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1. Exercise 4.3.7. Assume h : R → R is continuous on R and let K = {x : h(x) = 0}. Show that K is a closed set. Proof. Notice that, since h is deﬁned on all of R, K c = {x : h(x) = 0}; showing that K c is open is equivalent to showing that K is closed. Of course, K c = h−1 (R\{0}) = h−1 ((−∞, 0) ∪ (0, +∞)). Since (−∞, 0) ∪ (0, +∞) is open, problem 5 below implies that K c is also open. 2. Exercise 4.3.9 (Contraction Mapping Theorem). Let f be a function deﬁned on all of R, and assume there is a constant c such that 0 < c < 1 and |f (x) − f (y )| ≤ c|x − y | for all x, y ∈ R. (a) Show that f is continuous on R. Proof. Let > 0. Then whenever |x − y | < , we have that |f (x) − f (y )| ≤ c|x − y | < c < since 0 < c < 1. Therefore, f is uniformly continuous on R, which implies that f is continuous on R. (b) Pick some point y1 ∈ R and construct the sequence (y1 , f (y1 ), f (f (y1 )), . . .). In general, if yn+1 = f (yn ), show that the resulting sequence (yn ) is a Cauchy sequence. Hence we may let y = lim yn . Proof. I claim that, if d = |y1 − f (y1 )|, then |yn − yn+1 | ≤ dcn−1 . The proof is by induction: Base Case: Note that |y1 − y2 | = |y1 − f (y1 )| = d = dc0 . Inductive Step: Suppose |yk − yk+1 | ≤ dck−1 . Then |yk+1 − yk+2 | = |f (yk ) − f (yk+1 )| ≤ c|yk − yk+1 | ≤ c(dck−1 ) = dck , as desired. Thus, by induction, I can conclude that |yn − yn+1 | ≤ dcn−1 for all n. Now, a suitable modiﬁcation of Problem 5 from the Take-Home part of Midterm #1 (with dcn−1 taking the place of (1/2)n ) implies that (yn ) is a Cauchy sequence. 1

Moreover. Proof. . prove that if x is any arbitrary point in R then the sequence (x. 1) are both open.1.3. Proof. .(c) Prove that y is a ﬁxed point of f (i. we know that C c is open. Let Therefore. Since 0 < c < 1. so the sequence (x. Then. 1] = C c ∩ (0.) converges to y deﬁned in (b). f (yn ) = yn+1 . Exercise 4. on the one hand. . so the sequence (f (yn )) is the same as the sequence (yn+1 ). Therefore. (xn ) is a sequence entirely contained in the complement of C such that (xn ) → c.. for each n. if |x − c| < δ . . On the other hand. we see that every ﬁxed point of f is equal to y . . as desired. To see uniqueness. so y is the unique ﬁxed point of f . so Theorem 4. However. Since the choice of was arbitrary. f (f (x)). C c ∩ [0. we see that |y − z | = |f (y ) − f (z )| ≤ c|y − z |. suppose that f (z ) = z . On the other hand. there exists δ > 0 such that Vδ (c) ⊆ C c ∩ [0. we see that (g (xn )) does not converge to g (c). Proof. Since g (xn ) = 0 for all n. f (y ) = y ) and that it is unique in this regard. the uniqueness part of (c) implies that z = y . Let c ∈ C c ∩ [0. In turn. Putting this together with the above inequality.) converges to y .12. 3. |f (y ) − f (z )| ≤ c|y − z |. the same proof as in the ﬁrst part of (c) implies that f (z ) = z . 1]. f (f (x)). 1] → R by g (x) = 1 0 if x ∈ C if x ∈ / C. . meaning that z = y . f (x). Therefore. 1) is open. we can conclude that f (y ) = y . Since (yn ) → y and f is continuous. > 0. we conclude that g is continuous at c. f (x). since C c and (0. Since C is a closed set. . we know that x ∈ Vδ (c) ⊆ C c ∩ [0. g (c) = 1.4.2(iv) implies that g cannot be continuous at c. Deﬁne g : [0. Hence. 3. for each n = 1. Since the choice of ﬁxed point z was arbitrary. the set C is totally disconnected (cf.. 1]. since the choice of c was arbitrary.) converges to some number z . Exercise 3. Therefore. The same proof as in (b) implies that (x. meaning that |g (x) − g (c)| = |0 − 0| = 0 < . . Therefore. we see that g is continuous on all of C c ∩ [0. (a) Show that g fails to be continuous at any point c ∈ C . |f (y ) − f (z )| = |y − z | since y and z are ﬁxed points. . 2 . f (x). Hence. (d) Finally. f (f (x)). Clearly. Let C be the Cantor set constructed in Section 3. we know that (f (yn )) → f (y ). 2. . . there exists xn ∈ /C such that c − 1/n < xn < c + 1/n. for any c ∈ C .9). . 1]. (b) Show that g is continuous at every point c ∈ / C. 1]. this can only be true if |y − z | = 0.3. Proof. which converges to y .e.

Proof. Since the choice of was arbitrary. 1] is compact. Exercise 4. The basic example of a uniformly continuous function which is not Lipschitz is a continuous function on a compact domain which has a vertical tangent line somewhere. No. there exists δ > 0 such that y ∈ Vδ (x) implies that g (y ) ∈ V (g (x)) ⊆ O. If A is a subset of R. 5. 3 . (a) Show that if f : A → R is Lipschitz. 3 3 xn − yn −1/n − 1/n −2/n3 Clearly. Geometrically speaking. (⇒) Suppose g is a continuous function. Let O ⊆ R be an open set and let x ∈ g −1 (O).9. since [−1. This implies that whenever y ∈ Vδ (x) we have that g (y ) ∈ O. Since the choice of y ∈ Vδ (x) was arbitrary. since g is continuous. 1]. Let g be deﬁned on all of R. Moreover. A function f : A → R is called Lipschitz if there exists a bound M > 0 such that f (x) − f (y ) ≤M x−y for all x. a function f is Lipschitz if there is a uniform bound on the magnitude of the slopes of lines drawn through any two points on the graph of f . which means that g (x) ∈ O. deﬁne the set g −1 (A) by g −1 (A) = {x ∈ R : g (x) ∈ A}. (b) Is the converse statement true? Are all uniformly continuous functions necessarily Lipschitz? Answer. we see that every element of g −1 (O) has some δ -neighborhood contained in g −1 (O). so it is certainly continuous on [−1. We proved in class that f is continuous on all of R. since O is open. Exercise 4. there is no M such that n2 ≤ M for all n. 1]. Let whenever |x − y | < /M . for xn = −1/n3 and yn = 1/n3 we have that f (xn ) − f (yn ) −1/n − 1/n −2/n = = = n2 . Then where the ﬁrst inequality is equivalent to the Lipschitz condition. Theorem 4. 1]. Since the choice of x was arbitrary. then it is uniformly continuous on A. Suppose f is uniformly continuous with Lipschitz constant M . However.4. consider √ the function f (x) = 3 x on [−1. we conclude that f is uniformly continuous. there exists > 0 such that V (g (x)) ⊆ O. we see that Vδ (x) ⊆ g −1 (O). y ∈ A. we have that |f (x) − f (y )| ≤ M |x − y | < M M = . > 0. not all uniformly continuous functions are Lipschitz. meaning that y ∈ g −1 (O).4. so the function f cannot be Lipschitz.4.4.8 implies that f is uniformly continuous on [−1. Now. For example. Show that g is continuous if and only if g −1 (O) is open whenever O ⊆ R is an open set. Proof.11 (Topological Characterization of Continuity). so we conclude that g −1 (O) is open.

Since c ∈ g −1 (V (g (c))).(⇐) On the other hand. so. 4 . opennness implies that there exists δ > 0 such that Vδ (c) ⊆ g −1 (V (g (c))). In other words. by hypothesis. Since the choice of c was arbitrary. then g (y ) ∈ V (g (c)). we conclude that g is continuous wherever it is deﬁned. suppose g −1 (O) is open whenever O ⊆ R is open. g −1 (V (g (c))) is open. Pick c ∈ R and let > 0. namely on all of R. Since the choice of > 0 was arbitrary. Then V (g (c)) is open. if y ∈ Vδ (c). we see that g is continuous at c.

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