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. Nuclear Reactor Auxiliary Cooler . Corrosion. CLOSED RECIRCULATING SYSTEM In a closed recirculating system the water is cooled in a secondary cooler using air . Hence some quantity of recirculating water has to be blown from the system to control the concentration of dissolved salts. ONCE THROUGH SYSTEM 2. 3. sea water or the cooling water from open recirculating system. water is passed through an Heat Exchanger & absorbs Heat. Fouling & Biological Growth. This heated water is cooled in a Cooling Tower by partial evaporation & releasing the latent heat of evaporation. However the water does not concentrate. In this way water is recirculated & reused using the pumps. Water supply 2. CLOSED RECIRCULATING SYSTEM 1. water is passed through the Heat Exchange Equipment & the cooling water is then discharged directly without recirculation. This system is used where water is readily available in plenty & at low cost.The system is prone to have more severe problmes of Scaling . river or lake. The dissolved solids in the water become concentrated due to evaporation. Air Conditioners. Both make up water & recirculating water have almost the same characteristics.1 What are the Different Types of Cooling Water Systems ? There are Three Different Types of Cooling Water Systems : 1. ONCE THROUGH SYSTEM In a ONCE THROUGH SYSTEM. Comfort Cooling etc. The Closed Recirculating Systems are used in Diesel Engines. OPEN RECIRCULATING SYSTEM 3.5% of the recirculation rate. This system does not employ open evaporation for cooling.CHAPTER 2 : COOLING WATER SYSTEMS Q 2. OPEN RECIRCULATING SYSTEM In an OPEN RECIRCULATING SYSTEM . Usually water losses are low & hardly exceed 0. It is then recirculated & reused. The water source can be sea.

electrons are released which migrate through the metal to the Cathodic area. FeO. 2 Fe(OH)3 → Fe2O3 + 3 H2O Fe2O3. Fe(OH)2 + ½ O2 + ½ H2O → Fe(OH)3 Ferric Hydroxide sludge when dried .Fe(OH)2. 2H+ + 2e . where the cathodic reaction takes place ie the electrons are consumed.1 What is Corrosion ? Corrosion is an electrochemical process by which a metal returns to its natural state.CHAPTER : 5 CORROSION Q 5 . .& Fe(OH)3 are found as Corrosion products on the metal surface & equipments. Fe 2+ + 2 OH .→ Fe(OH) 2 Ferrous Hydroxide is rapidly oxidised to Ferric Hydroxide. Hydrogen ion H+ participates in the reaction at Cathode instead of oxygen & completes the electric circuit.→ 2 OHCathodic Reaction Fe 2+ & OH – ions react further to form ferrous hydroxide which is precipitated.dehydrates to form insoluble ferric oxide which is known as rust. ½ O2 + H2O + 2 e. In the absence of oxygen . an electrolyte & a metallic path for the electrons generated (usually the metal itself). metal ion dissolves into the electrolyte (water) Fe ⇐ Fe 2+ + 2 e – Anodic Reaction As metal ion goes into solution at Anode.→ H2↑ The electrochemical reactions occur due to potential difference between the anode( .ve potential) & the cathode(+ ve potential ) . For corrosion to occur there must be an anode.Every metal surface is covered with innumerable small anodes & cathodes. At the Anode. a cathode.

v. Sulfates penetrate passive oxide film & promote local attack resulting in pitting type of corrosion. . Chlorine promotes acid attack & strips corrosion inhibitor film.unevenness & tuburculation occurs. Even the by products of some organisms are corrosive. f) Velocity High velocity promotes erosion corrosion & removes certain passivating film. iii. d) Microorganisms Microorganisms lead to slime.2 What are the factors influencing Corrosion ? Some important factors influencing Corrosion in cooling water systems are as follows: a) pH Generally corrosion rate decreases with increase in pH. b) Dissolved Gases i. H2S is aggressive to iron. Sand. Corrosion caused by microbial attack is called as Microbial Induced Corrosion (MIC). Nitrogen aggravates cavitation Corrosion. high sulfates & non sterilised conditions. Similarly low velocity can lead to deposition . Silt. Corrosion of steel is uniform at low pH . Chlorides. the corrosion rate increases with increase in temperature due to diffusion of oxygen to the metal surface. ie DM water is more corrosive than soft water which in turn is more corrosive than hard water.At higher pH . Hardness salts & alkalinity retard corrosion by forming corrosion inhibiting films. Corrosion is more severe in acidic pH as the protective oxide film is soluble in acidic water. Dirt etc settle to form deposits promoting differential aeration cell corrosion. Above 70 ° C. due to loss of dissolved oxygen the corrosion rate decreases.Q. e) Temperature In an open recirculatory system . O2 dissolved in water is necessary for the cathodic reaction to take place. low velocity . CO2 in water forms carbonic acid & reduces the pH ii. 5. H2S tends to depolarise the anodic area. c) Dissolved Solids The influence of dissolved solids on corrosivity is very complex.decreases amount of corrosion inhibitor reaching & passivating the metal surfaces causing localized corrosion cells. c) Suspended Solids Mud. iv. Corrosion rate of steel increases with increase in dissolved oxygen in water. In a closed loop corrosion increases steadily as the temperature rises. tubercles. Ammonia is selectively corrosive to copper based metals. vi. The bacteria proliferate under high pH. They can also cause erosion or barasion.

Graphitication & Dealuminification. A water or liquid trapped between a pipe & a flange can lead to Crevice corrosion.g) Heat Transfer Heat Transfer surfaces are more susceptible to corrosion because of differential temperature conditions. Low flow areas are prone for this type of corrosion. h) Dissimilar Metals Direct contact of dissimilar metals results in corrosion f active metal causing galvanic corrosion. A stagnant liquid in the crevice had a lower oxygen concentration & this leads to crevice corrosion. Pitting is the most common cause of metal failure. This gives rise to Corrosion.nicks. slime etc formed on the metal surface gives rise to differential concentration cell. After leaching mechanical properties of the metal are impaired & the chance of metal cracking are more. small pits are formed on the metal surface. What are the different types of Corrosion ? Different types of Corrosion are as follows : a) Uniform Attack Uniform Attack is a form of corrosion that occurs with equal intensity through the surface of the metal. Microstructure ie metal inclusions. At neutral pH & below . Metal under tensile stresses may crack causing tensile stress corrosion cracking.3. d) Crevice Corrosion This is another form of electrochemical corrosion. c) Under Deposit Corrosion Deposits such as Corrosion products. e) Selective Leaching Selective Leaching occurs when one metal or constituent of a metal selectively corrodes. b) Pitting It is a localised attack caused by formation of highly active local anodic sites. scales. Under Deposit Corrosion leads to deep pitting & perforation of metal surface. This form of corrosion occurs due to accumulation of aggressive ions & oxygen differentials inside the crevices. Q 5. In Pitting .scratches etc favour anodic site formation.cuts. The most common examples are Dezincification . i) Metallurgy Metal surface flaws. precipitation at grain boundaries. . These may result from unequal ionic concentration or oxygen differentials. the corrosion of steel tends to be fairly uniform. differing adjacent grains etc promote galvanic cell formation. Dezincification of Brass occurs in cooling water systems with high chlorine levels.

This causes differential aeration cell corrosion. Conductivity . g) Stress Corrosion Cracking Metals under tensile stress in a corrosive environment & temperature develop this type of corrosion.3 How do we Control Corrosion ? The most widely accepted methods for Corrosion Control in industrial cooling water system are as follows : a) Protective Coating / Lining b) Oxygen Scavenging c) Cathodic Protection d) Use of Sacrificial Anodes e) Adjustments to water chemistry eg pH . h) Waterline Attack If the heat exchanger system or the distribution system is not completely filled with water. it easily propagates throughout the metal . Cracking is more commonly observed with stainless steel &can be either Intergranular or Intragranular. Once a stress crack begins . then there is a region or area filled with air. Bicarbonate equilibrium etc. Liquids with high suspended solids are prone for Erosion corrosion.5.f) Erosion Erosion Corrosion is caused by high velocity & turbulence This is caused by the a combination of chemical attack as well as physical abrasion. Q. f) Use of Corrosion Inhibitors The selection of the method depends upon :i) Techno Economic Consideration ii) Expected Life of an Equipment iii) Desired performance of Equipment iv) Corrosion Allowance & Expected Corrosion Rate v) Combination of Two or more Methods . The corrosion takes place due to wetting & drying at water interface.

Q. A) Synergistic Blend of Corrosion Inhibitors Practically . The dosage required is less than the anodic corrosion inhibitor. Usually two or more corrosion inhibitors are blended to utilise the advantage of each & to minimise their respective limitations. Organic Filming Amines.5. A combination of cathodic and anodic corrosion inhibitors give a better corrosion control at economical use levels. Corrosion Inhibitors are normally classified based on their mode of action as follows : a) Anodic Corrosion Inhibitor b) Cathodic Corrosion Inhibitor c) Mixed Corrosion Inhibitor A) Anodic Corrosion Inhibitor These inhibitors function by blocking anodic corrosion sites through formation of a protective oxide/inhibitor film. Typical Anodic Inhibitors are i) Chromates ii) Molybdates iii) Ortho Phosphates iv) Nitrites v) Silicates B) Cathodic Corrosion Inhibitor Cathodic Corrosion Inhibitors form a visible film along the cathode surface which polarises the metal surface by restricting the access of dissolved oxygen to the metal substrate. eg A Zinc – Chromate based Corrosion Inhibitor blend used at 40 – 50 ppm gives better corrosion control than 200 ppm or more of Chromate alone. That is why Anodic Inhibitors are generally applied at high dosages. To ensure complete protection all anodic sites must be filmed. Typical Cathodic Corrosion Inhibitors are j) Polyphosphates k) Zinc l) Calcium Carbonate C) Mixed Corrosion Inhibitors An inhibitor which has both cathodic as well as anodic mechanism is called as Mixed Corrosion Inhibitor. . Phosphonates give corrosion inhibition by both anodic as well as cathodic mechanism.4 What are different types of Corrosion Inhibitors ? Corrosion Control in Cooling water systems is achieved by using Corrosion Inhibitors. the use of only one corrosion inhibitor in open recirculating system is rare.

Tolytriazole (TT) are very effective in inhibiting corrosion of copper & copper based alloys. . High velocity causes erosion of copper based materials. Preweighed coupons are exposed in the water for a period of 30/60/90 days & thus it gives average corrosion rate for the period of exposure.5. The chemical factors such as low pH. This is effective even in the presence of high chlorine residuals in recirculation.5 How Non Ferrous Metals are protected against corrosion ? Copper & its alloys such as Admiralty Brass. Recently Halogen Resistant Azole (HRA) is also used as copper corrosion inhibitor. Q.Borate – silicates k) Molybdate . Corrosion Meter helps to monitor day to day water quality & corrective steps can be taken immediately. Corrosion Meter gives an instantaneous reading & indicates the corrosive tendency of water at the time of measurement. cyanides.Polyphosphate. Benzotriazole (BT) .Most commonly used synergistic blends of Corrosion Inhibitors are :a) Zinc – Chromate b) Zinc – Polyphosphate c) Zinc – Phosphonate d) Chromate – Polyphosphate e) Chromate – Orthophosphate f) Zinc. The corrosion coupons give us an idea about both general & pitting corrosion as well as fouling conditions. sulphides. Azoles such as Mercaptobenzothaizole (MBT) . Corrosion rates are normally determined by two techniques 1. Corrosion coupons determine the long term effect of water & metal contact under fluctuating system conditions. Corrosion Coupons Corrosion Meter works by measuring an electrical potential across electrodes made of the metal being evaluated. This copper will get deposited on steel surfaces & create galvanic cell action resulting in pitting corrosion of the steel.Dispersant l) Molybdate – orthophosphate – Dispersant Q. Cupro – Nickel (90:10 ) are frequently used in cooling water heat exchangers. excessive chlorine residuals cause corrosion of copper & its alloys. Corrosion Meter 2. Probes of various metallurgy are used to determine corrosion rate.6 How do we measure Corrosion? Proper monitoring of Corrosion rates is very much essential for control of corrosion. These are relatively resistant to corrosion. ammonia.Phophonate. When corrosion occurs there is an increase in copper content of recirculating water.5.chromate g) Polyphosphate – Silicate h) Molybdate.Zinc –Azole i) Molybdate – Nitrite – Borate j) Nitrite.

304 b) Types 309. Q5. regular analysis of a cooling water can give an indication of the corrosion in a system . One Mil is 1/1000 inch.302. Corrosion rate is normally expressed as weight loss per unit area per unit time( weight loss/area/time).879 Density g/cm2 7.94 7.8 How do we calculate Corrosion Rate ? The Corrosion rate is calculated using the following formula : Corrosion Rate (In mils per year mpy) = CxWxK AxT where C = 18.52 8.316.923 0.990 0. of days coupon exposed K density factor for various metals are as follows : Sr No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Metal Carbon Steel Stainless Steel a) Types 201.86 7.879 0.5.2 W = Area of exposed coupon in cm2 K = Density Factor of metal T = no.985 0.96 8.316L Copper Admiralty Brass 687 Admiralty Brass 442.33 8.7 What is MPY ? MPY means Mils Per Year.Besides these . Q.000 0.944 0.94 .310.443 Copper K Factor 1. The parameters monitored are normally associated with the material of construction.94 8. This weight loss can be expressed as mdd ie milligrams per square decimeter per day or mpy ie mils per year or mpd ie mils per day.

The Area of a coupon is calculated as follows : Area of Coupon = { 2 LW + 2 LT + 2 WT } -. For Copper & Copper based alloys like Admiralty Brass .5 mpy is considered to be good.5. .1428 Q.9 What is the accepted standard corrosion rate ? Based on the exposure time of 30 days for coupons the corrosion rate is rated as follows: a) Less Than 2 mpy : Excellent Corrosion Protection b) 2 – 5 mpy : Good Corrosion Protection c) 5 – 10 mpy : Moderate or doubtful Protection d) More than 10 mpy : Poor or no Protection These Corrosion rates are for Mild Steel or carbon Steel. Cupro Nickel (90:10) & Stainless Steel the corrosion rate of 0.2 π D2 + π D T 4 where L W T D π = = = = = Length of the coupon Width of the coupon Thickness of the coupon Diameter of the hole 22 / 7 = 3.

CHAPTER 6 : MICROBIAL GROWTH Q. remain dormant for a long period under unfavourable conditions. FUNGI Fungi are non photosynthetic organisms.They utilise wooden structure of the cooling towers as a source of nutrient & thus destroy wood lumber. They carry out photosynthesis with sunlight . ALGAE Algae requires air. Fungi & Bacteria are the types of organisms which grow & proliferate in cooling water systems. Autotrophic bacteria manufacture their own food by oxidation of inorganic material. Algae . water & sunlight for its growth. or can come through raw water make up. The temperature condition of the recirculating water system is usually suitable for their growth. entrained during the construction. BACTERIA Many types of bacteria are found in cooling water system. They are introduced into the cooling water system through air borne dust & make up water.6. However dislodged algae may interfere with the proper water distribution on the tower deck & thereby reduce the heat transfer.1 What are the different types of organisms found in recirculating water systems ? The recirculating water system provides a unique environment for the rapid growth of microorganisms. They live on dead organic matter. Based on the shape of the bacteria are classified as Rods(rod shaped). Cocci(spherical shaped) & spirals (spirally shaped). Algae biomass can become nutrient source for bacteria. If not treated. colonial or filamentous. The excessive fungal growth on the wood is called as “ Woodrot ’’ Fungi are classified as Yeast & Molds. Bacteria exist as Unicelluar or Multicellular. & the side walls of a cooling tower are ideal locations for the growth of an algae. The distribution decks.Fungi are plants without chlorophyll. inorganic salts & water. The circulating wtaer pH & temperature conditions are favourable for the growth of fungi. They manufacture their own food by fixation of carbon dioxide using water . Mold forming or spore forming fungi . Micribiologically Induced Corrosion (MIC). very often mats of algae are seen on cooling tower decks. . Heterotrophic bacteria derive their food from both organic & inorganic material eg Slime forming bacteria. They are either unicellular . They may be airborne. This dormant condition makes them relatively harmless.which are found in circulating water . Iron consuming Bacteria. eg Sulphate Reducing Bacteria (SRB). Normally algae have very little direct effect on the heat exchangers . If attached to & / or deposited on metal surface it can contribute for localised corrosion viz.

6. OXIDISING BIOCIDES & NON OXIDISING . These chemicals are termed as BIOCIDES. process contaminants eg Ammonia. Q.Bacteria can be also described as Aerobic or Anaerobic depending upon whether they flourish in oxygenated environment or environment void of oxygen. Process contamination. Q. The efficacy of biocide depends upon the operating pH of the cooling water system. Oil ingress is another major source of nutrient supply to microorganisms.They deposit on metal surface . They reduce the heat exchanger efficiency & also create differential aeration cells resulting in high localised corrosion rates.6.5 What are the different types of Biocides used in cooling water system ? Biocides are usually classified as BIOCIDES.6. What is best achieved is the maximum killing & control of growth. availability of nutrients etc. Following physical & chemical factors affect the microbiological growth : a) Ambient & system temperature b) Roughness of solid surface c) pH of water d) Particulate Matter in the water e) Sunlight Cooling water system offers plenty of water.6. silt. Biocides kill the microorganisms. good aeration & a continuous supply of nutrients. It is very difficult to kill all the microorganisms in a cooling water system.2 What is Slime ? Slime is an extra cellular gelatinous secretion of varying consistency. Increased use of phosphate based chemicals & rising use of nutrient containing waste water such as treated sewage water as make water are ideal sources for the microorganisms to flourish. temperature. Hence only way to control it is to add certain chemicals in cooling water system.4 How Microbiological growth is controlled ? Neither physical nor chemical conditions can be changed ina practical way to control microbiological growth. mud. air borne dust. other nutrients such as ortho phosphate present. etc becomes entrapped the slime mass . Q. Q. Slime formation depends on the environmental conditions such as temperature . Suspended matter. nature & amount of pollutants such as Hydrocarbons.3 What are the factors influencing Microbiological Growth ? Cooling water systems provide ideal environment for the growth of microorganisms.

cost & chlorine release mechanism. hypochlorite liquid producing hypobromous acid or sodium . They are more widely used because they are effective & less expensive. Q. (2) NaOH + HOCl ……………. Recently chlorine use is dropping because of its reduced effectiveness in high pH water & in reclaimed water containing ammonia. & restrictions. Chlorinated isocyanuartes are typical examples of this class.5 should be maintained in cooling water return to cooling tower. product form .notably forms of Chlorine & Bromine are the primary biocide used in cooling water systems. oil ingress . These organochlorine compounds vary markedly in stability. BROMINE COMPOUNDS An alternate to chlorine is becoming very popular. (1) Ca(OCl)2 + H2O ↔ Ca(OH)2 + 2 HOCl …………. 3. Bleaching Powder .6. There are variety of Non oxidising biocides available.. type of cooling water system. (3) NaOCl + H2O ↔ HOCl further dissociates to form Hypochlorite ion( OCL -) & hydrogen ion (H+) HOCl ↔ H+ + OCl …………………………………. it is generated by action of bromide salts with chlorine gas. Cl2 + H2O ↔ HOCl + HCl …………………. water characteristics. Process contamination. plant past history & environmental limitations. ammonia contamination result in high chlorine demand. They are different in their functional mechanism but are different in their form.Oxidising Biocides are capable of undergoing oxidative reactions with organic molecules. Oxidising Biocides .. Non oxidising biocides are more effective than oxidising biocides.2 to 0. (4) B) Chlorine Release Compounds These are the compounds such as Chloroisocyanurates & Chlorohydantoins which generate hypochlorite & Hypochlorous ions when dissolved in water. Chlorine Compounds Chlorine compounds such as Chlorine gas. Free Residual Chlorine of 0.. The selection of proper biocide or combination of biocides depends on the type of organisms present . These chlorine compounds dissociate in water to produce Hypochlorous acid (HOCl).6 What are the different types of Oxidising Biocides ? Different types of Oxidising Biocides used in Cooling water systems areas follows : 1. Sodium Hypochlorite . The biocidal activity of Chlorine is very sensitive to pH & decreases rapidly above 7 pH. These stabilised forms of chlorine are easier or safer to feed than gaseous or liquid chlorine.

They control most organisms except aerobic slime forming bacteria. Q. Quats can react with anionic dispersants to cancel the effectiveness of both. It is less corrosive than chlorine.MBT hydrolyses rapidly at pH above 8. C) Organic Sulfur Compounds The most commonly used Organo sulfur based non oxidising biocide is MBT ie Methylene Bis Thiocyanate. . Their mode of activity is attributed to cationic charge which forms an electrostatic bond with the negatively charged microoragnism cell wall. organic contamination. Its production requires handling of several liquids.01 to 0.5 & in the presence of ammonia. contamination etc.1 ppm. It is effective against Sulfate Reducing Bacteria.7 What are the different types of Non Oxidising Biocides used in Cooling Water Systems ? Different types of Non Oxidising Biocides used in Cooling Water Systems are as follows: A) Chlorinated Phenols They were most commonly used non oxidising biocid. various carbamates are also widely used as Non Oxidising Biocides. They cause cel death through protein denaturation by distorting the permeability of the cell wall. However due to toxicity to aquatic life the use of SPCP is dropping.5) & non reaction with ammonia.Bromine is more biologically active & cost effective than chlorine at pH above 7. It must be generated on site. OZONE Ozone is an allotropic form of oxygen. heavily fouled system with dirt & debris. high frequency electric field. Unlike Chlorine it does not react with water to form hypochlorous acid & hydrochloric acid. Sodium PentaChloroPhenate ( SPCP) was the most widely used . pH . 4. 5. B) Quaternary Ammonium Compounds ( QUATs) Quats are cationic surface active quaternary nitrogen compounds. CHLORINE DIOXIDE Chlorine dioxide is becoming popular because of its effectiveness at high pH levels(pH above 7. Ozone is a powerful & naturally unstable oxidising gas.6.They are effective against algae & bacteria especially at neutral & alkaline pH range. Ozone is prepared by reformation of oxygen molecule s using high voltage . Ozone enriched gas is then bubbled through cooling water & the residual is maintained at 0.hypobromite. Overfeed of Quats can cause foaming problem. The activity of quats is reduced by high chloride concentration . organics . It is affected by temperature . Besides MBT .

They are used in systems with relatively high levels of biomass & organic contaminants. They also expose new layers of microbial slime or algae to the attack of biocide thereby enhancing the effectiveness of the biocide. Q. They are effective against trouble some bacteria. Q.9 What are the acceptable norms for Microbiological Control in recirculating water systems ? The acceptable level of organisms present in the recirculating water systems will vary form plant to plant. They are effective at low use concentration.6. organobromine based Non oxidising biocides. They are dosed either continuously or as needed before or during biocide addition. It functions like a cationic surfactant by disruption of extra cellular enzyme reactions. They loosen microbiological deposits which can then be flushed away. They are effective in controlling bacterial growth. G) Isothiazolines Blends of two or more Isothiazoline compounds are used as a broad spectrum biocide. The biodispersants also act as Deposit Penetrants .D) Glutaraldehyde Biocide formulations based on Glutaraldehyde are gaining more acceptance. Bromonitro propanediol (BNPD) are effective broad spectrum . They also fluidise deposit forming silts & clay which can foul heat tranfer surfaces & restrict flow. E) Dichlorophene It is a non oxidising phenolic based biocide effective against bacteria & algae.6. It is more effective under alkaline pH Range. They have however limited effectiveness against algae & fungi. High dosages of this biocide can lead to foam problem. Organic accumulations caused by oil leakages & greases are penetrated & dispersed by them. They prevent microorganism attachment or reomve attached biofilm.8 What is Biodipersant ? Biodispersants are the chemicals whih hav little or no biocidal activity. F) Dodecyl Guanidine Hydrochloride It is a broad spectrum non oxidising biocide. They are particularly effective against bacteria & are active over a wide pH range. The following data indicates particular values that provide a basis for assessing the effectiveness of a microbiological control program. H) Organobromine Compounds Compounds such as Dibromo nitrilopropionamide (DBNPA) . i) Total Bacterial Count (TBC) ii) Sulfate Reducing Bacteria : Not more than 500000 organisms per ml : 100 organisms per 100 ml .

system design .Q. it is practically impossible to design a universal biocide program. ii) Based on the retention time . The frequency of dosage depends upon the retention time within the system. iii) The compatibility of biocide with other chemicals added in the system should be known prior to dosing of biocide. & retention time. cost considerations. it should be known before. Higher dosages are recommended for heavily biofouled systems. it is necessary to inhibit further growth & proliferation of microorganisms. Once the system is brought under control . This avoids the problem of immunity developed by the microorganisms. sunlight.6. . compatibilty with other products . Q. After biocide addition it is desirable to shut off blow down & allow a retention time of minimum 4 – 8 hours & thereafter give heavy blowdown. biocide should be selected eg for systems with low retention time. temperature. water chemistry. Biocide dose is based on the system hold up . safety in handling & government regulations. Following points should be kept in mind while selecting a biocide program : i) Chlorine & Chlorine releasing biocide should be avoided in systems with high chlorine demand. Chlorine is injected into the system using chlorination equipment . Biocides are usually slug fed to a system. Initially a high dose of biocide is added to control existing microorganisms. This gives a rapid & effective reduction in the number of microorganisms.10 How do we select a Biocide ? The selection of a Biocide is based on number of variables which include the type of microbial growth. Typically two biocides are dosed to a system alternately. process contamination etc. Chlorine can be dosed continuously or intermittently depending upon the requirement. v) Local restrictions governing discharge of the blow down water form cooling system must be considered. This subsequent dose is usually lower than the initial dose.11 What should be the dosage of Biocide & what should be the frequency of Biocide Dosing ? Since variety of microorganisms are flourishing at different locations in the recirculatory cooling water system .6. As microorganisms are prone to develop immunity towards biocide. iv) The past plant history should be known before biocide selection eg if certain species have developed immunity towards a specific biocide. it is desirable to recommend two or more biocides to be dosed alternately. a fast reacting biocide should be selected.

4. Hydroxides. D)Amount of scale forming salts present A number of mineral salts may lead to deposition of insoluble products in cooling water systems .2 m/sec. Certain ions form a soluble ion pairs that decrease the deposition potential of scale forming salts.CHAPTER 4 : SCALING Q. C) Water Flow Velocity As the water flow rate increases the scaling rate decreases.6 m/sec is @ 1/5 th of that at a flow rate of 0.1 What is a Scaling ? Scaling is the formation of insoluble particles in the bulk water & then the subsequent adherence of these particles to metal surface. Q. The principal anions are Bicarbonates. the scaling rate at a flow rate of 0. adherent scales. eg Mg will form Magnesium sulfate thereby decreasing the scaling potential of calcium sulphate. Zinc Phosphate . .4. Phosphates. Generally these salts precipitate at high skin temperature area B) System pH or Alkalinity The scaling potential of scales such as Calcium Carbonate . The formation of these insoluble particles takes place only when the solubility of the salt in the cooling water is exceeded. crystal growth & also will lead to a formation of dense . Carbonates. calcium Phosphate . Aluminium. 6. Low flow velocity can allow time for nucleation for scale formation. Calcium Phosphate. Zinc . Influence of Dissolved Solids & Suspended Solids High Dissolved Solids caused due to presence of highly soluble salts can extend the solubility of some scale forming salts eg Calcium Sulphate in presence of high Sodium . Zinc Hydroxide etc increases with increase in pH . Also low pH increases potential for Silica scaling. Iron.2 What are the factors affecting Scaling ? The factors affecting scaling are as follows: A) Water Temperature Many Scale Forming salts exhibit Inverse Temperature Solubility ie the solubility of these species decreases with an increase in temperature. The principal cations are Calcium. Low pH accelerates corrosion potential thereby providing nucleation sites for scaling. Sulphates & Silicates. As a thumb rule . Magnesium. eg Calcium Carbonate . High Suspended Solids can provide nucleation sites there by increasing scale potential.

the a mgnesium & silica concentrations are controlled . The solubility product of Magnesium as calcium carbonate & Silica as Silica should not exceed 35000 limit. Iron Phosphate is a yellowish –white precipitate found when make up water contains high levels of iron. C) Calcium Phosphate Calcium Phosphate also exhibits inverse solubility like calcium carbonate. It will pose a problem if its solubility limits are exceeded. These scales are tightly adherent & are difficult to remove with chemical treatment. These scales are also found in gas scubbers in smelting & coking operations where Feldspar is used as a raw material on the process side. Higher operating cycles & Increased use of reclaimed waste water accounts to high silica levels. octacalcium phosphate & hydroxyapatite. This soluble iron is present in many make up waters. F) Silica Pure Silica scales are usually not found in cooling water systems. Magnesium silicate scale precipitation is influenced by pH . tricalcium phosphate . Orthophosphates. This soluble iron gets converted into insoluble ferric form by either aeration or by oxidising material. tenacious & difficult to remove. & also temperature. The solubility of silica increases with pH. Low Flow . B) Calcium Sulphate Calcium Sulphate is relatively more soluble than Calcium carbonate. It is formed by the decomposition of Calcium bicarbonate which is present in water . E) Silicates Silicate Scales are very hard . Mg & Silica levels.3 What are the different types of Scales commonly encountered in Cooling Water Systems ? Common scales encountered in Cooling Water Systems are as follows : A) Calcium Carbonate Calcium Carbonate is the most common component of scale found in cooling water systems especially in hard water . To prevent magnesium Silicate deposition.4. Use of sulphuric acid for pH Control will increase the sulphate ions in cooling water systems.Silica scales can be prevented by limiting the silica concentration in circulating water systems upto 160 ppm.Q. high pH & high temperature is conducive for the precipitation of calcium phosphate. The combination of calcium . It has an inverse solubility ie as the temperature increases the solubility decreases. G) Iron Salts Iron in the ferrous form is soluble. & thus gets precipitated as Fe2O3 or Fe(OH)3. high phosphates lead to iron phosphate precipitation. D) Calcium Fluoride Calcium Fluoirde scales are observed in systems using municipal waste water as a make up water . It precipitates as amorphous form . . High Temperature .

6 m/sec lowers the scaling rate to @ 1/5th . D) Alter System Design or Operation The scaling rate is influenced by water flow rate. This can be achieved by removal of either hardness salts & making water soft or by removing all salts & making water demineralised. It precipitates in low flow heat transfer areas.forming Calcium & Magnesium Sulphate.H) Zinc Salts Zinc Phosphate scales result from high operating pH ( pH > 7. The solubility of scale forming salts is usually increased as pH is lowered. This reduces bicarbonate hardness by chemical reaction . ii) modify the exchanger design by reducing the number of passes. C) Limit the concentration of Scale forming salts The scale forming salts in the cooling water systems can also be maintained by limiting the cycles of concentration via blowdown. etc.& skin temperature. heat flux.2 to 0.4 What are the different methods of Scale Prevention & Control ? Scale prevention & control is achieved using following methods : A) Pretreatment of Water The most obvious method of scale prevention is to remove the scale forming constituents from the make up water. The use of Demineralised water is an effective scale prevention method however such water will be corrosive & expensive . Scale control can also be achieved by making mechanical changes in the system to reduce the chances of scale formation. iv) Use of sponge balls for on line cleaning v) Change the system metallurgy of the heat transfer surface eg Mild steel heat transfer surfaces will scale under conditions where copper & other alloys will not. B) pH Control A typical method of scale control in cooling water systems is by use of Acid Dosing for pH Control. This will reduce the build up of concentration of scale forming ions . iii) Air rumble on a periodic basis to dislodge & remove scales . Q. These are more soluble than carbonates. vi) Reduce the heat flux by reducing the process load This will reduce the metal temperature & scaling potential.5) or overfeed of Chromate –zinc-phosphate or zinc – phosphate chemicals. Loosely adherent scales will get easily removed. E) Use of Scale Control / Scale Inhibiting Chemicals . This scales also lead to under deposit corrosion. Some of the mechanical method s of scale control are as follows : i)Increase in the water flow rate from 0.4. water temperature. The pH control can be achieved by acid dosing usually sulphuric acid.

4 TriCarboxylic Acid (PBTC) d) Crystal Modifiers The Crystal Modifier distorts the crystal lattice structure of scale so that the scales are not adherent . NTA also react with ions to form soluble complex or chelate . Explain various terms associated with Scale Prevention & Control ? Various terms associated with Scale Prevention & Control are as follows : a) Sequestering Agents ( Or Chelating Agents) They react with scale forming ions to form water soluble complex . Mn2+ Other chelating agents eg EDTA. c) Threshold Inhibitors These chemicals inhibit the precipitation of scale forming ins at dosages fat below the stoichiometric quantities required for sequestrationor chelation. They are included in the crystal lattice to form bulky. They sequester ions such as Ca2+. They delay or retard the rate of precipitation .Typical examples are organophophonates. Tannins. Polycarylates. This complex viz Chelate prevents the precipitation of scale containing sequestered or chelated ions. 2 Phosphono Butane-1. Typical examples are Lignins. Fe2+. b) Scale Conditioners Scale Conditioners chemically modify the crystal structureof a scale . They function by adsorption mechanism.Q.4. which is used at a substoichiometric amount . Typical Threshold Inhibitors are Low Molecular Polyacrylates . It is also a form of Threshold Inhibitor. Amino Tri Methylene Phosphonic Acid(ATMP) . loosely adherent deposits instead of hard scales. Organophosphonates such as Hydroxy Ethylidine Di Phosphonic Acid (HEDP). Polyphosphates & anionic polymeric dispersants are used as sequestering agenst. . polymeric dispersants based on polyacrylates. 2. They cause crystal lattice distortion so that scales formed are loose & can be easily removed from the system by blowdown.5.