lu-shan.Fig. . 192 son frere aine K'oang-sou.

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Fig. 493 Hoang-sien-che le dessinateur de talismans. Hwang the charms. writer of magic . Immortal.

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HWANOSIEN-SHI 195 ARTICLE XLVI HWANG-S1EN-SII1 (T) ff fli ffi HWANG THE IMMORTAL. he was usually known as ji -£ ^ Hwang ts'ih-kung Hwang the Seventh. As Hwang was the seventh among his brothers. a At Chung-liao-ch'ang $§ honour on to the south of ^^ a rock called Shih-k'i ft |l{£. temple was erected in his Afterwards it was removed $&• (1 ^ Shang -hang-hsien. a writer of tells that charms: he the countryside was suffering great annoyance from a mountain-demon and a praeter- Hwang got the better of them with his charms and then got into the stone himself and never more came forth.60 - . Legend natural stone. some resemblance to Hwang-ts'ih-kung jir A^ fe. _h #£ (T t ) (1) Sheu-shenlci 45 # IE P. That particular rock had something human about its shape. He was born at Shang hang-hsien J^ ^ ^ in Fuh-kien in the prefecture of Kiang Chow -/X . 'J'I'l- by exorcised devils with whips. He was profession a magician.

" expect you on the bank of the I-Joh Yen confessed that now he felt that he was going to his death. This the envoy did to the south of Ts'ai-chow $$ >}\].D. title of Wu-ch'eng f-£r&. But he remained so unmoved that Li-hi-lieh 2^ |fr actually treated ^fll him with respect. him oppose the Before Yen to dinner at set out against the rebel.D. his family entertained Cheng-loh-p'o |^ j$.I ).") A. 784 A. The next and took the $£ j]\ year. . had himself proclaimed Emperor Yen wrote from Ts'ai-chow Li shortly a farewell report to the Emperor and had him strangled. Lo-jeu -/g." Before his death he entrusted his gold belt to an imperial envoy and enjoined on him to bury his corpse carefully. "In seventy years there will be great ffi danger waiting you. I will $f| ffi |I|. -£ (780-80. Li. He was 77 years of age at his death and the emperor gave him the posthumous title of Wen-chung *£ ^. on Alt. he revealed that he had once upon a time met a Taoist adept by name T'ao-pah-paJi }^ A A from whom he had got the pill of immortality: but the Taoist had warned him. this latter had him surrounded by minions who abused him and threatened to butcher him."Distinguished and Loyal. (T) * This |l ul J$p ft I « K Emperor Teh-tsung to EXECUTIVE OF NORTH POLE EXORCISMS title is that posthumously conferred on Yen-chen-k'ing who lived in the time of the T'ung Jg ffi. In his cups.196 IMMORTAL GODS. (Kwei-hai %%). at When rebel to Yen arrived the Eastern capital to exhort the make his submission. GENII ARTICLE XLVII PEH-KIH-K'U-SIE-YUAIV.) The Emperor used Yen rebel Li-hi-lieJi as a trusty officer ^% -Jsb j& in 783 A.

. 194 Yen Tchen-UMng.Fig.. Yen ***** c«— |W dn p6ie du Minister d«s Exorcismes canonise. premier offieicr officer NW.M exorcto <ne ..No. N* . of tke Mtn Mry .

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a family servant and found Yenat Loh-yang of the T'ung-teh-si pj f§ white on the altar of Buddha.. the to and entrusted it family. One of them addressed him and asked him |l§. hwan of # $ |I Yuh-ti canonized the worthy as Peh-kili-k'ii-sie-iso-p'anFirst Military Officer of the Ministry Jfl5 £ ?ij t Exorcisms of the North Pole. "Duke of Lu") who had died in the imperial cause. 722-S9. so concealing and kept its face fioure turned # % % the away (1) A. 46: Later on an ardent Taoist. Lo-feu-shan $§ ft Sometime afterwards. On learning he was from Loh-yang -/g. entered a temple After some ten years. So of body put palms brought to the capital. he gave the letter to to Yen'i relathe custodian of the family tombs and he gave it of their ancestor: so chat as the tives.U. where he came from. clad in a chen-k'ing seated there bu him at look better The servant went closer to get a robe. the black hair and beard were several feet in length and the hands were so the resolutely clenched that the tips of the fingers had pierced a new coffin and into was the the hands. a merchant happened to pass by and saw two Taoist adepts playing at chess |Jj under the trees.J§. the minister Li-pi(l)^ ££N for befitting obsequies his loyal Yen-lu-kung || . 197 T JJ|J).PEH-KIH K'U-SIE-YUAN In 787 A. A famous councillor of the reigns. writing They recognized Yen's grave was opened and found empty.D. VII p. his the Taoist smiled and said he wished to give him a letter for merchant. the body was intact: hands and feet were flexible. Emperor he became scholar and statesman. Then he wrote a letter When the latter had returned to Peh-shan. near Yen-shih-hsien ffg gjfj all nj 5$. (Ting-mao begged the Emperor to order official. In 756 so for three remained and £ Suh-tsung See Vol. ^ (the honorific title given by the Emperor. . The obsequies were performed with He was buried at Peh-shan # the honours due to dukes. The prince got the coffin opened and though it was mouldering. The Emperor sent his own son to bring the coffin to the capital.

GENII tures until finally it left the temple. Shen-sien-t'ung-lcien jjjiji MM Bk. of course. on his return told all : the gold proved to be genuine and was sold. The people of the household got their horses and rode off to see for themselves but everything had vanished and they found only a fallow land covered with high grass. 16 Art.IPS IMMORTAL CODS. The servant. 3. 8.#) '•$ # fill IE P. Art. gave the servant an ingot of gold for his journey and told him not to divulge what had happened. p 1. (1) (1) Sheu-shen-M (T . . passed into a garden and entered a hut built of two straw cells: into this the servant followed. Yen inquired about his relatives. 1 p.61.

one of the of Buddhist gods (and the Saptnaratna. a token of distinction). M(1) 2 ) In falling ( See above broke the head of K'iting-siao. Yuan-shi-t'ien-tsun (Article jt An ^ %. according to I) this. Vol. Ts'ien $| dj. 4 57 sqq. The Liang Emperor Wu-ti $(£ yfc ^ promised it to the first to get hold of the mountain.4 25-514). 1028) her son as a Crane-spirit carried his Here we are concerned with its appearance biography of Pao-che-shan-shi ^f §J. Chi-kung* s $fc staff came whistling through The the air behind and the crane took fright and flew beyond.seh-hoh-t'ung-tsze 199 AKTICLE XLVIII PEH-llOH-T«Ui\G-TSZE H HI M i THE WHITE CRAXE BOY In the account of Chili the reader will find father off to heaven. in the how nix (French ed. but just as was about on the land. In China a sceptre. 131 (above). his ordered Yuan the entered struggle. it The to crane settle flew off to take possession. the magic Ju-i Pih-siao. (1) Chi Rung disputed with Peh-hoh-tao-jen ^ |$ Jt A tne possession of Mt.C. A Jui is carried by Tsz (2) wet-sing in Fig. The White Crane Boy When the distinguished himself in the Hwang-ho-chen ff fpj p£. XI p. staff fell to ground and the site was adjudged to Chi-kung $fc£. 7 Precious things. XXII p. Said originally instrument for back-scratching. g$ frfj (or Chi-kung |£ ^). Q The statue of this White Crane Boy is to be Jprjj found in many ple of Taoist temples and the Fung-shen-yen-yi %\ /|f H gives the disci- an account of his exploits. He was. a symbol to be Chinese court usage. Vol. .360 of Vol. Chi-kung (A D. VII Art. and together in chief of the Chow armies at the they helped the commander foundation of the dynasty (1122 B. Originally a Buddhist magic jewel. heroine K'iiing siao Jg f| disciple to Ml throw into the it air his precious jewel. a famous Buddhist monk.). 359. XI also Fig.

XI hu-niang 1% Art. 262 depicts the battle W with Na-ch'a. . himself of the chance. flings is it box from self into the air and Pih-siao finds her- imprisoned and (1) killed subsequently. 5 Hwui 51. and Pih-siao and her scissors. XI. came to avenge her loss: she cast her magic kill Yuan. Yuan. (1) Fung-shai ycn-yi$\ j$ ^ jgi Bk. p. GENII scissors in the air in order to &i |f her sister. Also Chinese Superstitions Vol.200 IMMORTAL CODS. makes it crash "round. draws a his sleeve. But Peh-hoh's Ju-i Hies a up to the second time and colliding with the scissors. 1. availing. p 932 on of Iff K'ang-sanf% ~ ££ #g where Fig.

195 Pe-ho-t'ong-tse. Crane The divining youth Peh-hoh (White .Fig.

.

196 Yang-se tstang-kiun. .Fig. Genemi Yang-sze.

.

His symbols are a dragon.B. In several temples in Hai-mcn $| special altar ^ his statue occupies . rivers of and wood- 26 . worship him. and an axe.) m m m m GENERAL YANG-SZE Yang (the is one of the generals i of the Naga-king.i and is much reverenced by the wood-merchants as the protector of the rafts of wood.YANG-SZE-TSIANG-KIUN 201 ARTICLE XL1X YAI\G-SZE-TS1AI\G-Klt3:\ (T. as he controls the watercourses and stills storms. symbol cutters. Lung-wang Dragon-King) f| 3: ar>d is n charge of the policing of the Therefore boatmen and the lumbermen on the rafts waters.

to demand from that spirit an heir to the empire. the Ruler of Heaven. XXII p. a high official was ordered to Mt. where Mao-hiim tf. presented it So Mao referred the request to the god who in turn to Yuh-ti 3£ ^. Mao-kiiln happened just then to be staying at T'ai-shan of T'ai-shan's the Sacred Peak of the East: the god daughter. H) during the reign of Emperor Chen-tsung ?£ jfl ^ in the 10th month. Yuh-ti was 5^ JJ£ just then at this palace of T'ung-ming and there were 12 bare-footed Immortals round his throne. GENi: ARTICLE L CIMH-KIOII S1EN ( 1 ) # W the $««<. the 5th of the 10th month of 1010 B. jfc. touched the little prince's head and said. ill THE BARE-FOOT IMMORTAL In the year 1009 A. for ! "Don't cry It had been better had you not laughed when you LIV for the (1) (2) See Article Three Brothers Man.202 IMMORTAL GODS. want to be reincarnated but Yuh-ti and gave him as helps two K'iih (^fj) spirits. See below Vol. He was called Sheu-i )%). (2) was Mao's wife. (Ki-yen g. one civil Wen) and one military (Wu f^). did not The Immortal insisted ("#.~S Mao-ying ^ $L (1) was honoured. |f| jjj. . Mao ?f> mj. So "Barefoot" had to go. Benefit received but for all that.D. XI Art. 990 sq. (Keng-suh an heir was born to the Emperor. : On ^ ^ l^t So the Emperor by proclamation invited any person remedy to supply a stopping tears effectively. he wept uninterruptedly. A Taoist Adept called Leu presented himself. greatly regretting his smile. Yuh-ti caught one of these smiling of reincarnation and and pounced on him immediately for the duty office of governing men. Pih-hia-yuan-Miin §H% ttft ^".C.

loved to walk bare-foot. 18 Art. A month after his birth. 8 p.CH'IH-KIOH SIEN 203 were in Yuh-ti's palace. 1. . (1) ^ (1) Shen-sien-t'ung-hien jjj!}i f|l] M $£ Bk. Wu-Jc'iih will give help. The take heart! Wen k'iih ~% |JJj and infant ceased crying. little prince." Now. there grew up under his cradle a The shoot of Ts'ing ling-chi ft 'jjF. from his earliest years. a herb of the Immortals.

Ill (Engl. Ed. (Sovereign Earth) in his temple. his father was a As he had no child. : the first year of Han-ngan jljfj ^ On 4£ during the leign of the Han and Emperor Shun-ti -^ *$?. bathing the child.) fi 7C N WEN Bridge" fx in the GENERALISSIMO The : small town of "White-stone %ft Wen-chow lm 'J'H subprefecture in Cheh-kiang was the birth-place of Wen.204 IMMORTAL GODS. these vanished. family was of the people. because -=f of her dream. I desire to and Yuh-hwang's jjfc your womb and become a man: will you be my mother?" Chang-shi accepted as she was a pure stupid woman but her visitant a being full of wisdom and majesty.D." Soon after. (2) Thence they give the See above Vol. of the fifth of the fifth month and it was was 142 A. After twelve months. Then the spirit laid his pearl in her womb and she awoke. his wife in a dream saw a spirit with golden armour who held in one hand a large axe and in the other a brilliant pearl which he was (1) the Kiah-shen ^ be incarnated in offering. GENII ARTICLE LI \VE\-YUA\-SIIVVAI (T. these six spirits Taoist.. he went with his wife Chang-shi $1 i£. Though his scholar with the bachelor's degree. name of (1) Cf.M to P ra y During the night. . Bracelet— Child-Jade. literally. The mother. said he. called also Tao-hwui. "one of marshal. 'T am".B. she bore W en-yuan-shwai the year mid-day i. called the child Hwan Tsz-yuh J§ q£ . to Hi'H-t'o fa j.e. Che-rh yuenkieh Appendice. M.) for specimens of the extraordinary in characters used charms. his cousin his left side (2) exclaimed: "There are 24 charms written on 16 on his right and all nobody knows the characters.

197 Wen-)'uen-choai. Generalissimo Wen. .Fig.

.

as the Marshal. then. its tail Wen seized the monster. but consoled himself with the hope that after death he should aid the sovereign by destroying evildoers and abuses. Chief of all wed on him He bestothe spirits. He began to think of becoming a recluse. he saw a dra- gon which dropped a pearl at his feet: he caught up the pearl and swallowed it. office Yuh-hwang canonized him. - JVen-yuan-sliwai ^ Jfi6 . as the Grand spirit with the Golden Neck. 197 vva figure very similar (1) Shen-shen-M ^ }§. From Wen he abandoned literature for arms: and failed in the military exami- nations. At nineteen. at first. early youth. and while working over these thoughts. allowing m submit to in petitions himself Yuh-hwang's palace present urgent cases. He sort of bracelet in his left and depicted with a precious T'ieh-kien battle-mace $$ fg (an "iron baton". a bracelet. at ten. At twentydisplayed a ready talent. later on. A * to Fig. a flower made of gems and a writing him to securing him free entry and sortie from heaven. mace) in his right. A ^ appointed him as his assistant in governing T'ai-shan. an in which he distinguished himself. So he reflected sadly that in life he could not serve his monarch and his people. F. is (1) In many temples of the god of T'ai- statue also to be found. he studied the stars. histories and astronomy. Wen honorific is honoured at Wen-chow $& ]>\\. prickly is . he sat for the examinations and failed. he afresh. the classics. his body blue and his total appearance was terrifying.18-19- He is there entitled. Supervisor of all officials of T'ai-shan. The inhabitants of investiture with that town by persistent entreaty obtained his titles. Thereupon the god of T'ai-shan [\\ round his arm. six. The dragon began to dance and twirl before him. his hair red.WEN-YUAN-SHWAl 205 At seven. #> 7C tt &fr- IE P. bent him to a circle and rolled change came on him immediately: his face went grey.

a To give him more dignity. two servants and horse were in attendance on him.206 IMMORTAL GODS. GENIx li to he seen in a temple in the countryside about 8 to the north- east of Ju-kao. .

'{j$t Spirit-Marshals of his army and had them brought J^ $f where his commander-in-chief Yuen-hung jjtyi ^ % ^ then was. (1) This Chinese Lvnceus and his brother were named Kao-ming (Delicately Sensitive). The Emperor greatly admired their warlike appeartitle of ance and granted them the Shen-wu-shang-tsiang-kiiin to Mung-tsin $fc jj§. As all means tsien of attack ff£. : : on his head were two horns he had a red beard and teeth sharp as swords jutted forth from his large mouth. % proved ineffectual. Na blow flung his magic bracelet but Kao-kioh received the on his head without suffering a scratch. had a green complexion tusk-like teeth.IS'IN-LI-YEN AND SHUN-FUNG-RH 207 ARTICLE LII TS'lEX-Ll-YEN Til The figures of these of superfine hearing SHUN-IUNG-RH 115 ^ B^ (Piercing THOTJSAND-LI EYE AND FAIR WIND EAR. often as giants with savage expressions on their faces. it failed when it came to be of fowl and dog.C. Ko Ming's face was blue in tint and his eyes shone like lamps: he was very tall: his mouth had a wide gape and showed His brother. are to be found as door-guardians in many Taoist temples. method of beating the brother's spells (1) Two gigantic statues at Ch'eng-hwang-miao of T'ai-hing ^ ®- . Na then took hold discretely of his fiery globe but the brothers withdrew. sprinkled with the blood Fig. Their the first adversary was Na-ch'a who was on the side of Chow. View) and Kao-kioh ko #j $fc &j- ^ % They came to Chao- Chow and were presented by Fei-lien H| j§ to the Emperor (the infamous last member of the Shang dynasty 1154- 1122 B. 199) upper part But of course. a council was held by Yanga and Li-tsing $$j to debate Kiang-tsze-ya 5J- ^^ ^ by using the trigrams(see Fuh-hi of of ft %. two genii.). Ko-Kioh.

You must get flags waved and gongs and drums beaten all through your arm}. for put the brothers had heard and seen deliberations and preparations alike. and then you flags will see. see that demons cannot perceive your communication." replied Vang. burn them and then break the statues. I will do it. But when you tell Kiang." Kiany agreed and Yang went to have 2000 red beat waved busily in the air and a thousand soldiers to gongs and drums vigorously. first. Kiany asked him how he had fared. if you please.208 IMMORTAL GODS. K'i-p'an |g #£ |jj one of them is a peach-tree demon and the other a pomegranate-demon the two trees have active : : roots covering an area of 30 square is li. The important military factor of surprise was lacking. "What do you wish to do?" asked Kiany-tszc-ya. the Taoist worthy explained." So Kiany allowed him to go away to execute his plan. "But I must know what you want to do. The li but no farther. defeat these demons. "I can't tell you." On Town's return. but he had not said where he was going and any how it did not matter." "Well. "These two are ^ A ^ •j|pj ^ - from Mt. . they would hear it all. GENII in practice. 'T can say nothing. On the Mountain there Hwany-ti |f •$$ called Hien-yuen-miao jftf $j| J^ and in it are two clay statues of Ts'ien-li-yen =f. So Yang-tsien went to Kiany-tszc-ya and told him that he wished to take more effective methods against the two. two Let Kiany-tsze-ya know that he must uproot all the roots of those Then he will trees.J[ [jg and Shunfung-rh ]l[| /£(. Now Yang went away to visit Yuh-ting-chen-yen 31 jUj "Jade Tripod" (a Taoist adept) in the cave of Kin-hia g| (Cavern of Golden Mist) on Yuh-is'iien-shan 31 fjj Being asked his advice. The brothers of course were quite aware that Yang had gone. Jf the peach-tree and the pomegranate-tree having a temple of : become genii have entered these statues one can see and the other can hear a thousand and possess them. This effectively screened the communication to Kiany of the Taoist Worthy's advice.

Choen-fong-eul. 198 Ts ien-li-yen. Shun-fung-eul. Ts'ien-U-yen. .Fig.

.

9 to Huui 91 p. ^$ by an But the giants were rendered useless. Yang tsien and the other officers in the service of Wu-wang it f£ 31 (the first Chow Emperor 1122-1115 B. for the flags waving as far as the eye could see and the deafening and drums fuddled their sensitiveness.C. 8 Hwui 89 p. (1) the brothers. fell Kiang-tsze-ya cast his exorcising whip in the air: on these two demons and broke their Fung-shen-yen-yi $1 (1) # }g Wc Bk. 21 27 .TS'IEN-LI-YEN AND SHUN-FTJNG-RH 209 to K'i-p'an at with 3000 soldiers marched off Thereupon Li-tsing Mountain and destroyed the ahode of the den ions and the same time Lei-chen-isze f}f J| -^ kept the giants engaged attack. He sent as an advance-guard Ts'ien-li-yen and Shun-fung-rh: but the Chow camp was on the alert expecting an attack. din of gongs On the following right Yuan-hung jj^ $t determined to storm Kiang's camp.)outfianked skulls.

of Bhang adherents had much more The battle of Mung tsin jg (The Lord yjjf. "the Chief of the West". (? 1210-1120) nal The family name of this hero was Kiting || and his personame was Bhang fnf but since the fief Lit g had been held family as descendants of a minister of the in his Emperor Yao 3|? (2257 B. the disaffection of the to say to the results. Chapter VIII.? i.3E became set the most distinguished general. virtual founder of the humous title of Chow wang its Kiang-tsze-ga. Mung) or Muh-yeh fa Jjff Jgf (1122 B.C. (2) See also Chinese Superstitions: Vol IV.devils at sight p. This Wen-wang discovered in Kiang the counsellor whom an ancestor had prophesied would help to establish the fortunes of the House of Chow Jg]. at least in legend. of Kiany's (2) name. Kang-Jcien-hopien Bk. 2 p. 2.210 IMMMORTAL CODS. 3. ) As a result ^ Wu-wang (originally Fall |f ascended the throne as first of the Chow dynasty.C. the as Chinese history). 1231-1135). GENII ARTICLE LIII (I B) K1ANG TSZE YA C ( 1 ) m * w 1190-1094 B. He conferred on Kiang-tsze-ga the title of "Father and Counsellor" and named him King of Ts'i ^ with succession for his children. he was known as Lit was known by another name T'ai-kung-wang ~fc Q> of Dawn Chow Dynasty (who is known by a postWen-wang ^( J as if he had himself been Emperor). £J. passing from the service to that of the new dynasty Chow J§]. . A magic inscription :f or averting.e. He Grandsire's Hope: this title was given him by Si-peh "g" f£j (B. Duke of Chow.) to the south of Wei- hwui-fu Hf 3E jj^jf decided the fate of the Shang. in the Chow person of Wu-wang ^ His military successes 3£ on the throne: in reality.C. Shang.C. Article VII (1) 428 (English Edition).

Fig. 199 .

.

KIANG-TSZE-YA

1 I ]]

This is the historic frame into which legend and romances have woven a tissue of miraculous happenings and marvellous deeds. Only a very short resume can he given here of the content of the legends.

Kiang-tsze-ya was an avatar of Yih-chen
Yuh-chen-ta-fah-shi 3^ J| near the Eastern Sea.
>)>]]

jgl,

pupil

of
;ft

^ £

ftp

;

he was

hum

at Hit-choir

His parents died when he was very

young and he became

W

'/&

vendor of the bean condiment Tsiang-yi u So he took to slaugh(1) but did not do good business.
a

making a slaughter-house to the east of the for some time, he had to give up this trade. town Chao-ko i$\ Then after a voyage to Lido-tung jiff ]|f he returned to Tung-yang he married the daughter of one Sz-ma lp\ J|. Then ife m where he went to dwell in Nan-shan ^ |Jj where he spent his time
tering cattle: after
sffc

fishing.

One day

he caught a carp and in
ffr

its
4g!

belly found a

book

entitled:

Ping-ling-ia-yao-l uh-pi en J£

^

^ |f,

six chapters

on Military Art. He studied the book for a month and when he had grasped the subjet matter, he went on again with his fishing. He is famous for his fishing with a straight pin of iron instead
of a

hook

(it is

said

that the fish

in

admiration of his virtue
his

voluntarilv

impaled

themselves)

—but

wife

remonstrated

with him on this apparent folly. Kiang pointed out that she did not belong to the craft and went on as before.

Then
bank

at last Lao-tsze

%

=f appeared one

day on the other

and reproached him with being ignorant of his eat this pill," said he, and threw into the air origin. "Take and The the Kioh- yuan-tan ft "drug of understanding origin." into a luminous track in the air, passed through
of the river

%^

pill

leaving

the pill, he felt Kiang's stomach. On digesting was influencing his ideas. himself was before him and not want to be a mandarin? said

that Lao-tszi

"Why", "What means can

Lao-tsze,"do you

I

take to attain to that rank?" replied Kiang.

which has been fermentA paste of "yellow beans" #T with salt (1) of the culinary proc( B ed before use. Kiang is invoked for the success See Vol. IV. p. 428 sqq.

^

212

IMMORTAL GODS, GENII
will

up.

''Wen-wang -% 3E has need of a capable man; he When the time comes, you will find a jade

take you
I

tablet.

am

going myself to look up Wen-wang to settle the business." When Lao-tsze had gone, Kiang went home and removed his family,
including his boy Tsao jg, aged 7, and his 10 year old daughter, to Wen-wang's country near Si-ki "gf (S.W. of Shen-si) and ||j£ made his home there in Pao-Jci-hsien 'if |§ f£ at Wei- shut J'pf y\^.

Three months
a jade

after that, he caught a fat fish, and inside there was with the inscription. "Ki #[£ is predestined to the Ts'i shall be thy reward." Ki was a throne, go to his help. name for the descendants of Hwang-ti, and especially for the

tablet

H

house of Chow.

(1)

Now
dream
in

the

hour had come.

Wen-wang

(i.e.

Si-peh) had a

which he saw a winged bear flying from the south-east

and settling down beside the palace. Soothsayers explained that the expected sage would therefore come from the lands south-east.

One
of

day,

Wen-wang and

his court

went hunting along the banks
fisherman,

the

Wei-shui.

Coming upon some

who

timidly

withdrew, he followed and questioned them. They told him of an old man farther on who was always fishing by the river and
singing as he fished: his name was Fei-hiung, Flying Bear fH$j|. Wen-wang felt he had his man and got people to lead him to this "Flying Bear." The old man did not take any notice of this
great personage's salutation but went on fishing and singing: "When the West Wind begins to blow, winter is a-coming in.

The
Si-k'i

old year
"gj"

is

fl|£.

Few

a-dying and the phoenix has cried to the land of are they that know me." Wen-wang £ ^£

saluted him again and
at last

now entered

into conversation with
in his chariot.
It

him

:

he took him

away with himself

was

the year Jen-shen T:

^

1129 B.C. and Kiang

was then 72 years

of age (born in 1200 B.C.?).

(1)

Wen-ivang was a descendant of Heu-tsi
first

ffj

fg

of

the

Ki family

and the

Cliow

emperor

jslc

3E

Wu-wang was Wen's

son.

KIANG-TSZE-YA

213

Before his death, Wen-wang summoned his son Wu-wang and hade him pay his respects to as master and father.

Kiang

When

the

new emperor had ascended

the throne,

lie

took Kiang's

daughter as the imperial concuhine and he conferred the kingdom of TsH on Kiang and his descendants. It was

^

eldest son,

who

ruled the
title of

court with the

Tsao^, Kiang's kingdom while his father remained at The second son Shen f| received king.
Kiang
retired
to his

the principality of

Fu

~$.

kingdom when
in his

death drew near and passed away very quietly one day arm-chair at the age of 105(?).

The king of Ts'i sent news of his father's death to the Emperor Ch'eng-wang jf&T: and the Duke Pih i|^ was deputed by the monarch to go as his representative to Ts'i and offer sacrifice to the dead, immolating an ox. But when Kiang was
encoffined, the coffin
son, the king Tsao,
hat,

for the body, so Kiang's and found nothing beyond the clothes and the military treatise belonging to the dead man.

seemed no heavier
coffin

opened the

So the empty
victory of Muh-ijc
$fc

coffin

was buried

at the scene of the great

§f and the clothes were buried at Pih Jjl. In Ts'i his son had a mausoleum built and there Kiang received
rites.

the honours of the

(1)

Other legends would have Kiang
! )-

to be the pupil of

Yuan-

After a stay of 40 years in shi-t'ien-tsiin =it ftu H M- ( see Art his master, he received the with the Kwun-lun Mountains

% $

order to go to help Wen-wang. Then he tried his hand at many mission. At the age of things before accomplishing his took a wife, he became a worker in bamboo, a miller, an eatm
last house keeper, a cattle-dealer, a fortune-teller and from this Then 3=. under &JChow-wang into service occupation went

turned over to Wu-wang.

His
fill

fights in

company with

the immortals and the gods
yi
4

whole volumes
1)

of

Fung-shen yen

(The
Art
7

Way
p.
1

to hives
to

Shen-sicn-t'ung-Men
yi Jf
fit

«
Bk
'

fill

31

&

Bk.

Art.

Fung shen yen

St ft

2

ffwui

H

to

Hwui

24.

214
vinities,
i.e.

IMMORTAL GODS, GENII
to

can only give
after the

in outline
J£\

Confer the Post of Divinity) ^J- jji$ ffi ||. Here we the famous Canonization of the Shcnjffi
victory.
It is

Chow

supposed to have added consi-

derably to the spirit ranks.

A

tower was

built for the

the supervision of Peh-Jcien

^

gg£.

ceremony by five genii under The Decree of Canonization

was delivered
list

to Kiang-tsze-ya by

Yuan
in

shi tHen tsun as well as a

of the spirits of

and their functions:

this list

was

affixed to the

Kiang platform. supports holding his yellow flag -^ and his exorcising-whip, mounted the He had Peh-kien lead before him the souls of all the stage.
warriors

the

helmet

and breastplate,

who had

fallen in the previous

fights,

explained Yuanthe
spirit-offices

shi-t'ien-tsun's

decree and conferred on them

they were to hold in the other world. Many of these spirits are still reckoned in the Chinese pantheon. (1)

This explains the power over demons credited to KiangHe has made them and therefore can unmake. Hence tsze-ya.
the protective spell, "Kiang-tsze-ya
fear"
;

is

here: there

is

no reason for

or
is

as in

fig.

199

H^c^^jlt'S'^^S^ B
is

Venerable

Kiang

here, everything

safe (in the sense of "lucky").

He

is

much

associated with the P'ah-kun

(or

eight

received so

much

attention from Wen-wang.

trigrams) which Often Kiang occuIn

pies the place of
of

honour on

a

household

altar.

many

districts

Ngan-hwui and Kiang-su pictures of Kiang are pasted up on the fifth of the fifth to ward off bad-luck, devils, epidemics.
a fact, under the T'ang dynasty, Kiang was a war-god. had temples A.D. the Emperor Hiicn-tsung ~&. erected in his honour officially in both capitals and in all prefec-

As

In

731

M

^

tures and subprefectures. Ten generals were assigned as his court in attendance and Chang-leang jjg J^ (2) as his attached
(1)

(2)

Fung-shcn-yen-yi Hwui 99 Bk. S. Chang-leang, died B.C. 189; had shared in
the overthrow of the Ts'in

the

establishment of
in the

the

Han dynasty and

somewhat as Kiang

overthrow of Shang.

KIANG-TSZE-YA
minister.
"civil"

215

war.

Thus was begun the system of two official temples: a one for Confucius and a "military" one for the god of Sze-ma Kwang p\ ^t protests against Kiang being put

^

on a

level

with the matchless Confucius.

Moreover the sages

o1

antiquity could
once. (1)
(1)

make one

job

of

governing and repressing

at

Wieger;

Textes his^oriques

p.

1658.

216

IMMORTAL GODS, GENU

ARTICLE LIV
SAi\

MAO

(T

!&)

THE THREE MAO BROTHERS

A
of these

the history genealogical table with notes will explain
brothers,

whose

birth

place

was Hien-yang

$ %
#/

(i.e.

Si-ngan-fu) in Shen-si.

Great-great-grandfather :(1)?— 217 B.C. Mao-nmng (Ch'u-ch'eng)

if

$

Great-grandfather:

(Unknown)

Grand-father: (2) 249 B.C.
Parents:
Hit (Wife) ff J£

Mao-hi^^

(Kung-lun$kjfo)

Mao-tsu (Peh-ying) or Mao-mung

Mao-ying

(Shuh-shen)

Mao-ku

(Ki-wei)

Mao-chung

(Sz-chi)

Mao-ying, the eldest of the brothers, was born during the
reign of the

Han Emperor
t$t

King-ti -^
i.e.

the Chung-yuan

\

period,

in the fifth year of jfr 145 B.C., on the third of the
left

^

10th

month.

When

eighteen years of age, he

his parents

(1)

yang.
office

Foreseeing- that the

The great-great-grandfather had been a famous scholar of Hien Chow ffl were toppling to ruin, he kept out of
to

and devoted himself

alchemy on Mt. Hica

Ijl

HJ.

In full daylight,

on the day Keng tsse (|? -f-) of the 9th month hwang-M, he went up to the heavens.
Shen-sien-t'ung

in the

30th Year of TsHn-shi

Men

jf4
{\\\

f|I|

m

|g£

Bk. 43

p. S.

(2)

The

{$ Tung-sien-chwan p T'ai-p'ing-kwang-M Bk. 5 p. 5. % jgfc il :# Bk. 241 p. 13. Suh-wen-hien-fung-hao grandfather had been Comptroller for the Ts'in Prince
3jif(

Chwang-siang-wang ^ S± S 3E. the father of Ts'insM-hwang jt§ 209 B.C ) and real ouster of the Choir dynasty. Mao hi received
service the title of

^

^

(221his

for

Magnanimous, Sincere Duke.

Fig. 200

San Mao (Tchema en

leur honneur).

Three Princes San Mao. Written charm burnt in honour of the

. 201 San Mao. The Three Princes San Mao.Fig.

.

Mao or the Peaks of the Three Mao's. the second year of the period Yuan-k'ang jt the reign of Siian-ti. a heavenly messenger brought him a message and Mao-ying immediately bade farewell announcing that he was going away to Mt. in the 8 th (1) during of Ming) Ming-yih-t'ung-chi (Geography ty — Wt ^ Bk- 6. In the fourth year of the period Pen-shi 2fc On iff (i. he learned how tualize himself so that he could overcome the law ) of gravity and the need for nutrition. (1) In 64 B. Then having acquired the science he returned home at the age of 49. : so he arrived at subtility and aerial death of his parents.SAN-MAO for 217 (in Mt.C. the two younger moon. Heng -jf >|§ mj. It is situated 45 li to the south-east of Kii-yung-hsien fij '£. /£.) of the Han Emperor Suen-ti Hm to iff on the third of the fourth month. So Mao-ying fled and passed into a wall to hide. His father now abused him piety: the old of man for vagrancy and lack of filial took a stick to beat him but it flew in pieces itself. There he met Wang-kiiin 3{{\. Kiang-su. resigned and followed him to Mt. 69 or 70 B. disappeared were mandarins but when they heard of his departure. 8 28 . Shortly he quitted home and went eastward till he settled down on Mt. Ying welcomed them and set them to a fast of as a way to the immortal state: each of them for three His brothers Ku |g and Chung % years So the mountain that period lived solitary on a separate peak. becoming- his pupil. and Kii-k'uh. p. Kii-k'uh frj $\ pj in the kingdom of Wu <%. In this solitude. of perfection. Kii-k'uh. the Tao jf. a spiritualized man. a spiritualized man gave him the a method full of self-perfection and intrinsic nutrition levitation at will. he returned to Shen-si for the funeral and ceremonies. i the Sacred Peak of the North Hwunto spiri- yuen-hsien flg jgg n Shen-si). came to be called Mt. Si-wang-mu (Article Yl that gave him the prayer makes the perfect hero. into the clouds. % in the sub-prefecture of in Kiang-ning-fu ft ^ /ft (modern Nanking. his relatives..C.e.

VI Art.D. to Mt.. GENII brothers Kit and Chung mounted on two yellow cranes to the heavens. it is or was a fairly popular pilgrimage. so difficult of access that one has to climb up one passage with the help of an iron chain let into the rock at either end. on the borders of Nanking (the town Hwo-chow is in Ngan-hwui). the Sung Emperor .g\ T'ai-isung 5|c ic ^» in his very first year. has been constructed on the almost precipitous peak. Ki-iung-shan $$fc San-Mao j£ ^. To prayers offered to them on the mountain peaks the} have always given effect.) . 990 sq. XXII p. Pih-hia-yuanliiin M M. §| Mj. canonized Mao-ying as: "Loyal Prince. (1) i. (1) So to be married and henceforth Man-ying went to T'ai-shan -Jz |JL| his life journey ings to and fro between and T'ai-shan on the back of a white crane. In the district about Hwo-chow ffl j>\]. the sacred mountain of Shan-tung. Kii-k'iih to propose marriage with his niece Yuh-nii (Jade-lady 3{ ^c). the Three Maos. It is Here a temple to the Bird Cage Mt.218 IMMORTAL CODS. a series of was Kii-k'iih In 976 A. there is on the left bank of the Kiang fx. it ^ (See Vol. Now Man-ying's old master Wang-hiiin came from T'ai Shan.e. a celebrated mountain standing boldly up with three peaks. Protector fft of the Holy" lg ifi By this name Mao-ying is known in the Shen-shen-ki ^ f$ f£.

202 Kin-k'iue-chang-ti et Yu-k'iu<§-chang-ti. Kin-k'ueh Shang-ti and Yuh-k'ueh Shang-ti.Fig. .

.

D. ^ (1465-1488 A. other "of the Palace of Jade" (5 Jffl).)." i. superior to that of "immortal" The MlV( ffl (1403J Emperor Ch'eng Tsu Vft $ 1425 A. the Ministry In 1488.KIN-K'EtJH-SHANG-TI AND YUH-K. in the - or "genius" -fill of the Sung dynasty canonized them as second rank. An emperor "heroes. Chi-cheng £p jgand Chi-ngoh %] sons of Sii-wen f£ jUJt. led their armies south and restored fj£.D. ) when ill had recourse to them and was cured: in the title of Ti-kiiin rff JJ Imperial gratitude he conferred on them Golden Palace" (£ $) and the "of the was One Sovereigns.D. Then the Ming Emperors Yiny-tsung ^ 9j? (1436-1450 A.e. .) and Hien-Tsung jg _t *$> Supreme Rulers. peace to Fuh-chow fg )]] in Fuh-kien.D.B.) honoured them as of Rites deprived *£.) &m ± % of the £ m ± # Ming relate The Annals that at the time of the Five Dynasties (907-960 A. The heads of families and the elders erected statues and made offerings hefore them in token of gratitude.-EUH-SHANG-TI 21 9 ARTICLE IV KU\-K<EUH-SHANG-T1 and YUH K'ELII 8IIWG-TI (T. in the reign of Hiao Tsung them of this title as an abuse and cut down % the sacrifices in their honour.

a very handsome person. fire and earth. country of Wei-ling. wood. GENII ARTICLE LVI WU-LAO THE FIVE ANCIENT OF DAYS. He issued man made fire. j^ born. in the 4. 236) appeared first at Shih-t'ang-chan ^g" j^ pj from "yin" and "yang" and looked like a the South.220 IMMORTAL GODS. of Divinities to Yet they are genii of whom we read in the Records and Genii. or rather they are the spirits of the elements: metal. to the of green leaves and hawthorn Tung-wang-kung ^^ ^. at Ts ang-lang '/J|-/j| He made himself garments of the bark of ebony. He made himself garments leaves. p. He . she "Yin" was born on the Kwun-lun Mountains j^^lll. The live genii known by this name have been the theme many Chinese paintings or drawings. According thev would be among the first of human five beings on the earth. Si-wang-mu. 1. The Fire-Spirit. He was born of primal air in the East. 3. Ch'ih-tsinh-tsze (see Vol. (Cf. pendants fell upon a sort apron 489). At f^ and "Yang" |SJ|. and Chinese arts have of exercised their ingenuity to secure fresh original treatment. 2. The spirit of Metal £ in a is the famous Wang-mu 3E # or Kin-mu born of ^-BJ:. her hair was bunched tiger-teeth. Article VI. the Shen-sien-t'ung-kien f^ f[|j jgj $j£. 488) The Water-spirit is Shui-tsing-tsze 7k. the two principles. this. a great necklace with jade of p. He was North. Their images are often exposed for the sake of art rather than for worship. she had birth. water. 111 X of Fig. e ^ . top-knot on her head. of mulberry-leaves (Cf. god of the Immortals. Article VI above The Wood-spirit is Muh-kung 7fc ^.

203 maniire de les represents) Les quatre Patrons de la Vieillesse (Seconde them). manner of representing The Four Patrons of Longevity (Another .Fig.

.

Fig. 204 .

.

205 .Fig.

.

Fig 200 .

.

jif of red leaves. 15). 205 the butterfly *t a punning allusion to J£ Tich ''80-70 years of age". He had come down from lierht. called Sze-lao ["| is left out. (See Vol. (Si-yeu-l-i I Art. XIII fig. 4. (3) (1) (. The Earth-Spirit is ^. He was produced by in the Hwang-lao (the Yellow Ancient) humidity and warmth and suddenly (1) appeared middle regions.Shen-sicn-long lien Bk. for an apparition of these five elders to Confucius). 1) (2) (3) WM IE Hwui 64 p. Wang-mu usual to depict only four Ancients. Tieli is In fig. Other authors give the Ancients the following names Shih-pah-kung (King-tsieh) : + A £ {% Ip) Ku-chih-kung |i [J[ £ Ling-k'ung-tsze $£ '*£ Fuh-yuu-shen ^ ft ^ ^ Hiug-sien (2) -^ fj It is ^. .WU-LAO 22] made himself garments a star as a streak of 5.

5. 1 - 2 Sien-fuh-yuan-M fill $J ® Bk. T'ai-p'ing-kwang-l-i 4 p. has happened to your sheep?" Ch'u-ping. #£." brother Ch'u-k'i -ffl |fi took the name Lupon IE Bk. so you have become 'genius'. or More in Honour =? KWAN CH'ENG-TSZE first B jfc Ewang-ch'eng-tsze.|f. His elder brother had been ever looking for him At the age of fifteen as he sheep. "They are east of the mountain. Better Known 1. "What found him by the Taoist 's guidance. 4 p. must be your brother." answered Only white rocks were visible but at a word from their "herdsman" they turned into thousands of sheep. "Oh. (1) HWANG CH'U-PING (1) H yj ^ j*\ Hwang-ch'u-ping was born of if at Tan-k'i $| in the kingdom was herding (modern Shen-si). there shepherd Hwang-ch'u-ping. ^^^ |£ Bk. he and one day meeting he is a very famous Taoist. living or dead. GENI- ARTICLE LVII Some Immortals. was carried off by a Taoist adept to Kin-hwa-shan ^|ji where he spent more than forty years in a grotto heedless of (Ij his family. K'ung-t'ung flBgf ilijp]. he asked him whether knew a of his brother. Ch'u-p'ing then took the name of Ch'ih-sung-tsze 3f fy ^ and his elder attain. 7 p. dwelt in a cavern hollowed out in Mt. . I . 13. Sien-fuh-yuan (2) $ft Hi Bk.222 MMORTAL GODS." The elder brother The first question was. 3. It "At King-hwa-shan. one of the to be numbered among lessons from the Immortals. The Emperor Htvan-ti jf ifc went to take him and learn the 2- secret of immortality. (2) (1) T'ai-p'ing-l-wang-l-i pk f[Ii ^ ^ p. may I too learn that learning?"— "Wish and you will a So the elder brother quitted home and became his junior's disciple. So he secured the gift of immortality.

. The historical Mehtih is lived somewhere between as the 5th and centuries B. he could drink three bushels (?) and not be drunk. (3) he was ever after called out between Sung% and Ch'u by that name. by simply spreading his mat on the water and embarking on it. 1031. a crane its came down from the in skies : back and disappeared the heavens. 27 p. XI. 223 HilEN-CHEN-TSZE £ R ( This genius's real name was Chan-chi-hwo >j^ lie %j was a hermit on Mt. His doctrine summed up $ S "Universal Love. p. he could roll in the snow without feeling the cold and could submerge himself in water without drowning. T'ai-p'ing-lcwang-ki „ Bk. . 7 Sien-fuh-yuan {\h ft Bk. As a result of a special form of nutrition. When he mounted the time came. Kwei-ki lif ff |Jj Having being a celebrated scholar with the doctor's degree and having been in office.§ (1) He lived in the time of the T'ang Emperor Su-Tsung Jg ^ (756- 773 A. made Vol. OHAXG-LAO ^ j£ (2) Chan-lao was from Luh-Eoh-hsien ^ fe Jg$ in Yang-chow 5.. As strong with the wine-cup as with the pen. 1. . Tih H but when he had written the famous was name His book that goes by the name of Meh-tsze. He crossed lakes and rivers in comfort.) 4. MEH-TSZE S? was a high dignitary in the kingdom of Sung ^.. 20. When war broke Meh-tsze real gj.' .. he ^ : - came back to his family as usual life in on an occasion order to live of mourning and then renounced public in solitude. (2) (3) 4 p.THE BETTER KNOWN IMMORTALS ){. -Chinese Superstitions" : (1) T'ai-pHng-Tcwang-Tci *f II Bk.D. Daedalus (See Lu-pan Kung-shu-pan % $ft $. 17 p. a Chinese French Edition). carousing and singing. . C.

He was a disciple of Koh-hung J| $t.Chang "Lah-tah" Jjs . 5. Taoism honours him as a genius.J EN |f A The Wild Man. CHANG-LIANG personage in ?& & 189 or 187 B. 2. a of one.224 IMMORTAL CODS. had left some of the elixir pills hidden in a stone pillar on Mt.full-yuan i\\\ {% fl . Lo-feu ^ £p: |J_|. IE Bk. also known as Pao-pu-tsze j[y ^f- . swallowed it and became by night saw man wearing no Travellers crossing Mt. (2) 7. Now Mchdays and seven nights to special aerial ladders for scaling. 4 p.the tszi made a special journey of seven beg him to withdraw the aid afforded to an unjust war by his special talents. yih ~$| or Chang Ts'iicnHis name was Chang-Kiun-shih $| ~$ — he was dubbed Chang the Filth}. (2) Sien.C. The "Wild Man" got hold a terrestrial immortal. is The famous Ts'in. His master before passing away to the life of the immortals. GENU enemy's walls. historical who died in for his We against the need only here note that he has become one of the part assisting the Han dynasty Taoist Immortals. At the age of |Jj 82. *{!{-. 5 p. Meh-tsze retired to Mt. Sfc anc ' so was deified as Protecting Spirit of Riches. YE. Lo-feu clothes but covered with long hair all over his body: this Wild Man spent his life roaming over the mountain singing joyous songs. (1) T'ai pHng-kwang-Jci jz ^^ F>1<. 1. Chdw-tih Jg) J^ where he became an immortal. 8. (1) 6. a famous Taoist J£j of the fourth century. CHANG SAN-FUNG 3f = # This Taoist was possessor of a "Comucopiae" Tsil-pao-pen If* f.

7 Jpf K.THE BETTER KNOWN IMMORTALS 3H iM x§- of the Province of His native place was Kwang-ning-hsien in Kin-chen Sometimes he was Fung-t'ien (Liao-tung). 29 . called Yuan in found provinces. Cf. 53 p. 1368 — 1399. to £jg He then lived in of the temple in Ying-siahg-kwan j§ p ft! the north-east Ying-chow-fu 14 2 3 > Ngan-hwui. Shen-si. 44 Note: The Sien-fuh-yuan of the usual f[Jj fi gj provides illustrations statues or carving that depict these genii in the temples. - 91 65. P- 16 K K. Ying-chow-fu-chi £ j§ & Yun-nan-t'ung-chi ® ± Shen-si i'ung chi $£ M 5§ — ^ j£ Ts'ing-yih-t'ung-chi fl Jff jfr K.^. Temples in his honour are to be Ngan-hwui and in most of the Actually he lived under the first Ming Emperor. p. 11 - p. Yuan-tsze itx. Yun-nan. 52. Hung Wu gfc j£.

Chen J^ Seven Heroes. fiiji III. ^L.D.Q-^) 4° K'iu Ch'u hi (Ch'ang ch'wen-tsze) ) 3° 5° 4. wu-tsu ji m THE FIVE ANCESTORS i 1° Wan Hsiuen p'u (Tung-hwa-ti-kiun) Li-k'iuan (Cheng-yang-tsze) I£lf (^OT?>&) : 157 A. GENII ARTICLE LVIII The Usual Grouping <>!' -SAINTS" in Taoist Temples To useful to know those wishing to identify Taoist statues. 2° MMfi (IE It ?) 295 3° LuYen(Tung-pin)(T'un-yarig-t8ze) £&($%) ($iH^)817 Chang flj 4° Liu Ts'ao (Hai-ehan-tsze) 5" $| (f§ it Wang Chili (Chung-yang-tsze) II. ^ j| T (£ p§ ^) 1 ) 911 1192 TS'IH CHEN T: & Wang . THE SEVEN HEROES (Disciples of the 1° fifth ancestor: Chih) 1 ) Ma Y u ( Ta n-ya ng-tsz e) g IK^Ii ^. I.Mi%{ 2° Tan Ch'a-toan(Ch'ang-chan-tsze) ) + + + -4- 1183 1175 Liu Ch'u-hsiuan (Ch'ang sheng tsze) ^iM&i-fk. it will be the three groups of "Saints" which are honoured in the greater Taoist temples.1203 Wang Ch u-yih ( (Yii-yang fsze) 6° Ho »S'joj Ta-t'ung (Hwang-ning-tsze) Pu-rul (Ts'ing-tsing-san-jen) Ir^^C^i^ — Pi ^ j£ UJz'MfM'ffi ^ jfc ( 1227 3?. the II. Wu Ts'ih Tsu 3l jffl- the Five Ancestors. these ark as below.•22(] IMMORTAL GODS. ) 1222 1212 ) -4- 7° M^~ (tpf^ffcA) 4- H82 . Shih-Pah ta shi -f A^ the Eighteen Grand Masters.

-J27 SHIH PAH TA SHI -f A * ftjj THE EIGHTEEN GRAND MASTERS (Disciples of the fourth Hero Kin. Chen Chi-siu (Kwang-kiao) A'. Hia Chi-ehi ng (Sht u-yih) 1 2. P</?i Teh-chung 1256 Ct. 94-95. Tao-tsang Ji7 M $|Vol. 9. 7. Chi-yuen (Pao-puh) V i 13.//. 18. (T'ai-su) JjT> 'C Chi-ko (Kwang fan) i- 1255 10.iJ Chun [i Chi-yuan Chi-yuan (Chi-ts'ing) Chi-ts'ing (Ming-chen) 15. ) 1227 Yin Ts'ing-hwo (Chi-p'ing) + 125] 2. . Ho f 1255 17. /m t'ung-chi (Kwang-su) % &(*») K. Sung Bing-yun {Teh -fang) Li Chen-chang (Chi-ehang) + -j_ 1247 1256 1221 4. /. Mwwp Chi-wen (Fu-hwa) ^H(#ft) + :-rf>3S 1 . ). Fans' Chi-tsing H£l if *@W 76.THE GROUPING OF SAINTS OF TAOISM III. 178. C/mo Tao-hien (Pao-ynan) $tm<7 rao >^/"" (T'ai yuan) + 6. Chang Ch\ su (Chung-hwo) 1268 11. Ch'ang-ch'tm 1. p. |i:i<. 12. 75. 14.. 3.. 5.) Wang Chi-ming Sun Chi-kien Yii 8. JlW 16.

'•:• ••. •.- ..

9 PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE SUPS FROM THIS POCKET UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY .9 East Asiatic Core. Henri Researches into Chinese superstitions. v.DS 721 D613 v.

ft .