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C A M P A C O S M O G O N Y : T H E E A R T H THE AViRERI CYCLE
Myth knows of no other mode of explanation than to go back to the remote past and to derive the present state of the physical and human world from this primeval stage of things. -Cassirer 1953:153 The Campas do not believe that the universe Campa mythology: first, all the accounts make has always been the same. They point to certain sense in terms of the Campa manner of living; features of the universe and explain them as hav and, secondly, they all share a similar mode of ing come into existence through sudden transfor explanation. Yet the accounts do not fit together mations at some time in the past. By subtracting to form a fully coordinated whole. Occasionally all the features so explained, a vision of the uni the same feature is explained in two different verse as it was in its initial or primeval condition ways in two different accounts. Different infor emerges. This primeval universe of Campa cos mants give different versions of the same myth, mogony is nowhere explicitly described, yet it or incorporate the same incidents in different may be seen as implicit in Campa mythology as a myths. An inspection of the Campa mythological whole, and the following picture emerges: Before accounts reveals that they cannot be arranged in the events related in Campa mythology took any temporal sequence, for they defy such order place, the universe was much less variegated. The ing. Indeed, the only arrangement to which they earth existed, to be sure, and there were Campas lend themselves is of the sort used here: terres living on it, some or all of them with powers trial transformations; then celestial develop immeasurably greater than the feeble forces of ments; and finally the history of humanity. those who live today. But many if not all species The myths of terrestrial transformations con of animals did not yet exist, certain species of cern the manner in which certain species and fea trees did not yet exist, a number of rock forma tures on the earth’s surface came into existence. tions in Campa territory did not yet exist; the The earth itself is believed to have suffered only earth did not as yet know seasons or the darkness one notable transformation, and that a gradual of night; the sky was still empty of sun and one: at one time the earth spoke, answering moon and some if not all the stars. TasdrencVs solicitudes, but with the passage of The history of the transformation of this sim time its voice became weaker and finally ceased, plified, primal universe into the universe as it is leaving it inert as it is today. According to the observed today, is embodied in a number of tra informant Sariti, it is because the Campas die ditional accounts of the kind we call mythologi and are buried that the earth has suffered and no cal. These accounts are presented in this chapter longer speaks, at least within the confines of and those that follow. Although they are classi Campa territory. In describing the universe, how fied and referred to as myths, for the Campas ever, it is not unusual for a Campa to impute the they are reliable reports, handed down orally power of speech to the ground underfoot where from past generations, of happenings as real as the good spirits live at the ends of the earth and any actual event of past years still remembered in the sky. or talked about. But while these accounts form But more generally the terrestrial transforma the corpus of significant Campa history, we tions conceived by the Campas were sudden should not expect any thoroughgoing consis transformations. Each of these marked the meta tency when we compare them. The Campas do morphosis of a member of the original human— not compare them. They are satisfied that each that is, Campa—stock into the first representative account is internally consistent in its explanation of a particular species of animal or plant, or into of the origin of specific features of the universe. some feature of the terrain. The clues to the Two elements bind together the corpus of former human condition of these species and ter309
ANTHROPOLOGICAL PAPERS AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY VOL. 52 tory with his grandson Kiri, who was to be trans formed into kiri, the pihuayo palm ( Guilielma speciosa). It was Avireri's habit to visit his sisters to drink and socialize, and to carry his grandson on his back as he traveled. It was while traveling in this way that Avireri transformed Campas en countered along his route into whatever they re sembled, or whatever resembled them. Thus, in this first episode of the Avireri cycle, Avireri transforms a number of Campa boys— his sister’s sons, who have been mischievously climbing his fruit trees to steal his fruit—into (1) arboreal creatures (white monkeys), (2) arboreal termite nests, and (3) arboreal bees’ nests. Significantly, in the last two instances the boys are not trans formed into individual insects but rather into en tire nests, as it is not the insect but the nest that resembles a boy hugging a tree trunk to escape detection. (The text, which is not clear in this particular, has been corrected to make this ex plicit.) Avireri's conversions of his nephews in furiated his other relatives, many of whom were destined to be converted themselves on one occa sion or another. The ill-will he engendered by his disruptive activities led, as recounted in the final episodes of the cycle, to his disposal and the transformation of his grandson.
icariri£ni his grandson
rain features are the human resemblances that they manifest in their shape or their behavior. And so it was the human species—the original Campa population—that supplied the material from which was fashioned much of what else is found on the earth’s surface. This view reverses both the totemic and the evolutionary under standing that mankind is descended from non human ancestors.1 All the transformations we are now consider ing were sudden, and constitute historical events. In most cases the transforming agent was a mythological personage, and the mythological personage most active in transforming his fellow Campas in this way was Avireri} In this section we consider the myth cycle with Avireri as its central character, as related by the venerable in formant Sariti. The texts are given both in their original form and in translation. They are given verbatim as they were tape-recorded, only slightly edited, retaining the questions asked of the narrator by his listeners in the course of nar ration. Episode I. Avireri the Great Transformer For a long time Avireri lived in Campa terri
Int£ni In the beginning (Kiri) then, apite. (the) two.
ikfotari he (Avireri) waswith him Isavikaveita, They were living,
isavikaveita, they were living, iriciro. his sister.
isavikav^ita. ^ they were living.
Osamah£rikea She was annoyed with him, then, atirip^, many humans,
Os^iki ipe^keri Many he transformed them atirip€, many humans, p€rani. long ago. ma^roni. everyone.
ipellikeri he transformed them ££ri, bees, irisati they also atTri humans perani. long ago. t?k£ she here me£ka now atiri humans p^rani. long ago.
Ipe€keri He transformed them kahiro, termites, ir6sati they also
Ipetfkeri He transformedthem
irisati they also atiri humans
Ipe^keri He transformed them Ir^take It was they
mapipe, many rocks,
ohananekitep^ her many children
iricir$ni, (of) his sister then,
simasirika. fthe tree S i i r a i i j i i r i l here. angry with him.
WEISS: CAMPA COSMOLOGY
Osemah'arikea, She was annoyed with him, then, "Te pikam£cate. MYou are no good. okisakeri. she was * Oseiki Many
Okisakgri, She was angry with him,
pipeayet^keri you have transformed many of them
pitinerip^.1 1 your many nephews.1 1 "Pihltte "Go pearinci manioc beer Kiso Hard by yorave' he there yoiri, he was
Okantavgtari, She had said to them (her sons) in vain, pinkantliiteri go tell him pikonkiri your uncle iririiteta pettrinci, to come drink now manioc beer,
£nta.1 1 over there.”
Impokavetanakea in^veta. They were to come in vain. idarineni. his grandson then.
together with him, his back. Irihaniki, A small boy, Patak£ita£a Who adhered
yorave, he there,
Yamaceetak6tari. He carried him on aka? here? PatakaitaEakea. Who adhered, then. 1 1 Cameve "Let's g o . *
Haokarika How might
ikaratini he ( KiriT have measurexi then
yamaceetakdtari. he (Avireri) carried him on his back. itlipiki, to his back, am£naci who looked
irlnti. he (Kiri) alone.
aslnkitea.I r we will get drunk." Iriot&ke It was he po6£riki sweet fruits
Amenaci Who looked
irinti. he alone. ydra, he there, Avireri, Avireri,
a^itan£karo perani, (who) owned them long ago, iyemitotepe, all his cacao,
^imampikipg, all Simampiki, Iriotfeke It was he them all
pamakipe -- paitarlka? — all pam&ki -- what else? - maaroni, them all,
ic6nkiro he finished (planting) perani, long ago,
pocariki. sweet fruits. acoyetlro we suck on
ovec ikanakeror i he who made them ardri. we.
otimantari therefore they exist
KapiSahtmpa iyemitote? (Were they) few his cacao trees?
Aocinikive.1 (On the contrary,)
in quantity on the path at that time.1 vain, yorave, they there, itinerip^. all his nephews.
Inevetarirakea, They saw them there, then, in Ikantavetaitiari They had said to him in vain
many Simampiki trees Semokoki^reki." kahirov^. pamenerit£6ni. Grandsire. they went on.1 arjfsa?" there?" £ri Well. then. "No they're not. ¿isati. he turned. Look at them. "Pamenerite£mi. grandson. yat^iveta iri^veta. kept on. ipatakavet&iaka.1 t f e i n i . Ipe^kari He (thus) transformed them (to) .* lUini. you. "Ha.'." ¿Sni. £nt£ over there ipicoka. he turned." they who are fastened there. ini. Pamenerit£feni. "Tekacive. asfoinka. grandson. irointi it alone now Irointi It alone yataitak6yeti." grandsire. Okame It here yataitak^yeti -. ¿iketi. 52 impiavet&hea. they flattened themselves "HaokarCsa. patakairicarira. kosiri. "Grandsire. in vain. koslri white monkeys Ipe^hiri He (thus) ik£nta. grandsire? Yamenifanaka. ^iketi ipiataita. Iriotlfee. Camati^ri. irintikea: he (Kiri) alone. they became silent in vain. p£itampa what (are) ipicoka — ineapaahatiri he turned --he suddenly saw them. transformed them (to) ikltnta.^ Avireri then.! t Letf s go on. He looked." alfni." they are. " H i t . They took their time returning. Grandson. Small plump fruits. what was planted. (that) they would return (home)." "Ah. imaherevettfnaka." grandson. grandsire. oyot&ca who was bowed down tmtli over there Avirerini. "Nothing. yorav£. they had been climbing in vain.§imampikip£ they climbed many -. ipicoka. "Look at them. also.312 ANTHROPOLOGICAL PAPERS AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY VOL. pankirencitaciri. look at them. that is. yontayg?" they over there?1 1 pisaninkap€ your many fellow tribesmen jfeni. they climbed many. ineap^tiri (when) he (Kiri) suddenly saw them £ri Well. It is they. avirori. our fellow tribesmen. all termite (nests). ipicokltnaka." kosiriv^.1 here comes Amgnaci Who looked iriori. . They moved on. Koraketanahi Watch out.1 " "Hlioka "Where ' k U n i . they went on. white monkeys. "H£. Yogfefnaka. a^fni? "What is it there. he turned. all white monkeys." " K li l f ri . £nt£ over there "Xtini. he.
M^aroni Everyone vokape. mamarope. your many brothers. Camati€ri. all these. what all else. ik^nti." grandson. "Look at them." look at them. orave. atirit£ciri: they who were human: m^roni all civanip£." "H£a. which is attracted to masato. All wasps. up above. "Tekaci. "(It is)nothing. He turned. . atiritaciri they who were human m¿¿ka now pah^rani?]^ Ihltari? long ago?] Which? Mm. of course. then. pameneritifemi.iyotiri those who knew of it -. Ipicokitan6ka.'. he. transformed on some occasion by Avireri. One informant added that the crab osero. were formerly fierce warriors. mm. who transformed a Campa drunkard into the fly Hinkidrenti. the Oilbird perani long ago. that is. "Pamenerit££ini." Let's go on. atfrini human formerly [K. : Iriotakete. armadillo. grandson. "Ha. I was told. all bees (nests). all owls. again. all Squirrel Cuckoos (Piaya cayana). iklirati they included paitarikape. (those who would become) bees. Yes. sant&ni. it included. WEISS: CAMPA COSMOLOGY YolSnaka They moved on liisati. Irosati It also orave. ] the Oilbird. Ipatakavettika They were flattened in vain Kemasitari. iotiriri -. — Rynchophorus sp. [ It is he. ikisanteetak&ri.I r up above over there. that is. pamgneri look at them patakac^rinta they who are fastened over there Iriotake It is they pirentiite." irosatlkea. r r A£ni.'" ¿C&ni. ].1975 kahlro. iriori. mm. it also. 313 ££ri. [K. therefore they were angry. therefore they were annoyed. It was Avireri. (He) simply heard him.they knew of it (Steatornis caripensis). fRynchophorus sp. hentxkinta. the shrimp . termite (nests). hen&ki . etini. ] — emope all [the edible weevil ok&rati. iSemanteetakiri.] ariompa isn't it (that) i&ipatonata§ita he has whiskers? The transformations attributed to Avireri are not limited to those recounted in this episode and those that follow. I was told. f Grandsire. : [ Yatlriti He was human ik&rati they included sant^ni. he said. eeriv£." ££ni.
“our fellow tribesmen long ago. Cavici (Tambo River).314 ANTHROPOLOGICAL PAPERS AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY VOL. 12). a peculiarly shaped rock on the left bank of the Tambo River just below Tonkama.” warriors who. and a very contentious person who whipped anyone coming to obtain salt. Manihiróni. there is a natural formation that looks like a bearded. for example. seated human figure (see fig. Indeed. 11. asked what it was he saw. the “owner” (á&itaróri) of the salt spring. Avireri answered that it was mápi (stone). and the water snail tiontiiki were aianinka perani. dived into a stream and were thereupon transformed by Avireri. 52 Further up the Tambo. This rock on the left bank of the river is believed to be a bathing woman turned to stone by Avireri. 11. It requires some imagination to see in the shape of this rock what its name suggests. his grandson. a great rock just below the mouth of the Onkonéni on Campas also single out certain features of the terrain in Campa territory as the consequences of Avirerfs activities. kito . The Campas believe this rock to have been a woman caught at her bath by Avireri and turned to stone before she could put her robe on. as was his wont. on a cliff overlooking the salt spring Tiviha on the right side of the river. 13). The hills above this transformed figure are under stood to have been a town at one time. fleeing from others. . There is. and a hilly protuberance to the right of the figure is understood to be a storehouse full of merchan dise. This figure is understood to have been a bearded Spanish priest. This rock is called cavici (va gina) (see figs. the rock is also called citantdciri (he [or they] who thus copulates). the Peña de Wertheman. effec tively transforming the priest into stone.8 When Avireri passed by on one occasion. The FIG. The rock is seen in this case as a couple caught by Avireri in the act of coitus and turned to stone.
a common natural phenomenon (see fig. Episode 2. there is a rock outcrop broken into rectangular blocks.1975 WEISS: CAMPA COSMOLOGY 315 FIG. See figure 11. This episode of the Avireri cycle is particu larly appealing. at the moment of transforma tion. the Tambo (see fig. It is understood to be wharves stacked with crates of goods and rolls of cloth deposited there by Caucasians and transformed to stone by Avireri. At any rate. AvirerVs purpose was to prevent the extinction of the Campas and the taking over of Campa territory by the Caucasians. 15). here is the updating of Campa mythology into the post-Contact era. esthetically as well as intellectu ally. he would still live in Campa territory. Cavici (Tambo River): rear view of bathing woman turned to stone. The Campas call this rock outcrop Oararoncipanko. 14). Just below the settlement of Koriteni on the Tambo. In the preceding episode Avireri appears as a trickster. I was assured that had Avireri limited his activities to the Cauca sians and their belongings. here he is a culture hero in the strict sense of the term. but the havoc he caused among the Campas made it necessary to get rid of him. because it presents the great rhythms of the universe—the alternation of day and night. after which he takes music and . and the alternation of the seasons—as having been created out of music. And as he dances and plays his panpipes. is understood to have been a launch similarly transformed by Avireri into stone. he takes music and dance appropriate to the night and thus cre ates the night. on the left side of the river. proceeding upriver to molest the Campa women of that region. Avireri Creates the Seasons and the Night Each Campa myth is in its own way a tour de force. I was told that the Caucasian crew of the launch was. 12. creating for the Campas their festive activities.
FIG. A'Sitardri Tiviha (Tambo River). 13. At the right. a large rock the size of a river launch.FIG. is Manihiróni. transformed by Avireri. the Peña de Wertheman. 14. . Manihiróni (Tambo River). which it is believed to have been before being transformed by Avireri. in the distance. A human-like shape on the face of this cliff is believed to be what remains of the former “owner” of a nearby salt spring.
iriciro. isinkitak^kari. . they got drunk together. 15. iginkitaklSkari. cracked into rec tangular blocks." play panpipes. as does the use of the historical present in English. is believed to be bales and crates of Caucasian merchandise transformed to stone by The effect is to produce a sense of immediacy. FIG." icaatake. opakot&keri what she gave iraapa£ke. he finished drinking. iclitake. "A£ni. he finished drinking. then. "Came "Let's . his sister. One peculiar feature of the text is that it is mostly phrased in the future tense. Avireri then. . This rock outcrop. there. — gyegiriapaSka — (he) made merry icaatake he finished drinking icaatake. IponeaS itahakea It simply came about. he finished drinking. ahataherikea will we go.1975 WEISS: CAMPA COSMOLOGY 317 Avireri. kapicahi a little Avirerlnira. they got drunk together. ikantaherikea. . meeka?" now?" Ha^ Hat dance appropriate to each season and thus ereates the seasons. they got drunk . The translation is kept in the past tense. then. . "Grandsire. Oararoncipanko below Koriteni (Tambo River). haokakea where. then. Iro It ifcinkita . asonkate. he drank long. then. (that) he said to him.
keironci." Matlkake. . He danced. (music) of it t£ onkam£cate. of it the dry season. haihi "Another. imatiki. He began to take (music) of it the rainy season. he played panpipes aisati. him iriciro. inconkap££kero conk&. (He) danced. pimlttika. irove. He (thus) passed Yoaniriakot^keri He lowered him ic^rine. it cit^niri. "Yes. os^renci nokoakotlmpi. his grandson. he played panpipes with them. "No. Ir<?take. dance.1 1 Onk^nteri he finished it*finish*. "Kamgca. "Ariove." irtittheri he took it imatiki. "Good enough. he played panpipes with them. . (he) was cio?" sister?" Inkantak6tea. " H i t ." "Ha. time. * r iraakot£kero he took (music) imatikakotgro he danced of it Imp6nea It came about os&renci: the dry season: imp^mpoya . She said to him her brother. oktirati it included Iraakovetake^ro kearonciya. orav£. impampoyakot^ro. . it is not good. (and) shesaid to him. therefore there is a rainy season. brother. hliihi." dance. he played panpipes with them. imatiki. It is it. the rainy season. "Htiihi. he sang of it. im&tiki. Onk&nteri ohiiriri. Irt>take It is it onk£nteri. it is notgood.all festive activities isonkatakayeri. Impampoyctke. the night. "Good. isonkatakayeri. he danced. it alone.318 ANTHROPOLOGICAL PAPERS AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY VOL. kam^ca. "H^. he danced. iraakot&kero he took (music) of it citgniri. t£ onkam£cate.*1 savikake. therefore. Yes. he danced. his sister. all right. (music of) citenikirini the night." later.*" She said to f r PaSini pimlitike. he sang . Im£tiki. very dark Ok&rati It included cit&iiri. brother. Isiro pliro Do not take Mm. . Iriot^ke It was he Ikantanakerori He did it there. dry season I want from you. irointi. . then. ipampoyakotiri. what he sang of. with them. ink£ni. 52 onihaantanakerori oveSiriancipe he who showed it. he danced. also. "Brother. (or it will be) os&renci. isonkatakayeri. He sang." that is. p&ita. isonkatakayeri. he sang. the night. iraakot&kero he took (music) of it okearoncitantaitari. rain. imatiki.1 1 good. iraakot^kero he took "Te. he danced.*" impampoytflke.
who slept. "Grandsire. "&ani. ihatanghi ?" did he go?" ££ni? my grandson? — Avireri -. then. ik££ti.Avireri. at Kentipanko." He suddenly heard m££ka. anta over there iniakeri. the water sprite. (I did not have oc casion to be shown this particular terrain fea ture. yakake he(Kiri) answered anapatikika from Anapati here . he swallowed him. Avireri wakens. he called him urgently. Hn. A very long time (passed). WEISS: CAMPA COSMOLOGY haokarika whenever irihat^nahe." to bathe. he wenton. ikahemitari. This event occurs perhaps at Kentipdnko. "Grandson. He took him Ariorlka Probably iponeak^ri it happened to him keaci. him yaitantakari therefore he grabbed ke^tci. Cautioned by a passerby not to finish what he is doing. he went m^inci. "HSokampa "Where Jxi then Peraniite. A keaci or water sprite swallows Kiri while Avireri is sleeping. Haokarika Where might iEarinenira? his grandfather then there? "Haoka r r Where (is) him in vain. to stone." grandson. already pockmarked by the gnawing of bees. he will embrace him again. ikanta. he will go. hauls the sprite part way out of the water. He (Kiri) went on. to sleep. ihati Ah. Aparo One (reply) kapi£ahi a little "A£ni. &a. kentipankoki. he there." Ikahemi. and proceeds to slice the crea ture up. The pockmarked stones below Anapati are the record of this adventure. Avireri follows the voice. ££ni. h l f ." Yoyavetari." Ikemati "Grandson.1975 seated. yavicanotanaherikea.) iro so ikimotavet£ha^ he began to grow. 319 Episode 3. "A&ni. yorave. Itinaanaka. ihati he have gone iri6ri he imaake. a prominent hill just be low the confluence of the Perene and Ene rivers to form the Tambo. ha. Avireri transforms the slices. Yaakeri a water sprite. Irosati And so river. and hears a faint reply from far down the Ikanta. Hn. He awoke. calls for Kiri. wrests Kiri from the water sprite’s maw. A Water Sprite Swallows Kiri This episode explains a particular terrain fea ture below Anapati on the right side of the Tambo River. He called. He waited for yoyavetari» he waited for him in vain. now.
*sound of nitinki." I will 'jerk' him. I will cut him now. m€£ka now noncarikiteri. 52 keaci. he there." "Grandsire. ikarenclttake. "Why did he swallow him for Kamgfri A demon (is) ke£ci. He called himagain. ipiot£keri. then. He had not yet finished him then. iciti^nake. yl&hiri. yogitari. he ( Avireri) took him. from his mouth. He called him again." Ikahemahiri. oanakaririkea many bees then. ipokaSitlri. He (Avireri) dove quickly. from within (the river). ££ri. He did to him. that is. he went to take him out of the water.320 ANTHROPOLOGICAL PAPERS AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY VOL. I will finish him. s^ri. he dove. farther on. over there. Meika Now nonctmkeri. incomp6iki."pCita initantakenariri he ( Avireri) returned. . Inosikitari He pulled him yorave.1 1 a water sprite.'.who ate him (the sliced water Tekgra inconkerita. ikematiri he suddenly heard him £ht£. half(out of the water). Ipiotgkeri. eerinive. orav£. ikematiri he suddenly heard him [K. *sound of gnawing*. he went and grabbed him. yak££ke he (Avireri) suddenly heard him on arrival. he called himagain. he ( Kiri) Icitiitan£ka. He returned. yoaatahfetiri. he ( Kiri) was gummy. he piled him up. he came for him. ' sprite).ikahemlhiri. here come yaitliitari. s£ri. [ He was following him?] He was following him. him iplfemteki. ik5ati. IkahemUhiri. farther on. me t j f e m i ? my grandson? ipitan^ha. inosikavet^kari he hauled him s£ri. ke^tci." answered ikemapaahat iri. Ipitangka. koraketlmake (when) watch o u t . : Yoihatakotanakeri? ] Yoihatakotanak^ri.'. (that's what) he wants. the water sprite. Ik^ntiri. yaahantiri the water sprite." nontoteritave. ikematlri he suddenly yaikena he has carried me off 'krl Well heard him yoaitari. "iAani. his grandsonthen. He was piling him up. he went to take Conk^ka Thoroughly icaringni. p€kiririririririri. slicing*.
he eats them all over there. [pointing to a small boy] big. gnaw. his fish. yoayevetakgri. of course. inkempetapeempari he was going to be like him Irot^inci yantarite. Eirokeame yakahime. his grandson. [ He carriedhim?] 'Aitake So it was yok£. 1 1 Piconkarikari. : Karencakaavicani. then. : Itlmimpa? ] [ He was living (with him)?] He.1 1 "Careful that you donft ip€iri he (Avireri) transformed him (the water sprite) [K. Yaanahirite. gnaw. £€ri inlveta.1 here comes ipiot£keri. what he had piled Apacakiro At once up (andsaid). pasini another tas(?renci. bees they were. his grandfather way over Iriorikame If he had been kamanerime. of course. p€kiri.itimakaap^&iiri. Ikeciporokitantftri. [ (He) became stone?] He who became stone. now. Iponea It cameabout yareetakaihari. icomont^kinta. p^kiri. p^kiri. of course. ikivanihiri. iridri he i&imate. 321 Amenapiigke (He) looked at finish him.1 ] Ee . Yes. gnaw. that is. [K. yorave. kemisantici (he) who heard . he here. kamakeme (he) would have have answered. he washed him. gnaw. [ Gummy all over. icarine antave.Watch out. he lived with him. In a littlewhile he would be Yaanahirite. he arrived with i&itake So it was yaanahiri he (Avireri) carried him i^^rine.anea£it£ri he (the water sprite) had vomited him there — as we see him yoayetarinta. died in his belly overthere. He would not.: Yaanahiri? ] him. god. : Mapitanake ? ] Mapitanginciri. Irosatlme And so.1975 intot^ri cutting him WEISS: CAMPA COSMOLOGY anti Koraketapl£ke over there. ikamarankahirira -. ariote. [K. Therefore they (the stones just below Anapciti) are pockmarked. omanira [the giant catfish omani1 there eirorlka itasorencitime. He carried him. [K. (to) stone." ntgpi. mortal.1 ] Yes. (because) they had begun to eat him p£kiri. He carried him. if he had not been a god.
Here we encounter cirarâto in his original human form. then. he ( Avireri) was going to dam it. Oarantanentantikari Therefore some of it havetaka (it) had gone T^mfpla. orave. scattering the earth. Avirerfs vengeance is swift: he transforms his frustrator into the demonic bird we now see. a little. yantavééti. 52 there. If he hadn't strewn (it) of his. Since Avireri is conceived as having normal stat ure. over there. : Aneasiterinea? [ As we see him. ikahemahirira (when) he called him there. kemfp]et^cari he who is like Hé. "Pàita "Why pénk. . itamponéni. ciraràto. This short episode re Ari Well counts Avireri’s project and the manner in which it was thwarted by cirarâto. keaci. his Tambo then. [K. *strew*. *strew*. Avireri Attempts to Dam the River at Kentipanko Kentipanko and its companion hill across the river. Yes. yoaranent£±t irò Yes. he who owned it. pahérani ?] long ago?] 6k£ it here Avirerini. £nt£. cirarato. Wasn't it?. penkitapaakeriri. he. Cirarâto.that is. ipeantaplfékari therefore he transformed him Eirorika ipenkitirime. his humus going toclose it. is a mischievous little bird that damages household goods to build its nest. Ira there [motioning] hen6ki. undoing Avireri's labor by scratching at the earthworks like a bird. as we see him. [the bird cirarato]. inigkena he has swallowed me Episode 4. 16). kamàri the demon iiiepikantearorimekea with which he was [K. Timltci There was intikakeromékea. pénk. and is con sidered by the Campas to be a demon. : Irò méeka [ It now cirarato.322 ANTHROPOLOGICAL PAPERS AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY VOL. Ipokapa^hi He came Ir6sati And so aSitarori. (of) Avireri then. it will be recalled. these immense “earthworks” testify to great power in a small body. he who was strewing (it) of his. now." a water sprite. "Over here. tacinkitapaakeriri he who was pushing (it) of his was scattered kapicahi. then. He grabbed (it) of his. he scattered some of it Mm. Yaitapliéri. pipenkitantakenartnri ?" are you strewing it of mine?" iri6ri. constructed by him in an effort to dam the river at that point (see fig. now?] aneasit^rinea. he (who) does (mischief) everywhere [pointing to a mischievous little boy]. are explained as the remains of Avirerfs earthworks. "Akave." yakitanSka. he answered urgently. Sironironi. iyahar£te up high.
that is. then. [K. long ago. orayg. The large gable-shaped mountain in the distance is believed to be what remains of a dam Avireri attempted to construct there. isep ikanakerome. who had neglected to include them in his original narration. he ini he was perani. he. He did not yet want (the river) then. Kentipanko (Tambo River) viewed from downstream. . : Ait^kekea iriori [ So it was. he would have closed it. Ihayetlnta He went all over there ineayetiro to see them all isinkitakoygtaro. [K. then. In this episode we learn how Avireri's relatives plot to rid themselves of him and succeed. 16. he would have closed it. : HSokakea [ Where. tiitake so it is isepikakertSme. iriori he ihayeti he went afeitarori? ] he who owned it?] ineayetiro to see them all irlciro. all his sisters. Haokarlka Where might ih^tiri did he go (afterwards) Ari6item[p]a Undoubtedly ih^tiri ? he havegone? iricirop^. cirar£to?1 Atiri cirar^to?! Human Episode 5. his sisters. Avireri Is Dispatched to River’s End This episode and the preceding one had to be specially requested of the narrator.1975 WEISS: CAMPA COSMOLOGY 323 FIG. iri6ri. Tek^rata inintakayarome he got drunk with all of them. ilepiterome to close it yatiritlkea he was human.
frightened. Avirerinira. 17. trans forms his sister into the tree simdSiri (unidenti fied). 52 FIG. 17). furious at the trick played on him. At its center can be seen a depression in the ground. no more able to move. Avireri9s sister invites him to dance with her. than the implanted Pacdkama. His brother-in-law. because of the vine that con strains him. there is a iriciro his sister . has wrapped himself in his sleeping mat. and she pushes him onto the weak ground covering the hole. and is trans C&inkitltkari She got drunk with him mountain ridge on top of which an extensive stretch of grassland sprawls. In the foreground can be seen the hole into which Avireri purportedly fell to end his sojourn in Campa territory. unable to climb out of the hole. significantly. On the left side of the. upper Perene River. where Avireri9s sister dispatched him to River’s End (see fig. Avireri. Avireri falls through into the hole and calls for aid. AvirerVs brother-in-law (who. (of) Avireri then there. formed by Avireri into the armadillo etini. There a strangler vine wraps itself around him and Pacdkama invites him to help sustain the earth. At their next festival. Avireri. His sister throws him a weak string that breaks under his weight. This depression is imoro Avireri (the hole of Avireri). She repeats the malicious gesture. the armadillo etini) digs a hole under the dancing area. Imoro Avireri (Upper Perene region).324 ANTHROPOLOGICAL PAPERS AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY VOL. leaving a thin layer of earth covering it. There Avireri remains to the present day. opens by his own power a hole or tunnel to Ocitiriko. which flowers at the beginning of the dry season. will be transformed into a burrowing animal. just above the tributary Yorinaki.
. he sang with her. ikiasitákeri he dug for him váne. Hlfoka What Hm. *Pushing off*. dance with me. Ir6sati. he alone." the hole. (He) wenthe danced with her. Ha. over there. ontacinkanteáriri into which she would shove háihi.1975 Iponeasitftkeri. she did not (have to) repeat l6ta (She) knew ikamantakerori what he had told her (her request) to him etini: Armadillo: "Nerokaya "Here is. Haiteti imatikakáiro. ovekarátaka then. váne. pamákena bring me pimampecéte. it began to dawn. pamákena bring me . sister. She was rather angry irinti. imatikánakea. áriinecanatáitiro kapícahi ántá. it began to dawn. well he did it just right a little over there. She said to him (her husband). váne. now. It also. He (Avireri) would pass over there a little later. váne. "Hm. té ompankenateñri Ha. your thread. Ha. now. Hm. t>ra. Há. arika . [K. *skidding down*. "No^inkit'aka "I am drunk came. tíriririririri. . it there. now." Tiré. okitaitimátake. its limits aká. ipampoyakáiro. ipampoyakáiro.then?] Irotafkel It is it okitaitimátahi. when . aihayárita. tinci let's see now. váne." we will insert him Háiteti. he sang with her. He gave her his hand. ankanteririy££? shall we do to him? with him (Avireri). om6ro. Thus it came about. him iriciro. váne." brother. that is Inkánenta pááta. váne. váne. Okantitapaintatiári She did to him (Avireri) quickly "Cío." let's go. "Yes." meeka. . Irotafkel It is it ] Yakacatironea.: Yakacatirokea? [ He gave her his hand. ántá. ^throwing earth*. "Sister." WEISS: CAMPA COSMOLOGY Okantak^ri. pimatikakayéna. He sang with her." "Há. (He) finally went. cío. here. orave. (when) he would dance. . Ipampoyakáiro. ankanteriri?" shall we do to him?" imaher^ti he was silent etini Armadillo "Häokampa "What Okisanentak^ri. 325 anteterita we will put him in. his sister.
§imasirim[p]a (to) [the tree SimaSiri]. ihétati tiriririririririri.1. then. He called to her angrily. : Aríkea [ So. "Pineal itearové. iotahérone will know it from now now on pimpeáitiea. you pushed me. faintly. in vain. picataakenárika. it broke quickly. in vain. strong rope. yes. avíro you méáka. That is. again* Hatltkeni (He) went then pimampecáte." Ampacaitevéta. opicareitanáka. Meekam[p]ákea.326 ANTHROPOLOGICAL PAPERS AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY VOL.1 1 your thread. Now surely. sokihapááhime (he) would have emerged Opavetári. then. "Ha. . quickly pamákena bring me Risati. in vain. to make a cord quickly. ikahemanáit irò. in vain. Opitavet£ri. She gave (it) Kemíri (They) heard him to him in vain. that is. énci "Sister. Kemavakeri (They) heard him etini irióri. Aviro You pitacinkákena. She drew a thread around her toe to make a cord. again. hé. now. She gave (it) Ampacaitavéta She drew a threadaround her toe to ampacaitavéta. in vain. Ikahemanáítiro. ikahemakotanáitiri he called to him angrily pimpeáitiea you will be transformed etini (to) armadillo aravé. make a cord quickly. ¿ri well okantakaanakari. on the dry season. to him quickly. he called. 6ra. he called to her angrily."Ipeantanakarikea there. she was to him. ampacaitevéta. he went *skidding down*. okantakaanakári? ] Áitafkel she was (like that) to him?] So it was éákeme had taken kisocarííne. "You will see. surely. Irorikáme If she Risati. you will be transformed. Armadillo he. avírori you iotaherone will know it from ikahemánake. sister. she drew a thread around her toe tiririririririri. "CÍo.1 1 your thread." kagáinkahi. " the dry season. ampacaitevéta. "Ha.*" Therefore he was transformed. 52 pimampecáte. Aviro You osárenci. Prave. osárenci. *skidding down*. she drew a thread around her toe to make a cord. cío. she drew a thread around her toe to make a cord. perchance you have sent me tomy doom." [K.
itakitantariikari. It here. Tekici There is nothing mggka. irósati. to River's End. he alone. we will sustain them. cgme ampacatakoteiri atomiite. here. Ikinti They say timici there was tlroki a strangler vine oisotavakériri. Isokihantapaaharintakea. yorayg. Pa&gkama. Alone he moves in vain. that is. tin. tin. Yes. it alone. WEISS: CAMPA COSMOLOGY t)ra. akg. then. they listened ikenanike he (Avlreri) passed ocitirlkoki. yap inaikanait iaro he had wrapped himself in i t . them ahirikakotiri (who) sustains atomiite our many sons itiriakotikiri. ipeakoyetaitakiri he transformed him allwithin Ir6sati And so to him. let us help them Pacakama. kipici (with)theearth kipici (on) the earth ahirikakot^rita. Intani isevavéta iniveta." Ir6sati And so isavikantI t itakea therefore he (Avlreri) lives (there). Ha. ikemisintiri. therefore it became his shell. "Live here.1975 then. iSitisi his mat irièri etlni. isokihimoitapaahiri ivacakamatentakea. Live here. It embraced him. irinti. ikantitavaitiiri. *wrap*. that fastened around him (Avireri)* [S. 1 1 Pisavikaptiihe. Nar6take It is I Pamitakoténa. *wrap*. y6ra oisotavakgri it fastened around him oravg« that is. he emerged where he was his PaEikama over there. He moves in vain. now. tiririri. then. *wrap*.: Tlroki? ] Tiroki [ A strangler vine?] A strangler vine ir6inti. . *sound of distant rumbling*. ikaratantaitaviha. Help me. now. he Armadillo. therefore they live together. * pinii. our many sons. he there. *skiddingdown*. tin. they there oravé*. Ha. Therefore he emerged over there. then. okampenitanturi therefore thereare faint sounds Isevavéta. tin. " lest they fall with (it). Irosati And so ivaca his flesh. it also. Hatike (He) went Ré. Irosati And so 327 pinai. pinii. he said to him quickly. Ayicanotavakgri. Pisavikaptfóhe. tin. tin.
He de scends. Some of the birds. The pursuers come upon a field of maize ready to be harvested. But by the time he arrives there the name has become kiritiki. paricatapááke (he) was rooted Ikempetára He is like. there. not satisfied with their good looks after bathing once. still in human form. The consequence of their action is that today the Campas must consume great quantities of beer for it to have its effect. Heartsick for his lost grandfather. they find him nearby attempting to dam the river to create his own Ocitiriko. he has grown and produced fruit. They at tempt to shoot him with their arrows. and from that moment the kiri palm has thorns. including all the sacred birds. which bats are still observed to eat. and so does the demon owl. and have their wives prepare it as kiriha. Kiri had instructed that the beer made from his fruit be drunk in moderation and that no one finish a bowl of kiriha by him self. fruit of thspoto tree. are greedy. Following his instructions. beer of the kiri fruit. the sounds change to potoki. so that all his labor has been in vain. including the demonic birds. he returns home repeating the name of the tree to himself.9 Sure enough. and then another with maize even less grown. and climbs for them. But the demonic bird civani. he reaches for the clusters of fruit. flinging large fruit downriver and smaller fruit upriver (which explains why the kiri palms in Campa territory have smaller fruit than those down along the Ucayali River). thus a small quantity would suffice to pro duce the desired effect. . which he leaves be hind to grow. it is kiriti and not kiri that grows in his garden. and at his bidding birds come to bathe therein. bring it home. the bitter fruit of the kiriti palm. paricatánake (he) is rooted iritSri. but only shoot each other. He is like. he. Disgusted. his executioners take fruit from the tree. he disparagingly wipes him self on the trunk of the tree. Sure enough. yo¥iakotapááhari he came to look okenkicarencitapááka.10 By the time Kiri's blood dries. and bathe again. okárati it is finished t?ra it there Episode 6. 52 ára. and once again the tree resumes its for mer size. As he travels he plants maize. but the tree grows carrying the fruit beyond his grasp.: ^Cisati [ Also like him ikempetakotapááhari ?1 he became like him? ] Ári Well Ikámpeta. goes in search of the tree to obtain fruit for himself. Finally receiving some kiri seeds for planting. His blood forms a lake. bathe only once in the blood and emerge with beautiful plumage. but as he repeats its name. iritfri he inkántea he can dó Avireri Avireri Pacákama Pacákama [K. it has become history. iritSri. iritíri. No sooner does he climb down from the tree than it resumes its former size. Bat also receives some seed. greedily drinks an entire bowl of beer. The Nailing of Kiri A lengthy epilogue recounts the subsequent fate of Kiri. Once again he climbs. emerging with ugly plumage. until only three (a few) of them are left. though warned not to. and realize that Kiri passed that way so long before that the maize he planted has had time to mature. This they do. intent upon killing him for his part in AvirerVs escapades. ántá overthere. and he is transformed into the palm tree kiri. there. Kiri decides to go downriver to join Avireri. still in human form. But others. A group of his relatives pursue him. he.328 ANTHROPOLOGICAL PAPERS AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY VOL. and the tree grows as he climbs. They continue on and encounter a field of maize not quite mature. he. Vulture. and so on until they come upon a field of maize freshly planted—and they know that they have caught up with Kiri. Finding the tree. Kiri then advises the survivors to kill him by driving a spike down through his head and body into the ground. swaying violently.
then. "Aaninirankiv£. Hi. Haokayata that i s . ipokake.: [ Hioka Who irinti. Yes. kirinka downriver [ K . "Well. ikenakeri?" did he pass?" Ipokake. Ha. Hatike (He) went yoa§ iretako takir i.1975 WEISS: CAMPA COSMOLOGY Iponeasitikari It simply came about meeka. iponeaitaka. now." Yoa^iretakotanakari.1 1 my former grandsire. antiar itapiike. aani. now." te inkenkicatanike. nohitahe I will go nirori. he was not to yoihatlri." he was heartsick for him. ipokake . he came . be seenagain. he came. soon after. yaata. aitake so it was iriori. for him. yorave. he followed him. his grandfather then. He came.1 1 me£ka. he there. . "Well!. apparently. now. that is!. he. alone. hatahicini? ] who went then? ] noneapaaherlta to see him now Kirika Kiri here "Arive.1." Hat^ahi (He) went nohitahe I will go noneapaaherlta to see him now Mm. yonkoitanike maize. 329 §emapaakam[p] akea (he) became vexed. he alone. pirani? long ago? hatihi (he) hadgone lfr]i Well irikonkirintirira — he who was his uncle there — haokarlkaihit^griri how might they have called him neotirankiv^. yonkoitanake he (Kiri) had toasted sinki. "Well. nohitahe I will go "Ari." my grandsire. ipokake. maize. Ocitirlkoki. ha. toward River's End. kitiiteri." "Good-bye. te aneiheri. (another) day (passed). he had toasted sinki. A day (passed). "I am going to encounterhim now." He was heartsick iini. he there. yorave. my grandsire. "Nimpoitaheritave. irinti he alone hi.1 1 1. he came. ( Kiri) became big. he didn't inform (the others of his intention). ' Where.1. he sallied forth. "Hatahana. "My former grandsire. itimiri was he ap^niro. that is!. l f A[r] ive. Kitiiteri. Irosati It also iEaringni. yo iminkiantee takir i they had thrown him(Avireri) in Isavikaveta He ( K^ri) was living aaninirankiyg. my nephew. then.
. irihataheme he wanted to go Aitakete So it is. he looked forhim. cooked kernels." Ikantan^iti. I will eat. . Noanakea. 52 nahakiri. . I will eat. He (Kiri) said.330 ANTHROPOLOGICAL PAPERS AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY VOL. oanci. I will turn over . I will arrive.'. meeka?] He. (He) moved on. my grandsire. another. he looked for him. (He) moved on. his maize. noitnakea. Yamenahlri. yamenahlri . Yaanake. yompaheetakeri he (who) nailed him kirlnka« downriver. . hat£hi. recently. . therefore he nailed him. his maize. — irotah^nciirareetaheari — samplttake sawit — shortly he will reach him — (it) was dry Oa^naka. now? ] Yes. now. yamenaKiri. orav£. a garden. niltnkika. " I will eat . £ani. nontinakoveet^iteta here. haokarika I don't know Yantaplfeke He made OUtanaka. aanive. maize here." Kirlka is Kiri here irlkea he. yantanake he made nda. okaratap££ke it measured[indicating the height] nareetaheari. yorave. l f Well. l f A[r]inea» nareetahea. with which I will arrive. f l H£. (he) went. Hri yes nareetahe^ari r r Yes I will reach him [H. . whoever (he was)." I will reach him. ipankitanake sinki. then. he there. ineaplUttiro he suddenly isinkine. "Ari he planted maize. he looked for him.'. to River's End. yantap&gke Yaakotanake nah&kiri. IneaplUttiro — He suddenly saw it — isinkine. Havetaha (He) went in vain Kiri Kiri yompaheetantakariri.t r my grandsire. I will eat. " Yaakotanahi He carried posikiri. sinkika. iroak£ra. no&nakea. half (way) Ik&nta It seems here. "Nofrateta "I will go irotah£nci shortly now akavg. nareetaheari I will reach him kantaci who is speaking Ocitirlkoki. He carried uncooked kernels. ! Ha. he made pafelni.: Apa. perani long ago haokarika. he looked for him. He carried. [ Father. that is. oklrati how many a garden. yamenahlri. nareetantaheariri. then. ya&iake (andy he carried N^ro Here is uncooked kernels.
* I will dam it nttrori." "I will shoot you. then?" He (the pursuer) grabbed him to inkenterime. They grabbed him in vain. surely. Mm. ocitirikotahetiri it will be River's End here "Narove. have you come for. "Teve. ?] akave. inkenterime. pipokaS itakerikea?" Yaitavetari. he said to him suddenly. (He) had begun damming. ineantaharirirakea." you won't shoot me. itarompivetapagtkaro. ." here. Kirika Kiri here me£ka. tarompivetaplinSa. paita what notarompitirosa I am damming it noinakea to eat impita. "(It is) irikonkiri his uncle N&Si n£rori My very own narove. "Nonkentempimpayee. uncle. .'. (it is) I. right now. ? ] who had begun damming. he there. Mm. shoot him." Avirot^kepeakaye tanakeriri It is you who had them all transformed ak£. he who had come for him. : Irio [ He saw him there.he wanted "Eiro pikentana. h&oka where 331 ontikearamlkea iri^veta he was going to close it off there. .1 Arlme Yes. . and so (itwas) they . That is. p^rani. tak. [K. irisati to shoot him. "I will shoot you yora they there ikoi in vain. koki.1975 rocks. then. who shot one one oihatanakeririnta. orav£. "Nothing at all. ikarati how many panirini your former cousins inonciasivetari — haokarika they drew their bows in vain — I don't know asaninka our fellow tribesmen in vain they were Yaitavetari They grabbed him kentavakaaha6a. looking for Yokanaka. then. (for) me. long ago. impita. WEISS: CAMPA COSMOLOGY impita. therefore he (the pursuer) Tarompivetapa£ka. pokasitahirlri. he had begun to dam it.1 1 neap^ti (and) suddenly saw Orav£. now. now. "Paita "What pantirlsa?" are you doing?" yorave. "You won't shoot me. here.1 ' "^frlivenontarompitapeeri i r Well.f t here." ikantitapaahatiari. that is." I . Ocitirikoni River's End aka." ^ [the edible aquatic larva impita]. ' . koki» uncle. who had followed himoverthere. He (the pursuer)moved on. yora . *zip*." Yaitavetari." "Nonkentempita. now. that is . eiro pikentana.
is&viki. meeka. Afrliya So. tap. they nailed him. tap. (another) day. tok. a stake. paa5itaitenat£ go take for me. onkaramotihltake. iotakaavakeri. "When you nail me. "Pompahakenarika. Get drunk with me. then. kentavakaaha£a. other. he sat down. paitarika what might yaitiri they have taken yompahakeri. the liquid capacity of the vessel . tap. hm. They grabbed him suddenly. "Ha. then. *zip*.332 ANTHROPOLOGICAL PAPERS AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY VOL. to kill me. then. then. 52 Yaitavetari. then. pinecanatakena.1 1 Well Pompahenatakea. kit^iteri. then. I will grow fruits. Nail me now. pirake. Pis inkitakeana: Get drunk with me: Pisinkite'anaya. simplyfinish each with me. tribesmen m^vlt. orave. Y&itari They grabbed him ariove. that is. They nailed him. They nailed him. "Pih^te. Ah. t6k — tap -- in£I t k i? (as) a stake? Yompahakeri. who shot one another. Yaitati£ri.1 1 good enough. (one) day. Ikantapaaka They (by then) had come to be Ik&ntiri. three. they stuck him to the ground. he had let them know. t£k. kit£iteri. t f r k . "Enough. poyena. sight down on me. Otimantaitariramgkea Therefore it exists there now. t f r k . nopatitoki. antiarokitacirika whose fruit is large here t t ) k . now. nero here are Yompahak€ri. careful that you don’t Pisameanariika. Poyeanaya. look at me. then.1" "Heroya "Here is. kit^iteri. tap." poyenat&kea kill me now. hm. £iro p ikentavakaci. irisati and so (it was) they his fellow another. [showingfingers] pimpokaiteya come. then. piconkavakaa% itakari.1 1 'Ari I alone. drink. tap. Eat me." my crown. He said to them. 1 1 Aitapaake. nonkicotake. then. kapi&ahiya (just) a little. imisaikakotakeri. (another) day. pamenaitena.don't shoot." "Go. n&inti.1 1 "Ha. tok. If you are annoyed i r i f e i k i . then. kirika klri palm here Ha. They grabbed him in vain.
" Moroni All civani Squirrel Cuckoos (Piaya cayana) ipokanake.1975 WEISS: CAMPA COSMOLOGY 333 should come to (this) [indicating with a gesture]. all the little birdsthere." amenakoventaheetakgri. *splash*." a little later.^ . kaatap£inca. volume of red liquid. Donft finish drinking (the women) prepare me karixri. paata. who bathed. who bathed. all. amenavakeririve. . they.1 1 Yompahak^ri They nailed him t6k. manioc. then. tap. Eiro picaatanaci. . at him. onohatafeitakena they (should) chew for me Amaatakenarika When they me. all his blood. IkSntiri. tap. [The little bird p6iriki]. all those who looked kaatapainca." "All of you bathe in me. "Pinkaateanayave. They nailed himthere. Ikantayetakeri He had said to all of them (birds)there. Karatanake (It) extended irir^hani his blood then antave. "Bathe in me. onkonoakena to mix me with Pisinkitake&na. all. ml&r ronil. Hiiro picaatiroci. . then. they came. Pasini Another maaroni. of his onkan&ka it formed a pool Yompahakerira .1 1 He had said to them. . kitionkamotiha. Ma^roni All yorinipi.t r Get drunk with me. all the other iri6ri he ikante^tiri. all (who) were watching him. all the little birds. All Poiriki. "Pinkaaheetavakelina. conkanaka completed pasini another picoco [the little bird pic6co] cimerihanikipe. tok. Savarok^me The Scarlet Macaw "Pinkaate^naya "Bathe in me.1 " cimeripera. Moroni all Cock-of-the-rocks (Rupicola peruviana). (Ara macao) here now Ik&rati They totaled iniiri they saw (it) paSinipera. he was told. way over there [indicating a large extension]. . Donft finish drinking it. irirahave. iri5ri. paSlni another kaata who ba . ineavakera they saw there iriraha his blood f c 6k .
he bathed (again). of which he said. "T£€." He returned quickly in vain. Korake tike iritiri. (with) drab 12 kapica a little ikantapainta he did quickly ikantayetari&ka." (in) his blood.1. yorina the Cock-of-the-rock . pocitanakinive. noanenkataperotanake£ta. "Aitake. pi££k. Ipiitan&ka. v kamarac6vaki.1 here comes in vain iriori. (and) returned." "So be it. conkiri Hummingbird iriori. (the result was) a drab and flat head. he looked at himself. He looked at himself. he did all over (this area) oanenkat^ka.1 here comes kimaro the Red-and-green Macaw Ikaatitavetapa£ka. motSre. drab and long. (He) returned.334 ANTHROPOLOGICAL PAPERS AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY VOL. Watch out. marerianakini. beak tip. (and) I will be truly handsome now. savaro. *sound of slappingwater*. pl&naka. that is. ik&ati. yorave. (He) became handsome in vain.1 therecomes irirfiha. he. He bathed. *sound of slapping water*. *sound ofslapping water*. piSek. orave. black clothing. "Came "Come on. pi£ek." Korakevetaka Watch out. pifeek. he there. *sound of slappingwater*. He returned quickly in vain. he. he there. kamarasat&inani. Watch out." irinti. oanenkani. 52 Korlkeni Watch out. (he) was handsome. Yamenapaaka." Ipiitavetanaka. inertia he suddenly saw "Aitap££ke. he alone. yorave. Ikaatapaake. [motioning].1 here comes. he did all over (this area) [motioning].1 here comes he ikantak£ri. aka. "Ap&ro "One (more time) ciisanti [the demon hummingbird ciisanti] Oanenkavetan£ka. Ne^tiri (They) suddenlysaw him kamarasica." "No (good)." iri6ri." "so be it." "Enough. the Scarlet Macaw. Kapi&a A little Pianaka. here." ikantayetaka. Koraketake Watch out." Ipiitavetanaka. *quick dive*. pikaatea you will bathe ikantap^inta he did quickly Sapokanlka. (He) undressed. He returned quickly. ( Ara chloroptera) vamenaka. brilliant clothing. Korake. "aitake. he. He bathed quickly in vain. handsome.
instantly. oanenkatltnaka. ine&tiri they went to lookat him. *quick dive*. iriori. ilsi.1975 ikaatapàake. motóre.They suddenly saw it aiteta. — . aitap£&ke. ompikirite." Yam£naka.f > Kaplca I . (He) had produced fruit." take quickly now. he did quickly. inllri. (he) had become handsome. He looked [at himself].1 here comes Macaw (Ara militaris). "Hm. he there. [the small bird ompikiri] .1 Ha. Crested clothing. plenty of fruit. (he) had become very KapiSa A little ikantayetap^inta?] Kapi&a he did quickly? ] A little "&Ltake. Hm. Ipiitan^itia. Katiapààka. ihayetrahi. arive. oanenkanivé. Hm. Yam£[na]. which was unripe. *sound of slapping water*. — *break off*. the Military Ikantironta He did to it over there yamenapatika. "Aitapaake. ^ they saw him. handsome.f r "Enough.1 who comes Ikaatap^inti. ikantayetapliinta." [K. (He) stood. They saw him. red clusters. enough. patakare. He bathed quickly. koraketliinci watch out! who comes kitionkatiamakoine£hi cute red forehead yora. oicokinive. 1 " A little ikantapàinta. Finished. his hair. pi&£k. kitionkamonki. they all went. oanenkataitanakave. very handsome.1 1 ikaatap££ke he bathed Koràke Watch out. yamenahlntiri. maanci sleeps ipiaha. kiterinàkini. they returned "Came "Let's Iniimaitapa^tiro They saw it right away maciriakitltci. irif>ri. Ipatakareapaakero They broke them off patakare. Koraketliinci Watch out. Hm. he. orange clothing. He bathed quickly. Ment&inaki." iraakan£ke. Kit^iteri (Next) day Inilri. pi£oti ‘ irifori]. Kicotan^ke. : "So be it. (it was as from here) verimaka (his) size to that pole [gesturing]. to bathe. He looked at himself. iriEatonlki. Apite (After) two Ineitiro again. WEISS: CAMPA COSMOLOGY "Nonkaateàta r r I will bathe now encipliite. pigfek. here." [ Conka[aka]. it had ripened. they saw him. They went back. he looked at himself.1 1 r . he did quickly. the Paradise Tanager (Tangara chi lens is) he. inl'iri. enough. he. they suddenly saw him a k l i . Ikaatapr&inti. narivé.*break off*. Ha.
much. Sinkitiika: drunk: pinkacitayet&ke. you (the next person) drink. a little . finish drinking the container of my liquid. when you get drunk. Yonkoitak^ro. pig poisasitena. it will give you white. They ate. aisati. keep them in a place apart. picaamot ihat&naci. t5ra. careful. that is." — h^. poke the fire for me. Arioneikea. Don't step on me. you drink. t i r i yes onko<6etanak£mpi. liquid ap^roni: one (person): picaamotihatanaci finish drinking the container of my pirake. then. [K. Ah. then. now. then. then. m££roni everyone pinkahemavakaya. also. kacini. kaplEa (only) a little pirihatanahi (it) had dried patakare. you do (cook) me.1 1 I will burn you. painful blotches in themouth. [Kiri had also said:] oicokipe.336 ANTHROPOLOGICAL PAPERS AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY VOL. "When you boil my fruit. Yes. yaanahiro they carried yoaka. You will eat me in vain. his blood. they ate. yoaka. it there. They boiled the fruit. . they ate. eiro don't kapifcahi a little Eiroya Don't. ikempevetak£ro as he (the first drinker) . call (everyone). Ikantitanaka He (Kiri) had said poke the fire for me. "Pinkempoyeroya "Keep them in a place apart. to their homes. irlraha. or my fruitwillitch. tiro paatikayetlma. they finished it." — ha. now. Yo&ka. *break off*. inkaharevetap^inta — (that) had quickly formed a lake — iconkakero. *break off*. . all the seeds. 1 1 PonkoitakenarTka. pinkempoyero. ir^sati." Iyotakayetanak^ri He let them all know it in^mpiki. IponeaSit&kero. _________________________ poisaSitenaya. pinkirikitake you will (grow) kiri Mm. ' a r t yes Poavetake^na. They sallied forth withit. . pinkantakena. it also. piitikipe. hm. kapica . you all will hurt. nokaheniki tanakekarinea . feet.^ Irompa If it (is) orave. p&takare. : Iyotakaanakeri? ] [ He let them know?] nontaanakempi. . seeds on all your pi§inkit&rika. yes. then. kapicahi a little pirake.
" "Ho. n&ro. indeed. (He) said. h6. Afr]ikea Well. he did it. akemantapinitariri.1 the demon. . naro. ho.1975 began it iríntikea. he (another) did it. ho. *glug*.n I. pamakenata I. (he) was elated. then. ho. nftro. he (who) does not believe (what he is told). iriori. Yanteetakáro."^ "Hgiriki. *finish drinking*." Nltro. he finished drinking it.1] [ Demon. ho." ^isati I.1 ] Y&Ltaro He grabbed it iceenkantavinc&ti. he had finished drinking ipeetiri he was given icaatakero he finished drinking it imahereti. He is laughing. WEISS: CAMPA COSMOLOGY Iraké He drank naro. i&ironta. he alone. icaiftiro. he. ho. the true owl. [K. kamlKri. "Irosati "It also panteetakea. plenty. "Ho. . *Glug*. ] Hm. another." the container of liquid. ht3. indeed. that is ." mamaroperoriranki. yora he there h6. PaSini. ho. Ha. kimoSiretan£ke. "Hairiki. icaatakero? he had finished drinking iSirontltia. h t > . ." Also Ari Well icaatakero. méléka now ikiteetit&nari he was served iritfri. therefore we always Yampimaitarira." "Ho. : it?] Yes. f r o . he was silent. "Ho. He (another) did it. 337 yanteetak^ro. ho. *glug*. He continues it there. ho. Ikiteetakéneri He was served quickly iriori. Ha. h t ) . ho. ir6sati okarahtiti. he. bring me now — anea§it£ri -. . hear him. : IkimoSiretanake [ He was elated (that) IkimolSiretanakefekea. enfgitake.1 icaamotihatcikero. that is. hairikiyaa. mamaro Owl n£ro. Ikiteetatianari. .1 1 you do (the same). He was elated. [ [H. yorave . *glug*. then. narove. *glug*." ho. : Kamari. *glug*. it also the liquid (still) amounted to yanteetakáro . he.as we see him [K." civánika Squirrel Cuckoo (Piaya cayana) here "Pamakenata "Bring me now Kantanake. he finished drinking it. of course. hairikiyaa. "Pamakena "Bring me nltrori. (then) he laughed. Another. ho. narove. ho. ho. icaatakero he finished drinking it cáá. He was served (and told). pa'Slni. ho.
also. container of liquid sufficient. 6j o h . eiroya ineetici it will not be kaniripe all the manioc piUinkitaheetavetelirika when you all start to get drunk inliveta. the container of liquid 'aisati. it would (still) amount to (something). you will be. then." pearinci masato -. liquid. Maaronirikame If all arav£. So. we would all do we wouldn't in vain "Eiroya "Don't. also. irori. ' here comes "Hâoka paakerori?" "Where did you get it?" . he finished drinking "lAri "So Tasonkanikame. pinkantaite^kea. we would all do (drink) it.1. well. then. finish drinking it. irosati and so tasonkaet&Ea.irosati — it also onkant^itia. then. Vulture.]He did it. (and) therefore we finish pearincipe (as is the case for) all masato drinking the container of liquid. finish drinking thecontainer aisati also onkempeteame it would be similar anteetatiemparome. Ir6mpa But irosati it also anteetake&ro. ariokea. we wouldn't finish drinking it.1 1 then. icaamotihatakero. then. iktmtiro. now. we would all do (drink) it. maltroni. arave. ikemisantavetakari — ikantavetak^ri had listened to him — he had said to them picaamotihayetiro. there. he did it. They (the women) would strain (it). he finished drinking the container of ] Ik^ntiro. ' icaamotihatanakero. the container ofliquid. acaamotihatantarori therefore we finish drinking Koraketake Watch o u t . Oncikli&tahea. of liquid." — kempetaSarikakea there be. it would be.338 ANTHROPOLOGICAL PAPERS AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY VOL. anteetake^ro. everyone. it: eiro acaatirome." — which is like here. onk^rate. that is. acaamotihatantarori someone blew. (Someone) blew. Aisati. tisoni. Apltroni (Just) one kovitiki potful (drink) it without finishing. then. pincaamotihayetero you all will finishdrinking the Nea.
"Háokampa "How nonkanteroriye?" will I do it. It went. he. "Where did he get . . (it) went. Haiteti. kiterikiri. yair6ri. Ipiitavetanáka.. up high.. (It) went. n£ite I will grab n^trori." don't go. iriori. growing over there. 1. "Eá. its clusters were orange. yoihaanáiátiro. then yoihaanéfáti. otimanáke. He returned quickly. here [indicating direction]. ánta. orange fruit. henokive. f r Donft g o . He returned quickly in vain." "Af r]ive. He slid down quickly. it was growing and Yakotitavetapa£ka He (extended) his handquickly in vain okitemonkitake. ciaciátake." t r £ri "Well nohatakeve." 339 eiro pihati. . that is. they were. He climbed quickly in vain.he followed them in vain. ohatliiti it went aká. (it) swayed and oravá.1 1 I. Yamenahíro. henokitránake. Ipiitanaha. Ohataiti. Isoankitaitanáha. He looked Inííro He saw it Yataititavetánaha. swayed. . áikero oh^tati it kept on going at it again. yoihavetaro. i&avihitapááhi. He moved quickly in vain to take them. Otimanáke. red fruit. here [indicating the kitionkakíro. (He) finally went. . he followed them. that is. oravé. over there.1. WEISS: CAMPA COSMOLOGY naakero.1 1 I took it. ?" — ineapaatiro. then. . (it) went. He looked and looked for it. h£oka where Ikoakoatakero. nompariaitenikea. karatake way up high. Ineap^akero He saw it overaveraanak&ita." I will g o.1975 "Hantavg* t T Ha. veránaka grow HaEanake. he followed them. Netitiro (He) suddenly saw it Yoaitavéta irayeróme. He followed them in vain. he followed. way overthere "Eirove pih^ti. did he get it. ?" — he suddenly saw it (kiri) . (it) grew over there. veraanakánta." I will fall. "Well. Yoihavétaro. (it) totaled oicokini its fruit aká. then?" hatánake. "Ay. quantity with a gesture]. h&oka where "Haoka yairori." Ipiitanaha. He returned quickly. f it. hatáke (they) went yo ihaanáatiro. hafanake. it was low again.. They were.
it turned. nacipetantakàrori have I worked in vain natainataitiroyé ?" climbing and climbing it?" asaninka. Aka Here opicoka it turned irointi it alone kiripekitapliinciri. opicokaaka. "Herové. irò it okarahéme.'" Yameniro He looked at it "P£itakea "Why. maaroni. omaamaanetakotakanta. over there [pointing downriver]. Yes. over there (downriver). ant^f. aka. yaavet&ke. Pàkara. *whirr*. oparitake kimokiri they fell the big fruit Simpo the cupola of leaves ¿ntà. "Here it i s . our fellow tribesman. kiritapiinciri. then.1 1 "Careful that you don't fell him.^ our fellow ikisakamaritanaka. they were swung over there. small. oicokipe. Imaheréti. those that were small fruit. Piapaaka. he was silent. *Patter*. He was silent. he suddenly saw it MH£okampa "How asàninka. "Pitoirokariyaavé. Conkaka All told kimoinaripe all the big round (fruit) kiripé. ' . then. ikantiriri he said to him there yora he there nonkanteroriyé ?1 1 &ri will I do it?" Well tribesman. small (fruit). (saying). they fell. aka. that is. (Vulture) osavihitahi. here. here. heò: *whirr*: kap i£atap¿¿ke (leaving) a few Opicokltóka It turned (upriver) ohokaitantakarlkea therefore they landed. that is. all the fruit. p&kara. Hé. . orave. the demon. all small. became angry. all. mééka. o^avihitapààhi. Pltkara. oparitltke. óra that is. now. conkasitlka: simply finished: heo. 52 Oconkantarintakea.imahereti. conkaka. orihanieriki. oravS. he took in vain. our fellow tribesman. Aka opicoka Here it turned returned ‘ Àri Well ineahatiro (to the ground). then. he. finished. *Patter*. Therefore they finished over there. as if to break. then. it was low again. kiripé. ipavetàkari he gave him in vain ipavetakari he gave him in vain asaninka. it was low again. that which is kiri fruit. ohokayetakakea they all landed.340 ANTHROPOLOGICAL PAPERS AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY VOL. *patter*. then.
" "Haa. Yaitavetaro. kepisikitake. "Kam^ari. "H£. he looked at it. tisoniv£. m££ka now ohita is it called it n&ri. that is.' do it. then. yam£niro.: [ Ik£nti. ipankipankitiro. planted it all in vain kirltiki." ipankivetaro. He wiped his arse on it?] He. [K. He said. he said. ikghtiro.1. It grew. oka?" it here?" 341 nliri. (it) has become fearsome." Ihecitanakero? ] Ihecikamaritanakero. ihecititakenaro he wiped his arse he there. nompankitero I will plant IrtSsati. iriotltke that's it "Kiritikikiritikikiritikikiritiki" "Kiritikikiritikikiritikikiritiki. despicable.1 1 your seed for planting. "Demon. then. WEISS: CAMPA COSMOLOGY piv£nkire. he ate it in vain. cee§ip£tini. And so (herepeated as kiritikitanaincirirakea. wiped his arse on it. "Yes. the demon. for us to on it for me Haokakea How. ' " fruit. He grabbed it in vain." Ipankiyemacevetakaro He. he planted it in vain. kaari o^inetantana because it did not grant me "Noheciterota "I will wipe my arseon . now. l e had returi he returned and returned. Vulture. "Kiri. he had planted and planted. bearded with kamari the demon ankantahero.] — ipokavetapaaha. nonkantahearikea ? will I be. that is. plenty. ipankiyevet&karo he planted it all invain kiritiki. he went). yorave^ On arriving he saw it — he came again invain. bitter "Ka^riJ" "That's not i t." I." ^ it has become thorny over there.1 1 Nompankiterota I will plant it now "Hgoka "What Ha. (He) finally went.1975 payero take it "Pimpena "Give me avlrori you oseiki." kiritiki.f r "Ah. oceetanakenta. then? Tekaci There is no way kovenkatcinaka. He had worked for nothing. he." oranki it. there. it now ironea it. Ha. Yacipetasit^karo. kiritiki. Haiteti. which became kirltiki iri£ri.1 1 I. Iniimaitapaakero ipiapiataka. yamenavetakaro» he looked at it in vain. yoavet&karo.r r Ofeiokanaiti. pahakeririnta — iniimaitapaatiro he who had nailed himover there — on arriving he saw it thorns. [General laughter. "Kiri.
in vain. if he had not wiped his arse on it. Yoantaitarori Therefore he habitually eats it potokikea. then. natofce. it. pihirika Bat here iriori. yes. natofcg. flew quickly in vain "Haoka "What irintikea. (it) became poto fruit. m^ro. kiri. poto fruit. Irosati And so inintakayetanak^ri. maro. "I (want). Narorive." ohitarankiye ?V is it called. ?] haa. now. maro." pihiri. then. onkiritimotakerimekea it would have been klri with him. someone made him like (it). Bat. ipeevetakempi he gave you in vain iriori he encipaiteta . nato&e. yorav^. natoge. kiri." kiri. : [ Ipankitakeromekea If he had planted niye to take(its fruit) Aitakenea So it is. M^aroni. planted it in vain iriori. — yaavetapHinta — he quickly took in vain orlmki?" it. the demon. "NatoSe." He. natoge. then. Yes. he alone. "NatoEe. pasini okantanake. then. another it became. copire — ^breaking off* — "Haa.1 1 close by. that is?" "Orave." I." "Kari. he. Yes. orave. he will sing it therewith to take . natoce.'f l ohitara?" is it called there?" "H£oka f r What £ri well ohita is it called ipeakotaharo. oicoki.' pimpena give me Yaritakamarivetanaka He." its seed. . "Ah. n&ri." he had gone (flying) around it in vain. natofcS. ?1 right away .342 ANTHROPOLOGICAL PAPERS AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY VOL. . Icarontakovetakarota. he forgot it. thereupon. kiri. ^itake So it is potokitanake. . m£ro. N^rori. His disagreeablemusic. that is. I (want)." p6tt) fruit. Ineatiro. He suddenly saw it. yoaitaro. m£ro. eiro ihecitiromekea. he." Mm. nato££. despicable. *sound of beating bat's wings*. iriori. he. m£ro. "That is. that is?" "Haokampa "What "Kirivg. "He didn't want to letyou. He had made music for it. then. habitually. pot6ki. he eats it ipankimaSevetakltro he. impampoyakotero iraantearime that is. 52 ok&akihi."^ jgonkavetakaro. . Yaperovere.1 1 "t£ inintakaye t r£mpi. All. [K.
ipeakotanaharo iri&ri. two. they do not admit that they arose from animals. 343 iri$ri . ah." naye I will take 1 1 Ah5. Now "Kirive. WEISS: CAMPA COSMOLOGY "Natofee."natoc£. other.. natoEe. their seed for planting. the demon. iriiyeme he had wanted Tekltci There wasno tek&ci. he had taken and taken it in vain." "NatoEe. . his seed for planting . none. * .1975 (it) of his klri iriori. i. meeka. yorave. iponeaitavetake he (also) sallied forth ik&rati kantavet f a i r i Eari they totaled those who did quickly invain in vain [K. that it?f r off in vain. kiri. taker (of) his seedfor planting. nato^fe. 1 " "Kiri.e. kamari the demon pihiri. poto. ha. aacineme the takers now (of) iv&nkire. yaayaave takaro he had taken and taken it to take iv£nkire . Ap£roni (Just) one yaayaavetakaro. in vain Vulture. and are given in full in Appendix 2 (pages 563-567) in English translation. natofc^. now. kiri." Apacakiro Since then irotakempa itis it." klri. for whom Padre Cenitagoya (: 194) expressed the matter aptly: “The Machiguengas are not totemists. So he carried it opeimotap££kari — it changed with him — poto. Ari Well kantari." "Klri. "Aha. nato&£. finished.” 2The Machiguengas also have this belief. it is Tek&ci There was no IVri Well paSlni?1 Teklci other? ] There was no okaratlkea it is finished. he forgot it he. pafelni other aacine iv^tnkire. kiri. M£eka natoEe. surely. 19 He. by the action of a superior being. 'Ari Well oklrati. r r pototopototopococopococo. then. Ha. tistmi. — ine£ne — his language Hfokampa What ^Ari yaavetanaharo. mm. Pereira NOTES . natofce. Kiri he. Ah. paSini. klri/1 — klri. but when compared with the Campa materials. ohitarluaki ?r r is it called. : [ apite. These are of considerable interest ^his view is shared with the Machiguengas. Yes. mm. "Kiri.1 1 kiri. rather they believe that many animals have men as their ancestors. Bat. kiri. he — r r natoE£. iriotake. (saying). he there. ." that's it." — "pototopototopococopococo. We possess two good accounts of Machiguenga beliefs paralleling the events in the Campa Avireri cycle.
The good animals were blown on and trans formed by the powerful Machiguenga Yabtreri tasorinchi. 52 following Machiguenga belief: “The red and yellow colors that some birds exhibit come from their having painted themselves with the blood or bile respectively of Yabtreri tasorinchi. stooped over and looking at the ground. they kept Kiri under surveillance. lsHdiriki is the name of a tree. 16This personage is not identified. 13That is. ^he picture evoked here is that of Avireri trudging along. say the savages of this tribe.” and to that extent resembles human beings. in brackets. came into existence as the direct conse quence of tisdnf s contemptuous action. do not extract salt from this spring. with his grandson on his back looking around in all directions.” 3This reiteration suggests a long period of residence. slurred over by Ihe present narrator. as a humorous note.” who was a “maleficent being who trans formed human beings into animals.” “ That is. which makes it impossible to ob tain the fruit by climbing the trunk. on the contrary. 17The trunk of this species of palm is sheathed in rings of long. 6Questions and statements interjected by Campas lis tening to these narrations are included if significant. sharp thorns. 94) reported the . 8The Campas. owe their conver sion to the blowing of the Evil Principle Kientibâkori. the bad ones. not cultivated. 7The bird Steatornis caripensis does indeed have “whiskers. These thorns. it is uttered here out of pleasure while eructing. page 299. (1944a:85n. 14Poking the fire is to increase the heat.) reported for the Machiguengas a belief in “Yavireri. 12The color kamdra(ri) is considered ugly by the Cam pas (see above. ^ he fruit trees enumerated here as having been cre ated by Avireri are wild. 97) reported the following: “For merly all the animals were Machiguengas. nor is there any indication that they ever did so. pot6 was identified as the oje tree (Ficus anthelminthica). 10Padre Garcia (1935-1937 :XVIII. The narrator repeats the pihiri incident here to add some details. l*Nato& has no meaning. In each case the speaker is identified by initial. l9Kiriti was identified as the inchaui palm (Bactris concinna). as the text recounts.” Padre García (1935-1937 :XVIII. the birds bathed one after another in the pool of K irfs blood. note 9). however. The intention may be to imitate the twittering of bats. is more clearly expressed in another version of the same myth I collected. H'his minor masterpiece of detection.344 ANTHROPOLOGICAL PAPERS AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY VOL.