You are on page 1of 69




Neolithic man probably used fertilizers, but the first fertilizer produced by chemical processes was ordinary superphosphate, made early in the 19th century by treating bones with sulfuric acid. Coprolites and phosphate rock soon replaced bones as the P source. The K fertilizer industry started in Germany in 1861. In North America the K industry started during World War I and expanded with development of the New Mexico deposits in 1931 and the Saskatchewan deposits in 1958. Modern K fertilizers are more the product of physical than of chemical processes. The first synthetic N fertilizer was calcium nitrate, made in 1903 from nitric acid produced by the electric arc process. The availability of synthetic ammonia after 1913 led to many new N fertilizers, but physical quality was poor. In 1933 TVA was formed with a national responsibility to increase the efficiency of fertilizer manufacture and use. More than 75% of the fertilizer produced in the United States is made with processes developed by TVA. Major fertilizers and fertilizer intermediates introduced by TVA include ammonium nitrate, high-analysis phosphates, diammonium phosphate, nitric phosphates, ammonium polyphosphate, urea ammonium phosphates, 11-16-0 and other liquid base solutions, superphosphoric acid, wet-process superphosphoric acid, suspensions, granular urea, and S-coated urea. These have had major impact upon the production of mixed fertilizers; bulk blending, and the fluid fertilizer industry. Future fertilizers not only must be technologically feasible, economical, and agronomically suitable—as have been past fertilizers—but also must meet various air and water pollution standards during production and have reduced total energy requirements


Deepak Fertilizer and Petrochemicals Corporation Limited started its first commercial production in the year 1983. It was the only Indian company that produced ammonia at that time. DFPCL specializes in the production of chemicals and agriculturerelated products. Deepak Fertilizer and Petrochemicals Corporation Limited is a venture undertaken by the Deepak Group of Industries set up by Mr. C.K. Mehta. The company began to grow in the year 1989 by which time DFPCL had become proficient in the production of agricultural products, fertilizers, petrochemical, and chemicals. The company is known for production of 'Mahadan', a popular brand name for its nitrophosphate fertilizer production. 'Mahadan' is a quality product of DFPCL and is well-distributed through more than 1000 dealers. It is also regarded as being among the most highly in-demand brands of nitrophosphate fertilizers. Products like 'Mahadan' are an outcome of the use of international technology. For instance, DFPCL has utilized technology from Stamicarbon (The Netherlands) for the production of Mahadan. This move made DFPCL one of the largest producers of nitrophosphate fertilizers in India. The 'Mahadan' brand of fertilizers is mainly marketed in Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, and Punjab. The other important fertilizers produced by Deepak Fertilizers are:
  

Mixture Fertilizer - A quality product in mixture of fertilizers widely available under the brand name 'Bhoodan'. Mahadan Potash - A potassic fertilizer used for improving the quality of crops Mahadan Power and Mahadan Chetak - Quality brands for complex fertilizers

The marketing network of DFPCL comprises of two operations as far its fertilizers production is concerned:
 

Dealership Sugar co-operatives networks

DFPCL had launched its first Mahadhan Saarrthie Center in Pune on 28th October 2006. The main aim in setting up these centers was to provide agriculture solutions. These centers will provide efficient information services to farmers on various customer service issues. Agronomists and other experts are already involved at the DFPCL centers. DFPCL is committed to implementing new and efficient measures for maintaining constant growth and production of quality commodities. Some of these new measures include utilization of international technology, wide distribution network, popular branding, efficient management system, and a well-equipped infrastructure.


The company doesn't lag behind n terms of corporate social responsibility either. It has established trusts such as Deepak Charitable Trust and Deepak Medical Foundation. DFPCL is focused on the areas of childcare, women's health, and environment protection. The future plans of Deepak Fertilizer and Petrochemicals Corporation Limited include enhancing its distribution network and probably introducing training and education in the respective field for farmers as well.

1.2.1 Introduction Fertiliser is generally defined as "any material, organic or inorganic, natural or synthetic, which supplies one or more of the chemical elements required for the plant growth". Sixteen elements listed in Table 1.1 are identified as essential elements for plant growth, of which nine are required in macro quantities and seven in micro quantities. Elements listed in Table 1.1, carbon, oxygen and hydrogen are supplies by air and waterand are, therefore, not treated as nutrients by the fertiliser industry. The main aim of the industry is to provide the primary and secondary nutrients which are required inmacro quantities.


8. calcium ammonium nitrate. Ammoniacal form of nitrogen is contained in fertilisers like ammonium Sulphate. It is required for plant growth in relatively smaller quantities than primary nutrients.2. 1. 4. 5. magnesium and sulphur are called the secondary nutrients. 7. 11. phosphorus and potassium. 6. 14. 1. The amid nitrogenis contained in urea.2 The primary nutrients supplied by fertilisers are nitrogen. S.M. 9.. 13.Table 1. Name of element Carbon Oxygen Hydrogen Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium Calcium Magnesium Sulphur Boron Chlorine Copper Iron Manganese Molybdenum Zinc Macro nutrients Secondary nutrients Primary nutrients Nomenclature 1.2.1 .Essential elements for plant growth No. Their concentration in a fertiliser is expressed as percentage of N. SHEGAON 4 .E. 2. 10.3 Secondary Nutrients Calcium. 16. Any deficiency of the secondary nutrients and other essential elements reduce DBAR. nitrate (or a combination thereof) or amide form. etc. 12. etc. 15. nitrogen may be in the ammoniacal.C. ammonium chloride. In the case of nitrogenous fertilisers. Nitrate nitrogen is contained in fertilisers like ammonium nitrate. 3.G.S. P2O5 and K2O.

green manure and green-leaf manure) are good sources. Is there a need to apply micronutrients to crops? Application of good quantities of organic manures usually supplies the required micronutrients to crops. If the farmer is not able to apply such organic manures. What are some good sources of micronutrients? Organic manures (FYM. magnesium Sulphate (MgSO4) has been incorporated in FCO to contain the spread of magnesium deficient areas. Calcium Sulphate (gypsum) is used as source of calcium and sulphur while magnesium is supplied in the form of dolomite.M. lime Table 1.G.. to obtain optimum results.E. crops have to be supplied with secondary nutrient in addition to primary nutrients.S. Therefore. then over time soils will be deficient in micronutrients. SHEGAON 5 .2. etc.4 Micronutrient Fertilizers 1. magnesium Sulphate.the efficiency of primary nutrient by restricting the yield to low levels. in fact.2 Micronutrient Fertilizers DBAR. the soil analysis will help in identifying the deficiency of micronutrients in the soil and application of deficient micronutrients will lead to increased yields. compost.C. Other specific sources include: Boron Zinc Iron Manganese Molybdenum Borax or boric acid Zinc sulfate Ferrous sulfate Manganese sulfate Sodium molybdate. ammonium molybdate. In such a situation. 1. 2. S.

boron(B).3. Phosphorus is associated with overall vigor and is used at it's highest levels during germination. Soluble fertilizers usually have N-P-K numbers listed on their label.E. Nitrogen is essential to the production of chlorophyll and is responsible for leaf growth. they are an indication of the smallest percentage that the fertilizer contains of the listed element. seedling and the fruiting or flowering stages of growth. S. are the three that are of the most importance and always listed on water soluble fertilizers. provides the manufacturing and movement of sugars and starches. iron(Fe). 1. growth by cell division. How micronutrients are applied to the crops? As micronutrients needed in small quantities. Phosphorus is necessary for photosynthesis and provides a mechanism for energy transfer within the plant. the P is for phosphorus and the K is for potassium or potash. SHEGAON 6 . manganese(Mn). N-P-K. zinc(Zn) and copper(Cu) are trace elements or micro-nutrients. It also increases DBAR. The reason for this is that companies do not want their competitors to know the exact amount of nutrients they have in their product. It controls the processes used to make proteins vital to new protoplasm in the cells. With water soluble fertilizers it is easy to control the precise amount of nutrients available to your plants(the control is more exact with soilless mixes). Potassium. molybdenum(Mb). or potash. as well as. so they list the lowest levels their product might contain to thwart any copying of their secret growing compounds. calcium(Ca) and magnesium(Mg) are the two. The N is for nitrogen.. second most important nutrients listed on the label.C.5 Water-soluble fertilizers: Water soluble fertilizers are fertilizers that can be dissolved in water and added or leached out of the soil easily. Following N-P-K. Nitrogen is the most important of the nutrients. Of the 16(12 of which are contained in water soluble fertlizers) known elements necessary for plant life. The numbers listed are not always the exact percentages. in that order(except Eco-Grow.G. they are applied as foliar sprays.2. which lists N-K-P). overall size and vigor.M. The rest. sulfur(S). as well as.S.

or container) constantly recieving the most nutrients that they are able to absorb. thereby. increasing the amount of growth. The directions for usage. given on the products label. DBAR. garden. So try it with your plants and see what amazing results you too can yield with the proper usage of water soluble fertilizers. is for the manufacturing of cells and overall growth. should be followed accordingly to acheive maximum results with your plants. sickly growing plant. at the same time not toxifying the soil via over-fertilization. Potassium is important in all stages of plant growth. calcium.chlorophyll levels in the foliage and helps regulate the stomata openings so plants make better use of light and air.. S. therefore. It is also the easiest fertilizer to apply for the beginning or the professional gardener and is.S. Using water soluble fertilizers is the easiest way to keep your plants (household. They function mainly as a catalyst to plant's processes and the utilization of other elements.G. the plant will have enough nutrients to last about a month and will then need to be fertilized for continued growth. Fertilizers are in mass abundance and it should be no trouble locating one in a retail garden center that fits your plant type. yet. with new potting soil. Adding dolomite lime before planting(found at most retail garden supply stores.C. The ultimate goal of fertilizing is to supply your plant with the right amount of nutrients. The other secondary nutrient. Trace elements are vital to chlorophyll formation and must be present in minute amounts. SHEGAON 7 . It aids in the utilization of nutrients and also neutralizes soil acids and toxic compounds produced by the plant. Little is known about the exact amounts needed.M. Once a plant is placed into a container. the most widely used. With a regular watering/fertilization system your plants can reach amazing results and in some instances can almost double the growth of a slow.follow directions for usage on the label) helps stabilize pH and adds magnesium and calcium to the soil. Magnesium is the central atom in every chlorophyll molecule and is essential to the absorbtion of light.E.

forecasts soil S supply and demand on a country and regional basis and includes all major crops. Sulphur demand is derived from production data for crops and specific animal products using historical and forecast data from the Food and Agriculture Organization. The Rising Demand in S Fertilizer Requirements The Sulphur Institute (TSI) developed a model to track and forecast S fertilizer requirements. determines S deficiencies (surpluses) for each country or region.C. China and India. The S content of crops and animal products are derived from leading agricultural S research organizations. has created the S nutrient imbalance.G.L. In 1999.1. The current potential S fertilizer market is estimated to accommodate an additional 8 million tons. and assuming slower expansion rates for S application in accordance with recent history.2. Sulphur supply is represented by total fertilizer application and their relative efficiency in soils based on climatic and soil considerations. SHEGAON 8 ..M. fertilizer 2 application. Field trials conducted by TSI and others have delineated and confirmed the predictions by the model. The Sulphur Institute. Messick and C. Intensified agricultural production. with over two-thirds represented by DBAR.S. Asia is the region manifesting the greatest sulphur shortfalls.6 million tons by 2010. The difference between S requirements. Asia’s annual S fertilizer deficit. pressured by the backdrop of food self-sufficiency goals and limited land resources in the globe’s two most populous nations.E. 9. currently estimated at over 4 million tons. S.6 Sulphur fertilizers .6 million tons of S was applied to soils worldwide through fertilizers. and fertilizer efficiency variables. de Brey. the unfulfilled requirement for S fertilizers is projected to grow to 10. will increase to close to 6 million tons by 2010. Washington. With increased food production raising S requirements. The model. USA 1. Sulphur fertilizer application information is based on International Fertilizer Industry Association (IFA) data and that obtained by TSI through various public products add to conventional sources to offer a wide range of options D. Fertilizer efficiency factors are used to account for losses by leaching and mineralization for tropical and temperate regions of the world. based on historical data.

that is in solution or in suspension. cooper (Cu). DBAR.4 million tons.G. sodium (Na) and Sulphur (S).E. Secondary nutrient . magnesium (Mg). which mainly provides nutrients for plant. Micro-nutrients .. Manganese (Mn).3 million tons to 1. S.8 million tons in 2010. molybdenum (Mo) and zinc (Zn).S.8 million tons is expected to grow to 2. Primary nutrients . China’s current deficit of about 1.the elements nitrogen (N).the elements boron (B). Also there are three types of sulfur fertilizers : 1) Multinutrient Sulfur fertilizers 2) Elemental Sulfur fertilizers 3) Liquid sulfur fertilizers 1. & iii. The micronutrients can chelated or complexed.China and India. iron (Fe). These include: i.M.C. In what form are fertilizers purchased? Fertilisers are found in their fluid form . essential for plant growth in quantities that are small compared with those of primary and secondary nutrients. ii. Which nutrients are present within the composition of fertilizers? There are 3 types of nutrients that might be present in the composition of fertilizers. cobalt (Co). SHEGAON 9 . phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) only.the elements calcium (Ca). India’s deficit is projected to increase From 1.3 SUMMARY OF FERTILIZERS A fertilizer is a material.

Marketing research is the collection.M.2 REGION UNDER STUDY :AHMEDNAGAR DIST. competitive decision.G.S. Ahmednagar Dist is also known as the mostly irrigated dist in Maharshtra.66% of the area of the condition of demand and supply.. Marketing management needs esential information regarding products.C. SHEGAON 10 . The district has historical heritage. selling methods.CHAPTER 2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 2. In today’s context Ahmednagar is most advanced district DBAR. external marketing environment and other factors of marketing thus a systematic approach is applied termed as research methodology. prices. "King of Sugar". During the year of growing complexities.1 INTRODUCTION The management decision process has become complex and requires an effective and full proof management information system. physical flow of goods. Glasser has defined “Market research is the application of scientific method of the study of the factors that affects the buying decision in a given market and the profitability of the business concerned” 2. S. The name of the District Ahmednagar has come from the name of the founder of the town Ahmednagar by Ahmed Shah Nizam Shah. to manage all areas of management in general amd to marketing management in particular.E. customer’s need and desires. Ahmednagar District is the Largest District in the State of Maharashtra having 5. the management needs more and more rigorous information to reduce uncertanties involved in introducting new products and penetrating a new market. Market research has today becomes an important component of the marketing information system. analysis and interpretation of facts and figures pertaining to marketing management.

Devgad are a must visit DBAR.. Shani Shingnapur. Shirdi.having maximum number of sugar factories.G. perhaps to spread the message "rural prosperity through cooperation" Fig 2. The largely cosmopolitan population also speaks Gujarati.1: Map Ahmednagar Dist Marathi is the official language of Maharashtra. Sant Dnyaneshwar mandir. S.E. English is also widely spoken and understood.M.S. Ahmednagar Dist offers much to tourists and travelers. Marathi and Hindi are the two main languages that are spoken in Ahmednagar Dist.C. and other Indian languages. SHEGAON 11 . for those interested in history and architecture.

the research procedure is usually custom tailored.G. There is a sequence of step called the marketing research process the below chart shows the different stages in research process.. Formulate problem Determine research design Determine data collection method Design data collection form Design sample and collect data Analysis and interpretation of data Prepare the research report Fig 2. S.2: Research Process DBAR.2.C.S.M. SHEGAON 12 .3 RESEARCH PROCESS All research problems require their own special emphases and approaches since every research problem is unique in some ways the research problem is unique in some ways .E.

This step requires a good dialogue between a decision.2. S. expert opinion sampling. The present study is conducted “To study Consumer Satisfaction Towards DFPCL Products With Special Reference To MAHADHAN Fertilizers. It specifies the particulars information need to be met by research result. This step under goes following activities. It is perhaps the most critical stage in marketing research process.G. review. SHEGAON 13 .. b) Background Analysis This is an exploratory analysis devotes to placing the problem in perceptive and perhaps even providing sufficient information for resolving the problem.E. Due to increased importance of human comfort in present scenario Fertilizers competition is observing boom and there is high demand for Fertilizers so future perspective regarding Fertilizers market is to be studied and need of analytical research.S.4 PROBLEM FORMULATION The first and forecast steps in any research procedures problem formulation. literature. This step consists several interrelated tasks and activities. It involves developing and understanding of problem. It consists of situation investigation. ” DBAR. a) Problem Audit It is the comprehensive and systematic examination of the marketing problem with objective of understanding its origin and nature.C. If the problem is defined or if the uses of research are not made clear then the research result may prove useless to manager. c) Determining the Researching Task It includes to the specific ser of marketing objectives.M. maker and marketing researcher.

E. e) To find out.M. S. ‘can use of organic fertilizers reduce he use of inorganic fertilizers. which factors enhance the sales of the Fertilizers.G. c) To study consumer behavior before purchase of fertilizers. f) To find out opinion of farmers about MAHADHAN fertilizers.This research reviews on the following points: 1.1 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES In Today’s competitive market. b) To find out market share of ‘MAHADHAN’ fertilizers. Consumers were interviewed to ascertain the reasons behind their purchase of products.Ahmednagar Dist.C. The said information will be much useful for devising sales promotion.S. d) To find out attitude of farmers towards quality difference in different brands. 2.2SCOPE OF THE STUDY  Area .5 OBJECTIVES & SCOPE 2.. SHEGAON 14 . Ascertain the factors that influence the most 2. This research is also devoted regarding sales promotion for increasing sales of the Fertilizers Company. The present study is conducted entitled “To study Consumer Satisfaction Towards DFPCL Products With Special Reference To MAHADHAN Fertilizers.5.  The research was designed to know the following 1. Consumer reactions are important considerations in improving the quality of product or services.5. DBAR. Need of information about the Fertilizers 2. every company wants to know the reasons how one can have the potential market. ” The research objectives to be studied in this research are as follows: a) To find out awareness about use of fertilizers.

micronutrients. SHEGAON 15 . To study the behavioral pattern of consumer. Work of frontline staff is very important.. Assessing general trend of usage of the products in the region. DFPCL shares a fair amount of market in the region. Pricing policy can be reviewed if possible. W.E.2. 5. There is dominance of some other competitors in the region but still there is a good scope for increasing market share. To assess the present position of DFPCL in the market.C. To study the area under important crops and cropping pattern in the region. S. He should address there problems through field visits. 3. Bensulf and Amruta. 2. 4.7 RESEARCH DESIGN Research design is the plan structure and strategy of investigation conceived so as to obtain answers to research question and to control variance.S.M. If the quality.It aids the scientist in the allocation of his limited resources by posing crucial choices – is the blue print to include experiments interviews DBAR. Kranti. The Ahmednagar Dist.S. good dealer’s network is coupled with the due promotional activities.6 HYPOTHESES For the convenience to draw the interpretation and conclusion following hypothesis is developed. has a vast market potential. the company can snatch more market share. as today’s market share of DFPCL is with very less advertising and promotional activities as compared to competitors for the products like Shakti. The company also has to lay strong focus on strengthening its distribution network and maintaining good relations with dealers.F and sulphur fertilisers in the region. measurement of data . farmers’ meet etc. 2. 6. It is the blue print for the collection.G. To estimate market potential of secondary nutrients.

As the outset may be noted that there are several ways of studying and tackling a problem there is no single perfect design. 2. a frequently used classification system is to group research designs under three broad categories – Exploratory. Different types of research design have emerged on account of the different perspective from which a research study can be viewed.S. Various authors have classified research designs in different ways. 2. or income. 2) Descriptive Research: Descriptive studies are undertaken in many circumstances. which has been chosen for the present study. sex. S. As such.1 TYPES OF RESEARCH DESIGN 1) Exploratory Research: Research design the major emphasis is on gaining ideas and insights. It is the blue print that followed in completing a study .E. vague problem statements into smaller.C. Will be relevant to the problem. Thus a research design ensures that study 1.observations.G. DBAR. When the researcher is interested in knowing the characteristics of certain group such as age. the researcher should not wait until he arrives at a unique and perfect research design. These results are interesting but they do not solve the basic problem is a common latent.7. Will use economical problem.It resembles the architects blue print for a house. education level. stimulation in or some combination of these? Are the method of data collection and the research situation to be highly structured? A research design is simply the framework or plan for a study used as a guide in collecting and analyzing data. more precise sub problem statement. It is particularly helpful in breaking broad.. 3) Causal Research: As the name implies a causal design investigate the cause and effect relationship between two or more variables The type of research. SHEGAON 16 . the analysis of records. is exploratory research. Descriptive and Causal.M. However. a descriptive study may be necessary. occupation.

8 DATA COLLECTION 2.3: Questionnaire Design Steps DBAR.1Primary Data: Primary data is collected through survey method. To serve the wholehearted coOperation without wasting more time of respondents. question wording. The questionnaires were prepared using very simple and non-technical words.C. S.2. Survey method involves collecting data by administrating a structure or non-structure questioners.. The said questionnaire is attached in the appendix section. type of questions.8.E. SHEGAON 17 . the questionnaire was short and to the point. sequencing and layout and presenting these all of things are designing in well manner The questionnaire design procedure follows following steps.S.M.G. To collect the relevant data for a research data will be collected in the form of questionnaire designing. Specify what information will be sought Determine type of the questionnaire and method of administration Determine wording of each question Determine forms & response to each question Determine consent of individual question Determine sequence of each question Determine physical characteristics of questionnaire Fig 2. Designing the questionnaire is not easy job it will be formulated in carefully means which type of information to be collected.3: Questionnaire Design Prepared for final data collection Re-examine step 1-7 by testing questionnaire Fig 2.

S. In a sample survey a small part of the entire population is subjected to the research. The present study used MS Excel package for the purpose of tabulation. journal and Textbook. the next step was to meet the respondent personally and to collect data from them through personal interviews. This sample is considered to be the true representative of the entire universe and decided upon certain criteria.M. 2. After conducting the personal interview of the respondents the next step was to arrange the collected data finally coded and tabulated to obtain the results.G. 2. This data is collected from the related company website. For this purpose. Some of the respondents were that not much serious about filling the questioner. 2.. which allows all kind of elementary statistical calculation. S. It was somewhat difficult to get the questioner completely filled by the respondent as most of the times they were busy and could not give sufficient answer and sufficient information even though they have it and the information from respondents are very important for the research. The sample selection process requires the form of sample be specified. After tabulation the data was ready for calculations to draw necessary inferences. researcher has subjectively decided which particular group will be part of the study. The sample size has been kept to 100 as it was considered large enough to reliable result.C. 1.8.9 SAMPLE SIZE AND SELECTION PROCESS Once the researcher has clearly specified the problem and developed an appropriate research design and data collection instrument.E. DBAR.10 LIMITATIONS OF THE PRESENT STUDY The present has following limitations. magazines.2 Secondary Data: Secondary data is required for collecting the information of the company the related information of the Fertilizers. After the sample size is decided.2. SHEGAON 18 . the next step in research process is to select those element from which sample will be drawn.

S. The findings entirely depend upon the willingness & mental condition of the respondents. 2. 2. PURI (1972) & JAISWAL (1965): It has been observed that with intensive extension efforts and frequent contact with extension agencies and other sources of information. 4. 6. 1970: While analyzing the adoption behavior of farmers of Purnea district found size of holding non-significant. sulphur fertilizers and water soluble fertilizers market of the region.13. Competitors: The major players operating in the micronutrient. DBAR. SINGH (1968): Compared the adoption behavior of package & non-package farmers having the same size of holding and found that each size group had higher level of adoption of chemical fertilizers. SHEGAON 19 .. Some of the respondents left some questions unanswered and as such it was little difficult to draw and generalize the conclusion from them.13 REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2. Some respondents were unable to understand the question due to various problems like language barrier.E. Some of them want to hide the fact so they did not respond and participated in the survey wholeheartedly.S.11 Working definitions 1.M. 5. Nair & Singh (1969): Land divided into small fragments presents a management problem and act as barrier to adoption of many farm technologies.G. 2.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF FERTILISER USERS Some earlier findings about consumer behavior in fertilizer industry: A number of studies under Indian conditions have indicated significant and positive relationship between farm size and adoption of chemical fertilizers. Customer: Customer here is the person or farmer.C.3. secondary nutrient. even illiterate farmers and farmwomen do adopt modern innovations though they take more time and education as non-significant variable. It includes fertilizer manufacturers and sellers (from MNCs to national or local companies) operating in that region.

NAIR (1969): reported that level of aspiration is one of the important factors determining adoption of new farm practices. ROGERS (1962): Has indicated that practices themselves vary from each other in terms of certain characteristics. they may not like to go in for such investment. REICK (1960): Decision making of the farmers.G..M. ROY AND NAIR(1966&1969): The innovations capable of more and more time and labor saving have quicker adoption.S. SINGH (1968): Located that the farm technology adopters were of varying age without making significant differences in age groups. KUPPUSWAMY (1961): Commented “adoption of fertilizers is not only attitude specific but also knowledge specific” DBAR. SINGH AND ROY (1966):Shown two variables affects the extent of adoption of farm technology: 1). JAISWAL AND ROY (1965&1966): Have indicated positive relationship of communicability of farm innovations with their adoption. as that of other individuals is continuous mental process of reasoning. SINGH AND NAIR (1969): Indicated that practices vary in the extent of their adoption due to differences in the degree of possession of characteristic that difference in them. which have real quality of high profitability get adopted fast.REDDY (1962): Found that age has no significance with the adoption of farm practices.E.The farmers may not have resources to incur the heavy expenditure 2) Even the resources are there. S. SHEGAON 20 . CHATTOPADHYAY (1963) AND MOULIK (1965):Indian farmer is highly pragmatic in his approach. SALVI AND PAWAR (1966): Those practices.C. GRIFFITH (1959): Decision making of the farmers consist of thinking and doing. MALONE AND MALONE (1958): Decision-making is the heart of farm management. ROY. FLIEGEL AND RAY (1966):Indicated that practices vary in the extent of their adoption due to differences in the degree of possession of characteristic that difference in them. SALVI AND PAWAR (1966): Simpler the practice quicker the adoption of farm technologies. When he knows that a change will bring good results he accepts it.

RAMCHANDRA (1963).. Table 2.45 8.No. 1 2 3 4 Steps of decision making process Desire for change Getting information 1 Recognition of the problem Legitimization and getting And getting additional information over Followed skipped % Of farmers taking Decision 100 100 100 91.M. S.1 Summery of the steps as delineated by farmers in the decision making process of chemical fertilizers – By Sinha (1966) Sl. ROGERS (1961): Found in a study that the innovators were more likely to view the extension agent as an equal and as some one he could feel free to call by the first name.44 89.C.44 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Consideration of alternative means Consideration of Resources Uses of means Getting further information Before action Evaluation followed followed skipped over followed skipped over negative decision Consideration of alternative Choice of the alternative use (Decision) Acting upon the decision (action) DBAR.56 74. SHEGAON 21 .99 74.S.01 25.48 89.01 25.52 74.G.45 100 89. CHOUDHARY AND SINNARKAR (1973): indicated that generally farmers don’t tend to adopt a farm practice or idea (fertilizers) as soon as they hear about it and there is a variations in the rate at which different farmers adopt farm practice.44 10.E.

W. Singh. In the step ‘consideration of alternative uses of means’. Jaiswal. Moulik. eleven steps are involved in the decision making process of chemical fertilizers by farmers.E.. He found that cooperative society (34. son and father were consulted. Choudhary.e.s (13. While delineating the step consideration of ‘alternative means’ next-door neighbor. son and father were consulted in order of importance. He further reported the sources and nature of information in the decision making process.I. brother. Choubey.In all. brother. In order to have better understanding of Indian consumer attempts have been made by Indian researcher like Chattopadhyay.G.29%) and the V.M. ‘legitimization and getting additional information’.S. It was also stated that age and caste of the farmers.37%) were the first three important sources of information at the ‘getting information’ i.21%). next-door neighbor. SHEGAON 22 . It indicates that the farmers did not follow a rigorous process of thinking in the decision making process of chemical fertilizers. farmers of the village (34. S.C. wife. wife. size of holding and social participation had influenced the patterns of decision making of chemical fertilizers.. Nair. and many others identified factors affecting consumer behavior and grouped the into: 1) Situational factors  Farm size  Irrigation  Fragmentation  Geographical location  Supply and availability of inputs  Credit facility 2) Personal factors A) Social  Education  Social participation  Age  Socio-economic status  Caste DBAR.

M.E.G.B) Psychological  Attitude  Knowledge  Value orientation  Level of aspiration  Change proneness  Economic motivation  Market perception  Achievement motivation 3) Innovational factors  Simplicity complexity  Cost profitability  Physical compatibility  Social compatibility  Divisibility  Communicability  Time and labour saving 1) Communicational factors  Personal localite  Personal cosmopolite  Mass media use DBAR.C.S.. SHEGAON 23 . S.

S. various concentrations of Nitric Acid (60%. The company undertook major expansion and diversification in 1989 to achieve forward so 1. SHEGAON 24 . Chemicals 2. In 1983.M. 68%. this was India's only merchant ammonia manufacturer. for being the best Chemical Industrial unit in India. K. Agribusiness 3.1 OVERVIEW: The genesis of Deepak Fertilizers And Petrochemicals Corporation could be said to be in the year 1970 when Mr. 2.C.Agribusiness: This division of DFPCL manufactures 23:23:0 prilled Nitro phosphate fertilizer under the brand name Mahadhan. combining his skills in trading and manufacturing. Mehta set up Deepak Nitrite Ltd.Ray award.CHAPTER 3 COMPANY PROFILE 3.G. Ammonium Nitrate. and the only one making prilled Ammonium Nitrate (AN).S. At the time. Specialty Retailing 1. Deepak Fertilizers and Petrochemicals Corporation Limited (DFPCL) started commercial production of ammonia (in technical collaboration with Fish International Engineers (USA) using natural gas as feedstock. DFPCL markets Mahadhan through a network of over 1000 dealers. DNL grew by leaps and bounds.Chemicals: This division of DFPCL manufactures Methanol. C. Methanol. The International Finance Corporation initially supported this venture of Deepak group in the form of equity participation in DFPCL. DBAR.. 72% and 98%). surpassing expectations of all investors and also won many prestigious awards like the Sir P.E.C. various grades of Nitric Acid and Ammonia.

Specialty Retailing: Ishanya: Ishanya is India's first International Design Centre and Speciality Mall . We are proud to be part of Deepak..a center for excellence in space design and the one-stop shop for interior and exterior products.2.1 Vision Statement 1. hard-working and disciplined team working towards the satisfaction of all stakeholders.2 Vision & Philosophy 3.E.3. We. 6. 5. to be better than the best. in Deepak. 3. We are a caring organization working to continuously improve employee satisfaction. We will create a learning organization.M. 4.G. DBAR. Social Responsibilities: The Company has been contributing towards social causes for nearly two decades DCT has been actively working in the area of mother and childcare. SHEGAON 25 .C. committed to continuously improve. Future Prospects: DFPCL plans to leverage its well-knit marketing and distribution network in chemicals and fertilizer industry DFPCL is now executing two projects—an Ammonia storage facility at JNPT and a 300 MTPA AN manufacturing facility at Paradip in Orissa on the East Coast of India 3. S. 2.S. We are a committed. We work as a team to achieve quality and excellence in all our activities leading to continuous growth. believe that the customer is the very purpose of our existence.

US$ 200 million) in dyes. intermediates. today the Deepak Group has a manufacturing base with investments of about Rs. at Deepak we see the future unfolding into many exciting facets.800 crores (approx. Beginning with trading in chemicals in the late 50's. Warm Regards. Belief in the ultimate goodness. K. collaborative associations and strategic alliances with the world beyond the Indian shores.2 Philosophy C.. And as we look ahead. woven with self reliance. As I look back and reflect over the four decades of my association with the enterprising world of chemicals. Mehta Chairman DBAR. Caring.C. It is in this spirit of openness that I invite you to have a glimpse of Deepak's past. petrochemicals and fertilizers.. Mehta Chairman A few thoughts. which represent the underlying currents of thoughts that have shaped our words.. K. Openness.M. with India awakening to its true potential as an integral part of the world enterprise.. Perseverance..2. aromatic chemicals.. C.E. S...3. our actions and ultimately our destiny... emanating from a fabric. SHEGAON 26 .. and present and share our vision of the future.G.S. these have been the words.

who bring with them a multi-faceted storehouse of knowledge and expertise.G. Basu Non-Executive Director N. Mehta Non-Executive Director R.E. Parul S. again to maximise variations in domestic and international prices. S. Rama Iyer Additional Non-Executive Director Manu Seth Shri Anil Sachdev Additional Non-Executive Director 3. SHEGAON 27 .4 BOARD OF DIRECTORS (As of June 30th. with significant representation of independent (and highly regarded) experts. Singhal Non-Executive Director U. DFPCL has built up some unique strength that has allowed it to grow. Mehta Non–Executive Director S.3 Strengths Over the years. These capabilities have provided the company with significant resilience and stability. which allow them to switch between imports and manufacturing. through good and bad times. P. pipelines and manufacturing facilities. 3. This is further enhanced by their port storage infrastructure. Wadhwa Non-Executive Director Smt. Shah Non-Executive Director D. governance and high quality inputs for the company. Chairman C. despite operating in markets that tend to be cyclical. Mehta Vice Chairman & Managing Director S.5 RECOGNITION AND AWARDS DBAR. This ensures transparency. K. Jhaveri Non-Executive Director S.C.3.M. 2008) DFPCL is managed by a Board of Directors.S.. A. R. Operational flexibility DFPCL has a broad product range and the operational flexibility to optimise its product mix (by switching between products) depending on market conditions and supply constraints. C. C.

.S.M.C. S.Dhindsa. National Safety Council of India Safety Awards .S. SHEGAON 28 .6 Industrial Chemicals Products 1) Methanol 2) Nitric Acid 3) Liquid CO2 4) Isopropyl Alcohol 3.: British Safety Council Award Environment. in various categories at the 2000-2001 Annual Seminar of Fertilizer Association of India. held at Delhi.E. The award decided by the trustees of the Chamber's 'diamond jubilee endowment trust'. Agriculture and Rural Development Award The Indian Merchants' Chamber has conferred its 'environment. Union Minister of Chemicals and Fertilizers presented the awards.7 Agribusiness Products DBAR.G.2000 3. Shri. Annual Fertilizers Association of India (FAI) Honour DFPCL was honored with three awards.S. agriculture and rural development' award for 2001 to Deepak Fertilizers.

Water and Organic Matter Samples Analytical Facilities for Testing Soil.8 AGRI-LAB Services Analytical Facilities for Testing Soil.  Computerised fertiliser recommendation based on the above analysis  DBAR.E.Mahadhan Potash MOP (23:23:0) Mahadhan Power Mahadhan Chetak DAP            Bhoodhan . water should be tested for quality and soil health should be maintained.G. S. water and organic fertiliser samples.20:20:0 Mahadhan Bensulf (elemental sulfur) Micronutrient (Mahadhan Kranti) Secondary nutrient (Mahadhan Shakti) Water soluble fertilizer (Mahadhan Amruta) Agri Lab Services Mahadhan Saarrthie Center 3.C.S. Plant Tissue. K and Sulphur along with micronutrients in addition to pH and Electrical Conductivity (EC). Deepak Fertilisers And Petrochemicals Corporation Limited has set up a well equipped Agri-Lab with state-of-the-art facilities at Pune.18:18:10 . Water and Organic Matter Samples The use of agri-inputs to obtain higher yields of international quality is gaining importance in high-tech agriculture. We offer the following analytical services through our Agri-Lab: Analysis of N. fertilisers. plant tissue. it is important that various inputs like seeds. To provide services to the farmer for testing soil. Plant Tissue. SHEGAON 29 ..20:10:10 . In order to maintain consistent product quality. P.M.10:20:20 .

organic and chemical fertilisers to check quality  All the above analyses are done with the help of most modern.G. payable at Pune..per sample. Charges for Agri-Lab Services (As of January 2002) Testing of soil sample for complete analysis: Testing of all major and micronutrients in plant sample Testing of water quality and analysis: Rs. 275/. All the charges for testing and analysis are accepted only by Demand Draft / Cash. SHEGAON 30 .per sample Rs.M. 175/. S.C.per sample Rs. Payment to be sent in favour of `Deepak Fertilisers and Petrochemicals Corporation Limited'.S. 150/.E. Mahadhan Saarrthie Offering holistic agri-business solutions and services DBAR.Testing of water to check its suitability for irrigation and advise farmers accordingly  Testing of plant tissue samples for all major and micronutrients and advise farmers on fertiliser scheduling for fruit crops  Analysis of manures. state-of-the-art imported equipment like Atomic Absorption Spectrometer and Automated Nitrogen Analyser with utmost precision and accuracy.

The Intensive Agricultural District Programme commenced in 1961 with sixteen districts.43 kg of nutrients per hectare of cropped area. Moreover the fertilizer industry specially the ammonia urea plants are highly energy intensive in their operation there are vide variation in the vintage of fertilizer plants in the country in terms of feedstock major feedstock presently being used in the fertilizer plants are natural gas naphtha and fuel oil.029 million tones of potash which worked out to 2.M. the importance given to the use of fertilizers was not very high. Over the years the majority of industry has improved its performance significantly in terms specific energy consumption and capacity utilization. Initially only a small quantity of indigenously produced super phosphate and some imported ammonium sulphate were essentially used by the plantation industry. S. By & large. Consequent DBAR. the bulk of the import of ammonium sulphate & to a little extent urea & ammonium sulphate nitrate. The total consumption during 196061 was 0.S. Fertilisation of major cereal crops was slow to pick up.E.CHAPTER 4 PRODUCT PROFILE FERTILIZER INDUSTRY PROFILE Fertilizer sector is very crucial of Indian economy because it provides a very important input to agriculture. Although agriculture occupied an important place in the country’s first two fiveyears plans. There are around 27 fertilizer plants in the country engaged in the manufacture of urea Use of fertilizer started in India towards the end of the last century with fertilization of tea and coffee plantations. the country’s requirement was made through imports.212 million tones of phosphate & 0. The fertilizer use on food crops started picking up with the free distribution of ammonium sulphate to farmers under the “Grow More Food Campaign”. Except for the production from the two factories at Always and Sindri. The programme highlighted the importance of having a package approach to agricultural development as a means of increasing agricultural productivity.G. SHEGAON 31 .C.. There are several state-of-the-art fertilizer plants operating in India.

consumption of fertilizers during the period 1961-66 almost doubled.S. both producing super phosphate. The first production of nitrogen fertilizer. 4. SHEGAON 32 . Travancore. With the formation of DBAR. and ammonium sulphate was in 1933 as a by-product in the Tata Iron & Steel Company at Jamshedpur. The unit was commissioned in 1951. the Nangal and Trombay units and the Rourkela unit of Hindustan Steel Limited were commissioned. The feedstock was changed to naphtha in 1962. in the public sector. This was followed in 1941 by the production of small quantities of ammonium sulphate at Belagula. a few more factories were also set up in the private sector to produce superphosphate..G.C. But the overall increase in fertilizer production capacity during the fifties was low. A factory at Varanasi to produce ammonium chloride was established by New Central Jute Mills. viz. The acute shortage of food immediately after the second world war necessitated a re look at the problem of increasing production of food grains in the country and consequently the need for fertilizers. Medium scale production of ammonium sulphate was started by the fertilizers & chemicals. Alwaye in 1947 using wood charcoal as a raw material for the production of ammonia. The annual capacity of the factory was 6400 tones of super phosphate. factory at Ambarnath (Maharashtra State) in 1924 & DCM factory at Delhi in 1946. Mysore through a synthetic process using electrolysis of water for producing hydrogen. The Sindri unit started producing ASN and urea in 1959. It was originally designed to produce ammonium sulphate. This was followed by Dharamsi Morarji Chemical Co. Ltd. As a result of Government of India decided to set up fertilizer plat at this programme and also other promotional efforts by State Government. S.M.1 Production The first fertilizer factory in India was established at Ranipet in Tamil Nadu by EDI-Parry in 1906 to produce super phosphate from the acidulation of crushed bones.E. (FACT). Between 1960 and 1965. The relatively low importance attached to fertilizer use in pre-independence India was responsible for the very slow progress made by the industry during this period.. The Sindri and Nangal units were then under Hindustan Cheicals & Fertilisers Ltd. During the next decade.

the total installed capacity for fertilizer in the country was 0. 6) E.Parry 7) Coromandel Fertilizers. Barauni. Ltd. Kochin. During the same period the FACT unit was diversified to produce ammonium phosphate sulphate. a number of projects were sanctioned during the period.17 million tones of P2O5. Table 4. 8) Shriram Chemicals Industries Gorakhpur Namrup Kanpur Baroda Ennore Vishakhapattanam Kota Several units were commissioned after 1971 to 1976 at Manali. Kota. Kandha.S.M. Gorakhpur.C. of India 3) Fertilizer Corp. and Panipat etc.1 -Units commissioned during 1966-70 Unit 1) Neyveli Lignite Corporation Location Neyveli Products Urea Urea Urea Urea & ammonium sulphate Urea.G. of India 4) Indian Explosive Ltd. SHEGAON 33 . in January 1961.8 million tones of nitrogen and 0. Urea ammonium phosphate Urea 2) Fertilizer Corp. Bhatinda. The vital role that could be played by fertilizers in helping the country to achieve the food production target was fully realized in the early part of 1960s. Consequently. Their product pattern is also given therein.492 million tones of nitrogen and 0. Ltd. Ambalamedu. 5) Gujarat State Fertilizer Co. Tuticorin. By 1965. both these and subsequent units were brought under its control. . The total capacity built up during this five-year period was approximately 0. S. diammonium phosphate.I..D. The prominence given to urea is evident. Manglore.E.265 million tones of P2O5. Namrup. Goa. ammonium sulphate Ammonium sulphate& ammonium phosphoric sulphate Urea. DBAR. 8 units mentioned in Table 1 went into production between 1966-70. The products were calcium amoniu nitrate at Nangal and Rourkela and nitrophosphate and urea at Trombay. Of these. Kalol.Fertilizer Corporation Corporation of India Ltd. Durgapur.

The fertilizer subsidy increased from Rs600 million in FY 1976 to Rs32 billion in FY 1988. however.008 MT of P2O5 in 1983-84 respectivly. Now a days Government reduced subsidies from Rs. The initial subsidy was a response to the increase in the price of crude oil by the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC--see Glossary). Cow dung is an important source of fertilizer--and fuel--in India. S. Punjab used the highest amount of fertilizer per hectare followed by Tamil Nadu. Also State Government offered subsidy for transportation of fertilizers to subdealer DBAR. India used only sixtynine kilograms per hectare in 1989.6 million tons in FY 1990. SHEGAON 34 . Further increases are expected as the decade progresses. which in turn increased fertilizer prices. although it was still lower than in most other countries worldwide. consumption. Plans in 1992 to cut the subsidy by 40 percent were curtailed following heavy political opposition from the major farming states. The price increase led to a rise in the cost of naphtha. are not available.305 MT of urea & 1.. however. other than in Tamil Nadu.8 million tons in FY 1993. The disparity in the use of fertilizers across states was decreasing. to nearly Rs44 billion in FY 1990.2 CONSUMPTION: The rate of fertilizer consumption increased dramatically after independence.G. The use of fertilizers was high in Punjab and Harayana in the north because of adequate irrigation.4. especially in Andhra Pradesh and Kerala.E.M. The fertilizer subsidy has been growing since FY 1976. In the south. But current projections indicate that the production of nitrogen and P2O5 is likely to reach more than 10 and 4 million tonnes in 2007-08 from 4. was higher than the national average. and was expected to be about 13.C.000 tons of nutrients in FY 1950 to 12. 90 thousand crore to 30 thousand crore to fertilizer industry. Statistics on its usage. Fertilizer consumption increased from approximately 69.S. ranking it fifty-sixth worldwide and below all its South Asian neighbors except Nepal.

.10:20:20 .2.4. SHEGAON 35 .20:20:0 Mahadhan Bensulf (elemental sulfur) Micronutrient (Mahadhan Kranti) Secondary nutrient (Mahadhan Shakti) Water soluble fertilizer (Mahadhan Amruta) Agri Lab Services Mahadhan Saarrthie Center DBAR.C.E.1 Industrial Chemicals Product 1) Methanol 2) Nitric Acid 3) Liquid CO2 4) Isopropyl Alcohol 4.M.G.2.20:10:10 .2 Agribusiness Products Mahadhan Potash MOP (23:23:0) Mahadhan Power Mahadhan Chetak DAP            Bhoodhan . S.18:18:10 .S.

E.. S.M. It contains high water soluble Phosphorus: Helps in good crop stand and improves crop quality.C. Contains 6% Ammonium Sulphate.S.G. SHEGAON 36 . based on soil test Improves the quality of the final produce 'MAHADHAN' POWER The only Four-in-One Fertiliser (23:23:0) Features of MAHADHAN Power     A prilled fertilizer: Adulteration is impossible Contains nitrogen in Ammoniacal and Nitrate forms: Keeps the crop green and maintains vigour for a longer time.'MAHADHAN' POTASH MOP Potash-containing Fertiliser for Quality Improvement (0:0:60) Features of MAHADHAN Potash      Contains 60% Potash Contains readily water soluble Potassium (K) Does not leach away with irrigation water It can be independently applied to the crop at the right time in the right quantity. 'MAHADHAN' CHETAK Highest-nutrient content DAP Fertiliser (18:46:0) Features of MAHADHAN hetak    The N and P ratio is best suited for pulse crops It contains high water soluble Phosphorus It is well-suited for high pH soils BHOODHAN DBAR.

000/ton from Rs.500/ton in India.9.C..Fertiliser Mixture (10:20:20) Features of Bhoodhan     Supplies all three nutrients NPK in balanced proportion Easy for application due to bigger and bolder granule size Attractive and quality packing Assured quality Fertiliser Mixture (18:18:10) Fertiliser Mixture (20:10:10) Fertiliser Mixture (20:20:0) 4. S. Potash etc.E.M.15. Indian fertilizer production depends on import of raw material like Rock Phosphate.S.3 PROBLEMS: Now a day’s industry is facing lower production of fertilizers. SHEGAON 37 . And due to government regulations companies have to sell same DAP at Rs. Remaining DBAR.G.000/ton. Since last 8 years no any new company entered in fertilizer production. Price of DAP at international level is increased to Rs.60.

Out of that subsidy. govt.C. Also lack of railway wagons for transportation result in shortage of fertilizers.10320/ton at international level.S.. S.E.G.amount government gives to companies as subsidy.M. Also price of Rock Phosphate increased from Rs.3827/ton to Rs. All above mentioned things results in lower production of fertilizer DBAR. gives 70% amount after 6 month in the form of money & remaining 30% amount gets in the form of bonds after 35 years. SHEGAON 38 .

Customer's perception of Service and Quality of product will determine the success of the product or service in the market. Customer satisfaction measurement helps to promote an increased focus on customer outcomes and stimulate improvements in the work practices and processes used within the company.G.M.2. you cannot improve it.1 in ISO9000: 2000 states: "As one of the measurements of the performance of the Quality Management System. The methods for obtaining and using this information shall be determined" There is obviously a strong link between customer satisfaction and customer retention. Clause 8. Organizations certified to this standard are now required to identify parameters that cause customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction and consciously measure them." .C.S. With better understanding of customers' perceptions.1 Introduction "If you cannot measure it.CHAPTER 5 CUSTOMER SATISFACTION 5. where they stand in comparison to their competitors. S.. the organizations shall monitor information relating to customer perception as to whether the organization has met customer requirements. There is a lot of debate and confusion about what exactly is required and how to go about it. SHEGAON 39 . companies can determine the actions required to meet the customers' needs. They can identify their own strengths and weaknesses.E. Customer satisfaction is quite a complex issue and this article is an attempt to review DBAR.Lord William Thomson Kelvin (1824-1907) Measurement of Customer Satisfaction is a new significant addition to the new ISO9000: 2000 standard. chart out path future progress and improvement.

DBAR. SHEGAON 40 . a customer would expect the service representative who calls on him to be knowledgeable and competent to solve a problem on the spot.S.2 What do Customers Want? Before we begin to create tools to measure the level of satisfaction. S. improved quality of service provided by competitors are just a few examples. product specifications and delivery requirements. Customer Expectations are of two types . and discuss the steps that need to be taken in order to measure and track customer satisfaction.C. Expressed Customer Expectations are those requirements that are written down in the contract and agreed upon by both parties.M. changes in customer's priorities. when he wants it. it is important to develop a clear understanding of what exactly the customer wants. Customer expectations are the customer-defined attributes of your product or service you must meet or exceed to achieve customer satisfaction.E. It is therefore important to periodically update our knowledge of customer expectations. We need to know what our customers expect from the products and services we provide. advent of new technology. Supplier's job is to provide the Customer what he wants. 5. Supplier's performance against these requirements is most of the times directly measurable.. Implied Customer Expectations are not written or spoken but are the ones the customer would 'expect' the supplier to meeting nevertheless. Process improvements. The customer is always right. Customer Satisfaction is customers' perception that a supplier has met or exceeded their expectations. for example.Expressed and Implied.G.the necessary requirements. There are many reasons why customer expectations are likely to change over time. For example.

repeat orders.S.E. However falling short is certain to create dissatisfaction.5. It is far more difficult to measure the level of performance and satisfaction when it comes to the intangible expectations. sales improvements.G. S. accessibility and attitude We cannot begin to address the customer satisfaction issue we define the parameters and measures clearly.4 What are the Tools? Customer expectations can be identified using various methods such as      Periodic Contract Reviews Market research Telephonic Interviews Personal visits Warranty records DBAR. SHEGAON 41 . PPM.. complaints database.M. Some indication of whether a supplier is meeting the requirements can also be obtained from data on scrap rates.3 What constitutes Satisfaction? We cannot create customer satisfaction just by meeting customer's requirements fully because these HAVE to be met in any case. customer audit reports etc. It may be easier to track supplier's performance against stated requirements of quality and timeliness because there is documentary evidence.C. 5. Major attributes of customer satisfaction can be summarized as:       Product Quality Product Packaging Keeping delivery commitments Price Responsiveness and ability to resolve complaints and reject reports Overall communication.

We must develop a method or combination of methods that helps to continually improve service.E. SHEGAON 42 . how can we serve the customer better? A Customer satisfaction Measurement Survey should at least identify the following objectives    Importance to Customers (Customers' Priorities).5 Customer Satisfaction Surveys Formal survey has emerged as by far the best method of periodically assessing the customer satisfaction. Enough homework needs to be done before embarking on the actual survey. Customers' perception of supplier's performance.M. Priorities for Improvement..C. 5. we can choose a method that is most effective in measuring the customers' perceptions. DBAR.S. where is the scope for improvement. The surveys are not marketing tools but an information-gaining tool. where do we stand vis-à-vis other suppliers. This includes:       Defining Objectives of the survey Design Survey Approach Develop Questionnaires and forms Administer survey (email.  Informal discussions Satisfaction Surveys Depending upon the customer base and available resources. or post) Method of Compiling data and analyzing the findings Format of the Report to present the findings There is no point in asking irrelevant questions on a customer satisfaction questionnaire. The purpose of the exercise is to identify priorities for improvement.G. S. Your performance relative to customers' priorities. The basic purpose is to find out what we are doing right or wrong. telephone.

receiving inspector. you could provide the rating that was previously accorded by the customer. Yet they must provide accurate data to monitor improvements in the supplier's performance. Defining a simple survey having less number of descriptive questions and more of objective type can increase the feedback rate. Electronic mailing of survey questionnaire is a very good option as the customer can fill out the questionnaire quickly rather than DBAR. This gives a better indication of relative importance of each parameter towards overall customer satisfaction and makes it easier for suppliers to prioritize their action plans by comparing the Performance Rating (Scores) with Importance Rating (Weighting). Respondents must be provided a way to express the importance they attach to various survey parameters.the buyer. This enables them to state any additional requirements or report any shortcomings that are not covered by the objective questions. again on a rating scale of say. This works like a reference point for the customer. For repeated surveys. 1 to 10. 1 to 10. or Field Sales Performance. for each requirement.S. SHEGAON 43 .C. user.. Surveying a number of respondents for each customer gives a complete perspective of customer satisfaction.M. The data should also be sufficiently reliable for management decision-making. It is often found that there is a dismal response from the customers. Respondents should be asked to give a weighting factor. They should be designed to actively encourage the customer to complete the questions. It may be necessary to device a different questionnaire for each of them. Normally.G.E.Survey forms should be easy to fill out with minimum amount of time and efforts on customer's part. Space should always be provided for the customer's own opinions. we deal various personnel at various levels in the customer's organization. A recent study showed that only 15% of the customers to whom customer satisfaction surveys were sent gave a feedback. This can be achieved by incorporating 'objective' type questions where customer has to 'rate' on scale of say. One of the reasons for this could be a poorly conceived survey. S. The questions are grouped together in a common parameter such as Product Quality. Delivery Performance. finance and purchase persons etc.

7 Conclusions It is far less costly to keep existing customers than to win new ones. i.where necessary . understanding exactly what the customer wants. DBAR. Loyal customers buy more products and help bring in more business by recommending your product to others. Performance Matrix (Your performance relative to customers priorities) and 2. 5. We can recognize where we need to make changes to create improvements and determine if these changes. Two major factors that can be determined from the survey data are: 1. So if customer loyalty is the goal. S. 5. after implemented. SHEGAON 44 . the supplier can begin to understand how his products and services provide value for his customers. By discovering what the customer wants.6 Analysis The customer's requirements must be translated and quantified into measurable backed up by a gentle reminder or a personal visit. This gives the supplier an insight on where he lacks in delivering his products or services and where is the scope of improvement. have led to increased customer satisfaction..S.sitting with the suppliers representative disturbing his busy schedule. Satisfaction Index (Customers Satisfaction over a period of time). and deciding upon the attributes that need to be concentrated on in order to improve customer satisfaction. This can .C. then the supplier's efforts should begin with the knowledge of what constitutes value to his customers and the market. A supplier should always keep on improving so as to achieve a greater profitability.e. This can be achieved by knowing the market well. This provides an easy way to monitor improvements. A simple tool is to take customer satisfaction surveys and analyze the customer feedback.

1 Analysis of Educational Qualification From the above graph it is found that there are 48% respondents under graduate. S.S. 36% are graduate. SHEGAON 45 .E.M. So there are more of the customer are under graduate category.C.G. Of Respondents 48 36 12 4 Table no 6.1 Educational Qualification of customer Percentage 48 36 12 4 Chart 6. To know educational qualification of respondents Qualification Under graduate Graduate Post graduate Other No.. The findings of the study are summarized as under.CHAPTER 6 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION The present study was conducted basically to study Consumer Satisfaction Towards DFPCL Products With Special Reference To MAHADHAN Fertilizers. DBAR. The primary data has been collected from the farmers in Ahmednagar Dist. 12% are post graduate and 4% in other or non educated category.

S. DBAR. 6% professionals.C.M. SHEGAON 46 .S.2 Analysis of Occupation of customer From the above graph it is found that we found that there are most of the customer are a farmer in their occupation.2 Occupation of customer Chart 6..G. There are 80% customer are farmer. 12% doing services & 2% are having other occupations.Analysis of respondent according to their occupations Occupation Number of respondents 80 6 12 2 Percentage Farmer Professional Service Any other 80 6 12 2 Table no 6.E.

S. Income Level <5000 5001-10000 10001-15000 15000> Number of respondents 12 38 40 10 Percentage 12 38 40 10 Table no 6.E.Analysis of respondents according to their income group.3 Income level of customer Chart 6.M.C. SHEGAON 47 .S..G. There are most of the customers are in 10001-15000 income level group then near as most of the customer are in 5001-10000 income level group 12% are in <5000 income level group and 10% are in >15000 income level group DBAR.3 Analysis of Income level of customer These graph shown the monthly income level of the customer.

S.C. 8% customers have self dry farm and 3% customer have rented irrigated farm. S.Analysis of respondents according to their farm. Farms IRS DRY. SHEGAON 48 .S IRR DRYR Number of respondents 89 8 3 0 Percentage 89 8 3 0 Table no 6. DBAR.E.M..4 Farm type of customer Chart 6.4 Analysis of Farm type of customer From the above graph it is found that about 89% have their own irrigated farm.G.

SHEGAON 49 .S.G.M..5 Analysis of Awareness level of customer From the above graph it is found that there are about 96% customers are aware about mahadhan fertilizers and only 4% customers are not aware about mahadhan fertilizers.To know awareness level of customer Responses of consumer Yes No Table no 6. S.E. DBAR.C.5 Awareness level of customer Number of respondents 96 4 Percentage 96 4 Chart 6.

G. S.. 44% customer aware by self-observation.C. DBAR.Analysis of respondents according to sources of information Percentage 60 44 25 12 Informational Source Advertisement Self observation Hoarding Refereals Number of respondents 60 44 25 12 Table no 6.6 Information sources of mahadhan fertilizers Chart 6. SHEGAON 50 .6 Analysis of Information sources of mahadhan fertilizers From the above graph it is found that there are large number of people aware about mahadhan fertilizers by advertisement.E.S.M. 25% by hoarding and 12% by refereals. There are 60% people aware by advertisement.

. Amruta 16 Table no 6. There are about 64% are purchase mahadhan potash. 60% are purchase mahadhan power. 20% purchase mahadhan bensulf and 16% customer purchase mahadhan amruta fertilizers. Shakti M. DBAR. S.G.S. Power M. Potash M. 28% purchase mahadhan kranti.E. Chetak Bhoodhan M.To know which Mahadhan fertilizers customer purchase Types of Fertilizer M.C. Then purchases mahadhan power. SHEGAON 51 . Bensulf No.7 Analysis of Different types of mahadhan fertilizers purchase by customer From the above graph it is found that there are more of the customer are purchases mahadhan potash fertilizers. Of Purchaser 64 60 44 44 16 28 20 Percentage 64 60 44 44 16 28 20 16 M. 44% purchase mahadhan chetak & bhoodhan. Kranti M.M.7 Different types of mahadhan fertilizers Chart 6. 16% purchase mahadhan shakti.

To know quality of the product Quality Yes No No.C.8 Analysis of Quality measurement of the product There are about 88% people give importance to quality aspects of products and 12% customers are not give importance to the quality matter of the products.8 Quality measurement of the product Chart 6.S. DBAR.G.M.. SHEGAON 52 . Of people 88 12 Percentage 88 12 Table no 6. S.E.

52% customer give preference to quality factor and 12% customer give preference to any other factor. Of Respondent 52 56 60 12 Percentage 52 56 60 12 Table no 6.M.To know the factors responsible for purchasing of product Factors Quality Brand Name Price Any other No.. SHEGAON 53 .G.E.C.S. DBAR. From the above graph it is found that there are more of the people give response to price of the products for purchasing the fertilizers. S.9 Analysis of Factors responsible for purchasing of fertilizers.9 Factors responsible for purchasing of fertilizers Chart 6. There are 60% customer give preference to price factor. 56 customer give preference to brand name.

From the above graph it is found that there are 44% customers are says the company can provided demonstration services. SHEGAON 54 . of people 24 44 28 36 Percentage 24 44 28 36 Table no 6.M.G.S. DBAR. 28% customer says company can provide sample to farmers and 24% says company gives to field visit through their representative.E.10 Analysis of Types of services provided by company. S.To know types of services provided by company Services Field Visit Demonstration Provide sample Tree Plantation No.10 Types of services provided by company Chart 6.C.. 36% says company provided tree plantation services.

M.G. Quality. DBAR. The customers give 1st preference to MAHADHAN fertilizers.. 3rd preference to IFFCO fertilizers and 4th preference to ZUARI fertilizers. S. Of Respondent 128 172 104 344 Table no 6.E. SHEGAON 55 . and Packing.11 Analysis of Preferences of people towards different company. Price. then 2nd preference to RCF fertilizers. The customers can give ranking to the different company according to factors like Availability.To know the preferences of people towards different company Company IFFCO RCF ZUARI MAHADAN No.C.S.11 Preferences of people towards different company Chart 6.

12 Peoples expectation from company Chart 6. From the above graph it is found that there are 63% customers expects from the company are less price of fertilizers.S.To know peoples expectation from company Factors Less price Packaging High quality Any other People s Desire 68 16 24 0 Percentage 68 16 24 0 Table no 6..E.G. DBAR.C. S.M.12 Analysis of Peoples expectations from company. 22% customers expects from the company are company should provide high quality fertilizers and 15% customers expects from the company are provide good packaging to fertilizers. SHEGAON 56 .

20% of customer buys due to quality of product and 4% of customer buys due to services provided by company. S.C. DBAR. About 76% of customer buys due to last year performance about fertilizers.. Of respondent 76 36 20 4 Factors Last performance Price Quality Service Percentage 76 36 20 4 Table no 6. SHEGAON 57 . 36% of customer buys due to price of product.M.S.G.To know factors affecting the buying decision of people No. More of the customer buys the fertilizers due to their last year performance about fertilizers.E.13 Factors affecting the buying decision of people Chart 6.13 Analysis of Factors affecting the buying decision of people.

7.1.1 a) Distribution network: Amongst the major competitors R.C.F., IFFCO, ZUARI and others has extremely strong distribution network. Amongst the Ahmednagar area these manufactures have a strong distributor/ dealers presence. R.C.F., IFFCO, ZUARI have mainly big dealers in the region, D.F.P.C.L. also has many good dealers.

7.1.2 b) Product Quality: Regarding product quality D.F.P.C.L. is second to none. The products like Mahadhan Power, Bhudhan, and Potash have established its big customer base in the market. Other molecule will need the help of promotional activities to penetrate into the market having good potential to establish. 7.1.3 c) Promotion Other players in the market undertake strong promotional campaign such as field visits by company officials, assisting the distributors as well as farmers though field visits, distribution of pamphlets, farmers’ meet, posters etc. D.F.P.C.L. does not take such strong promotional activities for fertilizers other than N,P,K etc.and consequently looses its ground to competitors. 7.1.4 d) Price The prices of the products of D.F.P.C.L. are in line with those of competitors but there is no back up provided in terms of promotional activities. There is a demand for clear-cut discount system.


7.1.5 e) Frontline staff: This is indispensable for any growing company. It is the backbone of marketing and promotional activities in agro-input sector. There is marked absence of field assistants in the area. It is important to have strong frontline team to flourish in the market.

Over the years, DFPCL has built up some unique strength that has allowed it to grow, through good and bad times. 7.2.1 Operational flexibility: DFPCL has a broad product range and the operational flexibility to optimize its product mix (by switching between products) depending on market conditions and supply constraints. This is further enhanced by their port storage infrastructure, pipelines and manufacturing facilities, which allow them to switch between imports and manufacturing, again to maximize variations in domestic and international prices. These capabilities have provided the company with significant resilience and stability, despite operating in markets that tend to be cyclical. 7.2.2 Assimilation of the best technology: DFPCL has always sought the best technology and boasts several strong international technology partners. Equally important, we have been able to absorb the technology for optimal utilization and today have some of the best capabilities in the quality production of bulk hydrocarbons and heavy chemicals. Products of D.F.P.C.L. meet international quality standards and have been well received both in domestic and global markets. All plants have been tested for 100% capacity run.


Products Ammonia Methanol Dilute Nitric Acid Concentrated Nitric Acid

Technology Fish International Engrs. (USA) Davy McKee (UK) Weatherly Inc (USA) Plinke (Germany)

Low Density Ammonium Nitrate Stamicarbon (The Netherlands) Nitro Phosphate (fertilisers) Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA) Stamicarbon (The Netherlands) British Petroleum

In recognition of efforts, DFPCL has received several awards, including three awards in different categories at the 2000 Annual Fertilisers Association (FAI) seminar held in New Delhi (India). 7.2.3 Strong marketing and distribution network: DFPCL has a strong marketing and distribution network for bulk fertilizers and chemicals. We have a widespread and loyal dealer network, and D.F.P.C.L’s presence is very significant in the agri-input market, especially in some specific areas like Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. 7.2.4 Branding: A multiple set of agricultural products and services (seeds, fertilisers, micronutrients, testing, advice and education for farmers) are marketed under the umbrella brand "MAHADHAN". This has enabled strong brand recognition and loyalty, even for the commodity item in the portfolio of products/services. DPCL has strong brands in Ammonium Nitrate viz. Optimex, Optispan and Optiform. 7.2.5 Import logistics: DFPCL has invested resources in building capabilities for trading and handling bulk


G.F. through sheer grit and determination. wherein the company can add to the business portfolio with lower investment as compared to green field projects.10 Locational advantage DFPCL is in the heart of the chemicals market.L.P.2.6 Capability in handling hazardous chemicals DFPCL has capabilities for handling and movement of hazardous.Port storage capacities at Bombay Port Trust and Vishakhapatnam.E. 7. an explosion at the methanol plant) struck the company. gained from the chairman of the company. 7.9 Real estate infrastructure to grow capacity there is real estate infrastructure availability at Taloja as well as at Pune.S.C.2. DBAR. D.F. thanks to a relatively strong Balance Sheet and a good track record. by 1995.P.. S. a trait no doubt. D.imports and exports of hazardous items. toxic and inflammable chemicals. Its mettle was put to the test in 1993. South India. 7.C. However.2. which pushed it into the red zone.7 Ability to raise resources DFPCL has the ability to raise resources from the financial institutions as well as from the markets. 7.2.C.L’s port facilities at Vishakapatnam also give them further access to markets in the East and South. the company was back in the black! And has never looked back! 7. have been able to develop import sources and develop a robust logistic management system by leasing the necessary infrastructure .8 Management resilience The management of DFPCL has tremendous resilience in adverse external conditions. the company received the British Safety Council Award for the third year in a row. Western India. And close to another major market. when a series of disasters (government decontrol of fertilisers. A measure of its skill and efforts in maintaining a good record on health and safety is the fact that in 2000-2001.2.M. SHEGAON 61 .

C.L’S MARKET SHARE: In the Ahmednagar Dist. Other products need some promotional activities to create awareness in the market.G. 8.1 D. which probably competitors also do not have in the Indian market.1.E. ZUARI. Coromandal. they have an upper hand in R&D operations. S.1 FINDINGS 8. Chetak. Ranadey & others like lokmangal in micronutrients.C. Shakti. has near about 20 to 25 percent of market share.M.1. 8.P.4 PRODUCT RANGE Product range of DFPCL is one more plus point for DFPCL but it is not proving that way. However. secondary nutrients & water soluble fertilizers have good amount of market share. quality products by DFPCL are the biggest bet for competitors. IFFCO. PRODUCTS: DFPCL has a very good range of products like Mahadhan Power in fertilizers. As there are more and strong competitors in Ahmednagar Dist DFPCL having this fair amount of market share.P. Competitors such as RCF.CHAPTER 8 FINDINGS. Nagarjuna in bulk fertilizers and Sanghavi. Moreover. Potash. 8.C.1. SHEGAON 62 .. CONCLUSION & SUGGESTIONS 8. have a good demand in the market..3 COMPETITORS: There are several big players in the market some more fertilizer cos are looking to grab the sizable amount of market share.C.P.F. A few products like Mahadhan Power. This is mainly because of the promotional activities undertaken by them. D. DFPCL has good product range in fertilizers and industrial chemicals etc.S. Amruta etc. Bhudhan. which was studied.L. DBAR.2 D.L.1.F.F.

8.7 AWARENESS OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS: Organic fertilizers give results slowly. has a vast market potential. as today’s market share of DFPCL is with very less advertising and promotional activities as compared to competitors for the products like Shakti. sulfur fertilizers.9 Lack of awareness about the products: Barring a few products consumer does not have much awareness about DFPCL products 8. secondary nutrients.C.1.1. Bensulf and Amruta.5 SENSITIVITY OF MARKET It is said that market is always a price sensitive market. opinion of personal localite.G. Farmers want good quality organic fertilizers. water soluble fertilizers. it will need time. S. DBAR. 8. It is a growing market and having very high-untapped market.6 CONSUMPTION POTENTIAL: Ahmednagar Dist is a big market for micronutrients.S.8.2 CONCLUSION: The Ahmednagar Dist. The company also has to lay strong focus on strengthening its distribution network and maintaining good relations with dealers. They also think about quality difference of different products.1. Though now the price consciousness is taking the shape of experience and quality consciousness.1. 8. Kranti. SHEGAON 63 . DFPCL shares a fair amount of market in the region.M. 8. personal cosmopolite etc.E.1. Farmers are not interested to move to organic fertilizers because of quality constraint.8 CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR BEFORE PURCHASE OF FERTILIZERS: Customers consider prior experience.. There is dominance of some other competitors in the region but still there is a good scope for increasing market share.

S. it was found that direct/face to face contact is the best medium we can use. It has been observed that competitors having more dealers in that area than DFPCL. pamphlets will help the company to increase the market share.3. that purpose will also get satisfied. farmers’ meet etc.E.Work of frontline staff is very important. the company can snatch more market share. So maintaining good relations with him is important. Sales people not only work to sell the fertilizers to dealers but also to maintain and increase relationship with dealers..1. leaflets. Advertising through posters. In survey. Pricing policy can be reviewed if possible. good dealer’s network is coupled with the due promotional activities. Through field trials. PROMOTIONS AND ADVERTISING This is the indispensable activity that any company has to follow.3.3. Practical demonstrations and result demonstration will help to create brand loyalty on the part of consumers.M. It has been observed that farmers are interested to give their plots for field trials but company is lacking behind to convince farmers 8. 8.MAINTAIN GOOD RELATIONS WITH DEALERS In the competitive environment. S. Through survey it was found that the dealers do many a time recommendation to the farmers.C. no one is as important as a dealer. So sales people should work in that way.2.3 SUGGESTIONS OR RECOMMENDATIONS 8.FIELD TRIALS This is the thing where company can bind the customers to itself and this will consequently lead to brand loyalty. More dealers will attract to company after intensive advertisement.3. 8. If the quality. SHEGAON 64 .G. DBAR. He should address there problems through field visits.

company can open its own outlet to sell the fertilizers through ‘Mahadhan Sarrathi’ at Ahmednagar area.SEASON-BASED DISCOUNT: This may prove to be a good promotional policy as the market is price-sensitive. as they are very important in creating brand image and customer loyalty.S. DBAR.M. 8.4.E. S.3. RECRUITING AND RETENTION OF FAs FAS have to be taken into confidence. DIVERSIFY BUSINESS OF MAHADHAN SARRATHI: As company is having retail background.. 8. SHEGAON 65 .G.C.

SHEGAON 66 . new Delhi-110001. “ Marketing Management” Twelfth edition Prentice Hall Of India LTD New Delhi. DBAR.R.C.-110001. C. “ Research Methodology”. http://www.. S. 3. second edition. Web Sites: 1. Kothari. Wishwa Prakashan a Division of Wiely Eastern Limited Pune.BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS: 2.dfpcl. Philip Kotler and kenin Lane Keller.G.M. http://wikipedia.

M. I am doing project to study the ‘‘Consumer satisfaction towards DFPCL Products with special reference to Mahadhan fertilizers’’.000 4) Education qualification: a) Under graduate b) Post graduate 5) Occupation a) Farmer b) Professionals 6) Which income group you belong? a) Under 5000 b) 10.. & Research. SSGMCE. Thanking You BABASAHEB S. So.000 7) What type of Farm you have? Particulars Irrigated Dry Farm Self Owned Rented (Batai) DBAR.C. Shegaon. S. I kindly request you to please cooperate in giving valuable inputs in Questionnaire for fulfilment of Project. the undersigned student of MBA 2nd year (Marketing Specialisation) of Dept.001 to 15.S.C.M. Name of Respondent: Age: Gender: a) Male b) Female c) Graduate d) other c) Service d) Any other c) 5001 to 10.000 d) Above 15. Shegaon. I am. of Business Admin. GARDHE (MBA 2nd YEAR) S.E.QUESTIONNAIRE Dear Respondent.E..G.S.G. SHEGAON 67 .

C.E.S.. a) Mahadhan Potash MOP b) Mahadhan Power (23:23:0) c) Mahadhan Chetak d) Bhoodhan (10:20:20) a) Yes a) Quality b) Brand Name 14) Do you give important to packaging? a) Yes 15) Would you like to sacrify product quality with the price? a) Yes a) High quality b) Impact of advertisement b) No c) High product range d) Comparative price 16) Which of the following reasons for which you prefer the Mahadhan fertilizers? b) No e) Mahadhan Shakti f) Mahadhan Kranti g) Mahadhan Bensulf h) Mahadhan Amruta b) No c) price d) any other b) No c) Hoardings d) Refereals b) No 2) Do you feel the Mahadhan fertilizers are quality product? 13) Which factor do you generally consider while Mahadhan fertilizers? 17) What are the services offered by Mahadhan fertilizers? a) Field visit c) Provide sample b) Demonstration d) Tree plantation programme DBAR.M.G. SHEGAON 68 . S.8) Do you know about Mahadhan fertilizers? a) Yes 9) If yes how do you know about it? a) Advertisement b) Self Observation 10) Are you regularly using Mahadhan fertilizers? a) Yes 11) Which Mahadhan fertilizers you purchase.

E.M.18) Give the preference/satisfaction remitting for factors below with respect to following companies Companies IFFCO RCF ZUARI MAHADHAN Factors Availability Quality Price Packing 19) What do you expect from company? a) Less price b) Convenient packaging 20) Which factors are affecting on buying decisions of fertilizers? a) Last year performances b) Price 21) Any suggestion regarding the product.C.S. SHEGAON 69 .. Signature DBAR. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------c) quality d) services c) High quality d) any other Date: Place: Thank You………….G. S.