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at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net

Title: Hyperbolic Functions Author: James McMahon Release Date: October 10, 2004 [EBook #13692] Language: English Character set encoding: TeX *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS ***

Produced by David Starner, Joshua Hutchinson, John Hagerson, and the Project Gutenberg On-line Distributed Proofreading Team.

i

MATHEMATICAL MONOGRAPHS.

edited by

MANSFIELD MERRIMAN and ROBERT S. WOODWARD.

**No. 4. HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.
**

by

JAMES McMAHON,

Professor of Mathematics in Cornell University.

NEW YORK: JOHN WILEY & SONS. London: CHAPMAN & HALL, Limited. 1906.

Copyright 1896 by MANSFIELD MERRIMAN and ROBERT S. WOODWARD under the title HIGHER MATHEMATICS

Transcriber’s Note: I did my best to recreate the index.

ii

MATHEMATICAL MONOGRAPHS.

edited by

**Mansﬁeld Merriman and Robert S. Woodward.
**

Octavo. Cloth.

No. 1. No. 2. No. 3. No. 4. No. 5. No. 6. No. 7. No. 8. No. 9. No. 10. No. 11. No. 12. No. 13. No. 14.

History of Modern Mathematics. By David Eugene Smith. $1.00 net. Synthetic Projective Geometry. By George Bruce Halsted. $1.00 net. Determinants. By Laenas Gifford Weld. $1.00 net. Hyperbolic Functions. By James McMahon. $1.00 net. Harmonic Functions. By William E. Byerly. $1.00 net. Grassmann’s Space Analysis. By Edward W. Hyde. $1.00 net. Probability and Theory of Errors. By Robert S. Woodward. $1.00 net. Vector Analysis and Quaternions. By Alexander Macfarlane. $1.00 net. Diﬀerential Equations. By William Woolsey Johnson. $1.00 net. The Solution of Equations. By Mansfield Merriman. $1.00 net. Functions of a Complex Variable. By Thomas S. Fiske. $1.00 net. The Theory of Relativity. By Robert D. Carmichael. $1.00 net. The Theory of Numbers. By Robert D. Carmichael. $1.00 net. Algebraic Invariants. By Leonard E. Dickson. $1.25 net.

PUBLISHED BY JOHN WILEY & SONS, Inc., NEW YORK. CHAPMAN & HALL, Limited, LONDON.

Among the topics which are under consideration are those of elliptic functions. but all supposing the reader to have at least a mathematical training equivalent to that given in classical and engineering colleges. and mathematical physics may be included. It is the intention of the publishers and editors to add other monographs to the series from time to time. December. if the call for the same seems to warrant it. the theory of numbers. The volume called Higher Mathematics. the group theory.Editors’ Preface. but it is also thought that it may prove advantageous to readers in special lines of mathematical literature. the ﬁrst edition of which was published in 1896. and non-Euclidean geometry. This plan of publication has been arranged in order to meet the demand of teachers and the convenience of classes. mechanics. each chapter being independent of the others. contained eleven chapters by eleven authors. the calculus of variations. possibly also monographs on branches of astronomy. It is the hope of the editors that this form of publication may tend to promote mathematical study and research over a wider ﬁeld than that which the former volume has occupied. The publication of that volume is now discontinued and the chapters are issued in separate form. In these reissues it will generally be found that the monographs are enlarged by additional articles or appendices which either amplify the former presentation or record recent advances. 1905. iii .

and the exponential expressions. being adapted to two or three diﬀerent types of readers. For those. these and similar restrictions are discarded in the interest of analogy and generality. having either a real or a pure imaginary period. and to the presentation of fundamental notions. and a direct mode of bringing such exponential deﬁnitions into geometrical relation with the hyperbolic sector is shown in the Appendix. There is reason to believe that it supplies a need. College students who have had elementary courses in trigonometry. Such deﬁnitions. Readers who have some interest in imaginaries are then introduced to the more general trigonometry of the complex plane. where the circular and hyperbolic functions merge into one class of transcendents. in connection with the fruitful notion of correspondence of points on conics. numerous applications have been selected so as to illustrate the various parts of the theory. 1905. the Maclaurin expansions. however. from which easily follow the conversion-formulas. For those who also wish to view the subject in some of its practical relations. This compendium of hyperbolic trigonometry was ﬁrst published as a chapter in Merriman and Woodward’s Higher Mathematics. in the present work. ﬁnd these relations presented in a simple and comprehensive way in the ﬁrst half of the work. For instance. it is hoped. With all these things in mind. appropriate numerical tables being supplied for these purposes. it has been customary to deﬁne the hyperbolic functions in relation to a sector of the rectangular hyperbola. The proofs are so arranged as to apply equally to the circular functions. iv . the appropriate order of procedure is indicated on page 27. and diﬀerential and integral calculus. who may wish to start with the exponential expressions as the deﬁnitions of the hyperbolic functions. analytic geometry. and who wish to know something of the hyperbolic trigonometry on account of its important and historic relations to each of those branches. and it is hoped that some improvements are discernible. December. and to show its use to the physicist and engineer. much thought has been given to the mode of approaching the subject. with a gain in symmetry and simplicity. the singly periodic functions. regarded as the characteristic ratios belonging to any elliptic sector. lead to simple and general proofs of the addition-theorems.Author’s Preface. and to take the initial radius of the sector coincident with the principal radius of the curve. and the functions are deﬁned as certain characteristic ratios belonging to any sector of any hyperbola. the derivatives. will.

4 Charactersitic Ratios of Sectorial Measures. 14 Derivatives of Hyperbolic Functions.Contents Editors’ Preface. 7 Functional Relations for Hyperbola. Author’s Preface. 15 Derivatives of Anti-hyperbolic Functions. 9 Variations of the Hyperbolic Functions. 3 Areas of Corresponding Sectors. 11 Functions of Sums and Diﬀerences. 17 Exponential Expressions. 2 Areas of Corresponding Triangles. 12 Conversion Formulas. 13 Limiting Ratios. 10 Anti-hyperbolic Functions. 1 Correspondence of Points on Conics. 5 Ratios Expressed as Triangle-measures. 6 Functional Relations for Ellipse. 16 Expansion of Hyperbolic Functions. 8 Relations Among Hyperbolic Functions. v iii iv 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12 14 15 18 19 20 23 25 27 .

20 The Gudermanian Function. . 89 Index 89 . . .CONTENTS 18 Expansion of Anti-functions.2 Exponential Expressions as Deﬁnitions. . . 88 40. . . . . . . 88 40. . vi 29 31 33 34 36 38 40 42 45 49 51 53 55 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 77 79 40 Appendix. . . 24 Series for Gudermanian and its Inverse. . 30 Functions of x + iy in the Form X + iY . 39 Explanation of Tables. . 36 Combined Flexure and Tension. . 25 Graphs of Hyperbolic Functions. . 35 The Loxodrome. . 28 Addition-Theorems for Complexes. . . 33 The Elastic Catenary. 31 The Catenary 32 Catenary of Uniform Strength. . . . . . 19 Logarithmic Expression of Anti-Functions. 37 Alternating Currents. . . 27 Functions of Complex Numbers. . 26 Elementary Integrals. 21 Circular Functions of Gudermanian. 29 Functions of Pure Imaginaries. . 34 The Tractory. 22 Gudermanian Angle 23 Derivatives of Gudermanian and Inverse. . 38 Miscellaneous Applications. .1 Historical and Bibliographical. .

CONTENTS 41 PROJECT GUTENBERG ”SMALL PRINT” vii .

—Values of cosh(x + iy ) and sinh(x + iy ) III. . . . . . log sinh u. II. . . . .—Values of gd u and θ◦ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .List of Tables Table Table Table Table I. . . .—Hyperbolic Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . log cosh u . . . . . . . . . 81 83 87 87 viii . . . . . .—Values of gd u. . . . . . IV. . .

. . . . etc. . by analogy with which the elliptic functions would be merely the circular functions cos φ. “The elliptic integrals. . and the analogy of the hyperbolic and circular functions will be obvious at every step. 175. and thence the elliptic functions.e. including the circle. 1 The hyperbolic functions are not so named on account of any analogy with what are termed Elliptic Functions. p. .. etc.1 It is convenient to begin with the theory of correspondence of points on two central conics of like species. To prepare the way for a general treatment of the hyperbolic functions a preliminary discussion is given on the relations. sinh u. because we employ the name hyperbolic function to denote cosh u. i. To a certain extent this is a disadvantage. between hyperbolic sectors. sin φ. ” (Greenhill. . . The method adopted is such as to apply at the same time to sectors of the ellipse. Elliptic Functions. either both ellipses or both hyperbolas.) 1 . since the same set of equations can be read in connection with either the hyperbola or the ellipse.Article 1 Correspondence of Points on Conics. derive their name from the early attempts of mathematicians at the rectiﬁcation of the ellipse.

Q2 be another pair of correspondents.ARTICLE 1. (x2 . let P1 . the points P1 . and let their coordinates referred to the respective pairs of conjugate directions be (x1 . . the measure of the sector A1 O1 P1 is the ratio sector A1 O1 P1 triangle A1 O1 B1 and is to be regarded as positive or negative according as A1 O1 P1 and A1 O1 B1 are at the same or opposite sides of their common initial line. then P1 . y2 ). P2 be so situated that x1 x2 y1 y2 = . In discussing the relations between corresponding areas it is convenient to adopt the following use of the word “measure”: The measure of any area connected with a given central conic is the ratio which it bears to the constant area of the triangle formed by two conjugate diameters of the same conic. and O2 A2 . O2 B2 conjugate radii of any other central conic of the same species. O1 B1 be conjugate radii of a central conic. = . y1 ). P2 being then referred to any two pairs of conjugate diameters of the same conic. then. 2 a2 b2 (1) Now if the points P1 . P2 be two points on the curves. 2 To obtain a deﬁnition of corresponding points. by analytic geometry. These deﬁnitions will apply also when the conies coincide. For example. If Q1 . CORRESPONDENCE OF POINTS ON CONICS. then the sector and triangle P1 O1 Q1 are said to correspond respectively with the sector and triangle P2 O2 Q2 . a1 a2 b1 b2 (2) the equalities referring to sign as well as magnitude. P2 are called corresponding points in the two systems. 2 a1 b1 2 x2 y2 2 ± 2 = 1. 2 x2 y1 1 ± 2 = 1. let O1 A1 .

by analytic geometry. For.Article 2 Areas of Corresponding Triangles. K2 . T1 T2 = . a1 b1 a1 b1 x2 y2 x y2 · − 2· . T2 . Q1 be (x1 . y2 ). y1 ). and let those of their correspondents P2 . T1 = K1 T2 = K2 Therefore. by (2). The areas of corresponding triangles have equal measures. and their angles ω1 . K1 K2 (3) 1 2 (x1 y1 − x1 y1 ) sin ω1 1 2 a1 b1 sin ω1 1 2 (x2 y2 − x2 y2 ) sin ω2 1 2 a2 b2 sin ω2 = = x1 y1 x y1 · − 1· . taking account of both magnitude and direction of angles. areas. y1 ). y2 ). (x2 . P2 O2 Q2 be T1 . a2 b2 a2 b2 3 . ω1 . let the coordinates of P1 . (x1 . Q2 be (x2 . and lines. A2 O2 B2 be K1 . then. let the triangles P1 O1 Q1 . and let the measuring triangles A1 O1 B1 .

respectively. A2 O2 P2 have equal measures. hence S1 S2 = . O2 AB . Prove that the measure of a circular sector is equal to the radian measure of its angle. Prove that the sector P1 O1 Q1 . It may be proved conversely by an obvious reductio ad absurdum that if the initial points of two equal-measured sectors correspond. to the median as common axis of x. then the respective inﬁnitesimal corresponding triangles have equal measures (Art. a1 a2 y1 y2 = . O1 B1 . The areas of corresponding sectors have equal measures. that is. P2 are corresponding points referred respectively to the pairs of conjugate directions O1 A1 . to the midpoint of P1 Q1 .Article 3 Areas of Corresponding Sectors. O2 A2 be the initial lines of two equal-measured sectors whose terminal radii are O1 P1 . is bisected by the line joining O1 . K1 K2 (4) In particular. for the initial points A1 . Find the measure of an elliptic quadrant. S2 divided up into inﬁnitesimal corresponding sectors. Q1 .) Prob. For conceive the sectors S1 . 1. A2 are corresponding points. x1 x2 = . then their terminal points correspond. the sectors A1 O1 P1 . and O2 A2 . (Refer the points P1 . and show that P1 . O2 P2 . and to the two opposite conjugate directions as axis of y . b1 b2 Prob. but the given sectors are the limits of the sums of these inﬁnitesimal triangles. 2. 2). Prob. Thus if any radii O1 A1 . and of the sector included by conjugate radii. 4 . then P1 . 3. Q1 are then corresponding points.

Let A1 O1 P1 = S1 . then the ratios . 3). and the x1 y1 conjugate radius O1 B1 = b1 .e.Article 4 Charactersitic Ratios of Sectorial Measures. draw P1 M1 ordinate to O1 A1 . i. be any sector of a central conic. Hence there exists a functional relation between the sectorial measure and each of its characteristic ratios. 5 . These ratios are constant both in ratios of the given sectorial measure K1 magnitude and sign for all sectors of the same measure and species wherever these may be situated (Art. M1 P1 = y1 . parallel to the tangent at A1 . let O1 M1 = x1 . O1 A1 = a1 . are called the characteristic a1 b1 S1 .

For.Article 5 Ratios Expressed as Triangle-measures. then T1 = K1 T1 = K1 1 2 a1 y1 sin ω1 1 2 a1 b1 sin ω1 1 2 b1 x1 sin ω1 1 2 a1 b1 sin ω1 y1 = . = a1 (5) 6 . T1 . The triangle of a sector and its complementary triangle are measured by the two characteristic ratios. b1 x1 . let the triangle A1 O1 P1 and its complementary triangle P1 O1 B1 be denoted by T1 .

Find the characteristic ratios of an elliptic sector whose measure is 1 π.Article 6 Functional Relations for Ellipse. 5. Given x1 = 2 a1 . 4. Also ﬁnd its area when a1 = 4. x1 S1 = cos . 6. K2 2 a2 x2 S2 y2 S2 ∴ = cos . 4). a1 K1 y1 S1 = sin . in the ellipse. The functional relations that exist between the sectorial measure and each of its characteristic ratios are the same for all elliptic. Let P1 . ﬁnd the measure of the elliptic sector A1 O1 P1 . Write down the relation between an elliptic sector and its triangle. then 1 2 a θ S2 = 21 22 = θ. Prob. b1 = 3. ω = 60◦ . O2 B2 .) 7 . the latter pair being at right angles. = sin . 5. including circular. by Art. P2 be corresponding points on an ellipse and a circle. let the angle A2 O2 P2 = θ in radian measure. 3. a2 K2 b2 K2 (6) [a2 = b2 hence. referred to the conjugate directions O1 A1 . (See Art. O1 B1 and O2 A2 . b1 K1 (7) 1 Prob. sectors (Art. 4 Prob.

secant. cosh u sinh u The names of these functions may be read “h-cosine. The functional relations between a sectorial measure and its characteristic ratios in the case of the hyperbola may be written in the form x1 S1 = cosh . coth u = . and cosecant are then deﬁned as follows: sinh u cosh u tanh u = . a1 y1 = sinh u b1 (8) serve to deﬁne the hyperbolic cosine and sine of a given sectorial measure u. These functions are called by analogy the hyperbolic cosine and the hyperbolic sine.Article 7 Functional Relations for Hyperbola. writing u for S1 the two equations K1 x1 = cosh u. a1 K1 y1 S1 = sinh . or “hyper-cosine. and the hyperbolic tangent. cosh u sinh u (9) 1 1 sech u = . b1 K1 and these express that the ratio of the two lines on the left is a certain deﬁnite function of the ratio of the two areas on the right..” etc. csch u = .” etc. Thus.” ”h-sine. cotangent.” “h-tangent. 8 .

so that when the numerical value of one of the functions is given. sinh u = 1 − tanh2 u . when tanh u is given. tanh u 1 − tanh u csch u = The ambiguity in the sign of the square root may usually be removed by the following considerations: The functions cosh u. dividing (10) successively by cosh2 u. (11) will readily serve to express the value of any function in terms of any other. coth u = cosh u = 1 . thus. 9 . and applying (9). tanh u 1 − tanh2 u .Article 8 Relations Among Hyperbolic Functions. Among the six functions there are ﬁve independent relations. sech u are always positive. give 1 − tanh2 u = sech2 u. For example. a2 b2 1 1 giving cosh2 u − sinh2 u = 1. (11) coth2 u − 1 = csch2 u. The ﬁfth is derived from the equation of the hyperbola 2 x2 y1 1 − = 1. tanh u 1 2 sech u = . the values of the other ﬁve can be found. (10) By a combination of some of these equations other subsidiary relations may be obtained. (10). Four of these relations consist of the four deﬁning equations (9). Equations (9). sinh2 u. 1 − tanh2 u.

The hyperbolic tangent may be expressed as the ratio of two lines. which is positive or negative according b1 as y1 and b1 have the same or opposite signs. Thus when any one of the functions sinh u. meet OP in R. cosh u > 1. 9. let OA = 2. then y x a y tanh u = : = · b a b x t a t (12) = · = . that cosh u > sinh u. Prove from eqs. 1. Prob. OT = n. tanh u. hence these four functions are either all positive or all negative. hence sinh u > u > tanh u. are proportional to u. b a b The hyperbolic tangent is the measure of the triangle OAC .ARTICLE 8.e. intercepts OS = m. in the elliptic sector. csch u. i. but when either cosh u or sech u is given. coth u. sinh. because the primary characteristic ratio 10 x1 is positive. and the two characteristic ratios. AOB = 60◦ . as follows: Let the tangent at P make on the conjugate axes OA. tanh u < 1. RELATIONS AMONG HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS. a sech u = m . Given cosh u = 2. and ﬁnd the area of the triangle AOP . Show that coth u. (Use tables of cos. there is ambiguity as to whether the other four functions shall be all positive or all negative. sinh u. For draw the tangent line AC = t. For OAC at t = = = tanh u. and area of sector AOP = 3. but the functions sinh u. (14) Prob. In the ﬁgure of Art. (13) OAB ab b Thus the sector AOP . a csch u = n . 10. cosh u. sech u < 1. Prob. OB .) Prob. making BR = l. 11. Express all the hyperbolic functions in terms of sinh u. ﬁnd the sectorial measure. AOC . 10.. OB = 1. cosh. and also in the hyperbolic sector. sech u. is given in magnitude and sign. and the triangles AOP. 7. tanh u (eqs. 5. coth u. let the tangent at B . ﬁnd the values of the other functions. csch u may each be expressed as the ratio of two lines. sin. tanh u. 13). there is no ambiguity in the value of any of the six hyperbolic functions. y1 involve the other characteristic ratio . since the initial line O1 A1 a1 and the abscissa O1 M1 are similarly directed from O1 on whichever branch of the hyperbola P1 maybe situated. to the conjugate hyperbola. as the measure u is positive or negative. P OB. then coth u = l . csch u. 8. b .

11. Modify also eqs. 10–14. RELATIONS AMONG HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS. 10. and probs. 8.ARTICLE 8. . Modify this for the ellipse. 11 Prob. The measure of segment AM P is sinh u cosh u − u.

y = x. in tracing their variations. 17. that the sector AOP becomes inﬁnite as P passes to inﬁnity. tanh u. to consider only sectors of one half of a rectangular hyperbola. sinh 0 = 0. it is evident from the ﬁgure that cosh 0 = 1. for any position of OP . Since the functions cosh u. sinh u. that is. through 0. whose conjugate radii are equal. and passes to inﬁnity on the upper branch. are equal to the ratios of x. but is proved in Art. It is here assumed. (15) . and to take the principal axis OA as the common initial line of all the sectors. as the terminal line OP swings from the lower asymptotic position y = −x. y.Article 9 Variations of the Hyperbolic Functions. to +∞. to the principal radius a. The sectorial measure u assumes every value from −∞. 12 tanh 0 = 0. it is convenient. as the terminal point P comes in from inﬁnity on the lower branch. t. Since the values of the hyperbolic functions depend only on the sectorial measure. to the upper one.

25. etc. sinh ∞ = ∞. (18) tanh(−u) = − tanh u. sinh u. 17 that sinh u. prove tanh u1 = tan AOP . VARIATIONS OF THE HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS. A general idea of their manner of variation can be obtained from the curves in Art. 13. sinh(−∞) = −∞. 8. Prob. Trace the changes in sech u. as u passes from −∞ to +∞. in which the sectorial measure u is represented by the abscissa.ARTICLE 9. but tanh u approaches unity as a limit. and the values of the functions cosh u. csch(−u) = − csch u. as u changes from zero towards the negative side. sinh u are positive and become inﬁnite. . (16) Again. (12) to ﬁgure. cosh u are inﬁnites of the same order when u is inﬁnite. as indicated above. tanh(−∞) = −1. (17) For intermediate values of u the numerical values of these functions can be found from the formulas of Arts. sech(−u) = + sech u. and are tabulated at the end of this chapter. tanh ∞ = 1. and in Art. page 12. 16. 12. and tanh u is also negative and increases numerically from zero to negative unity. cosh u is positive and increases from unity to inﬁnity. sinh(−u) = − sinh u. coth(−u) = − coth u. but sinh u is negative and increases numerically from zero to a negative inﬁnite. Thus cosh(−u) = + cosh u. hence cosh(−∞) = ∞. coth u. 13 and that as u increases towards positive inﬁnity. 17. Show that sinh u. csch u. (It will appear in Art.) Prob.. thus cosh ∞ = ∞. cosh u are inﬁnites of an order inﬁnitely higher than the order of u. are represented by the ordinate. The relations between the functions of −u and of u are evident from the deﬁnitions. Applying eq. cosh u.

. it follows that if u be determined from the equation cosh u = m.” etc. let OA = 2. a Since there are two values of u. etc. The symbol cosh−1 m will be used to denote the positive value of u that satisﬁes the equation cosh u = m. The equations Prob. u = tanh−1 . 1. may also be expressed a b b x y t by the inverse notation u = cosh−1 . cos−1 . OB = 1. Prob.. The signs of the other functions sinh−1 m. Art. the upper or lower sign being used according as m is positive or negative. with opposite signs. ﬁnd the area of the hyperbolic sector AOP . which a b b may be read: “u is the sectorial measure whose hyperbolic cosine is the ratio x x to a. csch−1 m. Similarly the symbol sech−1 m in will stand for the positive value of u that satisﬁes the equation sech u = m.) 14 . 14. if the abscissa of P is 3. 15.” etc. x y t = cosh u.. u is a two-valued function of m. In ﬁgure. that correspond to a given value of cosh u. Hence all of the anti-hyperbolic functions of real numbers are one-valued. where m is a given number greater than unity. or “u is the anti-h-cosine of .Article 10 Anti-hyperbolic Functions. tanh−1 m. = sinh u. are the same as the sign of m. AOB = 60◦ . Modify these relations for sin−1 . coth−1 m. and of the segment AM P . sinh−1 m = ± cosh−1 m2 + 1. etc. Prove the following relations: cosh−1 m = sinh−1 p p m2 − 1. u = sinh−1 . (Find cosh−1 from the tables for cosh. = tanh u.

Article 11 Functions of Sums and Diﬀerences. AOQ have the measures u. Q be (x1 . OQ. (x. OB . 5. Q. (a) To prove the diﬀerence-formulas sinh(u − v ) = sinh u cosh v − cosh u sinh v. (19) Let OA be any radius of a hyperbola. then sinh(u − v ) = sinh sector QOP triangle QOP = K K 1 ( xy − x y ) sin ω y x y x1 1 1 1 = 2 1 = · − · b1 a1 b1 a1 2 a1 b1 sin ω [Art. (x . = sinh u cosh v − cosh u sinh v . v . and let the sectors AOP. y ) with reference to the axes OA. y1 ). OQ be the radii conjugate to OA. Let OB. then u − v is the measure of the sector QOP . y ). 15 . and let the co¨ ordinates of P. cosh(u − v ) = cosh u cosh v − sinh u sinh v.

(22) is obtained. Prove the following identities: (a) sinh 2u = 2 sinh u cosh u. cos(u − v ) = cos u cos v + sin u sin v. b a b a b sin ω 1 1 1 a1 2 1 1 16 [Art. similar ﬁgures may be drawn. a1 b1 (20) since Q. b1 a1 x y = . cosh u − 1 = 2 sinh2 1 u. cosh v (Art. . and the language in the text will apply to all. Prob. cosh(u − v ) = cosh sector QOP triangle P OQ = K K 1 ( x y − y x ) sin ω y x1 y x 1 1 = = 2 1 · − · . (b) To prove the sum-formulas sinh(u + v ) = sinh u cosh v + cosh u sinh v. (c) To prove that tanh(u ± v ) = Writing tanh(u ± v ) = tanh u ± tanh v .ARTICLE 11. (18)). Other ﬁgures may be drawn with u negative. ﬁnd cosh(u + v ). (c) 1 + cosh u = 2 cosh2 1 u. writing − sinh v . hence cosh(u − v ) = cosh u cosh v − sinh u sinh v. cosh v = 3. FUNCTIONS OF SUMS AND DIFFERENCES. 2 2 (d) tanh 1 u 2 sinh u cosh u − 1 = = = 1 + cosh u sinh u cosh u − 1 cosh u + 1 1 2 . 1 ± tanh u tanh v (22) sinh(u ± v ) . Q are extremities of conjugate radii. eq. cosh(u + v ) = cosh u cosh v + sinh u sinh v. In the case of elliptic sectors. 16. 9. (b) cosh 2u = cosh2 u + sinh2 u = 1 + 2 sinh2 u = 2 cosh2 u − 1. 5. expanding and dividing numerator and cosh(u ± v ) denominator by cosh u cosh v . eqs. except that the second equation of (20) will be = . and then for sinh(−v ). therefore a1 b1 sin(u − v ) = sin u cos v − cos u sin v. and the same language x −y will apply. Prob. cosh(−v ). but x y = . Given cosh u = 2. In the ﬁgures u is positive and v is positive or negative. (21) These equations follow from (19) by changing v into −v . 17.

What modiﬁcations of signs are required in (21).ARTICLE 11. 19. 18. in order to pass to circular functions? Prob. h p i (k) cosh−1 m ± cosh−1 n = cosh−1 mn ± (m2 − 1)(n2 − 1) . Modify the identities of Prob. Prob. (e) sinh 2u = 2 tanh u 1 + tanh2 u . (j) sinh2 x cos2 y + cosh2 x sin2 y = sinh2 x + sin2 y . 17 for the same purpose. (i) Generalize (h). . (22). cosh 2 u = . and show also what it becomes when u = v = . 1 − tanh2 u 1 − tanh2 u u 1 + tanh 1 2 . (g) cosh u + sinh u = (h) (cosh u + sinh u)(cosh v + sinh v ) = cosh(u + v ) + sinh(u + v ). . . √ ¢ √ £ (l) sinh−1 m ± sinh−1 n = sinh−1 m 1 + n2 ± n 1 + m2 . 1 − tanh 1 u 2 17 (f) sinh 3u = 3 sinh u + 4 sinh3 u. cosh 3u = 4 cosh3 u − 3 cosh u. FUNCTIONS OF SUMS AND DIFFERENCES.

Simplify cosh2 x cosh2 y ± sinh2 x sinh2 y . 21. u − v = u2 . cosh u1 − cosh u2 = 2 sinh 1 (u1 + u2 ) sinh 1 (u1 − u2 ). Prob. 2 2 1 sinh u1 + sinh u2 = 2 sinh 1 2 (u1 + u2 ) cosh 2 (u1 − u2 ). v = 2 (u1 − u2 ). 18 . (23) From the addition formulas it follows that cosh(u + v ) + cosh(u − v ) = 2 cosh u cosh v. Prob. 23. 20. In passing to circular functions. 1 1 sinh u1 − sinh u2 = 2 cosh 2 (u1 + u2 ) sinh 2 (u1 − u2 ). sinh 2u + sinh 4v cosh 2u − cosh 4v Prob. 24. To prove that 1 cosh u1 + cosh u2 = 2 cosh 1 2 (u1 + u2 ) cosh 2 (u1 − u2 ). sinh(u + v ) + sinh(u − v ) = 2 sinh u cosh v. Prove sinh2 x − sinh2 y = sinh(x + y ) sinh(x − y ).Article 12 Conversion Formulas. u = 1 2 (u1 + u2 ). . show that the only modiﬁcation to be made in the conversion formulas is in the algebraic sign of the right-hand member of the second formula. 22. sinh(u + v ) − sinh(u − v ) = 2 cosh u sinh v. Simplify . Simplify cosh2 x cos2 y + sinh2 x sin2 y . these equations take the form required. cosh 2u + cosh 4v cosh 2u + cosh 4v Prob. cosh(u + v ) − cosh(u − v ) = 2 sinh u sinh v. Prob. 1 and then by writing u + v = u1 .

sech u = 1. sinh u > u > tanh u. By eq. u u u=0 (24) 19 . u tanh u sech u < < 1. .Article 13 Limiting Ratios. it follows that sinh u < cosh u. lim = 1. of sinh u tanh u . . u u which are then indeterminate in form. and if sinh u and tanh u be successively divided by each term of these inequalities. but when u = 0. as u approaches zero. (14). . cosh u = 1. u=0 tanh u sinh u = 1. To ﬁnd the limit. u . hence 1< lim . .

20 . To prove that (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (a) Let y = sinh u.Article 14 Derivatives of Hyperbolic Functions. ∆y = sinh (u + ∆u) − sinh u 1 1 = 2 cosh (2u + ∆u) sinh ∆u. = sech2 u. 2 = − csch u. = sinh u. (25) = − sech u tanh u. 2 2 sinh 1 1 ∆y 2 ∆u = cosh u + ∆u . 1 ∆u 2 2 ∆u d(sinh u) du d(cosh u) du d(tanh u) du d(sech u) du d(coth u) du d(csch u) du = cosh u. = − csch u coth u.

cosh u reproduce themselves in two diﬀerentiations. Prob. du du cosh u cosh2 u (f) Similar to (e). but only that the relation between the numbers mx and y is the same as the known relation between the measure of a hyperbolic sector and its characteristic ratio. then d (sinh u) = cosh u. (c) d (tanh u) d sinh u = · du du cosh u cosh2 u − sinh2 u 1 = = = sech2 u. and that the numerical value of y could be found from a table of hyperbolic cosines. ∆u du du 1 lim. cosh u + ∆u = cosh u.ARTICLE 14. 25. 2 lim. (e) d 1 sinh u d(sech u) = · =− = − sech u tanh u. 1 2 ∆u 21 (see Art. In this connection it may be noted that the frequent appearance of the hyperbolic (and circular) functions in the solution of physical problems is chieﬂy due to the fact that they answer the question: What function has its second derivative equal to a positive (or negative) constant multiple of the function itself? (See Probs.) An answer such as y = cosh mx is not. and put ∆y dy d (sinh u) = = . and. du 1 ∆u sinh 2 = 1. . Show that for circular functions the only modiﬁcations required are in the algebraic signs of (b). 13) (b) Similar to (a). cos u produce their opposites in two diﬀerentiations. lim. . (d). DERIVATIVES OF HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS. similarly. that the circular functions sin u. to be understood as asserting that mx is an actual sectorial measure and y its characteristic ratio. Take the limit of both sides. however. 2 cosh u cosh2 u (d) Similar to (c). as ∆u = 0. 28–30. It thus appears that the functions sinh u.

Prob. dx2 Prob. dx2 d2 y = −m2 y. dx4 . 22 Prob. dx2 Prob. DERIVATIVES OF HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS. Prob. d2 y = m2 y. dx2 d4 y = m4 y. 28. Eliminate the constants from the equation and prove that y = A cos mx + B sin mx. cosh u. 29. Find the derivative of tanh u independently of the derivatives of sinh u.ARTICLE 14. Show from their derivatives which of the hyperbolic and circular functions diminish as u increases. d2 y = −m2 y. 27. 30. 26. Eliminate the constants by diﬀerentiation from the equation y = A cosh mx + B sinh mx. Write down the most general solutions of the diﬀerential equations and prove that d2 y = m2 y.

dx = sech2 u du = (1 − tanh2 u)du = dx (1 − x2 )du.Article 15 Derivatives of Anti-hyperbolic Functions. du = √ . x 1 − x2 23 . then x = sinh u. 1 + sinh2 u = (c) Let u = tanh−1 x. 1 − x2 (d) Similar to (c). then x = tanh u. du = . 2 dx 1 − x x<1 d(coth−1 x) 1 = . dx x 1 − x2 1 d(csch−1 x) =− √ . dx x2 + 1 −1 1 d(cosh x) =√ . (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) 1 d(sinh−1 x) =√ . (e) d(sech−1 x) d = dx dx cosh−1 1 x = 1 x2 −1 x2 −1 1 2 −1 = √ . 2 dx x −1 −1 d(tanh x) 1 = . 2 dx 1 − x x>1 −1 1 d(sech x) =− √ . 1 + x2 (b) Similar to (a). 2 dx x x +1 (26) (a) Let u = sinh−1 x. dx = cosh u du = √ dx 1 + x2 du.

a x − a2 x>a d(cos−1 x) 1 = −√ . dx 1 − x2 d(tan−1 x) 1 = . a a − x2 x<a d cosh−1 d coth−1 x dx = √ . prove that coth−1 x is imaginary. dx 1 + x2 Prob. 32. Prob. Evaluate log x log x . (f) Similar to (e). 2 a x − a2 ! adx x =− 2 . Prove d sinh−1 d tanh−1 dx x = √ . DERIVATIVES OF ANTI-HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS. dx 1 − x2 d(cot−1 x) 1 =− . Prob. 33. 34. 35. dx 1 + x2 24 Prob. except when x = 1. Prob. When tanh−1 x is real. and conversely. 2 a x + a2 ! x adx = 2 .ARTICLE 15. Find d(sech−1 x) independently of cosh−1 x. when x = ∞. 31. sinh−1 x cosh−1 x . Prove d(sin−1 x) 1 = √ .

. (2n − 1)(2n − 2) (2n − 2)(2n − 3) both of which ratios can be made less than unity by taking n large enough. cosh u = 1 + 1 2 1 u + u4 + . . . . . 2! 4! (28) 1 3 1 u + u5 + . . hence sinh u = u + and similarly. . For this purpose take Maclaurin’s Theorem. . . no 25 . f (u) = sinh u. . 2! 3! By means of these series the numerical values of sinh u. 1 2 1 u f (0) + u3 f (0) + . cosh u. f (u) = f (0) + uf (0) + and put f (u) = sinh u. can be computed and tabulated for successive values of the independent variable u. . or by diﬀerentiation. . . .Article 16 Expansion of Hyperbolic Functions. because the ratio of the nth term to the precedu2 u2 ing is in the ﬁrst case . . . and in the second case . 3! 5! (27) f (0) = cosh 0 = 1. They are convergent for all values of u. f (u) = cosh u. then f (0) = sinh 0 = 0. .

. . . sech u. as there is no observable law in the coeﬃcients.. u csch u = 1 − u + 6 360 15120 These four developments are seldom used. 26 matter what value u has.. Lagrange’s remainder shows equivalence of function and series. u coth u = 1 + u2 − u4 + 3 45 945 7 4 31 6 1 2 u − u + . ... coth u. csch u.ARTICLE 16. can be found directly from the previously computed values of cosh u.. From these series the following can be obtained by division: 1 2 17 7 tanh u = u − u3 + u5 + u + . Prob. 36. EXPANSION OF HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS. 3 15 315 1 2 5 4 61 6 u + ... .. Show that these six developments can be adapted to the circular functions by changing the alternate signs. sinh u. sech u = 1 − u + u − 2 24 720 (29) 1 1 2 6 u − . and as the functions tanh u.

28. 4! tanh u = eu − e−u . cosh u − sinh u = 1. 2! 3! This will be more fully explained in treating of complex numbers. + e−u (30) etc. Prob. du2 sinh(u + v ) = sinh u cosh v + cosh u sinh v. 2 sin u = 1 u (e − e−ui ). 1 3 u + 3! 1 3 u + 3! 1 4 u + . The analogous exponential expressions for sin u. for example. . . (28) give the identities 1 2 u + 2! 1 cosh u − sinh u = 1 − u + u2 − 2! cosh u + sinh u = 1 + u + hence u −u cosh u = 1 ).Article 17 Exponential Expressions. 4! 1 4 u − . = eu . verify the identities: sinh(−u) = − sinh u. eu + e−u sech u = eu 2 . Show that the properties of the hyperbolic functions could be placed on a purely algebraic basis by starting with equations (30) as their deﬁnitions. . d2 (cosh mu) = m2 cosh mu. 2 (e + e 1 u sinh u = 2 (e − e−u ). 2 2 cosh(−u) = cosh u. 37. . 2i (i = √ −1) where the symbol eui stands for the result of substituting ui for x in the exponential development ex = 1 + x + 1 2 1 x + x3 + . du2 27 . . d2 (sinh mu) = m2 sinh mu. Arts. = e−u . Adding and subtracting (27). . cos u are cos u = 1 ui (e + e−ui ). 29.

38. 39. Prove u = loge (cosh u + sinh u). . B are arbitrary constants.] Prob. Prob. EXPONENTIAL EXPRESSIONS. [Use eq. From the relation 2 cosh u = en + e−n prove 1 2n−1 (cosh u)n = cosh nu + n cosh(n − 2)u + 2 n(n − 1) cosh(n − 4)u + . . 43. 41. Find also the corresponding expression for 2n−1 (sinh u)n . Prob. Show how to construct a table of exponential functions from a table of hyperbolic sines and cosines. whose general solution may be written y = Ae + Be . and vice versa. respectively. . 42. where A. B in order to derive the expressions for cosh u.ARTICLE 17. show how to determine A. Prob. sinh u satisfy the diﬀerential equation 28 d2 y = du2 n −n y . (15). Show that the area of any hyperbolic sector is inﬁnite when its terminal line is one of the asymptotes. and examine the last term when n is odd or even. . 14 that cosh u. Prob. Assuming from Art. Prove (cosh u + sinh u)n = cosh nu + sinh nu. sinh u. Prob. 40.

x 2 x 2 4 x 2 4 6 x 1 1 1 3 1 1 3 5 1 ∴ sinh−1 = C + log x + · 2 − · · 4 + · · · 6 − · · · . This series is convergent. Since 1 d(sinh−1 x) 1 =√ = (1 + x2 )− 2 2 dx 1+x 1 1 3 1 3 5 = 1 − · x2 + · · x4 − · · · x6 + . sinh−1 x = x − 1 x3 1 3 x5 1 3 5 x7 · + · · − · · · + .Article 18 Expansion of Anti-functions. convergent when x > 1. 2 3 2 4 5 2 4 6 7 (31) the integration-constant being zero.. by integration. which will be shown in Art. (32) 2 2x 2 4 4x 2 4 6 6x −1 where C is the integration-constant.. . 2 2 4 2 4 6 hence. . and can be used in computation. 19 to be equal to loge 2. . 29 . since sinh−1 x vanishes with x. is obtained by writing the above derivative in the form 2 1 d(sinh−1 x) 1 1 = (x2 + 1)− 2 = 1+ 2 dx x x 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 3 5 1 = 1 − · 2 + · · 4 − · · · 6 + ··· . only when x < 1. Another series..

EXPANSION OF ANTI-FUNCTIONS. 4 6 7x7 (36) (37) − ··· . Show that the series for tanh−1 x.ARTICLE 18. for 2 1 d(cosh−1 x) 1 1 = (x2 − 1)− 2 = 1− 2 dx x x 1 1 3 1 1 3 5 1 1 1 = 1 + · 2 + · · 4 + · · · 6 + ··· . 19. Prob. 3 5 7 From (32). A development of similar form is obtained for cosh−1 x. x must not be less than unity. (34) are derived: sech−1 x = cosh−1 1 x − ··· . (33). coth−1 x. Again d(tanh−1 x) 1 = = 1 + x2 + x4 + x6 + · · · . this series is convergent. x x 3x 5x 7x = C − log x − 3 5 1 · · + ··· . 44. but when x exceeds unity. Show that one or other of the two developments of the inverse hyperbolic cosecant is available. hence it is always available for computation. 45. x 2 x 2 4 x 2 4 6 x 30 −1 hence cosh−1 x = C + log x − 1 1 1 3 1 1 3 5 1 · 2 − · · 4 − · · · 6 − ··· . · (35) (34) x2 1 · 3 · x4 1 · 3 · 5 · x6 − − 2·2 2·4·4 2·4·6·6 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 csch−1 x = sinh−1 = − · 3 + · · 5 − x x 2 3x 2 4 5x 2 x2 1 · 3 · x4 1 · 3 · 5 · x6 = C − log x + − + 2·2 2·4·4 2·4·6·6 1 1 1 1 −1 −1 1 coth x = tanh = + 3 + 5 + 7 + ··· . are always available for computation. . 2 2x 2 4 4x 2 4 6 6x (33) in which C is again equal to loge 2 [Art. In order that the function cosh−1 x may be real. 46]. sech−1 x. dx 1 − x2 and hence 1 1 1 tanh−1 x = x + x3 + x5 + x7 + · · · . Prob. Prob.

x x (40) (41) x2 + 1 . x √x 1 1 + 1 + x2 = log . then x2 − 1 = sinh u. (38) x2 − 1 = cosh u + sinh u = eu . (39) x2 − 1 . Let x = cosh u. 31 .Article 19 Logarithmic Expression of Anti-Functions. sinh−1 x = log x + Also sech−1 x = cosh−1 csch−1 x = sinh−1 √ 1 1 + 1 − x2 = log . therefore x+ and u = cosh−1 x = log x + Similarly.

x−1 (43) . sinh−1 x − log x = log 2. . 2 x+1 x +1 1 1 1 π+ x . 32 Again. cosh−1 x − log x = log 2. and hence show that the integration-constants in (32). 48. let x = tanh u = therefore 1+x eu = −u = e2u . eu + e−u 1 2 log 1+x . . Show from (38). Derive from (42) the series for tanh−1 x given in (34). that. Prob. tanh−1 = 1−x and coth−1 x = tanh−1 1 = x 1 2 eu − e−u . 47. 46. 1−x e 1+x 2u = log . (33) are each equal to log 2. when x = ∞. (39). . Prob. Prove the identities: x2 − 1 x−1 1 = tanh−1 2 = sinh−1 1 (x − x−1 ) = cosh−1 2 (x + x−1 ). x. 1−x (42) log x+1 . log csc x = 2 tanh−1 tan2 log sec x = 2 tanh−1 2 4 2 log x = 2 tanh−1 log tan x = − tanh−1 cos 2x = − sinh−1 cot 2x = cosh−1 csc 2x.ARTICLE 19. Prob. LOGARITHMIC EXPRESSION OF ANTI-FUNCTIONS.

on any hyperbola and ellipse. Hence there is a ﬁxed functional relation between their respective measures. P2 . and O2 A2 . and u = gd−1 v. 1–4. and the latter the anti-gudermanian of the former. The correspondence of sectors of the same species was discussed in Arts. O1 B1 . A2 O2 P2 are then also said to correspond. O2 B2 . The sectors A1 O1 P1 . y2 have the same sign. Two points P1 . (44) a1 x2 and when y1 . (45) 33 . This relation is expressed by S2 S1 = gd K2 K1 or v = gd u. when x1 a2 = . The elliptic sectorial measure is called the gudermanian of the corresponding hyperbolic sectorial measure.Article 20 The Gudermanian Function. Thus corresponding sectors of central conics of diﬀerent species are of the same sign and have their primary characteristic ratios reciprocal. respectively. are said to correspond with reference to two pairs of conjugates O1 A1 . It is now convenient to treat of the correspondence that may exist between sectors of diﬀerent species.

Article 21

**Circular Functions of Gudermanian.
**

The six hyperbolic functions of u are expressible in terms of the six circular functions of its gudermanian; for since x1 x2 = cosh u, = cosh v, (see Arts. 6, 7) a1 a2 in which u, v are the measures of corresponding hyperbolic and elliptic sectors, hence cosh u = sec v, [eq. (44)] sinh u = sec2 v − 1 = tan v, tan v = sin v, tanh u = (46) sec v coth u = csc v, sech u = cos v, csch u = cot v. The gudermanian is sometimes useful in computation; for instance, if sinh u be given, v can be found from a table of natural tangents, and the other circular functions of v will give the remaining hyperbolic functions of u. Other uses of this function are given in Arts. 22–26, 32–36.

Prob. 49. Prove that gd u = sec−1 (cosh u) = tan−1 (sinh u) = cos−1 (sech u) = sin−1 (tanh u).

Prob. 50. Prove gd−1 v = cosh−1 (sec v ) = sinh−1 (tan v ) = sech−1 (cos v ) = tanh−1 (sin v ).

34

**ARTICLE 21. CIRCULAR FUNCTIONS OF GUDERMANIAN.
**

Prob. 51. Prove π, gd(−∞) = − 1 π, gd 0 = 0, gd ∞ = 1 2 2 gd−1 0 = 0, gd−1

1 ¡

2

35

π = ∞, gd−1 − 1 π = −∞. 2

¡

**Prob. 52. Show that gd u and gd−1 v are odd functions of u, v .
**

1 u = tan 1 v. Prob. 53. From the ﬁrst identity in 4, Prob. 17, derive the relation tanh 2 2

Prob. 54. Prove tanh−1 (tan u) =

1 2

gd 2u, and tan−1 (tanh x) =

1 2

gd−1 2x.

Article 22

Gudermanian Angle

If a circle be used instead of the ellipse of Art. 20, the gudermanian of the hyperbolic sectorial measure will be equal to the radian measure of the angle of the corresponding circular sector (see eq. (6), and Art. 3, Prob. 2). This angle will be called the gudermanian angle; but the gudermanian function v , as above deﬁned, is merely a number, or ratio; and this number is equal to the radian measure of the gudermanian angle θ, which is itself usually tabulated in degree measure; thus 180◦ v θ= (47) π

Prob. 55. Show that the gudermanian angle of u may be constructed as follows:

Take the principal radius OA of an equilateral hyperbola, as the initial line, and OP as the terminal line, of the sector whose measure is u; from M , the foot of the ordinate of P , draw M T tangent to the circle whose diameter is the transverse axis; then AOT is the angle required.1 Prob. 56. Show that the angle θ never exceeds 90◦ .

1 This angle was called by Gudermann the longitude of u, and denoted by lu. His inverse symbol was L; thus u = L(lu). (Crelle’s Journal, vol. 6, 1830.) Lambert, who introduced the angle θ, named it the transcendent angle. (Hist. de l’acad. roy. de Berlin, 1761). Ho¨ uel (Nouvelles Annales, vol. 3, 1864) called it the hyperbolic amplitude of u, and wrote it amh u, in analogy with the amplitude of an elliptic function, as shown in Prob. 62. Cayley (Elliptic Functions, 1876) made the usage uniform by attaching to the angle the name of the mathematician who had used it extensively in tabulation and in the theory of elliptic functions of modulus unity.

36

This bisector is parallel to T P . 1. and the points T . Art. 21). 60. GUDERMANIAN ANGLE 37 Prob. 58. and Prob.ARTICLE 22. . P are in line with the point diametrically opposite to A. and intersects T M on the tangent at A. 59. Art. The bisector of angle AOT bisects the sector AOP (see Prob. The angle AP M is half the gudermanian angle. 13. Art. The tangent at P passes through the foot of the ordinate of T . 3. 57. 9.) Prob. and the line AP . 53. Prob. Prob. (See Prob.

sec v tan v dv = sinh u du. 38 . Diﬀerentiate: y = sinh u − gd u. y = tanh u sech u + gd u. dv = cos v du = sech u du. 61. then sec v = cosh u. Again. y = tan v sec v + gd−1 v. Let v = gd u. therefore d(gd−1 v ) = sec v dv. y = sin v + gd−1 v. therefore d(gd u) = sech u du. (49) (48) u = gd−1 v.Article 23 Derivatives of Gudermanian and Inverse. Prob. sec v dv = du.

u = gd−1 φ. In this connection Cayley expressed the functions tanh u. show that. DERIVATIVES OF GUDERMANIAN AND INVERSE. led Ho¨ uel to name the function gd u. cn u. φ = am u. and wrote them sg u. tg u. that is. and to write it amh u (see note.. sinh u in the form sin gd u. p. It is well to note that neither the elliptic nor the hyperbolic functions received their names on account of the relation existing between them in a special case. κ). dn u for sin am u. cg u. etc. 62.ARTICLE 23. Prob. and φ the amplitude. sech u. 22). in the special case when κ = 1. tan am u = sinh u. etc. when the modulus is unity. sin am u = tanh u. am u = gd u. tan am u. Art. 1). κ being called the modulus. (mod. degenerate into the hyperbolic functions. tan gd u. cos am u. the hyperbolic amplitude of u. Thus tanh u = sg u = sn u. cos am u = sech u. (mod. 1) .1 1 The relation gd u = am u. 1). cos gd u. to correspond with the abbreviations sn u. Writing the “elliptic integral of the ﬁrst kind” in the form φ 39 u= 0 p dφ 1 − κ2 sin2 φ . (See foot-note. and that thus the elliptic functions sin am u. (mod.

sec v in (49). gd−1 v = sinh−1 (tan v ) = cosh−1 (sec v ). therefore sec v = cosh u. then 1 1 61 7 gd u = u − u3 + u5 − u + ··· (50) 6 24 5040 1 61 7 1 v + ··· (51) gd−1 v = v + v 3 + v 5 − 6 24 5040 No constants of integration appear. Art. 4 2 (52) u = gd−1 v = loge tan 1 1 π+ v . 16. from the equation gd u = tan−1 (sinh u).Article 24 Series for Gudermanian and its Inverse. 4 2 40 . sec v + tan v = cosh u + sinh u = eu . and a table of the direct function can be used to furnish the numerical values of the inverse function. These series are seldom used in computation. eu = 1 1 − cos( 2 π + v) 1 + sin v = = tan 1 cos v sin( 2 π + v ) v = gd u. To obtain a logarithmic expression for gd−1 v . or the latter can be obtained from the equation. as gd u is best found and tabulated by means of tables of natural tangents and hyperbolic sines. 1 1 π+ v . since gd u vanishes with u. and gd−1 v with v . tan v = sinh u. Substitute for sech u. and integrate. let gd−1 v = u. (48) their expansions.

63. Prob. . Evaluate gd u − u u3 ! u=0 41 . 64. 65. . when u = 0. Prove that gd u − sin u is an inﬁnitesimal of the ﬁfth order. . 2 1 π 4 −1 v = tan−1 e−u . Prob. gd−1 v − v v3 ! v =0 . Prove the relations 1 π 4 +1 v tan−1 eu . Prob.ARTICLE 24. SERIES FOR GUDERMANIAN AND ITS INVERSE. 2 .

the corresponding values of the function to be plotted. on any convenient scale. y = coth x. successive values of the sectorial measure. y = sech x. Dotted Lines. and y for the numerical value of cosh u. 16. For greater values they may be computed from the developments of Art. The numerical values of cosh u. and whose ordinates represent. y = gd x. the locus traced out by this series of points will be a graphical representation of the variation of the function as the sectorial measure varies.Article 25 Graphs of Hyperbolic Functions. y = cosh x. y = csch x. 42 . Drawing two rectangular axes. and that the equation y = cosh x merely expresses that the relation between the numbers x and y is taken to be the same as the relation between a sectorial measure and its characteristic ratio. It is thus to be noted that the variables x. and laying down a series of points whose abscissas represent. y = sinh x. Here x is written for the sectorial measure u. or ratios. y are numbers. sinh u. The equations of the curves in the ordinary cartesian notation are: Fig. tanh u are given in the tables at the end of this chapter for values of u between 0 and 4. preferably on the same scale. A B C D Full Lines. etc. y = tanh x.

GRAPHS OF HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS.ARTICLE 25. 43 .

cosh 0 = 1. tanh(±∞) = ±1. The point of inﬂexion is at the origin. Prob.1. Prob. but it is not till y = 10 that x is so small as .. y is only . GRAPHS OF HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS. dx showing that it is always positive. Show that any line y = mx + n meets the curve y = tanh x in either three real points or one.. d2 y The direction of curvature of the locus y = sech x is given by = dx2 2 sech x(2 tanh x − 1). csch(0) = ∞. and upward when x is positive. 66. Prob. y = tanh x. tanh(−u) = − tanh u.707. From the ﬁgure give an approximate solution of the equation tanh x = x − 1. proving that the curve is concave downward when x is negative. The inﬂexions occur at the points x = ± tanh−1 . y = . and thus the curve is concave downwards or upwards according as 2 tanh2 x − 1 is negative or positive. tanh u ≯ 1. 67. sinh(−u) = − sinh u. 68. = ±. y = ±1. Its direction of curvature is obtained from 2 = dx sinh x. cosh u sinh u tanh u cosh u ≮ 1. tanh 0 = 0. Solve the equations: cosh x = x + 2.881. csch u = . and that the curve becomes more nearly d2 y vertical as x becomes inﬁnite. y = coth x. . sinh(±∞) = ±∞. Show that there is no inﬂexion-point on the curves y = cosh x. and the asymptotes of the curves y = gd x. Prob. the inﬂexional tangent. cosh(±∞) = ∞. 1 x. sech u = 44 dy The slope of the curve y = sinh x is given by the equation = cosh x.881. 69. and the slopes of the inﬂexional 1 tangents are ∓ 2 . and the inﬂexional tangent bisects the angle between the axes. The curve y = csch x is asymptotic to both axes.707. and which of them represent odd ones.1. sech u ≯ 1. coth u = . etc. Show which of the graphs represent even functions. Find the direction of curvature.ARTICLE 25. sinh 0 = 0.. etc. 70. sinh x = 3 2 Prob. for when x = 3. gd(−u) = − gd u. etc. y = sinh x cross at the points x = ±. gd x = x − 2 π. but approaches the axis of x more rapidly than it approaches the axis of y . Hence prove that the equation tanh x = mx + n has either three real roots or one. The curves exhibit graphically the relations: 1 1 1 . cosh(−u) = cosh u. The curves y = csch x. etc. gd u < 1 2 π.

x2 − a2 x>a a a −dx 1 −1 x √ = sech . dx x = sinh−1 . u csc u du = log tan . tanh u du = log cosh u. 2 = − cosh−1 (csch u). 19). tan u du = − log cos u. 7. sech u du = gd u. dx x = sin−1 . The following useful indeﬁnite integrals follow from Arts. 23: Hyperbolic. 15. 2 2 a a x x −a √ a2 6. a2 + x2 a a dx 1 −1 x √ = sec . This advantage appears more clearly in 13–20. cot u du = log sin u. 11. 9. 1. a a2 − x2 x dx 1 = tan−1 . on account of the close analogy with the circular forms. and also because they involve functions that are directly tabulated. 2 = − sinh−1 (csch u). a a x a2 − x2 −dx 1 x √ = csch−1 . 8. a x2 − a2 1 x dx = tanh−1 . 2 2 a a x a +x √ x2 Circular. sinh u du = cosh u. cosh u du = sinh u.1 2 a +a dx −1 x √ = cosh . a2 − x2 x<a a a −dx 1 x = coth−1 . 10. 3.Article 26 Elementary Integrals. 4. 12. 5. coth u du = log sinh u. 2 a −x −dx −1 x √ = cos . a a x x2 − a2 −dx x 1 √ = csc−1 . 14. 2. a2 + x2 a a −dx 1 x = cot−1 . sin u du = − cos u. 45 . u csch u du = log tanh . cos u du = sin u. 1 Forms 7–12 are preferable to the respective logarithmic expressions (Art. sec u du = gd−1 u.

pp. 82).5 2 x2 = tanh−1 0 − tanh−1 (0. a positive.5080 (see tables. tanh(. a positive.5 2 2.2028. ac > b2 . show graphically that the ﬁrst is positive. ac > b2 .3466 = .5) − tanh−1 (. the real form to be taken. a negative.54) = .) 2 dx √ =√ tanh−1 (a − x) x − b a−b or √ or √ −2 tan−1 b−a 2 coth−1 a−b x−b . (Put x − b = z 2 . 10. ac < b2 .2 2.5494 − . dx 1 ax + b =√ tan−1 √ . From these fundamental integrals the following may be derived: 13. √ ax2 1 ax + b dx = √ sinh−1 √ . ac < b2 . (By interpreting these two integrals as areas. a−b x−b . a b2 − ac 1 ax + b =√ . a−b 15.5494. cos−1 √ −a b2 − ac 46 14. b2 − ac. ax2 + 2bx + c ac − b2 ac − b2 −1 ax + b =√ tanh−1 √ . ax + b > 2 b − ac b2 − ac Thus.5) interpolate between tanh(. and apply 9. and the second negative.) 2 For tanh−1 (. 5 4 b2 − ac. a + 2bx + c ac − b2 1 ax + b = √ cosh−1 √ .3333).3333) = .4930. 81. ax + b < 2 b − ac b2 − ac ax + b −1 =√ coth−1 √ . dx = − coth−1 (x − 2) x2 − 4x + 3 dx = − tanh−1 (x − 2) − 4x + 3 5 4 = coth−1 2 − coth−1 3 = tanh−1 (. ac < b2 . and similarly for tanh−1 (. ELEMENTARY INTEGRALS. . b−a x−b .56) = .ARTICLE 26.5) = −.

as it expresses that the area of a rectangular-hyperbolic segment AM P is the diﬀerence between a triangle OM P and a sector OAP . ELEMENTARY INTEGRALS. The geometrical interpretation of the result is evident. 1 1 1 tan φ(1 + tan2 φ) 2 + sinh−1 (tan φ) 2 2 1 1 −1 = sec φ tan φ + gd φ. 18. 20. 2 1 which gives 17 on replacing a cosh u by x. when the integral takes the form a2 sinh2 u du = a2 2 (cosh 2u − 1)du = 1 2 a (sinh 2u − 2u) 4 1 = a2 (sinh u cosh u − u). 1 1 1 x x(a2 − x2 ) 2 + a2 sin−1 . 17. What is the geometrical interpretation of 18. when a is negative. and when a is positive. 1 . 71. and a sinh u by (x2 − a2 ) 2 . (x2 − a2 ) 2 dx = 1 1 1 1 x x(x2 − a2 ) 2 − a2 cosh−1 . 19. 47 16. b−a b−x . 19? Prob. (x2 + a2 ) 2 dx = x(x2 − a2 ) 2 + a2 sinh 2 2 a 1 18. 2 2 Prob. (a2 − x2 ) 2 dx = sec3 φ dφ = = (1 + tan2 φ) 2 d tan φ 1 21. 2 dx √ =√ tanh−1 (a − x) b − x b−a or √ or √ 2 coth−1 b−a −2 tan−1 a−b b−x . 2 2 a 1 1 x 1 1 − 1 . It may also be obtained by transforming the expression into hyperbolic functions by the assumption x = a cosh u. 2 2 1 1 sech3 u du = sech u tanh u + gd u. Show that (ax2 + 2bx + c) 2 dx reduces to 17. 72. respectively: when a is positive. b−a b−x . a−b the real form to be taken. 2 2 a By means of a reduction-formula this integral is easily made to depend on 8.ARTICLE 26. with ac > b2 . 19. with ac < b2 .

2 1 Prob.ARTICLE 26. 78. s = p sec φ tan φ + p gd−1 φ. . Prove 48 sinh u tanh u du = sinh u − gd u. 75. cosh u coth u du = cosh u + log tanh 1 u . and show that the ordinary methods of m n reduction for cos x sin x dx can be applied to coshm x sinhn x dx. In the parabola y 2 = 4px. Find the intrinsic equation of the curve = cosh . Prob. also integrate by parts −1 cosh−1 x dx. Prob. (x2 + 2x + 5)−1 dx. if s be the length of arc measured from the vertex. dφ Prob. 77. tanh x dx. ELEMENTARY INTEGRALS. and φ the angle which the tangent line makes with the vertical tangent. Investigate a formula of reduction for coshn x dx. 74. prove that ds the intrinsic equation of the curve is = 2p sec3 φ. referred to its focus as pole. express s in terms of θ. 73. (sinh−1 x)2 dx. (x2 + 2x + 5) 2 dx. 76. a Prob. y x y Prob. and of the curve = a a a x log sec . The polar equation of a parabola being r = a sec2 θ. Integrate (x2 + 2x + 5)− 2 dx.

The meanings assigned should also. which should be consistent with the known algebraic values of cosh x. . it becomes necessary in treating of any class of functional operations to consider the meaning of these operations when performed on such generalized numbers. given in Art. 2! 4! (52) 1 sinh(x + iy ) = (x + iy ) + (x + iy )3 + . Proc. and i stands for −1. Proc.) 49 . In general 1 The use of vectors in electrical theory is shown in Bedell and Crehore’s Alternating Currents. in which x. be such as to permit the addition-formulas of Art. 1893. sinh x. 7. and include these values as a particular case when y = 0. a suitable algebraic meaning. As vector quantities are of frequent occurrence in Mathematical Physics. sinh u.Article 27 Functions of Complex Numbers. XIV–XX (ﬁrst published in 1892). Such deﬁnitions are furnished by the algebraic developments in Art. Thus the deﬁnitions of cosh(x + iy ). when x and y are given. . 3! From these series the numerical values of cosh(x + iy ). y are real. sinh(x + iy ) could be computed to any degree of approximation. which are convergent for all values of u. Elec. Art. and as the numerical measure of a vector in terms of a standard vector is a complex √ number of the form x + iy . April 1895. Chaps. real or complex. 37. if possible. sinh(x + iy ) are to be 1 1 cosh(x + iy ) = 1 + (x + iy )2 + (x + iy )4 + . American Institute Electrical Engineers. being then no longer applicable. . The advantage of introducing the complex measures of such vectors into the diﬀerential equations is shown by Steinmetz. . (See below. . it is necessary to assign to each of the symbols cosh(x + iy ). Congress. with all the consequences that ﬂow from them.1 The geometrical deﬁnitions of cosh u. while the additional convenience of expressing the solution in hyperbolic functions of these complex numbers is exempliﬁed by Kennelly. 11 to be made general. 16. sinh(x + iy ).

eq.) . The other functions are deﬁned as in Art. by stretching and turning. here stand for algebraic operators which convert one number into another.3 du2 50 2 It is to be borne in mind that the symbols cosh. 79. in the language of vector-analysis. Prob. FUNCTIONS OF COMPLEX NUMBERS. change one vector into another. m. du d2 cosh mu = m2 cosh mu.ARTICLE 27. sinh. cosh(−u) = cosh u. 7. Prove from these deﬁnitions that. 3 The generalized hyperbolic functions usually present themselves in Mathematical Physics d2 φ as the solution of the diﬀerential equation = m2 φ. the results will come out in the complex form2 cosh(x + iy ) = a + ib. sinh(x + iy ) = c + id. 37. or which. d cosh u = sinh u. u are complex numbers. du d2 sinh mu = m2 sinh mu. du2 sinh(−u) = − sinh u. (See Art. (9). d sinh u = cosh u. whatever u may be. where φ. du2 the measures of vector quantities.

by Art. 2! 2! 1 3 1 + u + u + . v on each side.. Hence the terms of the rth degree on each side are algebraically identical functions of u and v . and are algebraically identical. 1 “If (53) (54) two rth-degree functions of a single variable be equal for more than r values of the variable. .Article 28 Addition-Theorems for Complexes. Then writing for each side its symbol.” 51 . .. cosh(u − v ) = cosh u cosh v − sinh u sinh v. . and for more than r values of v when u is constant. and is true for all values of u. r! when collected. may be derived as follows. be an algebraic identity.. . whether real or complex. . hence 1+ 1 (u + v )2 + . and by changing v into −v .. . 3! 3! 1+ This equation is true when u.1 Similarly for the terms of any other degree. = 2! 1 2 1 u + . Thus the equation above written is an algebraic identity. v are complex numbers. v . form an rth-degree function which is numerically equal to the former for more than r values of u when v is constant.. v as real numbers. then. etc. v + v3 + . 1 + v2 + . It must. Those on the left are (u + v )r . The addition-theorems for cosh(u + v ). cosh(u + v ) = cosh u cosh v + sinh u sinh v . compare the terms of the rth degree in the letters 1 u. then they are equal for all values of the variable. For. where u. 11. and those on the right. v are any real numbers. First take u. it follows that cosh(u + v ) = cosh u cosh v + sinh u sinh v . then.

cosh(x ± iy ) = cosh x cosh iy ± sinh x sinh iy. 2 sinh u = 1 [exp u − exp(−u)]. by means of the principle of the algebraic identity of polynomials enunciated in the preceding foot-note. 6.” It is not. 2 2 This method of generalization is sometimes called the principle of the “permanence of equivalence of forms. cosh u = 1 [exp u + exp(−u)]. whatever u may be. cosh u + sinh u = exp u. strictly speaking. for. In particular. 80. 81. exp u3 be deﬁned by their developments in powers of u. . for a complex argument.” which is identical with eu when u is real. Show. cosh u − sinh u = exp(−u).2 that if sin u. Vol. In a similar manner is found sinh(u ± v ) = sinh u cosh v ± cosh u sinh v. (See Annals of Mathematics. sin(u + v ) = sin u cos v + cos u sin v. Prob. the validity of the generalization has to be demonstrated. 79.ARTICLE 28.) 3 The symbol exp u stands for “exponential function of u. for any particular form. p. however. a “principle. 52 (55) (56) Prob. ADDITION-THEOREMS FOR COMPLEXES. exp(u + v ) = exp u exp v. Prove that the following are identities: cosh2 u − sinh2 u = 1. cos(u + v ) = cos u cos v − sin u sin v. then. cos u.” but a method. sinh(x ± iy ) = sinh x cosh iy ± cosh x sinh iy. by a similar process of generalization.

2! 4! 1 1 sinh iy = iy + (iy )3 + (iy )5 + · · · 3! 5! 1 1 = i y − y 3 + y 5 − · · · = i sin y. and the hyperbolic sine and tangent are pure imaginaries. In the deﬁning identities cosh u = 1 + 1 2 u + 2! 1 sinh u = 1 + u3 + 3! 1 4 u + ··· . The following table exhibits the variation of sinh u.Article 29 Functions of Pure Imaginaries. as u takes a succession of pure imaginary values. 3! 5! (57) (58) and. 53 . then cosh iy = 1 − 1 2 1 y + y 4 − · · · = cos y. by division. 4! 1 5 u + ··· . tanh iy = i tan y. 5! put for u the pure imaginary iy . The hyperbolic cosine of a pure imaginary is real. exp u. (59) These formulas serve to interchange hyperbolic and circular functions. tanh u. cosh u.

i 2i cos y + i sin y = cosh iy + sinh iy = exp iy. 84. FUNCTIONS OF PURE IMAGINARIES. sin(x ± iy ) = ±i sinh(y ∓ ix). express cos ny in powers of cos y . u 0 1 4 iπ 1 2 iπ 3 4 iπ 54 sinh u 0 . cos(x ± iy ) = cosh(y ∓ ix). .7(1 + i) −i −.7i i . Prob. ...7 −1 −.7i −i −.7 0 .71 0 −. From the product-series for sin x derive that for sinh x: sin x = x 1 − x2 π2 x2 π2 1− x2 22 π 2 x2 22 π 2 1− x2 32 π 2 x2 32 π 2 .. sin y . Prob. 2 1 1 sin y = sinh iy = [exp iy − exp(−iy )] . Prob. 82. sin iy = i sinh y. Prob.. and hence derive the corresponding expression for cosh ny . and hence that sinh(x ± iy ) = ±i sin(y ∓ ix).7 is written for √ 2. sinh x = x 1 + 1+ 1+ . Show that.7(1 − i) −1 −.ARTICLE 29. 83..7(1 − i) 1 iπ 5 4 iπ 3 2 iπ 7 4 iπ 2iπ In this table . cosh(x ± iy ) = cos(y ∓ ix). .7(1 + i) i . 81. .7 1 1 2 tanh u 0 i ∞i −i 0 i ∞i −i 0 exp u 1 . Prove the following identities: cos y = cosh iy 1 [exp iy + exp(−iy )] . in the identities (57) and (58).7i 0 cosh u 1 . cos iy = cosh y. = . = cos y − i sin y = cosh iy − sinh iy = exp (−iy ).707 . Equating the respective real and imaginary parts on each side of the equation cos ny + i sin ny = (cos y + i sin y )n . y may be replaced by a general complex..7i 0 −.

but cosh iy = cos y. then a = cosh x cos y. in the usual way. Writing cosh z = Z . hence cosh(x + iy ) = cosh x cos y + i sinh x sin y. Z = X + iY . obtained by eliminating y between the equations X = cosh m cos y . then the point Z will describe an ellipse whose equation. (X. on a given line x = m. c = sinh x cos y. sinh(x + iy ) = sinh x cos y + i cosh x sin y. sinh(x + iy ) = c + id. cosh(x + iy ) = cosh x cosh iy + sinh x sinh iy. Z be represented on Argand diagrams. (61) (60) sinh iy = i sin y. Y ). Thus if cosh(x + iy ) = a + ib. From these expressions the complex tables at the end of this chapter have been computed. y ).Article 30 Functions of x + iy in the Form X + iY . where z = x + iy . sinh(x + iy ) = sinh x cosh iy + cosh x sinh iy. 2 (cosh m) (sinh m)2 55 . d = cosh x sin y. is X2 Y2 + = 1. Y = sinh m sin y . by the points whose coordinates are (x. let the complex numbers z. By the addition-formulas. and let the point z move parallel to the y -axis. b = sinh x sin y.

is Y2 X2 − = 1. (See Art. cosh(u + 2iπ ) = cosh u cos 2π + i sinh u sin 2π = cosh u. E. X = cosh x cos n. . as the parameter m varies.1 A similar chart can be drawn for sinh(x + iy ). (cos n)2 (sin n)2 and which. as indicated in Prob. 2 1 cosh(u + iπ ) = i sinh u. Y = sinh x sin n. in which y is less than 2 π. when accurately drawn at close intervals on the Z plane.—The functions sinh u and cosh u have the pure imaginary period 2iπ . The functions sinh u and cosh u each change sign when the argument u is increased by the half period iπ . Periodicity of Hyperbolic Functions. These two systems of curves. Proc. cosh(u + iπ ) = cosh u cos π + i sinh u sin π = − cosh u. 2 By means of these periodic. but it is available for all values of y . E. constitute a chart of the hyperbolic cosine. I. sinh(x + iy ).2.ARTICLE 30. on account of the periodicity of the functions. by dividing member by member. if the point z move parallel to the x-axis. represents a series of hyperbolas confocal with the former series of ellipses. 37. obtained by eliminating the variable x from the equations. which present themselves as the measures of certain vector quantities in the theory of alternating currents.) The chart is constructed for values of x and of y between 0 and 1. and quarter-periodic relations. 1 Such a chart is given by Kennelly. April 1895. Similarly. and is used by him to obtain the numerical values of cosh(x + iy ). For sinh(u + 2iπ ) = sinh u cos 2π + i cosh u sin 2π = sinh u. FUNCTIONS OF X + IY IN THE FORM X + IY . and the numerical value of cosh(m + in) can be read oﬀ at the intersection of the ellipse whose parameter is m with the hyperbola whose parameter is n. For. The function tanh u has the period iπ . it follows from the last two identities. half-periodic. represents a series of confocal ellipses. 56 and which. the hyperbolic functions of x + iy are easily expressible in terms of functions of 1 x + iy . the distance between whose foci is unity. For sinh(u + iπ ) = sinh u cos π + i cosh u sin π = − sinh u. as the parameter n varies. the point Z will describe an hyperbola whose equation. A. on a given line y = n.. that tanh(u + iπ ) = tanh u. 85. By a similar use of the addition formulas it is shown that 1 sinh(u + iπ ) = i cosh u.

with second term removed. Cosh−1 m = cosh−1 m + 2irπ. FUNCTIONS OF X + IY IN THE FORM X + IY . r2 r 3 4 Comparison with the formula sinh3 u + 3b 3 = . Consider ﬁrst the case in which b has the positive sign. Let the cubic. thus Sinh−1 m = sinh−1 m + 2irπ. Let x = r sinh u. just as the circular functions are singly periodic with a real period. That particular value of sinh−1 m which has the coeﬃcient of i not greater −1 1 m. be written x3 ± 3bx = 2c. r3 4 sinh 3u = c b2 3 .ARTICLE 30. Tanh−1 m = tanh−1 m + irπ.—It is well known that when the roots of a cubic equation are all real they are expressible in terms of circular functions. positive or negative. u= 1 c sinh−1 3 . and the elliptic functions are doubly periodic with both a real and a pure imaginary period. substitute. Analogous hyperbolic expressions are easily found when two of the roots are complex. Multiple Values of Inverse Hyperbolic Functions. . r2 4 whence r = 2b 2 . 3 b2 1 c sinh−1 3 3 b2 . and that than 1 2 π nor less than − 2 π is called the principal value of sinh −1 particular value of cosh m which has the coeﬃcient of i not greater than π nor less than zero is called the principal value of cosh−1 m. Complex Roots of Cubic Equations. 57 The hyperbolic functions are classed in the modern function-theory of a complex variable as functions that are singly periodic with a pure imaginary period. When it is necessary to distinguish between the general value and the principal value the symbol of the former will be capitalized. then sinh3 u + 2c 3b sinh u = 3 . and divide by r3 . in which r is any integer. therefore x = 2b 2 sinh 1 1 sinh u = 1 4 sinh 3u gives 2c sinh 3u = .—It follows from the periodicity of the direct functions that the inverse functions sinh−1 m and cosh−1 m have each an indeﬁnite number of values arranged in a series at intervals of 2iπ .

in which the sign of b 2 is to be taken the same as the sign of c. 86. Find the modulus and amplitude of sinh(x + iy ). If cosh(x + iy ) = a + ib. be written in the “modulus and amplitude” form as r(cos θ + i sin θ). 90. FUNCTIONS OF X + IY IN THE FORM X + IY .ARTICLE 30. . ± 3 cos 3 3 3 3 where n = sin−1 c b2 3 . 85. then r2 = a2 + b2 = cosh2 x = sin2 y = cos2 y − sinh2 x. the substitution x = r cosh u leads to the solution x = 2b 2 cosh which gives the three roots 2b 2 cosh 1 1 1 c cosh−1 3 3 b2 . If c > b 2 . The last two reduce to −b 2 sinh ± i 3 cosh 3 3 3 3 Next. 3 b 2 sin 1 n √ n . 3 −b 2 cosh 1 1 √ n n ± i 3 sinh . be n. cosh−1 m = i cos−1 m. then two of the b2 n 1 imaginary values are n ± 2iπ . Prove the identity tanh(x + iy ) = sinh 2x + i sin 2y . cos m = i cosh−1 m. found from the tables. 89. π 2 − i cosh−1 m. cosh 2x + cos 2y Prob. 87. hence the three values of x are 2b 2 sinh and 3 √ n n 2iπ n 1 1 2b 2 sinh . 2πu Prob. also to sin(x + iy ). ± . n . a Prob. sin−1 m = When m is real and < 1. These roots are all real when c ≯ b 2 . tan θ = b = tanh x tan y. = r exp iθ. Prob. Show that the period of exp is ia. When m is real and > 1. 88. 1 58 in which the sign of b 2 is to be taken the same as the sign of c. It may then be shown similarly that the substitution x = r sin θ leads to the three solutions −2b 2 sin 1 n . 3 3 wherein n = cosh−1 c b2 3 . let the coeﬃcient of x be negative and equal to −3b. by turning through a right angle. Show that the chart of cosh(x + iy ) can be adapted to sinh(x + iy ). Prob. a −1 Prob. Now let c the principal value of sinh−1 3 .

gives ds = c sec2 φ dφ. Let w be the weight of unit length. hence tan φ = ws s = . 2 c s + c2 dy y x . referred to an axis of x drawn at a distance c below A. and the depth of the lowest point. c2 x s sinh = = c c 1+ ds dx =√ . H c H . and s the length of arc AP measured from the lowest point A. in which φ is the inclination of the tangent at P . the length whose weight is the constant horizontal where c is written for w tension. whence y c = sec φ = sec gd c = cosh c . 59 . and takes up a position of equilibrium under the action of gravity. and c = tan gd c = sinh c . y = x x s x x c sec φ. thus x = c gd−1 φ. and H in the horizontal tangent. It is required to ﬁnd the equation of the curve in which it hangs. Numerical Exercise. dx c ds = dx s2 .Article 31 The Catenary A ﬂexible inextensible string is suspended from two ﬁxed points. c c which is the required equation of the catenary. T sin φ = ws. therefore s dy = . hence dx = ds cos φ = c sec φ dφ. dx c c x s = sinh−1 . = cosh .” s = c tan φ. ﬁnd the parameter c.—A chain whose length is 30 feet is suspended from two points 20 feet apart in the same horizontal. then ws is the weight of the portion AP . Resolving horizontally and vertically gives T cos φ = H. dy = ds sin φ = c sec φ tan φ dφ. This is balanced by the terminal tensions. The following trigonometric method illustrates the use of the gudermanian: The “intrinsic equation. T acting in the tangent line at P .

and has the property that the length of the tangent.64) = 2. which. To ﬁnd a closer approximation to the root. f (1. is constant. that the length of the arch can be obtained from the equations cosh z − 3 30 sinh z . Prob.4600 = +. c c c from tables.5z . 1.6221 = 2.0206. see “Arch” in the Encyclopædia Britannica. prove that M N is equal to the constant c.62) = 2. Hence show that the locus of N is the involute of the catenary.0024.0244. 94.6306.5z = sinh z . it appears that the root of this equation is z = 1.1 Prob. (This is the characteristic property of the tractory). it is found that f (1. . f (1. show 2 z = i. 7. whence. 2s = z 1 See 2 For a similar problem in Chap.5z = 0. by interpolation. then.60) = 2.6221.ARTICLE 31. In the above numerical problem. 93. If a perpendicular M N be drawn from the foot of the ordinate to the tangent at P .4806 − 2. the theory of this form of arch. 91. and required depth of the vertex = y − c = 10. Art. Prob. from the point of contact to the axis of x. may be written 1. Prob.0525 feet. f (1. and z = 1. THE CATENARY 60 x 15 10 10 The equation s c = sinh c gives c = sinh c . write the equation in the form f (z ) = sinh z − 1.4300 = −.2174. 92. ﬁnd the inclination of the terminal tangent to the horizon.4276 − 2.3756 − 2.1649. An arch in the form of an inverted catenary2 is 30 feet wide and 10 feet high.6. hence y = 16. nearly.4000 = −. By examining the intersection of the graphs of y = sinh z . The tension T at any point is equal to the weight of a portion of the string whose length is equal to the ordinate y of that point. and that N P is equal to the arc AP . y = 1. c = 10 z = 6. by the tables. by putting c = z . The ordinate of either of the ﬁxed points is given by the equation x 10 y = cosh = cosh = cosh 1.6221) = 0.

Article 32 Catenary of Uniform Strength. dy = ds sin φ = c tan φ dφ. Also dx = ds cos φ = cdφ. then by hypothesis ω = sec φ. where c stands for the constant H . Again. and T = H sec φ. consider the equilibrium of an element P P whose length is ds. To ﬁnd the equation of the curve of equilibrium under gravity. the tension at the lowest point. and whose weight is gρω ds. and ρ the uniform density. or cd tan φ = sec φ ds. the length of string (of section ω0 ) whose gρω0 weight is equal to the tension at the lowest point. hence d(T sin φ) = gρω ds. c the intrinsic equation of the catenary of uniform strength. where ω is the section at P . This weight is balanced by the diﬀerence of the vertical components of the tensions at P and P . T ω = H if ω0 be the section at the lowest point. d(T cos φ) = 0. 0 and the ﬁrst equation becomes Hd(sec φ sin φ) = gρω0 sec φ ds. = gd−1 φ. and the tendency to break will be the same at all points. there will then be a constant tension per unit of area. s ds = c sec φ dφ. therefore T cos φ = H . hence. 61 . If the area of the normal section at any point be made proportional to the tension at that point.

ARTICLE 32. f (1.90) = 1. Prove that the radius of curvature is given by ρ = c cosh .2881 − 1. 31. f (1.8170.) Prob.80) = 1.41914 × 2. c c x 10 but − = 1. Using the same data as in Art. Prob. by interpolation.3026 = 7. Prob.9189 and c = 7. Show that the curve has two vertical asymptotes.0432. (The equation = gd gives = gd .2432 − 1. z = 1. hence y = 7.8. Prove that the law of the tension T .2793. c c in which the axis of x is the tangent at the lowest point. measured from the lowest point along the curve.8170 × c c . From the graph it is seen that z is nearly 1. Also that the weight f s of the arc s is given by W = H sinh . becomes gd z = z . 95. is ω c T = = cosh .3000 = −. CATENARY OF UNIFORM STRENGTH. and 1. = loge sec .5443. 98. which. Find the inclination of the terminal tangent.0072. If c 3 2 f (z ) = gd z − z . 97. f (1. H ω0 h and show that in the above numerical example the terminal section is 3.2000 = +.48 times the minimum section. y x whence. by putting c c c c 15 2 = z .95) = 1. from the tables of the gudermanian at the end of this 3 chapter. and thus the Cartesian equation is y x = log sec .2793 radians = 73◦ 17 55 . 62 Prob. in which s is measured from the vertex. s Prob. and of the section ω . Again. y = c log sec φ. the required depth.2667 = +.2739 − 1. 96. then. at a distance s. 99.0119. hence x = cφ. f . ﬁnd the parameter c and the depth of the x s 10 15 lowest point.

by Hooke’s law. the extension at the lowest point. An elastic string of uniform section and density in its natural state is suspended from two points. 63 . (1 + λT ) d(T sin φ) = and T cos φ = H = gρωc. hence cd(tan φ) = ds . hence the weight of the stretched gρω ds element ds = gρω dσ = . p. Accordingly. as before.Article 33 The Elastic Catenary. where λ is the elastic constant of the string. therefore ds = c(sec2 φ + µ sec3 φ)dφ. y may be expressed in terms of the single parameter φ by putting dx = ds cos φ = c(sec φ + µ sec2 φ)dφ. The coordinates x. ds = dσ (1 + λT ). Find its equation of equilibrium. (1 + λT ) in which µ stands for λH . (1 + µ sec φ) gρω ds . 37 which is the intrinsic equation of the curve. then. 20. s 1 = tan φ + µ(sec φ tan φ + gd−1 φ). and reduces to that of the common catenary when µ = 0. Let the element dσ stretch into ds. c 2 [prob. dy = ds sin φ = c(sec2 φ + µ sec3 φ) sin φ dφ.

. THE ELASTIC CATENARY. Whence x = gd−1 φ + µ tan φ. which is somewhat complicated. c y 1 = sec φ + µ tan2 φ. c 2 64 These equations are more convenient than the result of eliminating φ.ARTICLE 33.

I. y = c cos φ. then (to the ﬁrst order of inﬁnitesimals) P T dφ = T S = T T cos φ. c dφ = cos φ dt. 242).) The equation φ = gd c furnishes a convenient method of plotting the curve. Let P T make an angle φ with OA. This is a convenient single-parameter form. p. expressed in the same form.Article 34 The Tractory. draw T S perpendicular to P T . t = c gd−1 φ. [Note. and let OT = t. 65 . P T be two consecutive tangents such that P T = P T = c. x = t − c sin φ = c(gd−1 φ − sin φ). 1 This curve is used in Schiele’s anti-friction pivot (Minchin’s Statics. The value of s. Vol. y as 1 π . Let P T . the axis of y . that is. is found φ increases from 0 to 2 from the relation ds = ST = dt sin φ = c tan φ dφ.1 ] To ﬁnd the equation of the curve which possesses the property that the length of the tangent from the point of contact to the axis of x is constant. which gives all values of x. and in the theory of the skew circular arch.” Encyclopædia Britannica. the horizontal projection of the joints being a tractory. t (See “Arch. then if P P = ds. it is evident that ST diﬀers from ds by an inﬁnitesimal of a higher order. s = c loge sec φ.

3249c. (See Prob. Show that the evolute of the tractory is the catenary. = c c s y u − tanh u. The Cartesian equation. = sech u. x = 0.) Prob. show that φ = 74◦ 35 . Given t = 2c. THE TRACTORY. and be taken as independent variable. φ = gd u. c c Prob. obtained by eliminating φ. t = 0. Find the radius of curvature of the tractory in terms of φ. y = c. x = 1. s = 1. φ = 0. 102. 100. y = .0360c.ARTICLE 34. s = 0. 101. c2 t x If u be put for . . At what point is t = c? Prob. and derive the intrinsic equation of the involute. = log cosh u. 66 At the point A.2658c. 92. is x y y − sin cos−1 = gd−1 cos−1 c c c = cosh−1 c − y 1− y2 .

To ﬁnd the length of the arc OP : Integrate the equation ds = dy csc α. but PR = MN cos MP. then tan α = RQ . until her diﬀerence of longitude is 45◦ . 1890). there being no integrationconstant since y vanishes with x. and let the angle MOP = RP Q = α. RQ = dy . ﬁnd her latitude and distance: 1 Jones. thus the required equation is y = gd(x tan α). On the surface of a sphere a curve starts from the equator in a given direction and cuts all the meridians at the same angle. 1 PR hence dx tan α = dy sec y . let OM = x. and x tan α = gd−1 y . suppose a ship sails northeast. let PR be a parallel of latitude.Article 35 The Loxodrome. MN = dx. To ﬁnd its equation in latitudeand-longitude coordinates: Let the loxodrome cross two consecutive meridians AM . To illustrate numerically. 67 . MP = y . from a point on the equator. p. whence s = y csc α. AN in the points P . all in radian measure. Trigonometry (Ithaca. 185. Q.

s = y 2 = 1. and the loxodrome becomes the straight line y = x tan α. the values of y and of y being given in minutes. 20◦ E) and (30◦ S. hence gd−1 y2 = gd−1 y1 + (x2 − x1 ) tan α. √ 68 1 Here tan α = 1. A chart constructed accurately from the tables can be used to furnish graphical solutions of problems like the one proposed above. y2 ) gives (x2 − x1 ) tan α = gd−1 y2 − gd−1 y1 . The latitude in degrees is 40. which is tabulated under the name of “meridional part for latitude y ”.0114 radii.7854) = .7152 radians. and y = gd x = gd 4 π = gd(. y = gd−1 y . the formula must be modiﬁed as follows: Integrating the above diﬀerential equation between the limits (x1 .980. 103. Find the distance on a rhumb line between the points (30◦ N. . a radius being 60 × 180 π nautical miles. If the ship set out from latitude y1 .—In this projection the meridians are parallel straight lines. Mercator’s Chart. from which the ﬁnal latitude can be found when the initial latitude and the diﬀerence of longitude are given. Prob. Thus the latitude y is magniﬁed into gd−1 y . hence the relations between the coordinates of corresponding points on the plane and sphere are x = x.ARTICLE 35. 40◦ E). The distance sailed is equal to (y2 − y1 ) csc α radii. y1 ) and (x2 . THE LOXODROME.

n2 = . 70–77. dx 1 Merriman.1 EI d2 y = Qy − P x. y = 0.Article 36 Combined Flexure and Tension. [probs. then the bending moment for this point is Qy − P x. The arbitrary constants A. 30 Mechanics of Materials (New York. and d2 u = n2 u. with the usual notation of the theory of ﬂexure. 69 . becomes dx2 dx2 m= P Q . dy = m + nB cosh nx. B are to be determined by the terminal conditions. y = mx + A cosh nx + B sinh nx. on putting y − mx = u. dx2 d2 y = n2 (y − mx). that is. pp. hence A must be zero. dx2 whence u = A cosh nx + B sinh nx. 267–269. Q EI which. dx2 d2 y d2 u = . to ﬁnd the equation of the curve assumed by its neutral surface: Let x. y be any point of the elastic curve. and y = mx + B sinh nx. Hence. 28. A beam that is built-in at one end carries a load P at the other. At the free end x = 0. 1895). referred to the free end as origin. and is also subjected to a horizontal tensile force Q applied at the same point.

n cosh nl To obtain the deﬂection of the loaded end. and 6 feet span. the beam being subjected to a horizontal tension of 8000 pounds. n Prob. prove that the diﬀerential equation is EI d2 y d2 y = Qy − 1 = n2 (y − mx2 ).ARTICLE 36. hence n = 50 . If the load be uniformly distributed over the beam. or 2 2 dx dx2 2m and that the solution is y = A cosh nx + B sinh nx + mx2 + 2 . wx2 . Show also how n to determine the arbitrary constants. Compute the deﬂection of a cast-iron beam.69) = . ﬁnd the ordinate of the ﬁxed end by putting x = l. 104. and dy = 0. deﬂection 3 1 1 (72 − 50 tanh 1. but at the ﬁxed end. say w per linear unit. COMBINED FLEXURE AND TENSION. x = l. giving deﬂection = m(l − 1 tanh nl). built-in at one end and carrying a load of 100 pounds at the other end. n 70 B=− and accordingly y = mx − m sinh nx . m = 80 .] = 80 Prob. 2 × 2 inches section.341 inches. . P = 100.44) = 80 (72 − 44. 105. hence dx m cosh nl. [In this case 1 1 I = 4 . E = 15 × 106 . Q = 8000.

p. and the current. but having diﬀerent values of the phase-angle θ. p. can ω be combined by adding their representative vectors.M. Now the E. Bedell and Crehore. will be supposed to have given values at the terminals of the receiver circuit. and the problem then is to determine the E. Alternating Currents. because any periodic function can be expressed in a Fourier series of simple harmonics.F. I. 3 Kennelly denotes these constants by r . 4 Thomson and Tait. then two simple harmonics 2π of the same period . 214. 40. V. 2 Chapter 1 See 71 . in henrys per mile. I.: R = resistance. be taken as a simple harmonic function of the time.F. Art.F. distant x from the receiving end. and the general solution will include the particular cases in which the receiving end is either grounded or insulated. l. viz. 20. c. in ohms per mile. θ for G.2 The E. C = capacity. and he uses C for current. Vol. and current that must be kept up at the generator terminals. κ for ωC .3 It is shown in standard works4 that if any simple harmonic function a sin(ωt+ θ) be represented by a vector of length a and angle θ. and also to express the values of these quantities at any intermediate point.1 ] In the general problem treated the cable or wire is regarded as having resistance. and the current at any point of the circuit. Steinmetz writes s for ωL. although some of these may be zero in special cases. distributed capacity.M. 27. distant x from the receiving end. G = coeﬃcient of leakage. p. 8. in farads per mile. Natural Philosophy.Article 37 Alternating Currents. L = coeﬃcient of self-induction. [Note. are of the references in foot-note Art. which may diﬀer in phase by any angle. g . self-induction. Rayleigh. The line will also be considered to feed into a receiver circuit of any description. the four line-constants being supposed known.M. The electromotive force may. in mhos per mile. Theory of Sound. without loss of generality. Vol. and leakage.

G.. whose numerical measures are the complexes Ge de and similarly for in the second equation. for −1. dx (66)7 d2¯ ı = m2¯ ı. then dt will be repdt di resented by the vector ωe1 /θ + 1 2 π . Cωe1 /θ + 1 ¯. dx2 5 In 6 Bedell de ¯ = (R + jωL)¯ ı. It is now convenient to deﬁne two constants m.F. 181. and part in quadrature with i. but is here retained for generality and symmetry.M. ¯ ı are similar functions of x. dx2 and thus e ¯. 2 π . Steinmetz derives them from ﬁrst principles without using the variable t. i1 . m1 by the equations8 m . i = i1 sin (ωt + θ ). since de di = Ri + L . 7 These relations have the advantage of not involving the time. The relations between e ¯ and ¯ ı may be obtained from the ordinary equations6 de di = Ge + C . dx2 (69) √ electrical theory the symbol j is used. ALTERNATING CURRENTS.ARTICLE 37. Steinmetz writes v for m. The coeﬃcient of leakage. The sign of dx is changed. y by Kennelly. i1 (cos θ + j sin θ ). because x is measured from the receiving end. dx Diﬀerentiating and substituting give d2 e ¯ = ( R + jωL )( G + jωC )¯ e . dx dt for. ¯ ı. when applied to i. whose numerical measures are the complexes e1 (cos θ + j sin θ)5 . dx dt (65) de de = ωe1 cos (ωt + θ) = ωe1 sin (ωt + θ + 1 2 π ). he regards R + jωL as a generalized resistance-coeﬃcient. and the phase-angles θ. i1 /θ . which. dx2 (67) d2¯ ı = (R + jωL)(G + jωC )¯ ı. instead of i. . ¯ ı are d¯ ı = (G + jωC )¯ e. m are written z. 8 The complex constants m. thus the relations between the dx complexes e ¯. jωC e ¯. θ . Kennelly calls R + jωL the conductor impedance. and the variable length x is 1 written L2 . form e = e1 sin (ωt + θ). These simple harmonics will be represented by the vectors e1 /θ. and Crehore. and dx by the sum of the two vectors Ge1 /θ. m1 = (G + jωC ) and the diﬀerential equations may then be written d2 e ¯ = m2 e ¯. p. Alternating Currents. which will be denoted by e ¯. part of which is in phase with i. For instance. to be distinguished only by their terminal values. gives an E. (68) m2 = (R + jωL)(G + jωC ). and G + jωC the dielectric admittance. 72 (64) in which the maximum values e1 . is usually taken zero. are all functions of x. the reciprocal of which is the dielectric impedance.

would be e1 /θ. Prob. foot-note. the formulas (70) are the most convenient.10 or a table. p. I .M. e ¯= E (70) I ¯ cosh mx + ¯ sinh mx. R + jωL = 2 + 40j ohms. where e1 2 = X 2 + Y 2 .002j. 106. to be 2000 radians per second. Next let the assigned terminal values of e ¯.. (G + jωC )−1 = −1000j ohms. m1 thus the general solution is ¯ cosh mx + m1 I ¯ sinh mx. X . i. Y would then be expressed as functions of x. dielectric susceptance per mile. i2 = X + Y . The quantities X. conductor reactance per mile. these expressions could be thrown into the ordinary complex form X + jY. 10 Art. for substituting in either of the equations (66). i1 /θ . by putting for the letters their complex values. conductor impedance per mile. sinh u. and E.04 + . footnote.ARTICLE 37. however. whence B = A . the angular velocity of 2 E. 9 See . then putting x = 0 gives E = A. Y. L = 20 millihenrys per mile. whence B = m1 I. the solutions of which are9 e ¯ = A cosh mx + B sinh mx. be denoted by ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ B = E . 38).001 mho. 12 The data for this example are taken from Kennelly’s article (l. m1 (G + jωC )B = mA . dielectric admittance per mile. tan θ = . ¯ ı=I E m1 If desired. for complex values of u. Probs. 11 See Table II. ωC = . 28–30. ¯ ı.04005/177◦ 8 . tan θ = Y Y . X X For purposes of numerical computation. and applying the addition-theorems for the hyperbolic sine and cosine. m2 = (R + jωL)(G + jωC ) = . ¯ ı = A cosh mx + B sinh mx.12 Given the four line-constants: R = 2 ohms per mile. and the representative 2 2 vectors of e.11 of cosh u. dielectric impedance per mile.001j mho. and equating coeﬃcients. I = A . which is the measure of . and Art. c. 73 wherein only two of the four constants are arbitrary. C = 1 microfarad per mile. 30. at the receiver. 27. m1 A = B . 14. and given ω . when either a chart. X + jY . is available. give (G + jωC )A = mB . then ωL = 40 ohms.F. Art. G = 0. ALTERNATING CURRENTS. G + jωC = .

Similarly sinh(. 74 an abstract coeﬃcient per mile.4600 + .7427.00000 + .5 + 1. Suppose it is required to ﬁnd the E. then at any distance x. and E = 1000 volts. of dimensions [length]−1 .4750j obtained from Table II.F.5 + 20j ) = sinh(.ARTICLE 37. Interpolation between sinh(0 + 0j ) 2 and sinh(0 + .5 + 1. but. ALTERNATING CURRENTS.2126 + 1.2 volts. 89.03j ) = .M. and hence ¯ ı= 1 200 (40 + j )(. θ where log tan θ = 10. therefore m = measure of .6j ) = 1000j sinh(. the 1601 phase and magnitude of required current.5 + 1.0050 + . by subtracting 1 πj . Next let it be required to ﬁnd e at x = 8. m = 200 − 5j ohms. by interpolation between cosh(. θ = 79◦ 45 . by (70). hence e ¯ = 460 + 475j = e1 (cos θ + j sin θ).5 + 1.25 amperes.028j ) = (1495 + 8266j ) 1601 1601 = i1 (cos θ + j sin θ ).5 + 20j − 6πj ) = cosh(.5 + 20j ).2000j.04 + .0280j . θ = 45◦ 55 . Similarly sinh(. and current that must be kept up at a generator 100 miles away.M.2126 + 1. . cosh(.F. i1 = 1495 sec = 5. by Prob.03004j. ¯ ı= E sinh mx.03j ) = . then e ¯ = 1000 cosh(. m1 = (G + jωC ) Next let the assigned terminal conditions at the receiver be: I = 0 (line insulated).1j ) gives sinh(0 + . and e1 = 460 sec θ = 661. then e ¯ = 1000 cosh(.02995j. e ¯ = E cosh mx.0139. where log tan θ = log 475 − log 460 = .04 + 1.2j ). whose phase may be taken as the standard (or zero) phase.2001/88◦ 34 = .1j ) and cosh(.5 + 20j ) = cosh(. and applying page 56.03j ). ¯ ı = 200(40 − j )−1 sinh(.10004 + .5 + 20j ).15j ) = .15j ) = .1 + . the required E. m1 in which mx is an abstract complex.

then m = (1 + j )n.14j . 108.99 sec 126◦ 51 = 50.12530. 107.06j ) = 1. the value of x for which the phase is exactly = 15.1 + .2j )x.M. ALTERNATING CURRENTS. cosh(. hence cosh(.9970 + 0j. Thus at a distance of about 16 miles the E. where log tan θ = .04 + .006j .06j ) = 1.02 + 29.0048j.0020 + . There 180◦ is . ¯ ı=I ¯= E . show that the graph of the electromotive force is a catenary if G = 0.2j )x = 460 + 475j − 4748 + 9366j = −4288 + 9841j = e1 (cos θ + j sin θ). 2 1 √ i1 = E cosh 2nx − cos 2nx.005 + . and the solution is 1 = 2ωC 1 √ e1 = √ E cosh 2nx + cos 2nx.08 + 3.0010 + .M. m1 = (1 + j )n1 where n2 = .08 + . at x = 7. θ = 126◦ 51 . and substituting the constants in (70) gives c ¯ = 1000 cosh(. Neglecting leakage and capacity. and e ¯ = −1001 + 4. tan θ = tan nx coth nx.06j ) = . Prob. the E. in ¯50(cos 40◦ + sin 40◦ ) = a phase 40◦ in advance of the electromotive force. tan θ = tan nx tanh nx. a line if G = 0. 109. but cosh(0 + .85 is 90◦ .02j = e1 (cos θ + j sin θ). let it be required to ﬁnd e at x = 16. where θ = 180◦ 17 . then I 38. is the same as at the receiver.99 + 40. Again.30 + 32. This is 17 times what was required when the other end was insulated.7.2j )x + (7821 + 6236j ) sinh(. ωRC Prob. here e ¯ = 1000 cosh(. e1 = 10730 volts.03j ) = . I = 0.M.2j ) = −1000 cosh(.ARTICLE 37. prove that the solution of equations (66) is ¯.F. but in opposite phase. 75 Hence e ¯ = j (40.4 miles. and the receiving end be insulated. If L = 0.005 + .99j ) = −29.005 + .02999j.F. If self-induction and capacity be zero. Interpolation between the last two gives sinh(. Similarly the phase of the E. at sending end.06j ).08 + .π 2 is agreement in phase at any two points whose distance apart is 31. 2n1 Prob.04002 + . Since e ¯ is proportional to cosh(. 2 R n2 . In conclusion take the more general terminal conditions in which the line feeds into a receiver circuit.8j = e1 (cos θ + j sin θ). c ¯ + (R + jωL)Ix ¯ .01 volts.F. and suppose the current is to be kept at 50 amperes. where θ = 113◦ 33 . e1 = −29. G = 0. e1 = 1001 volts.

where E 1 ¯ E0 sinh mx. ¯ ¯0 cosh mx − e ¯= E ı=I ¯0 . 110. I ¯0 refer to the sending end. If x be measured from the sending end.ARTICLE 37. show how equations (65). and prove that ¯0 cosh mx − m1 I ¯0 sinh mx. 76 Prob. ALTERNATING CURRENTS. m1 . (66) are to be modiﬁed.

and p parameter of generating p ellipse. and N =u− 1 1 1 sinh 2u − sinh 4u + sinh 6u.Article 38 Miscellaneous Applications. where p φ is the inclination of the terminal tangent to the initial one. The length of the arc of the logarithmic curve y = ax is s = M (cosh u + y 1 log tanh 1 2 u). in which u is the measure of the sector ab x y AOP . 1. 4 4 12 77 . wherein b is 2e ey the axial radius. and the surface of a paraboloid of revolution is S = 2π y ¯l. 64ly ¯ = p2 (sinh 4u − 4u). where µ is the mass of unit length. 6. cosh u = . 2. the superﬁcial area of the zone between the equator πb2 (sinh 2u + 2u) and a parallel plane at a distance y is S = . sinh u = M . sinh u = . The centre of gravity of this arc is given by 3lx ¯ = p2 (cosh3 u − 1). The length of arc of the spiral of Archimedes r = aθ is s = 1 4 a(sinh 2u+2u). measured from the vertex y 1 of the curve. The length of the arc of the parabola y 2 = 2px. sinh u = . In an oblate spheroid. In the hyperbola x a2 − b2 = 1 the radius of curvature is 3 (a2 sinh2 u + b2 cosh2 u) 2 ρ = . 2 2 5. The moment of inertia of the same arc about its terminal ordinate is 1 3 I = µ xl(x − 2¯ x) + 64 p N . a b 4. e eccentricity. 7. in which sinh u = = tan φ. where sinh u = θ. i. is l = 4 p(sinh 2u + 2u). y 3. in which M = log a .e.

MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS. 170. arts. 166– 74. pp. arts. pp. 75–81. in which u = x c . and the moment of inertia of this arc about its terminal abscissa is I = µc3 3 1 sinh 3u + sinh u − u cosh u . 120. to Non-Euclidian geometry and many other subjects in G¨ unther. Hyperbelfunktionen. to the torsion of prisms in Love. 172–4. lx ¯ = c2 (u sinh u − cosh u + 1). . Fourier Series. 12 4 9. Essai sur les fonctions hyperboliques. Applications to the vibrations of bars are given in Rayleigh.ARTICLE 38. Hydrodynamics. 78 8. to wave motion in ﬂuids in Rayleigh. to the ﬂow of heat and electricity in Byerly. The centre of gravity of the arc of a catenary measured from the lowest point is given by 4ly ¯ = c2 (sinh 2u + 2u). Chaps. I. V and VI. 384. Theory of Sound. Vol. p. Appendix. and in Maxwell. 135. Electricity. I. Several numerical examples are worked out in Laisant. and in Bassett. 477. art. to the theory of potential in Byerly p. Elasticity. Vol.

Article 39 Explanation of Tables. and of the gudermanian angle θ = 180◦ v .34i). Table III gives the values of v = gd u. as before. This table can also be used as a complex table of circular functions.3i).02. and the values of a. by keeping y at 1. Table II gives hyperbolic functions of complex arguments. In Table I the numerical values of the hyperbolic functions sinh u.8 and x = . as u changes from 0 to 1 at intervals of . sin(y ± ix) = d ± ic. cosh(x + 2iπ ) = cosh x.05. c.4i) ﬁnd cosh(. When u exceeds 4. and the sign of i on the right is to be the product of the signs of x and of i on the left.4i).9.82 + 1. moreover.1.82 + 1.5. in which x is kept at . etc. b. by keeping y at 1. When interpolation is necessary it may be performed in three stages. 79 . for cos(y ± ix) = a ∓ ib. and from 2 to 4 at intervals of . then by interpolation between cosh(. and. Table IV may be used.3i) and cosh(. by means of the formulas on page 56: sinh(x + 2iπ ) = sinh x.82 + 1.82 + 1.8 and x = . sinh(x ± iy ) = c ± id. d are tabulated for values of x and of y ranging separately from 0 to 1. The table is available for all values of y . but this case seldom occurs in practice. It does not apply when x is greater than 1. in which the signs of c and d are to be taken the same as the sign of x. For example.82.4 and interpolating between the entries under x = .9.34i): First ﬁnd cosh(.82+1.1.5 at intervals of .02. cosh u. to ﬁnd cosh(. from 1 to 2 at intervals of π . tanh u are tabulated for values of u increasing from 0 to 4 at intervals of . next ﬁnd cosh(. in which cosh(x ± iy ) = a ± ib. however great.82 + 1. the exponential function is given by exp(±x ± iy ) = a ± c ± i(b ± d).3 and interpolating between the entries under x = .

it gives by interpolation the value of the gudermanian angle. When u is large. by . from 6 to 7 at intervals of . whose circular functions would then give the hyperbolic functions of u. . sinh x.01. Trans. in which the table is entered with the value of u. There are also extensive tables by Forti. and Ho¨ uel. log tanh u. In the rare cases in which more extensive tables are necessary. 13. and from 7 to 9 at intervals of .. and in Wheeler’s Trigonometry. Vassal.01 from 0 to 2. and by 1 from 0 to 500.ARTICLE 39. to seven ﬁgures.1. to nine signiﬁcant ﬁgures. as u increases from 4 to 6 at intervals of . From these the values of cosh x. for values of u varying by . and there are four-place tables in Byerly’s Fourier Series. reference may be made to the tables1 of Gudermann. sinh x are easily obtained. In the usual case. Geipel and Kilgour’s Electrical Handbook. to nine ﬁgures. log cosh u. 1831–2 (published separately under the title Theorie der hyperbolischen Functionen. In the ﬁrst the Gudermanian angle (written k ) is taken as the independent variable. Glaisher in Cambridge Phil. as x varies by . and by .1 from 0 to 10.2. 6–9.1. and increases from 0 to 100 grades at intervals of . Geipel and Kilgour’s handbook gives the values of cosh x. 1833). Berlin.01 from 5 to 12. 1881. vols. In the following tables a dash over a ﬁnal digit indicates that the number has been increased. log sinh u. by . the corresponding value of u (written Lk ) being tabulated. To remedy this inconvenience Gudermann’s second table gives directly log sinh u.001 from 2 to 5. Callet.01 from 0 to 4.001 from 0 to . Gronau. vol. log cosh u. and Geipel and Kilgour. EXPLANATION OF TABLES. this angle is so nearly right that interpolation is not reliable. as x varies by . Glaisher. 80 In Table IV are given. 1 Gudermann in Crelle’s Journal.5. the values of gd u. Glaisher has tabulated the values of ex and e−x .

44 1.66 1.8854 889¯ 6 893¯ 7 897¯ 7 901¯ 5 .04 1.185¯ 5 1.94 1.1132 2.0764 2.78 1.484¯ 5 2.636¯ 7 660¯ 5 684¯ 6 709¯ 0 7336 .48 1.84 1.8881 9150 9423 970¯ 0 998¯ 1 1.0050 1.005¯ 3 2.024¯ 3 1. .4621 4777 493¯ 0 508¯ 0 522¯ 7 .0128 1.5831 1.7381 1.02 1.50 52 54 56 58 .577¯ 5 2.8617 8668 871¯ 7 876¯ 4 881¯ 0 .0032 1.12 1.5512 3.138¯ 3 1.098¯ 4 1.0395 1.0404 2.566¯ 9 1.206¯ 3 1.068¯ 9 3.4792 3.6164 1.00 02 04 06 08 .0655 1.211¯ 9 1.88 1.1752 1.4177 3.395¯ 5 2.0000 1.TABLES Table I.3045 325¯ 5 3466 3678 3892 .14 1.40 42 44 46 48 .42 1.1669 3.0018 1.16 1.604¯ 4 6169 6291 641¯ 1 6527 .2743 2.433¯ 1 1.76 1.2897 3.5370 5511 564¯ 9 578¯ 4 5915 .62 1.82 1.18 1.144¯ 6 cosh u.9051 908¯ 7 9121 9154 9186 .4753 1.269¯ 1 2.68 1.8806 2.54 1.991¯ 9 2.200¯ 5 3.9922 3.921¯ 7 9246 927¯ 5 9302 932¯ 9 .4735 1.034¯ 0 1.0008 1.9709 2.0289 1.6640 675¯ 1 6858 696¯ 3 7064 .52 1.1174 1.98 sinh u.80 82 84 86 88 .4382 1. .70 1.60 1. 1.92 1.674¯ 6 2.173¯ 0 1.410¯ 8 432¯ 5 4543 476¯ 4 4986 .084¯ 7 1.3799 3969 4136 430¯ 1 4462 .3199 1.107¯ 7 1.4075 3.10 12 14 16 18 .3356 1.60 62 64 66 68 .3524 2.1609 1.150¯ 9 2.776¯ 0 2.439¯ 5 2.310¯ 3 2.716¯ 3 725¯ 9 7352 744¯ 3 753¯ 1 u 1.72 1.1276 1.833¯ 7 839¯ 7 845¯ 5 851¯ 1 856¯ 5 .70 72 74 76 78 .5896 2.100¯ 2 120¯ 3 140¯ 5 160¯ 7 181¯ 0 .6593 1.80 1.0453 1.90 1.0000 0200 040¯ 0 0599 0798 .0731 1.8005 807¯ 6 8144 8210 827¯ 5 .46 1.480¯ 6 2.34 1.50 1.082¯ 7 2.820¯ 2 2.9364 2.9477 1.176¯ 8 2. u .22 1.081¯ 1 1.56 1.521¯ 1 543¯ 8 5666 5897 613¯ 1 .758¯ 6 7838 8094 8353 8615 .36 1.0516 1.0000 0200 0400 0600 080¯ 1 .107¯ 5 3.369¯ 3 1.546¯ 0 1.942¯ 2 3.7808 1.337¯ 2 3.0554 1.695¯ 6 1.0049 3.099¯ 7 1194 139¯ 1 1586 178¯ 1 .881¯ 8 2.403¯ 5 1.20 1.06 1.38 1.427¯ 6 2.0162 1.861¯ 7 1.227¯ 7 3.7616 769¯ 9 777¯ 9 785¯ 7 793¯ 2 .0492 3.4539 1.270¯ 6 1.2913 3095 327¯ 5 3452 3627 .2865 1.1984 1.375¯ 6 2.7609 2.96 1.2402 1.020¯ 1 1.32 1.74 1.810¯ 7 1.393¯ 2 1.268¯ 2 3.778¯ 6 1.534¯ 6 2.303¯ 0 1.3740 1.0098 1.9045 1.—Hyperbolic Functions.255¯ 2 1.530¯ 5 2.5913 1.6904 tanh u.819¯ 8 1.620¯ 1 3.9562 9579 9595 961¯ 1 962¯ 6 81 .149¯ 4 1.2258 1.7233 1. .872¯ 5 1.1894 2.1340 3.1144 1.519¯ 9 tanh u.40 1.9354 937¯ 9 9402 9425 944¯ 7 .237¯ 9 1.483¯ 8 3.509¯ 5 1.058¯ 4 1.9468 9488 950¯ 8 952¯ 7 954¯ 5 .7517 1.5523 cosh u.7027 2.7247 2.197¯ 4 2165 235¯ 5 254¯ 3 2729 .6984 1. 1.86 1.6456 2.0002 1.20 22 24 26 28 .8412 1.270¯ 0 1.355¯ 5 1.0072 1.28 1.6421 1.30 32 34 36 38 .10 1.036¯ 9 2.0265 1.4128 1.2251 2.90 92 94 96 98 sinh u.2013 221¯ 8 2423 2629 283¯ 7 .497¯ 3 1.8283 2.129¯ 3 2.9043 1.64 1.2288 2.324¯ 5 2.58 1.9373 1.3374 1. 1.00 1.543¯ 1 1.30 1.6685 1.26 1.620¯ 9 1.0895 1.3530 3.3025 1.625¯ 5 2.24 1.08 1.

980¯ 1 980¯ 9 9816 9823 9830 .34 2.682¯ 2 19.5679 4.7801 5.269¯ 1 13.76 3.54 3.96 3.2144 16.549¯ 4 4.5572 7.813¯ 1 23.TABLES Table I.248¯ 3 5.7864 13.342¯ 7 5.137¯ 0 5.9867 4.99505 99524 99543 99561 99578 .98 sinh u.68 3.9103 3.62 3.406¯ 3 7.462¯ 6 21.2700 10. 10.2360 20.14 2.6872 10.56 2.08 2.674¯ 9 9.620¯ 1 21.00 3.5785 5.994¯ 0 994¯ 2 9944 994¯ 7 994¯ 9 u 3.002¯ 6 12.08 3.699¯ 6 26.99594 99610 99626 99640 99654 .258¯ 3 7.7028 3.9757 976¯ 7 977¯ 6 978¯ 5 979¯ 3 .16 2.80 3.99817 99824 99831 99831 99844 .0371 21.20 2.86 2.1055 4.809¯ 7 5.24 2.34 3.970¯ 5 971¯ 6 972¯ 7 9737 974¯ 8 .7112 7.2866 12.99850 99856 99862 99867 99872 .5426 16.831¯ 5 6.64 3.6364 6.6443 21.40 3.54 2.312¯ 8 18.12 3.8185 cosh u.7113 25.4662 5.767¯ 9 tanh u.5340 12.506¯ 6 6.64 2.837¯ 2 4.32 3.74 2.0372 5.99918 99921 99924 99927 99930 82 .658¯ 0 4.902¯ 2 11.40 2.5774 15.3394 22.82 2.5569 5.46 3.74 3.076¯ 5 11.759¯ 4 8.4182 8.02 2.7221 24.668¯ 4 14.8358 20.3268 7.10 2.66 2.530¯ 3 11.749¯ 9 4.6929 5.044¯ 0 13.9890 989¯ 5 989¯ 9 990¯ 3 9906 .9866 9871 9876 9881 988¯ 6 .238¯ 2 26.879¯ 1 9.1215 11.4765 10.60 3.24 3.4287 10.88 2.8693 tanh u.8437 4.485¯ 9 21.7021 8.92 2.8951 6.9507 18.66 3.2101 25.473¯ 5 7.30 3.9990¯ 0 9990¯ 4 99907 99911 9991¯ 5 .50 3.8065 12.60 2.48 3.3004 6.28 3.7690 6.132¯ 3 6.0918 14.626¯ 9 3.46 2.528¯ 7 8.812¯ 1 14.04 3. .04 2.82 3. .5728 16.484¯ 4 9.62 2.1919 8.30 2.8966 22.928¯ 8 6.9070 17.38 3.6434 4.42 2.623¯ 1 9.412¯ 0 14.356¯ 2 5.183¯ 2 7.56 3.225¯ 6 4.2018 24.2976 9.0905 8.99728 99738 99749 99758 99768 .560¯ 7 6.70 2.26 3.18 3.52 2.80 2.94 3.764¯ 1 12.3586 8.9228 18.190¯ 9 4.245¯ 3 16.248¯ 0 17.429¯ 3 6. 10.99668 99681 99693 99705 99717 .8562 11.4487 5.9926 9929 993¯ 2 993¯ 5 9937 .88 3.68 2.90 3.479¯ 7 4.1425 5.017¯ 9 10. 3.0647 4.22 3.78 2.6947 6.655¯ 4 19.379¯ 3 6.021¯ 9 4.574¯ 8 13.810¯ 6 20.268¯ 4 15.2854 18.99777 99786 99794 99802 99810 .937¯ 0 5.4178 19.00 2.243¯ 7 9.431¯ 5 9.20 3.28 2.238¯ 8 5.965¯ 4 15.36 2.361¯ 8 22.90 2.42 3.—Hyperbolic Functions (continued ) u 2.067¯ 7 10.059¯ 6 9.587¯ 1 8.84 3.2224 24.868¯ 3 8.98 sinh u.9987 15.939¯ 5 5.72 2.7024 14.114¯ 6 9.1903 25.78 3.32 2.028¯ 5 8.0387 5.96 2.9194 22.060¯ 9 21.14 3.9242 16.52 3.72 3.0125 6.4435 19.775¯ 8 7.5958 17.859¯ 3 3.005¯ 6 13.06 2.26 2.3067 13.3932 4.58 2.567¯ 4 17.58 3.2545 6.2191 26.38 2.747¯ 3 13.18 2.6911 25.2212 10.835¯ 5 3.848¯ 3 14.273¯ 5 23.9709 7.3772 14.892¯ 8 16.7190 26.9640 9654 9667 9680 969¯ 3 .16 3.48 2.10 3.127¯ 3 14.6095 15.345¯ 3 11.667¯ 4 5.94 2.6403 10.70 3.780¯ 3 3.44 3.762¯ 2 3.494¯ 1 12.904¯ 3 7.7432 24.749¯ 2 cosh u.06 3.02 3.113¯ 2 7.22 2.2779 4.623¯ 1 7.219¯ 0 17.12 2. 3.92 3.84 2.739¯ 4 4.301¯ 1 15.9352 9.983¯ 7 9843 9849 9855 986¯ 1 .032¯ 8 19.044¯ 2 12.8774 17.44 2.3085 4.0502 6.245¯ 9 12.573¯ 6 11.1443 4.50 2.9398 4.0590 19.931¯ 6 8.99877 99882 99887 99891 9989¯ 6 .211¯ 3 20.252¯ 0 23.9910 991¯ 4 991¯ 7 9920 9923 .76 2.36 3.2527 8.86 3.537¯ 9 13.174¯ 1 6.042¯ 3 7.7911 23.3666 4.3011 11.4571 4.

1 1.9 1.6967 6216 5403 4536 .980¯ 1 0.936¯ 7 0.0 1.990¯ 4 1.0784 0965 113¯ 7 1297 .0175 1.9601 .0000 0998 198¯ 7 2955 .—Values of cosh(x + iy ) and sinh(x + iy ).00000 01000 0199¯ 0 02960 .9628 917¯ 4 8687 7995 .5 .717¯ 4 7833 841¯ 5 8912 .1001¯ 7 09967 09817 0957¯ 0 .TABLES Table II.3 .024¯ 5 9987 .362¯ 4 2675 170¯ 0 0707 0000 b 0000 ” ” ” ” ” ” ” ” ” ” ” ” ” ” ” ” 0000 ” ” ” ” ” ” ” ” ” ” ” ” ” ” ” ” x = .0453 a 1.0000 0.4 .3 c d .710¯ 7 634¯ 1 5511 4627 .020¯ 1 1.0 1.5 1 π 2 x = .1444 1577 1694 179¯ 5 .0052 1.1186 146¯ 0 1719 196¯ 2 .000¯ 0 0.5 1 π 2 83 x = .015¯ 0 0.3045 303¯ 0 298¯ 5 2909 .7498 8188 8796 9316 0. x=0 y 0 .9745 .187¯ 7 1940 1984 2008 2013 .0050 1.040¯ 1 1.728¯ 3 649¯ 8 5648 474¯ 2 .09336 0965¯ 2 09871 0999¯ 2 1001¯ 7 c .407¯ 1 501¯ 2 590¯ 3 6734 .0453 1.3972 4890 576¯ 0 6571 .9553 .3696 272¯ 9 173¯ 4 072¯ 2 0000 b .03901 04802 05656 06453 .7 .9320 963¯ 6 9854 997¯ 5 1.9395 895¯ 2 8419 780¯ 2 .0000 0304 0605 090¯ 0 .968¯ 4 0.8 .700¯ 2 624¯ 7 5430 455¯ 9 .5 .0072 1.020¯ 1 a 1.09226 0879¯ 1 08267 07661 .1 .2 1.974¯ 3 1.0000 0201 0400 0595 .8 .0697¯ 9 0622¯ 7 05412 04544 .3 1.3914 4818 567¯ 5 6474 .921¯ 1 8776 8253 7648 .0000 a 1.9 1.3 1.212¯ 2 189¯ 3 1645 1381 .0718¯ 6 0784¯ 7 08429 08927 .2838 2934 3001 303¯ 8 3045 c .6 .982¯ 9 1.6 .280¯ 5 267¯ 2 2513 2329 .2 1.9507 0.1 c d .073¯ 0 053¯ 9 0342 0142 0000 .4 1.2013 2003 1973 1923 .1854 176¯ 7 166¯ 2 154¯ 0 .0000 1044 207¯ 7 3089 .925¯ 7 882¯ 0 829¯ 5 768¯ 7 .0000 1018 202¯ 7 3014 .1 .042¯ 7 1.140¯ 3 125¯ 2 108¯ 8 0913 .2 .3 .0363¯ 0 0268¯ 0 0170¯ 3 0070¯ 9 00000 d .0050 a 1.1 1.2 .9950 0.9850 0.364¯ 2 268¯ 8 1708 0711 0000 b .002¯ 5 1.378¯ 8 2796 177¯ 7 0739 0000 b .4 1.2184 2385 2562 2714 .3894 4794 5646 6442 .9997 0.0301 1.731¯ 8 7990 858¯ 4 909¯ 1 0.7800 7872 845¯ 7 895¯ 7 0.2 y 0 .4 .1103 081¯ 5 051¯ 8 0215 0000 d .7 .0000 1003 199¯ 7 297¯ 0 .

3738 408¯ 2 438¯ 5 4644 .6 .4 1.077¯ 3 1.1888 139¯ 4 088¯ 6 036¯ 9 0000 d .488¯ 8 601¯ 8 7087 8086 0.8 .2552 1.1015 1.1991 1.5 .1051 1.2947 3218 3456 366¯ 1 .0403 0.485¯ 7 5021 5135 519¯ 8 521¯ 1 c .1 1.160¯ 0 1969 2319 2646 .TABLES Table II.161¯ 8 1.544¯ 2 5942 6383 6760 .041¯ 7 1.1 .2520 1.9784 0.1795 1.0000 0520 1025 154¯ 0 .2094 1.5285 4715 409¯ 9 344¯ 1 .0000 1253 249¯ 4 3709 .8259 736¯ 9 6405 5377 .3783 360¯ 5 3390 314¯ 2 .5 c d .6 .0076 1.2 .3 1.4548 335¯ 8 2133 088¯ 8 0000 b .960¯ 0 .0386 0.0000 0410 0816 121¯ 4 .7 .4391 5406 6367 7264 0.0918 1.—Values of cosh(x + iy ) and sinh(x + iy ).3 .4 1.169¯ 9 1.9 1. (continued ) x = .7070 7309 7475 756¯ 7 7586 c .8833 0.0653 1.421¯ 0 518¯ 3 6104 6964 .2 .286¯ 2 2553 2219 1863 .9832 1.9306 0.5 1 π 2 84 x = .363¯ 1 3239 2815 236¯ 4 .132¯ 5 1.124¯ 8 1.989¯ 6 0.6 y 0 .7755 8468 909¯ 7 963¯ 5 1.185¯ 5 a 1.122¯ 0 1.758¯ 6 754¯ 8 743¯ 5 7247 .3 .0595 1.3 1.4056 3016 191¯ 7 079¯ 8 0000 b .081¯ 1 1.906¯ 7 .2479 3052 395¯ 5 4101 .2954 363¯ 7 4253 488¯ 7 .593¯ 4 613¯ 5 627¯ 4 635¯ 1 636¯ 7 .480¯ 0 4573 430¯ 1 398¯ 6 .2029 2498 2942 335¯ 7 .056¯ 2 1.1 .1488 109¯ 9 0698 029¯ 1 0000 x = .9957 9487 8922 8268 .6987 6657 626¯ 1 580¯ 2 .104¯ 9 1.7 .0359 0.0756 1.443¯ 6 3957 344¯ 0 288¯ 8 .2301 1.7 c d .0 1.005¯ 0 1.7856 7009 609¯ 3 511¯ 5 .753¯ 2 672¯ 0 5841 4904 .056¯ 5 1.636¯ 7 633¯ 5 624¯ 0 6082 .328¯ 9 395¯ 8 404¯ 8 4097 410¯ 8 .461¯ 7 5684 669¯ 4 763¯ 7 0.081¯ 1 a 1.4567 4987 5357 567¯ 4 .5 .1682 1.429¯ 6 3171 201¯ 5 083¯ 9 0000 b .0865 1.1276 a 1.1186 1.2 1.0000 063¯ 6 126¯ 5 1881 .230¯ 7 1703 1082 0450 0000 .874¯ 5 7802 678¯ 2 5693 .9975 1.0 1.4 .185¯ 5 1.2552 a 1.948¯ 9 1.1163 1.521¯ 1 518¯ 5 5107 4978 .9004 0.5 1 π 2 x = .2369 1.8624 .0000 1079 214¯ 8 319¯ 5 .2 1.274¯ 9 2029 1289 053¯ 7 0000 d .248¯ 9 1.5864 5587 525¯ 5 4869 .1422 1.1 1.182¯ 5 1.4 y 0 .3917 289¯ 2 183¯ 8 076¯ 5 0000 b .156¯ 1 1.9286 0.0000 1183 2355 3503 .9 1.8504 0.4 .410¯ 8 408¯ 7 402¯ 6 3924 .1276 1.8089 0.032¯ 8 .0000 1126 2240 3332 .0000 0757 1542 224¯ 2 .078¯ 4 1.8 .051¯ 0 1.

**TABLES Table II.—Values of cosh(x + iy ) and sinh(x + iy ). (continued )
**

x = .8 y 0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

1 π 2

85

x = .9 c d .0000 1335 2657 3952 .5208 641¯ 2 755¯ 2 861¯ 6 0.9595 1.0476 1.1254 1.1919 1.2465 1.288¯ 7 1.3180 1.334¯ 1 1.3374 a 1.433¯ 1 1.4259 1.4045 1.3691 1.320¯ 0 1.257¯ 7 1.182¯ 8 1.096¯ 1 .9984 8908 7743 6500 .519¯ 3 383¯ 4 2436 101¯ 4 0000 b .0000 102¯ 5 2039 303¯ 4 .3997 4921 5796 661¯ 3 .736¯ 4 804¯ 1 8638 9148 0.956¯ 8 0.9891 1.0124 1.0239 1.0265 c 1.0265 1.021¯ 4 1.006¯ 1 0.980¯ 7 .945¯ 5 9008 8472 7851 .715¯ 2 638¯ 1 5546 4656 .372¯ 0 274¯ 6 1745 0726 0000 d .0000 143¯ 1 2847 4235 .558¯ 1 687¯ 1 809¯ 2 9232 1.0280 1.1226 1.205¯ 9 1.277¯ 2 1.335¯ 7 1.380¯ 9 1.4122 1.429¯ 5 1.433¯ 1

a 1.3374 1.330¯ 8 1.3108 1.2776 1.231¯ 9 1.173¯ 7 1.1038 1.0229 .931¯ 8 831¯ 4 7226 606¯ 7 .4846 357¯ 8 2273 0946 0000

b .0000 088¯ 7 1764 262¯ 5 .3458 425¯ 8 501¯ 5 5721 .637¯ 1 695¯ 7 7472 791¯ 5 .827¯ 8 8557 875¯ 2 885¯ 9 .8881

.8881 883¯ 7 8704 8484 .8180 779¯ 4 733¯ 0 679¯ 3 .618¯ 8 552¯ 1 4798 4028 .3218 237¯ 6 151¯ 0 0628 0000

x = 1.0 y 0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

1 π 2

x = 1 .1 c d .0000 154¯ 1 306¯ 6 4560 .6009 739¯ 8 871¯ 8 994¯ 1 1.1069 1.2087 1.298¯ 5 1.375¯ 2 1.4382 1.486¯ 8 1.5213 1.5392 1.543¯ 1 a 1.6685 1.660¯ 2 1.635¯ 3 1.594¯ 0 1.5368 1.464¯ 3 1.377¯ 1 1.276¯ 2 1.162¯ 5 1.037¯ 2 0.9015 0.7568 .6046 4463 2836 1180 .0000 b .0000 1333 2654 3946 5201 6403 754¯ 2 8604 0.9581 1.0462 1.1239 1.1903 1.244¯ 9 1.287¯ 0 1.3162 1.332¯ 3 1.3356 c 1.3356 1.329¯ 0 1.3090 1.276¯ 0 1.2302 1.1721 1.102¯ 4 1.021¯ 6 .930¯ 6 8302 721¯ 7 6058 .484¯ 0 357¯ 5 2270 094¯ 5 .0000 d .0000 1666 331¯ 5 493¯ 1 0.649¯ 8 0.7999 0.9421 1.074¯ 9 1.1969 1.3070 1.4040 1.487¯ 0 1.5551 1.6077 1.6442 1.6643 1.6685

a 1.543¯ 1 1.535¯ 4 1.5123 1.474¯ 2 1.421¯ 3 1.354¯ 2 1.273¯ 6 1.1802 1.075¯ 1 0.9592 0.8337 0.6999 .559¯ 2 5128 262¯ 3 109¯ 2 0000

b .0000 1173 2335 347¯ 3 457¯ 6 5634 663¯ 6 757¯ 1 0.8430 0.920¯ 6 0.9889 1.0473 1.0953 1.132¯ 4 1.158¯ 1 1.172¯ 3 1.1752

1.1752 1.1693 1.1518 1.1227 1.0824 1.031¯ 4 0.9699 0.8988 .818¯ 8 7305 635¯ 0 533¯ 1 .4258 314¯ 4 199¯ 8 0831 0000

**TABLES Table II.—Values of cosh(x + iy ) and sinh(x + iy ). (continued )
**

x = 1.2 y 0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

1 π 2

86

x = 1.3 c d .0000 180¯ 8 359¯ 8 535¯ 1 0.7051 0.868¯ 1 1.022¯ 4 1.166¯ 5 1.298¯ 9 1.4183 1.5236 1.613¯ 7 1.6876 1.744¯ 7 1.7843 1.8061 1.810¯ 7 a 1.9709 1.961¯ 1 1.9316 1.882¯ 9 1.8153 1.7296 1.626¯ 7 1.5074 1.3731 1.2251 1.064¯ 9 0.8940 .714¯ 2 5272 3350 1394 0000 b 0000 169¯ 6 3374 5019 .661¯ 4 8142 959¯ 0 1.0941 1.2183 1.330¯ 4 1.4291 1.5136 1.583¯ 0 1.636¯ 5 1.673¯ 7 1.6941 1.698¯ 4 c 1.698¯ 4 1.689¯ 9 1.6645 1.6225 1.5643 1.490¯ 5 1.4017 1.299¯ 0 1.183¯ 3 1.0557 0.9176 0.770¯ 4 0.6154 0.4543 0.288¯ 7 0.1201 0000 d .0000 196¯ 8 3916 5824 0.7675 0.9449 1.1131 1.2697 1.413¯ 9 1.543¯ 9 1.658¯ 5 1.756¯ 5 1.837¯ 0 1.899¯ 1 1.9422 1.966¯ 0 1.9709

a 1.810¯ 7 1.8016 1.774¯ 6 1.729¯ 8 1.6677 1.5890 1.4944 1.384¯ 9 1.261¯ 5 1.1255 0.9783 0.8213 .6561 484¯ 4 307¯ 8 128¯ 1 0000

b .0000 150¯ 7 299¯ 9 446¯ 1 .5878 723¯ 7 8523 9724 1.0828 1.182¯ 4 1.270¯ 2 1.3452 1.406¯ 9 1.4544 1.487¯ 5 1.505¯ 7 1.509¯ 5

1.509¯ 5 1.5019 1.479¯ 4 1.4420 1.3903 1.324¯ 7 1.2458 1.154¯ 5 1.051¯ 7 0.938¯ 3 0.815¯ 6 0.684¯ 7 0.547¯ 0 0.403¯ 8 0.256¯ 6 0.106¯ 8 0000

x = 1.4 y 0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8 .9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

1 π 2

x = 1.5 c d .0000 2147 4273 6356 0.8376 1.031¯ 2 1.2145 1.3856 1.543¯ 0 1.6849 1.8099 1.9168 2.0047 2.0725 2.1196 2.1455 2.150¯ 9 a 2.3524 2.3413 2.3055 2.2473 2.1667 2.0644 1.9415 1.7992 1.6389 1.462¯ 3 1.2710 1.067¯ 1 .8524 629¯ 3 3998 1664 .0000 b .0000 2126 4230 6292 0.829¯ 2 1.0208 1.2023 1.3717 1.527¯ 5 1.6679 1.7917 1.8976 1.984¯ 6 2.051¯ 7 2.0983 2.1239 2.129¯ 3 c 2.129¯ 3 2.118¯ 7 2.0868 2.034¯ 2 1.961¯ 2 1.8686 1.757¯ 4 1.628¯ 6 1.483¯ 5 1.323¯ 6 1.150¯ 5 0.965¯ 9 .771¯ 6 569¯ 6 3619 1506 .0000 d .0000 2348 4674 6951 0.916¯ 1 1.1278 1.328¯ 3 1.515¯ 5 1.6875 1.842¯ 7 1.979¯ 5 2.096¯ 5 2.1925 2.266¯ 7 2.318¯ 2 2.3465 2.3524

a 2.150¯ 9 2.1401 2.1080 2.0548 1.9811 1.887¯ 6 1.7752 1.6451 1.4985 1.3370 1.162¯ 2 0.9756 .7794 5754 365¯ 6 152¯ 2 .0000

b .0000 1901 3783 562¯ 8 0.741¯ 6 0.913¯ 0 1.075¯ 3 1.228¯ 8 1.3661 1.4917 1.6024 1.6971 1.774¯ 9 1.8349 1.876¯ 6 1.8996 1.9043

1.9043 1.8948 1.8663 1.8192 1.7540 1.671¯ 2 1.5713 1.4565 1.326¯ 8 1.183¯ 8 1.0289 0.8638 .6900 5094 323¯ 7 1347 0000

**TABLES Table III.
**

u 00 .02 .04 .06 .08 .10 .12 .14 .16 .18 .20 .22 .24 .26 .28 .30 .32 .34 .36 .38 .40 .42 .44 .46 .48 .50 .52 .54 .56 .58 gd u .0000 020¯ 0 040¯ 0 060¯ 0 0799 .0998 1197 1395 1593 1790 .198¯ 7 218¯ 3 2377 2571 2764 .2956 314¯ 7 3336 352¯ 5 371¯ 2 .3897 408¯ 2 4264 444¯ 6 462¯ 6 .4804 4980 5155 5328 550¯ 0 θ

◦

87

u .60 .62 .64 .66 .68 .70 .72 .74 .76 .78 .80 .82 .84 .86 .88 .90 .92 .94 .96 .98 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.35 1.40 1.45

gd u .5669 583¯ 7 600¯ 3 6167 6329 .6489 6648 6804 6958 7111 .7261 7410 755¯ 7 770¯ 2 7844 .798¯ 5 8123 826¯ 0 8394 8528 .865¯ 8 897¯ 6 9281 957¯ 5 985¯ 7 1.0127 1.038¯ 7 1.063¯ 5 1.087¯ 3 1.110¯ 0

θ◦ ◦ 32.483 33.444 34.395 35.336 36.265 37.183 38.091 38.987 39.872 40.746 41.608 42.460 43.299 44.128 44.944 45.750 46.544 47.326 48.097 48.857 49.605 51.428 53.178 54.860 56.476 58.026 59.511 60.933 62.295 63.598

u 1.50 1.55 1.60 1.65 1.70 1.75 1.80 1.85 1.90 1.95 2.00 2.10 2.20 2.30 2.40 2.50 2.60 2.70 2.80 2.90 3.00 3.10 3.20 3.30 3.40 3.50 3.60 3.70 3.80 3.90

gd u 1.1317 1.152¯ 5 1.172¯ 4 1.1913 1.2094 1.226¯ 7 1.243¯ 2 1.258¯ 9 1.273¯ 9 1.2881 1.3017 1.3271 1.350¯ 1 1.371¯ 0 1.389¯ 9 1.407¯ 0 1.422¯ 7 1.436¯ 6 1.4493 1.460¯ 9 1.4713 1.4808 1.4894 1.497¯ 1 1.504¯ 1 1.5104 1.516¯ 2 1.5214 1.526¯ 1 1.5303

θ◦ ◦ 64.843 66.034 67.171 68.257 69.294 70.284 71.228 72.128 72.987 73.805 74.584 76.037 77.354 78.549 79.633 80.615 81.513 82.310 83.040 83.707 84.301 84.841 85.336 80.715 86.177 86.541 86.870 87.168 87.437 87.681

◦ 0.000 1.146 2.291 3.436 4.579 5.720 6.859 7.995 9.128 10.258 11.384 12.505 13.621 14.732 15.837 16.937 18.030 19.116 20.195 21.267 22.331 23.386 24.434 25.473 26.503 27.524 28.535 29.537 30.529 31.511

Table IV.

u 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 gd u 1.534¯ 2 1.537¯ 7 1.5408 1.543¯ 7 1.5462 1.548¯ 6 1.550¯ 7 1.5526 1.5543 1.5559 1.5573 1.5586 1.559¯ 8 1.5608 ¯ 1.5618 log sinh u 1.4360 1.4795 1.5229 1.5664 1.6098 1.6532 1.6967 1.7401 1.7836 1.8270 1.8704 1.913¯ 9 1.957¯ 3 2.0007 2.044¯ 2 log cosh u 1.4363 1.4797 1.5231 1.5665 1.6099 1.6533 1.6968 1.7402 1.7836 1.8270 1.870¯ 5 1.913¯ 9 1.9573 2.0007 2.044¯ 2 u 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.2 6.4 6.6 6.8 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 ∞ gd u 1.5626 1.5634 1.5641 1.5648 1.5653 1.5658 1.5667 1.567¯ 5 1.568¯ 1 1.568¯ 6 1.569¯ 0 1.569¯ 7 ¯ 1.5701 1.570¯ 4 1.5705 ¯ 1.5708 log sinh u 2.08758 2.13101 2.17444 2.21787 2.36130 2.30473 2.39159 2.47845 2.56531 2.65217 2.73903 2.9561¯ 8 3.1733¯ 3 3.39047 3.60762 ∞ log cosh u 2.0876¯ 0 2.1310¯ 3 2.17445 2.21788 2.26131 2.3047¯ 4 2.3916¯ 0 2.47846 2.56531 2.65217 2.73903 3.9561¯ 8 3.1733¯ 3 3.39047 3.60762 ∞

. Daviet de Foncenex √ showed how to interchange circular and hyperbolic functions by the use of −1. He proved the addition theorem geometrically and derived a construction for the solution of a cubic equation. by a certain use of the operator −1. pertinens.J.) in connection with the solution of a dynamical problem.. Anal.φ for the hyperbolic functions. 1). 40. What is probably the earliest suggestion of the analogy between the sector of the circle and that of the hyperbola is found in Newton’s Principia (Bk. etc. imag. Bononiæ. 2. Florence. On the analytical side. 88 . where he suggests the possibility of modifying the expression for the area of the prolate √ spheroid so as to give that of the oblate one. and gave the analogue of De Moivre’s theorem. Johann Heinrich Lambert systematized the subject. prop.Article 40 Appendix. (Opuscula ad res Phys. Cc. and which gave birth to the modern theory of functions of the complex variable. now called the gudermanian.. The important place occupied by Gudermann in the history of the subject is indicated on page 33. page 30).φ for the circular ones. using it in computation and in the construction of tables (l. Soon after. The actual inventor of the hyperbolic trigonometry was Vincenzo Riccati. He adopted the notation sinh u. et trig. et Math. He adopted the notation Sh. sur les quant. and introduced the transcendent angle. 8 et seq. Miscel. expon. than on clear deﬁnition (Reﬂex.φ. In the growth of the general complex theory. the ﬁrst hint of the modiﬁed sine and cosine is seen in Roger Cotes’ Harmonica Mensurarum (1722). and was gradually developed by such writers as Ferroni (Magnit. The analogy of the circular and hyperbolic trigonometry naturally played a considerable part in the controversy regarding the doctrine of imaginaries.φ. log. Ch. c. Turin Soc. and Sc.1 Historical and Bibliographical. 1757). S. the importance of the “singly periodic functions” became still clearer. which occupied so much attention in the eighteenth century.. 1782). Tom. Dirksen (Organon der tran.. however. and gave the serial developments and the exponential expressions. the work resting more on analogy.

40. M. E. the sectorial measure (p. conseq. it is here proposed to show how these deﬁnitions can be easily brought into direct geometrical relation with the y S S hyperbolic sector in the form x a = cosh K . 2 2 Comparison of this equation with the identity cosh u − sinh u = 1 permits y the two assumptions x a = cosh u and b = sinh u. this S y S establishes the fundamental geometrical relations x a = cosh K .. 30 and 37 to the work of Arthur E. which are themselves immediate consequences of those exponential deﬁnitions. and his chart has been described on page 56 as a useful substitute for a numerical complex table (Proc. Greenhill... Many other writers have helped in systematizing and tabulating these functions. and the diﬀerential relations d cosh u = sinh u du. Haskell. 1 2 (x∆y − y ∆x) sin ω . wherein u is a single auxiliary variable. On the deﬁnitions of the trigonometric functions (Papers on Space Analysis. Syst. y Let the coordinates of a point P on the hyperbola be x and y . und Anwend. 1870). des quant. as indicated on page 27.. Paris. be taken as axis of x. let OA = a. hence u = K . b = sinh K . The following articles on fundamental conceptions should be noticed: Macfarlane. Soc. then x a2 − b2 = 1. N. der Math. and in adapting them to a variety of applications. A.. Ho¨ uel (Theor. and has done much to popularize their use (see Diﬀ. 1895). 1881). Let OA. N. and its conjugate radius OB as axis of y . 1894). and to S prove that u = K . 5). Now the sector P OQ bears to the triangle P OQ a ratio whose limit is unity. 39 is believed to be the only one of its kind for any function of the general argument x + iy .. Gunther (Die Lehre . b = sinh K . Y. Y.. By integration S = Ku. Theor. then the area of the triangle P OQ is. wherein S is the area of the sector OAP . For those who wish to start with the exponential expressions as the deﬁnitions of sinh u and cosh u. period. N¨ urnberg. The following works may be especially mentioned: Gronau (Tafeln. 1862. Attention has been called in Arts. 89 Berlin. funkt. 1845). 1891). 1865).. hence the diﬀerential of the sector 1 1 S may be written dS = 2 (xdy − ydx) sin ω = 2 ab sin ω (cosh2 u − sinh2 u)du = S Kdu. 1874). APPENDIX. 2 2 .ARTICLE 40. It may be worth mentioning in this connection that the present writer’s complex table in Art. Forti (Tavoli e teoria. angle AOB = ω . I. and area of triangle AOB = K . Ohm (Versuch eines volk. 1870). 1855). by analytic geometry. and it now remains to give a geometrical interpretation to u. and Int.. the initial radius of the hyperbolic sector. Calc. in various places in his writings. Schellbach (Die einfach. Professor A. Laisant (Essai.2 Exponential Expressions as Deﬁnitions. Kennelly in applying the hyperbolic complex theory to the plane vectors which present themselves in the theory of alternating currents. The last-named work contains a very full history and bibliography with numerous applications. d sinh u = cosh u du. E. On the introduction of the notion of hyperbolic functions (Bull. complex. 1895). G. Let the coordinates of a second point Q be x + ∆x and y + ∆y . by making use of the 2 2 identity cosh u − sinh u = 1. 1854).. then K = 1 2 ab sin ω . OB = b. Crelle. has shown the importance of both the direct and inverse hyperbolic functions.

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