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th

Symposium of Applied Aerodynamics

Polytech’Orléans, 28-30 March 2011

METHOD FOR EXTRACTING AIRFOIL DATA OF ROTATING BLADES

46

th

APPLIED AERODYNAMICS SYMPOSIUM

ORLÉANS, FRANCE, 28-30 MARCH 2011

Ivan Dobrev

(1)

, Fawaz Massouh

(2)

(1)

Arts et Métiers-Paristech, 151, bd L’Hôpital, Paris 75013, France, Email: ivan.dobrev@ensam.eu

(2)

Arts et Métiers-Paristech, 151, bd L’Hôpital, Paris 75013, France, Email:fawaz.massouh@ensam.eu

This paper proposes a method to extract the aerodynamic lift coefficients of the rotating wind turbine blade. The

method is based on the analysis of the velocity field around the blade sections. This velocity field, obtained by

means of PIV exploration, is used to calculate the blade section circulation and inflow velocity. Based on Kutta-

Joukowsky theorem, it is possible to calculate the lift coefficient of the blade section. To establish the relationship

between the lift coefficient and the angle of attack, the rotor is tested for different rotational speeds while keeping

the upstream flow velocity constant. Thus, the aerodynamic properties of the blade airfoils are obtained, taking

into account the rotational effects. The results are useful database for numerical simulations and validations.

INTRODUCTION

Several aerodynamic theories for the analysis

of flow through rotors or propellers need the

airfoil aerodynamic characteristics. These

characteristics are used to calculate the forces

applied by the wind on blade sections,

depending of rotor inflow. Usually, the lift and

drag coefficients, as functions of angle of

attack, are obtained by the test of the airfoil in

a wind tunnel. However, it is known that the

blade rotation can have a significant effect on

the blade section aerodynamic coefficients.

Unlike the profile of a fixed wing, in the case of

the rotating blade, the boundary layer is

subjected to centrifugal and Coriolis forces. .

Consequently, flow separation appears for a

greater angle of attack and becomes less

abrupt, especially for the root blade sections,

see [1]. Thus, to improve the accuracy of

calculation, it is essential to use the

aerodynamic characteristics of rotating airfoil,

sometimes called “rotating polar”.

There are different theories to calculate the

rotating polar based on the correction of the 2D

polar of the profile, see [2]. Unfortunately, the

results obtained using these theories are not

always satisfactory and do not achieve the

desired accuracy. Consequently, the

experimental way remains to be exploited to

obtain these characteristics.

Currently, the experimental method is based

on measuring the static pressure on several

sections along the blade and measuring the

dynamic pressure and velocity direction

upstream of each of these sections. This

method can be applied to rotors equipped with

blades, which has sufficient space to carry a

pressure sensor, connecting lines and also

numerous pressure taps. Moreover, the task

becomes even more difficult, since the

reference velocity should be measured

sufficiently upstream of the profile, where the

flow is not perturbed by the blade section.

In view of these difficulties to measure the

pressures on a rotating blade and to obtain the

wind direction upstream of the profile, this

method seems very costly and thus rotating

polar exists only for a few profiles; see [3], [4],

[5] and [6].

The development of non-intrusive techniques,

such as LDA and PIV, enables to measure the

velocity field around a rotating blade.

Meanwhile the review of literature shows that

only few studies took advantage of such

techniques to investigate flow through a wind

turbine rotor. In fact, most researchers work

essentially about the exploration of wind

turbine wake by PIV, for example in [7], [8], [9]

and [10].

Only two researcher teams have worked on

the exploration of flow around the rotating

blade section. In the first study, presented in

[8], the authors studied the vortex wake behind

the rotor and the velocity field around the blade

sections. The blade bound circulation is

presented and angle of attack is also

measured directly from the obtained vector

field. Without carrying out calculation, the

authors suggest using Kutta-Joukowsky

theorem to obtain the airfoil lift coefficients.

The other work devoted to study velocity field

around a wind turbine blade is that of Maeda et

al [4]. In this work the authors present the

distribution of circulation along the blade based

on the velocities obtained by means of LDA.

The pressure distribution is also measured for

5 different sections of the blade. The

aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoils are

determined from pressure measurements.

The study presented here is a continuity of

studies of the wake vortex downstream of wind

turbine rotors [9] and [10]. The objective is to

develop a method for calculating aerodynamic

coefficients of the rotating airfoil. The approach

is based on the analysis of the velocity fields

obtained by PIV measurements around the

blade sections of a rotating blade. Indeed the

aerodynamic force applied to the profile is

obtained on the basis of the Kutta-Joukowsky

theorem and from the circulation around the

profile.

Figure 1. Test Bench

In this study, the reference velocity used to

calculate the lift coefficients is determined from

the measured velocity field, upstream of the

blade section, and from the peripheral

component of velocity due to rotation of the

blade. A correction is applied in order to

account for the local disturbance created by

the studied blade section.

The calculation is carried out for different

operating points of the wind turbine which

enables to determine the variation of lift

coefficient as a function of the angle of attack.

Finally to validate the method, the power

obtained by means of measured circulation

and inflow velocity along the blade is

compared with the mechanical power

measured directly on the shaft of the turbine.

1. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

1.1. Test bench

The experimental study is carried out on a

wind turbine installed in the wind tunnel of Arts

et Métiers - ParisTech, Fig.1. The tunnel

nozzle accelerates the wind from settling

chamber to test section up to 40 m/s. The

nozzle has contraction ratio of 12.5, which

ensure a uniform velocity profile and

turbulence less than 0.25%. The tested wind

turbine has a three-blade rotor with a diameter

of 500 mm. The chord is 68 mm at the blade

root and 48 mm at the tip. The blades are not

twisted and the pitch angle is 10°.

Figure 2. Plane of exploration

During the tests, the wind turbine rotational

speed varies from 1200 rpm to 1800 rpm and

the upstream flow velocity is constant: 9.3 m/s.

The Reynolds number calculated for the blade

chord located at 0.7R by means of relative

velocities obtained during the tests varies

between 90,000 and 130,000.

The rotor is mounted on a 600mm long shaft

which is coupled with a DC generator. The

rotor load is controlled with a rheostat

connected to the generator. The coupling

between the rotor shaft and the generator is

made via a contactless torque transducer

(HBM T20WN), which enables to measure the

torque and delivers 360 pulses per revolution.

A fiber optic sensor (Keyence FS20V), that

detects a rotating target on the shaft, is used to

locate the passage of the blade considered to

be the reference. Thus, the counting the

number of square signals delivered by the

torque meter after the passage of the

reference signal, permits to obtain the rotor's

angular position with an accuracy of 1°. The

acquisition of data from the sensors is carried

out by data acquisition card, which emits a TTL

signal for triggering the PIV measurements at a

desired rotor angular position.

Figure 3. Raw image superposed with the field of

relative velocity around the airfoil

The PIV system is managed by the Dantec

software DynamicsStudio 2.30. Taking images

is done by implementing a laser (Litron Nano-L

200-15), with an impulse power of 2x200 mJ, a

camera of 2048x2048px (Dantec FlowSense

4M), equipped with the lens (Nikkor AF-S 105

mm f/2.8 G ED IF), a frame grabber card and a

synchronization system. The last synchronizes

images and laser flashes with the blade

angular position. The seeding of flow is made

with micro droplets of olive oil created by a

mist generator (10F03 Dantec). The droplets

diameter is supposed upto 2-5µm.

1.2. Capturing and image processing

To determine the curve "lift coefficient-angle of

attack", the speed of rotor rotation is varied

between 1200 rpm and 1800 rpm, while

keeping the upstream flow velocity equal to 9.3

m/s. The study is carried out in 9 operating

points of the rotor and for each point a series

of 200 double images is taken. This image

capture is synchronized with the rotation of the

rotor and the PIV system is triggered just when

the axis of the blade becomes perpendicular to

the laser plane. As the laser sheet is normal to

the axis of the blade, a mirror is used, to

resolve the problem of shadow, created by the

upside blade surface, and to illuminate the

back side. To reduce reflections of laser

radiation, the entire surface of the rotor is

painted with a black matt paint.

Taking into account that the frequency of the

camera is 7 Hz, the image is taken once every

four revolutions. The time between the first and

second image of each pair of images is set to

20µs. This value was experimentally

established to ensure the best cross-

correlation. The cross-correlation with

adaptation is applied to interrogation windows

of 32x32 pixels and a 50% overlap, which

provides a spatial resolution of 1.23 mm.

The results are presented in Fig. 3. Here, on

the raw image, the relative velocity field around

the blade is superposed. The results show a

good cross-correlation, except in the region

near the blade surface. Despite the saturation

of the image near the airfoil, the velocity field is

usable, as the contour of integral to calculate

the circulation is taken sufficiently away from

the airfoil. Finally, the treatment of all PIV

images has permitted to establish a database

containing the instantaneous velocity fields and

the average velocity field for each of the 9

operating points of the rotor.

2. ANALYSIS OF RESULTS

2.1. Flow around the airfoil

The purpose of these tests is to obtain

sufficient information about the velocity field

around the profile in order to calculate its

aerodynamic properties. Indeed, it is possible

to extract the aerodynamic characteristics

directly from the absolute velocity field, Fig. 4.

Figure 4 Absolute velocity, r/R=0.7, n=1200 rpm

Figure 5 Relative velocity, r/R=0.7, n=1200 rpm

Here, the streamlines show well that the flow is

slowed and deviated by the profile in the

opposite direction to rotation. We also note the

existence of a stall zone at the trailing edge of

the profile. This stall is a consequence of the

thickness of profile at the trailing edge. The

presence of the viscous wake is also visible in

Fig. 5, which represents the relative velocity

around the profile. Figure 6, represents the

field of dimensionless unsteady relative

velocity in vicinity of the trailing edge, and Fig.

7 represents the vorticity. Finally, the average

relative velocity fields for different speeds of

rotation are represented on Fig. 8-15.

Figure 6 Trailing edge wake, r/R=0.5, n=1200 tr/min

2.2. Calculation of airfoil lift

There is a very important difference between

flow around an isolated profile and flow around

the blade sections of a rotor blade. This

difference is based the reference velocity. The

actuator disk theory shows; that in the case of

wind turbine, the fluid passing through the rotor

is slowed, because the rotor converts kinetic

energy of the wind into mechanical energy.

Betz’s Law announced that the maximum

power of the rotor is reached when flow axial

velocity at the rotor plane is 2/3 of the

upstream velocity. Thus velocity depends on

the rotor loads; and the reference speed

cannot be the same as that of upstream

velocity, but another, near the rotor plane and

which takes into account the slowdown in the

fluid flow deceleration.

Indeed, the problem of the reference velocity is

not easy to solve. If the studied flow field is

limited too closely to the airfoil to have a good

spatial resolution, then the measured field will

be perturbed by the airfoil. Contrarily, if the

boundary of the flow field is too far away from

the airfoil, it is possible to lose accuracy. Also,

with the enlargement of the measured window,

the distance between the top or the bottom of

the image and the rotor axis becomes rather

different from the distance between the image

centre and the rotor axis, Fig.2. Here, the flow

deviates too far from the studied blade section.

So these parts of the images are not useful for

the study of flow.

Figure 7 Trailing edge vorticity, r/R=0.7, n=1200 rpm

To obtain the reference velocity, it is possible

to use the approach of [11], [12]. In these

works; the method of free wake is applied to

estimate the angles of attack along the blade.

However, in the case of studied wind turbine,

the rate of dissipation of tip vortex intensity is

very important [10] and it is difficult to calculate

the velocity induced by the shed vorticity.

An early study [9], carried out by means of hot-

wire anemometry, showed that the flow in

circumferential direction, immediately behind

the rotor is perturbed mostly by the airfoil

presence. The axial and tangential velocities,

induced by the tip and root vortices are quiet

uniform in circumferential direction. Also, the

free vorticity sledded from the blade is enrolled

rapidly into one tip vortex with low pitch. As a

result, the flow through the rotor is similar to

quasi three-dimensional flow, bounded

between the vortex surfaces created by tip and

root vortices.

Figure 8 Average velocity, 0.7 r/R, n=1200 tr/min

Figure 9 Average velocity, 0.7 r/R, n=1314 tr/min

Figure 10 Average velocity, 0.7 r/R, n=1360 tr/min

Figure 11 Average velocity, 0.7 r/R n=1435 tr/min

Figure 12 Average velocity, 0.7 r/R, n=1480 tr/min

Figure 13 Average velocity, 0.7 r/R, n=1580 tr/min

Figure 14 Average velocity, 0.7 r/R, n=1630 tr/min

Figure 15 Average velocity, 0.7 r/R, n=1800 tr/min

Figure 16 Calculation of velocity induced by the

airfoil

As a result, we can represent the flow through

the blade segment, like the flow through a

blade cascade. In this case; the velocity

obtained by means of PIV corresponds to

velocity of resultant flow. Hence, to extract the

reference velocity, it is needed to subtract the

velocity induced by the blade cascade from

resultant flow.

In this work, the used approach is similar to

that proposed by Shen [11] to study the flow

through a bidimensional vertical axis turbine,

where, the upstream velocity of an airfoil is

obtained by subtracting the velocity induced by

the airfoil from global velocity field. In fact, this

approach is correct only for low or moderate

angles of attack; where viscosity effects are

limited.

In studied case, it is supposed that the

resultant velocity

R

V

is decomposed into three

components:

i ad R

V V V V

+ + =

·

(1)

In Eq. (1)

·

V

is upstream velocity,

ad

V

is the

velocity induced by the rotor, which operates

like an actuator disk and

i

V

is the velocity

induced by the blade cascade.

In Eq. (1), the velocity induced by the blade

cascade, because high blade pitch, is very

close to that of induced by an isolated airfoil. In

addition, to simplify the calculation, the airfoil is

supposed to be thin with zero camber. This

thin airfoil is modeled by a vortex line of length

c with vortex distribution ¸(s). This airfoil has

the same circulation as the studied airfoil:

}

= I

c

ds s

0

) ( ¸

(2)

Then, the Biot-Savart law is applied to

calculate the induced velocity at a point

P(x

c

,y

c

):

( ) ( )

ds s

s y y s x x

s y y

U

c

c c

c

a

) (

) ( ) (

) (

2

0

2 2

¸

t

}

÷ ÷ ÷

÷ I

=

( ) ( )

ds s

s y y s x x

s x x

V

c

c c

c

a

) (

) ( ) (

) (

2

0

2 2

¸

t

}

÷ ÷ ÷

÷ I

= ,

(3)

Here s is the distance measured from the

trailing edge, Fig. 16.

In Eq.3 the dimensionless intensity of the

vortex distribution ) (s ¸ is supposed to be

equivalent to that of a flat plate, hence:

s c

s

c

s

s

÷

=

I

=

t

¸

¸

2 ) (

) ( . (4)

In eq. (3), I is the circulation of the profile,

which can be calculated from the velocity field

obtained experimentally by PIV, see Fig. 17:

} } } } }

÷ ÷ + = = I

1

4

4

3

3

2

2

1

udx udx vdx udx s d v

(5)

The subtraction of velocities calculated by Eq.

(3) from the PIV velocity field, permits to obtain

the velocity field, which is not perturbed by the

presence of the airfoil, Fig. 18.

Figure 17 Calculation of circulation

The velocity vectors, downstream of the rotor,

show that the flow diverges because the rotor

operates like an actuator disk and decelerates

the flow. Also it turns the fluid in the opposite

direction of the rotor. It should be noted that

the disturbance introduced by the profile, which

is due to viscosity, cannot be eliminated

particularly the viscous wake of airfoil trailing

edge.

By averaging the axial velocity field upstream

of the profile, we obtain the averaged axial

velocity U

R

which is not disturbed by the airfoil.

Subsequently, one can calculate the relative

velocity of reference W

R

at profile upstream:

2 2

) ( r U W

R R

e + = (6)

Here er is the peripheral velocity.

Figure 18. Corrected velocity field

The lift force L can be obtained from Kutta-

Joukowsky theorem:

I =

R

W L µ

(7)

On the other hand, L can be expressed in

terms of lift coefficient, dynamic pressure and

the airfoil chord as reference.

c

W

C L

R

L

2

2

µ = (8)

By combining Eqs. (7)-(8) the lift coefficient of

the profile can be obtained as:

R

L

cW

C

I

=

2

(9)

The corresponding flow angle |, see Fig. 19,

can be calculated from averaged velocity

upstream of the airfoil:

r

U

R

e

| arctan =

(10)

Subsequently, taking into account the pitch

blade angle u, the angle of attack is:

u | o ÷ = (11)

To obtain the aerodynamic characteristics of

the profile, we calculate the coefficients of lift

and the angles of incidence for different

rotational speeds. The results, presented in

Fig. 20, show moderate lift coefficients which is

lower than the expected values. Most probably

this is a consequence of thick and rounded

trailing edge which cannot fix the trailing

stagnation point. However, as the airfoil has

some camber so the lift at o = 0° incidence is

not zero, and it must also be noted, that the

Reynolds number during the tests is low i.e. Re

< 130 000. The lift curves for r/R=0.7 and

r/R=0.9 are nearly the same, but slope

coefficient C

L

o

, for r/R=0.5 is greater, due to

three dimensional effects.

Figure 19 Velocity triangle and aerodynamic forces

Figure 20 Lift of blade section at 0.5 r/R, 0.7 r/R and

0.9 r/R.

3. CONCLUSION

In this work, we propose a non-intrusive

method to extract the lift coefficient of a

rotating airfoil and to establish what is called

the “rotating polar”. This method is based on

the analysis of the velocity field obtained by the

PIV. The study is conducted in wind tunnel on

a wind turbine rotor and for the blade profile at

0.5r/R, 0.7r/R and 0.9r/R. for the various

angles of incidence, different speeds of

rotation of the turbine are tested.

For each operating point, a series of PIV

images is taken. Processing and image

analysis enable to obtain the velocity fields and

to calculate the circulation around the profile.

To obtain the inflow reference velocity,

necessary for calculating the aerodynamic

coefficients, the velocity perturbation due to the

airfoil is also taken into account. For this, the

influence of the airfoil is modelled by a thin

profile, which has the same circulation as the

measured one. Then the velocity induced by

airfoil is subtracted from the velocity field

obtained by PIV. Subsequently, the resultant

axial velocities upstream the airfoil is

averaged. The vector of relative velocity to the

profile, which serves as a reference, is

obtained by composition of the averaged

velocities and peripheral speed.

Finally, the lift coefficient is calculated by

means of Kutta-Joukowsky theorem, using the

circulation created by the profile and the

reference inflow velocity. The calculation is

performed for all speeds of rotation of the

turbine, thereby establishing the relationship

between lift coefficient and angle of incidence.

The obtained results are useful database for

numerical simulation.

It is envisaged to study a new wind turbine

model equipped with airfoils which have well

known aerodynamic properties in the case of

low Reynolds number. Also it is previewed to

explore of the airfoil characteristics in vicinity of

blade root. As the flow in this region is highly

three-dimensional, it is envisaged to use stereo

PIV.

4. REFERENCES

1. Tangler J. (2004) Insight into Wind Turbine

Stall and Post-stall Aerodynamics, Wind

Energy 7, pp. 247–260

2. Lindenburg, C. (2004). Modelling of

rotational augmentation based on

engineering considerations and

measurements, In: Proc. Europ. Wind

Energy Conf., London.

3. Hand M., Simms D., Fingersh L.J. et al

(2001). Unsteady Aerodynamics

Experiment Phase VI: Wind Tunnel Test

Configurations and Available Data

Campaigns, Tech. Rep. NREL/TP-500-

29955.

4. Maeda T., Kamada Y., Sakai, Y., Takahara

N., (2005). Experimental Study on Flow

around Blades of Horizontal Axis Wind

Turbine in Wind Tunnel, Trans. JSME B,

71(701)

5. Snel H., Schepers J. G., Montgomerie B.,

(2007). The MEXICO project (Model

Experiments in Controlled Conditions):

The database and first results of data

processing and interpretation, J. Phys.:

Conf. Ser. 75

6. Sicot C., Devinant P., Loyer S., Hureau J.

(2008). Rotational and turbulence effects

on a wind turbine blade. Investigation of

the stall mechanisms, J. of Wind Eng. Ind.

Aero., Vol 96, Issues 8-9.

7. Grant I., Parkin P. (2000). A DPIV study of

the trailing vortex elements from the

blades of a horizontal axis wind turbine in

yaw, Experiments in Fluids 28, 368-376

8. Smith, G.H., Grant, I., Liu, Infield, D. Eich, T.

(1991). The Wind Tunnel Application of

Particle Image Velocimetry to the

Measurement of Flow Over a Wind

Turbine, Wind Engineering, Vol. 15, No. 6

p. 302.

9. Massouh, F. Dobrev, I.,(2007). Exploration

of the vortex wake behind of wind turbine

rotor, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 75, 012036.

10. Dobrev I., Maalouf B., Troldborg N.,

Massouh F. (2008). Investigation of the

Wind Turbine Vortex Structure, 14th Int.

Symp. Appl. of Laser Tech. Fluid Mech.,

Lisbon, Portugal.

11. Shen, W., Zhang, J.H., Sørensen, J.N

(2009). The Actuator Surface Model: A

New Navier–Stokes Based Model for

Rotor Computations, J. Sol. En. Engn.,

Vol. 131/011002.

12. Sant T., Van Kuik G., Van Bussel GJW.

(2006). Estimating the angle of attack

from blade pressure measurements on

the NREL Phase VI rotor using a free

wake vortex model: axial conditions, Wind

Energy, Vol 9, Issue 6

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