lnl:loA 0r


Course 02130A

Gvrl Aun PLrnor.




Tcdttticia Rafu8


Extension Course Institute

Air University





is valued at 6 hours (2 points).




OU have been selected for, or have selected for yourself, an extremely demandingjob. The survivors of an air crash will depend on you, the scazn€r, to maintain your conc€ntration, to ov€rcome fatigue and boredom, and not to give up as long as any chance of locating thern remains. No doubt you will want to bring to your job of scanning the same dedication you would expect of some other scanner should you or

\Z I

one of your family become an air crash victim. The imporrance of your job is obvious. The success of an air search will depend on the effeciency with which you, the scanner, do your pan. After all, s@ in locating a search objective can mean the saving of human lives.

Civil Air Patrol and other agencies have develo@ procedures to make scanning very effective. These procedures are outlines in this coune, and it is essential that you understand them before flying on an actual search mission. As you read the following pag€s you will leam how to pre,pare yourself to do a professional job of scanning.



REASONS FOR SCANNERS The Scanner as a Team Member.

Aircraft used in Scarch and Rescue.
Safety Around and in The Airplane.

Events Before

Takeoff.. Techniques.

......... ......

13 15

Good Scanning

Sighting Characteristics.

. Pilot..

.......26 .........30 .......33 ............

hobability of



Communication of Sighting to



e_xercises following the information give you a check on your achievement. when-you complete them-, see if your answers match those in the back ofthis volume. Ifyour respons! to an exercise is incorrect, review the objectiye and its texl.

is developed by a series of harning objectives. Eech_of these carries a 3-digit numb€r and is in boldlface t-ype, Each sets a leariing-goal tor you' The texl thar-follows the objectives gives you the information you need to reachih"at goal. The

NorE: ln lhis volume, the subject matter

CAP Scanner
Most of Civil Air Patrol's search and rescue (SAR) operations are based on the use of aircraft. The aircraft are flown over specified areas in which the search objective probably will be found. During these flights many hours of scanning will take place.

Define scanning; state the scanner's primary responsibility; and state two reasons for having scanners aboard SAR aircraft.
Scanning is a method of looking for downed aircraft (or other objects) which makes it tnssible to search all of the assigned area in a systematic way. Persons trained to scan systematically become qualified smnners. Scanners are the people in the search aircraft whose primary responsibility is to maintain CONSTANT eye contad with the ground while over the search area. This responsibility makes each scanner a key member of the search aircrew.



The aircraft pilot and any other crew members required to fly the aircraft (or to navigate) are very busy with their normal tasks. They will, however, be able to scan pan-time. But pan-time scanning is not enough; just a fraction of a second in non-scanning time could keep the aircrew from spotting the search objective. This could mean the difference in life and death to an injured survivor of an aircraft crash. One reason for trained scanners, therefore, is to provide full-time scanning service for the search aircrew.

If you are new to search and rescue actiyities, you will soon hear pilots and other mission personnel using some unfamiliar abbreviations and terms. Among many others, you will hear "ELT signal" and "DF steer"' The ELT is an abbreviation for an Emergency Locator Transmitter; this transmitter, or radio, is aboard most aircraft. Upon the impact of a crash the ELT broadcasts a continuous "beep-like" signal. Search aircraft, such as those used by civil Air patrol (cAp), may be equipped with speciil radio receiveis which can be used to determine the exact direction of the ELT signal. Thus, this type radio receiver serves as a direction finder, or DF, and provides an electronic means of steering towirds the crash site. Remember that the ELT and the DF receiver are but two parts of a much more complex electronic system for locating the general area of a downed aircraft. The scanner still is on dutv and is


While an electronic search system can place the search aircrew close to a crash site, there are two things it cannot do: It cannot identifr the search objective and it cannot pinpoint the search objective's location on a map. only the aircrew can do these tasks, and they must be done. The scanner'i part in actually sighting the search objective from the air so that it can be pinpointed on a map is anothei of the "reasons for scanners." CIhe exact location of the search objective has to be identified on a map so that other rescue personnel can quickly locate and help survivors.)

Providing full-time scanning service and sighting the search objective are the reasons for scanners, but let's continue this discussion. First, the more qualified scanners there are the better the search mission. After all, the scanner'sjob is very demanding, tiring, and sometimes boring. If kept at the job too long, even the very b€st scanner will become less effective. When enough scanners are available, each can serve a shorter and more effectiv€ duty tour. Also, if enough scanners are available, several can be used aboard the larger aircraft; this increases the probability of sighting the search objective simply
because more "eyes" are at work.


Exercises (fi)1.):

l 2. 3.

What is scanning? What is the scanner's primcry responsibility? what are two rq$ons for having scanners aboard aircraft?

lX)2. Trace the concept of team membership eccording describe the duti€s of aircrew team members.

to CAP organizational structure and

Being a member of the Civil Air Patrol Corporation makes you a member of a very large "corporate" team. Perhaps you recall from your Level I training that Civil Air Panol is composed of many command echelons which span the nation. Eight georgaphic regions form the upper-echelon teams. Then there are the fifty states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico representing the next lower level of

teams-the CAP wing level. And the CAP wing is subdivided into "teams" which are basically designated as squadrons and flights. Some of the large CAP wings may include the "group" level in their organizational stnrcture. The group is senior to the squadron.
While the Civil Air Patrol is a private, nonprofit, benevolent civilian corporation that is made up of volunteer members, it is also the auxiliary ofthe United States Air Force. Members ofCAP, therefore, are authorized to wear uniforms which are very similar to the USAF uniforms, and the members may qualify to hold positions with military titles and insignia of grade. This helps to identify CAP personnel
as members


of a team.

The missions of Civil Air Patrol are to voluntarily use its resources to meet emetgencies, to encourage aerospace education of the general public, and to motivate young men and women to ideals of leadenhip through aerospace education and training. The part of the mission pertaining to emergencies is where scanners belong. Search and rescue is a function of the emergencies portion of the overall mission, and the specially trained em€rgency services teams perform this function.
Qualified scann€rs, pilots, observers, communicators, and other specialists are called upon to do theirjobs when an appropriate emergency occurs. A listing ofpersonnel with such qualifications is kept at the CAP wing headquanen level. When, for example, an aircraft is overdue at its destination and is

Mtsst0l{ c00RDnAT0R & STAFF





Organizational chart for a search mission.



specialists \vill be coming together at mission headquaners from various squadrons throughout the wing. This group of people will work together as a team, under the direction of the mission coordinator, until the mission is completed.

believed to have crashed, a search and rescue nrissioz will be authorized and a mission heqdquarten established The person in charge of this search and rescue mision is designated mission coordinator. From the list of qualified emergency services specialisrs, the mission cooidinator will select (or have selected) the number of specialiss believed needed to complete the mission. Remember, these

Figure I shows the organizational structure for a search mission. Normally, the mission staff will be only three to five personnel. However, a large-scale mission may require thit the staff be expanded to twenty or thirty personnel.
There are two basic typ€s of teams on a search and rescue mission which do the work of searching. They are the aircrews and the ground teams. your position, or team membership, will be with tlie aircrews. when called upon to fly on a search sortie (asortie is one flight in an aircraft), you, the pilot, .may^haue and other persons in the airplane will form and work as a team-the aircrew team. Vou different t"am members on each sortie that you fly. Recall that thejob of scanner is demanding and the people managing the mission try to give scanners frequent rest periods.

staned. This doesn't mean that the pilot tells everyone exactly what to do at all times. As a team m-ember pilol cooperates with the other members of the team. Thire will be times (as we shall point out later) when you, the scanner, will tell the pilot what to do. The same is true for other memben ofthe team, the observer and your fellow scanners. while we are talking about the pilot and observer as olier members of your aircrew team, lets see what their tasks are while in flight: '

Every team must have a leader. The leader of your aircrew team is the pilot. Federal Aviation Administation (FAA) regulations and cAp regulations place on the pilotiotal responsibility for everything that happens within the airplane and ever)"thing that the airplane does onci ir engine is

a. Pilot. The pilot's tasks in flight sound very simple: "Fly the mission as briefed and planned." of course, piloting the airplane at the best search altitude and along the intended ground track is not a simple job. Although the pilot is not required to scar?, he or she may do some sJanning. b. observer' The observer has more time than the pilot to help with scanning. The observer is also expected to assist the pilot with navigation and radio iommunications, as needed.
Ernergency Services.

Ifyou would like to find more information on the pilot's and observer's duties, look in cAp 50-15,

As a brief summary and staning from the aircrew team, Civil Air Patrol scanners also are members of CAP flight and squadron teams, the group team (possibly), the wing team, the region team, and the corporation team. As a member ofthe uSAF auxiliary (cei), the scainer is also considered part of the United States Air Force team.
the. mission team, the

Exercises (lX)2.):


CAP organizational structure

Beginning at the cAP corporate level and extending to the sAR aircrew level, show the basic
as a team structure:

c. h.




When you are working as a scanner, who is your team leader?




Cessna 152



8, Super Cub


Champion 7EC-A




Cessna 305,

Bird Dog

F. Heli() Courier.


2. Typical high-wing aircraii

used on CAP search missions



G. deHavilland DHC-2,


DHC'J, otter Otter H. deHavilland DHC-3.
us€d on CAP search mis\ions continued'

2. TyPical high-wing aircraft

3. Aircraft

Used in Search and Rescue

Each CAP search and rescue mission brings together a variety of aircraft. Some of these aircraft may be old. They may have been built during the 1940s, or before. On the other hand, you will see almost

If a crashed military airplane is the search objective then you probably will military airplanes and helicopters.
new airplanes.

see a few

Whether the airplane is old or new and whether it is a CAP or military B?e, its function is to serve you. Each of the aircraft assigned to the mission is an aircrew's platform in the sky. From this platform you can do your job as a scanner.

Our purpose for this section is to acquaint you with many of the aircraft used on CAP search and rescue missions. These aircraft include CAP and military t)?es. We will also discuss what you can expect as a scanner's view from high-wing and low-wing aircraft.

fi)3. Name the ten makes,tnodels of CAP aircraft discursed in the text, and give advantages and disadvantages of each as a SAR aircraft.
CAP Aircraft. The type of terrain in which a particular CAP unit is located will influence the t).pe aircraft most often used for SAR purposes. In the mountainous areas, pilots like to fly the more powerful aircraft. By powerful we mean those aircraft \yhich have enough power reserve in their engines to get a pilot out of a "tight spot." In mountainous areas unpredictable wind currents and other factors often create such tight spots, and a lot of power is needed to overcome the situation.

In the southwest and other areas where both population and vegetation are sparse, larger, faster aircraft may be preferred. Here, several scanners can fly in a single airplane and cover efficiently very large areas of ground. If you live in Alaska you know that airplanes with floats
are very common.

The eastern area of the United States has much of its surface covered by trees and brush. As we will poitlt qqt in detail later, a search objectiye can be very difficult to sight in such terrain. Therefore, slower, more deliberate scanning techniques are necessary. This requires aircraft capable of low-level, slow flight.
Persons in charge of search and rescue missions-mission coordinators-would like to have "ideal" aircraft for every SAR mission. Seldom is this the case, however. It is necessary to use what is available.



Piper PA 28-180, Cherokee 180 Figure

used on

Beech T-34. Mentor

3. Typical low-wing aircraft

CAP s€arch missions 2

Aircraft tlpically available to mission coordinators include the ten makes/models shown in ltgures and 3. But you should know more about them than just what they look like:

. Cessna 172, Skyhawk. The Cessna 172 is one of the b€tter airplanes for SAR missions. It can carry as many as four people. This means that there is room for the pilot, an observer, and two scanners. The 172 can fly relatively fast, but it can also fly slow. These capabilities make this airplane well suited to SAR work. . Cessna 152. This is a side-by-side, two place craft, so its crew is limited to a pilot and observer, or pilot and scanner. On the positive side, the 152 is economical to operate and it is very good at low-level, slow flight.
Helio Courier. There are few of these aircraft in the Civil Air Patrol fleet because they are very expensive. The Helio Courier is especially good where only small fields are available for takeoffs and landings. This airplane is powerful and was designed for short takeoff and landing (STOL) operations. It is also considered to be one of the safest airplanes flying.
The Helio Courier's flight characteristics make it a very good observation platform for scanners and observen. It can fly very slow and it can remain airbome for long periods of time. As a search airplane, it usually carries a pilot, an observer, and two scanners.



\ o de Havilland "Beaver"

and "Otter." We place these two aircraft together as a single discussion item because they are similar in appearance. Both are rugged, capable at STOL operations, and they are large-especially large for single-engine airplanes. Where yrur search aircrew is concerned, the Beaver can carry four scanners, plus the pilot and observer. The Ottet could carry twelve scanners, but Civil Air Patrol limits the number of persons its corporate aircraft are allowed to carry.

Like the Helio Courier, the STOL capability of the Beaver and Otter makes them good search aircraft. These aircraft may be used to fly into relatively high, rugged terrain because they have sufficient power to overcome the effects of strong air cuffents.
Piper PA- 18, Super Cub. The design of this airplane has existed since the 1950s. The basic design began as the Piper Cub in the 1930s. Although the PA-l8 is a two-place, tandem seating (front-to-back) airplane, it is still a good SAR aircraft. It is particularly useful in low-level, slow flight, and it can land on and takeoff from areas where other SAR aircraft "dare not tread."



PA-18, the Champion is well suited to low-level, slow flight.

champion 7Ec-A. This is another two-place, tandem airplane. Like the cessna 152 and the piper



5. Major pans of fixed-wing aircraft.

provides excellent visibility. Yet, the high expense of operating helicopters usually

limis their


primarily to rescue duties.
The HC- 130 (also known as the Hercules) is

four-engine craft,


you see in figure 4. No doubt you

know that a four-engine airplane is expensive to operate. This airplane is capable of carrying many personnel and sophisticated equipment for locating downed aircraft. In addition, Air Force HC- 130 aircraft usually carry two highly trained pararescue specialists. These sp€cialists can parachute into a crash site and give first aid and other assistance to survivors until ground teams or helicopters reach the


You may never have the opportunity of flying as a scanner in a military SAR aircraft. yet, as a CAp member, you are authorized to help the military SAR aircrews if they ask for your assistance.
Seeing a military SAR aircraft is a distinct possibility. You may be called to assist during a search mission for a missing military aircraft where other military aircraft will be taking part in the search. Military SAR aircraft also often work alongside CAP aircraft when the search objective is a civilian


Now that you have learned about aircraft that you may see and fly in during a SAR mission, you should know how to conduct yourself when around or in an airplane-any airplane. You should leam what to do and what not to do from the standpoint of safety.
Exercises (1D3.):
I. 2. 3. 4.

Name the eight CAP high-wing SAR aircrafr. Name the two CAP low-wing SAR aircraft. Name the thre€ CAP SAR aircraft which have short takeoff and landing (STOL) capability. What is the disadvantage of using two-place aircraft on SAR missions?


Main Rolor
Toil Rolor





Major parts of rotary-wing aircrafi (hclicopters)

There may be many aircraft operating from the airport where the mission is headquartered. Airplanes be taking off and landing within very short times of each other. The flight line also is a busy area. This is the special area where aircraft are fueled, checked, and tied down (parked) between flights. The ground movement of many fiagile airplanes within rhe relatively small space of a flight line requires "wing walkers." The task of wing walkers is to see that the airplane's wings or other parts do not collide with another airplane, hangar door, or other objects as the airplane is being moved about within a congested space.



It is easy to see why safety precautions are emphasized at any place where aircrali are located. There are certain aspects of aircraft ground operations which can cause serious injury or death to the person who isn't careful. Aircraft are also costly vehicles to purchase and maintain.

0(X. Name and discuss the function of four major parts of an airplane; compare the major parts of a
fixed-wing airplane to the major pans of a helicopter.
Parts of the Airplane, Many prospective scanners are familiar with airplanes while others are not. It is for those others that this discussion is intended. Everyone in an aircrew should have a basic knowledge of the names of an airplane's major parts. Refer to figure 5 as you read further.

o Fuselage. This the primary part, or body, of all llxed and rotary-wing aircraft. The fuselage on small aircraft contains the cockpit in which the search aircrew rides. (NOTE: on large aircraft the area is divided into a cockpit for the flight c rew on ly and a cabin for passengers and cargo. ) The other major parts of the airplane are attached to the fuselage.
o Wings. The purpose of wings is to provide lift, and lift is that force which enables an airplane to fly. whether the airplane is high wing or low wing, the portion to the left of the fuselage (as seen from the cockpit, looking forward) is called the left wing. That portion to the right of the fuselage is the right


You will see ailerons zttache.d to the wings and you may see faps. Ailerons play a major role in making the airplane turn in flight. Flaps, however, are devices which increase the wing's lift capability and allow the craft to be flown more slowly for landing.

. Empennage. Many people do not use this word in reference to major part of the airplane-the tail. On the other hand, empennage sals it all because the tail section of an airplane is made up of several parts: the vertical stabilizer with the attached rudder, and the horizontal stabilizer with the elevator. The rudder is movable left or right and when it is moved in flight it causes the airplane to yaw left or right. The elevator is movable up and down. Movement of the elevator in flight causes the airplane to pitch up or down. The emp€nnage, therefore, provides directional control.
Landing gear. Landing gear support the airplane while it is on the ground. Some airplanes have what is known as conventional landing gear. The conventional-gear airplane has a tqil wheel and main g€dr. Today most airplanes are built with tricycle landing gear. The tricycle gear arrangement consists of a main gear and a nose gear, Propeller. Perhaps a prop€ller should not be gouped with the major parts of an airPlane. Yet, propellen provide most airplanes the means of moving forward through the air-thrust. You may see a three-bladed propeller on some small aircraft but most are equipped with the two-blade O?e. Parts of the Helicopter. Notice that the legend, or title, of figure 6 classifies helicopters as rotary wing aircraft. This is correct. What is labeled "main rotor" in figure 6 actually is a movable wing. The helicopter's wings rotate, and, basically, produce lift in the same manner as fixed-wing aircraft' The helicopter has a fuselage to which the main rotor and landing gear are attached. You will find that helicopter landing gear vary considerably in appearance and function. Some may have nothing more than skids for landing gear, or skids with small wheels attached. Other helicopters will have wheeled landing gear which approximate those on fiied-wing aircraft.
Extending from the helicopter's fuselage will be some type of tqil b(nm. The purpose of the tail boom is to provide support for the tail rotor- Within the tail boom is the drive shaft for turning the tail rotor; the drive shaft is powered by the engine.



Tail rotors on helicopters have a dual function. They function as a vertical stabilizer when the craft is flying straight. Changing the pitch of the rotor (angle at which the rotor blade strikes the air) "pushes" the tail boom left or righq in this function the tail rotor acts as a rudder. Incidentally, the pitching movement (up or down) of the helicopter fuselage is a function of the main rotor.


l. 2.

Not counting the propeller, list the four major parts of an airplane and state the function of each. What two major parts of a helicopter have the same nam€ as two major parts of an airplane?

Safety Precautions. Safe activity in the vicinity of aircraft depends on everyone knowing certain "do's" and "don'ts." Of course, memorizing what one should and should not do is desirable, but everything that co.r/d happen in a situation will not be contained in a list. (Ihe list would be too long.)
So, knowing certain basics is a beginning only; from this point on the person musl think!

In addition to remembering some very important do's and don'ts, and thinking, it is good practice to demonstrate courtesy. The Civil Air Patrol and individual aircraft owners who lend their craft to SAR missions have a lot of money invested. Also, remember that aircraft and the equipment in them are fragile. For these reasons of high investment and the fragility of the craft, owners are very protective of their property. Your demonstration of respect for their property will cause them to accept you quickly as one of the team.

spidning. when a pilot starts the engine the propeller starts spinning. Before the airplane begiris to taxi, the pilot lets the engine run to "warm up" while he makes adjustments to radios and other items in the cockpit. The reverse process takes place where the airplane is brought in at the close of the sortie. The airplane is stopped, but the engine remains running and the propeller spins until the pilot completes turning off electronic equipment. Engine shutdown is one of the last item;on the pilot's ;h€cklist, so the engine may be kept running for several minutes after theairplane stops moving. Blcause of the design of an aircraft ele€trical system, it may be possible for an engine to start by itself. Therefore, never touih or eveh get close to a stopped propeller.
Remember, keep well clear when the airplane is moving or when its engine is running and always stay clear of the propeller, even if it is stopped.


a Don't touch. Some of that counesy we spoke of earlier can be extended to aircraft owners by n€r€r touching their aircraft. Looking and admiring is fine, but never touch an airplane unless the pilot or pilot/owner gives prermission for you to do so.
When inside the airplane, consider the don't touch rule to be doubled. This is esp€cially true for any of the knobs, levers, and cranks. Many of these itenis have been set or adjusted for safe flight. If you move any of them and the pilot happens not to check them before flight, there Cpuld be some embarrassing moments for all.

This "don't touch" rule will be adjusted as you becirme more familiar with the airplane. You will get a typ€ of on-the-job training from the pilot and observer. you may eventually be asked to help with preflight and posdlight tasks.

I Getting into and out of the airplane. Just a short message here: Do not step on an aircraft's wing or othet part where there is no black, non-skid material attached. There is an exception; sometimes thlre will not be any non-skid material on what is clearly a step. Crhe material has worn off, most likely.) Also, many aircraft, such as the T-34 shown in figure 7, have handles that the crew.is experted to use-as aids to entry. Look for and use these handles.
your first flight or so, the pilot will tell you .l hen to enter the airplane and where to sit. Also, the . on pilot probably will say when to exit the airplane after it has come to a full stop and the engine has been shut off. Always approach airplanes from the rear for entry and depart toward the rear. Remember, the front of a SAR airplane is the business end. This is where the dangerous propeller is located.

, r Buckle up. The first thing that one should do upon taking a seat in any aircraft is to adjust the seat belt and buckle up. Fasten the seat belt, in other words. The iat belt should remain fastened untit the flight is completed and you are ready to get out of the airplane.
sense and good safery to keep the seat belt fastened at all times. In flight, especially lowlev€l flight, there is most always some degree of air turbulence. You want to bounce througir the air with the airplane; if the seat belt is not fastened you will find yourself bouncing around in theiockpit! Even when taxiing, there is the possibility ofa sudden stop. we could continue with many other exa;ples, but you get the id€a.

_ It is good

a crash landing. (Other situations also are considered emergencies, but they seldom are the direct concern of a scanner.)
As a general rule, the action to take in case of fire on the ground is to get away from the airplane. whether you should run is a matter of judgment. After all, the fire may bi a very small one which is confined to the engine compartment. If this is the cas€, the fire could beextinguished if action is taken


Emergencies. There are two primary situations which we will consider to be emergencies: fire and

quickly. Each airplane has a fire extinguisher on board, so make certain you know where it is located and you know how to operate it. Remember, however, to use your head. If there is a small fire, gasoline is pouring out of the fuel tanks, and it isn't necessary to help'other members of the aircrew, get away!
There isn't much you can do about a crash landing. In fact, you are forced to stay with the airplane until it stops. When it stops, get out and get a safe distance away flom the airplane. If other members of the aircrew need help in getting away, you will want to help them, of course.

if seat belts are tightly belore the situation develops. precautions must be taken These are tied down. and hearT objects fastened
Finally, the possibility of injury during a crash landing is reduced greatly
Now that you understand the major points about safety around and in airplanes, we will describe the events which will take place before your aircrew team goes on a sortie. Exercises (fi)5,):

l. 2. 3.

While in the flight line area, what should you do with regard to: a. smoking? b. touching an airplane?

c. resP€cting ProPellers?
When should a scanner enter and exit an airplane? What indicates the portion of an airplane on which stepping is p€rmitted?

of total confusion. There is a lot of person-to-person talk, and Wo-way radios add to the din. You will soon learn that everyone is trying to "get the picture," so to speak, and there really is very little
confusion. The urgency of events, especially at the beginning of a SAR mission, may cause you to have a feeling


A mission coordinator must have a lot of information before the first airplane is sent on a sortie. Details on the last reported position of the search objective, weather conditions, number and types of aircraft available, etc., must b€ assembled. But the second most important bank of information is SAR personnel availability. The mission coordinator must know how many people are available (at all times) ind their qualifications. This is why your first task upon arri l at mision headquarters is to sign in as directed. After signing in, everyone waits until called for a mission assignment.

fi)6. List

and discuss the three major events which occur b€fore takeoff on a sortie.

The Mission Brieting. Soon after sufficient data have been assembled, and the mission headquarters is functioning, there will be a general mission briefing. Usually, everyone attends this briefing. The mission coordinator summarizes the situation, to include a description of the search objective. The briefing will include special emphasis on safety. A large map will be displayed, and the total area to be searched will be outlined on the map. Within this outlined area will be many vertical and horizontal lines which form a grid. 'lhe grid divides the total search area into smaller areas which are of practical

for an air search sortie.

Weather is always a concern to aviators, so it will be a subject of the general briefing. You will be told the current weather conditions and what is expected to develop later in the day. For observers and scanners, the current and predicted visibility are especially important.


The general briefing gives mission personnel the overall situation at the moment. There will be many other briefings as the mission continues. Between briefings, however, mision personnel can update themselves by checking formation which is posted for all to see and which is updated as needed.


Eventually (perhaps immediately) you will be called to serve on an aircrew. You may not have met will be quick introductions before the next briefing-the sortie briefing.

the other team members, so there


Sortie briefings are conducted for each aircrew by the persons designated to accomplish the briefing function. It is the briefer's responsibility to make certain that your aircrew knows its assigned search
area. Included with the search area assignment will be the route to take to and from the area. This route assignment is to keep search aircraft clear of each other as they fly to and from their search areas. The briefer will point out on a map any obstructions your pilot should be aware of, such as towers and highvoltage power lines. You will get the current metmrological visibility for the area (this is given in statute miles.) Any repons from residents in the area will be passed on to you. Such reports may be something like "I heard an airplane in trouble," or "A very strange noise woke me last night. It could have been an airplane crashing." The reports could be the result of active imagination or they could be valuable clues. The point is that every piece of information passed on to your aircrew should be anallzed.

The Flight Plan. A flight plan is required for each sortie flown by your aircrew. This flight plan is the pilot's responsibility; it amounts to a before-and-after record of the total flight. You will not have anlthing to contribute to the flight plan document, other than your name, when it is filed before flight, but your observations may become part of it after the sortie.

Your pilot must consider many things

as he

or she fills out the flight plan. One purpose ofthe plan is

to let mission headquarters know where your aircrew is going and when it will retum. This time of return is of utmost imponance. If an airplane isn\ back at the airport within a reasonable time past the pilot's estimated time of return, a search will be staned. Thus, it is possible to have a "search within a

To know how long it will take to fly out, search the area, and return re4uires navigational planning. And navigational planning takes time. You may have nothing to do but wait until the flight plan form is


No doubt your aircrew will hold an informal, within-group briefing. Although the pilot is "bos," prior agreement on some details of th€ search is needed. This informal exchange probabty will begin before you leave the mission headquarters building and will continue to the flight line, where the pilot
preflights the airplane before takeoff..

heflighting the Airplane. The act of preflighting an airplane is no more than a safety check and evaluation of the craft's condition for flight. This the pilot's responsibility, and exactly how it is done will depend on the pilot's individual routine. Normally, the rest of the aircrew stands well clear as this preflighting process is carried out. If you are asked to help, you probably will call out each item on the checklist. When the pilot has examined and item called out, he or she will give a signal such as "check" or "O.K." This means the pilot is ready for the next item to be called out.
made to see

The walk-around inspection is the major portion of preflighting. A quick, visual inspection will be if any of the aircraft's major parts is defective-fuselage, wing, empennage, and landing

Fuel gauges sometimes malfunction, so a visual check of the fuel quantity is accomplished. On high wing aircraft the pilot will have to use a stepladder to get to the fuel filler caps. He removes each cap and peers into the tank to make certain that it is filled (normal procedure is to fill the tanks upon completion of each sortie.) As the walk-around continues, every movable, attached part will be tested for freedom of movement. Also, hinges will be scrutinized closely to see that they are fully in place and not wom thin. The propeller and its attachment to the engine receive careful attention. crack in a propeller could cause it to fail in flight.


large nick or hairline





Figure E. Normal span of vision, showing central and peripheral areas.

There are many other items to check as the pilot continues the walk-around inspection. When it is completed you will be instructed to board the airplane. Remember to fasten your ieat bels securely.

(ailerons, elevator, and rudder) are moving in the right directions. In addition to what is on the checklist, every pilot will take a last-minute look at certain items before the ac$al takeoff is started.
Shortly after takeoff, the flight settles down as the pilot takes up a heading toward the assigned search

More preflighting will take place after the crew is in the airplane. Other checkliss are followed to start the engine' adjust radios and electronic navigation equipment, check flaps setting, etc. There is a before'takeoff checklist which must be completed upon t*"hing the runwa} It is a short one and is used to see that the engine is working properly, thi controls are free, and that the control surfaces




l. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What is the purpose of a mission briefing? Who is responsible for filling out and filing the flight plan? Why is the €stimated dme of arrival back at mission headquarters so important? What is the primary purpose of a preflight inspection of the airplane? Unless asked to assist, what should the scanner do during preflighr inspection?

Flight to the assigned search area will be at a predetermined altitude. Possibly this altitude will be too high for-the aircrew to do any serious scanning, but it is good pracdce to looi anyway. After all, the search objective could be where it was not calculated to b", so ih"re is a chance tt ut ytu, t"u. find it out of the assigned area.



Again, your job is to concentrate on scanning for the objective within the search area. Anyone can "look," but scanning is more than just looking. Stanning is tire skill ofseeing by looking in a methodical way, and there are certain techniques which can help you develop ttris siiti In this section, we will







Surfac€ coverage pattern formed by ftxation area.

job well without having to concentrate on how you are doing it.

Present these techniques. But more than knowing scanning techniques is required. You need practice at using the techniques so that your ability to scan becomes second nature-the point at which you do the

lX)7. Describe central and pcriphersl vision according to p€rception and field of vision Qateral and verticel ranges, in degrees of arc.)

Yision. The primary tool of tlre scanner is the eyes. Although an eye is a marvelous device, it has some limitation even if it is in perfect physical condition. There also is the problem of interpreting correctly what the eyes convey to the brain.
when a person with normal eyes looks straight ahead at a fixed point, much more than just the point is seen. The brain actively senses and is aware of eve4rthing from the point outward to foim a circle of l0 degrees. This is centra, vision, znd it is produced by special cells in the fovea portion of the eye's retina. whatever is outside the central vision circle also is "picked up" by the eyes ind conveyed to the brain, but it is not perceived clearly. This larger area is called peripheral vision; it is produced by cells



less sensitive than those in the fovea. However, objects recognized if mental attention is directed to them.

within the peripheral vision area can


Figure 8 shows the normal span of vision for healthy eyes. Notice the vertical range is about 80 degrees above and 80 degrees below the central line of vision. The horizontal or lateral range is slightly greater. Considering the central line of vision of starting point, each eye can sense about 90 degrees laterally. This gives a total of about 180 degrees of lateral binocular vision.

Also shown in figure 8 is th€ lo-degree central vision circle, what we will call the lixation qrea. Remember, this is the area in which "concentrated looking" takes place. If the search objective happens to come within this fixation area, you probably will recognize it. We say probably because there are other factors which influence whether the objective will be recognized. These factors will be discussed

Exercises (fi)7.):

l. In degrees of arc, what is the diameter of the circle formed by central vision? 2. TolAl binocular vision for healthy eyes produces a lateral range of about 3. Our vertical range of vision is about degrees. 4. Where vision enable us to recognize objects immediately, mental concentration to recognize even large objects. -


vision requires

(X)E. Describe how angular displacement and aircraft molion affect surface coverage,

Fixation Area and Surface Coverage. The goal ofscanning techniques is to scan thoroughly the area overflown. Reaching this goal on a single overflight is not possible for a number of reasons. First, the eyes' fixation area is a circle and the search area surface (ground) is flat. Coverage of a flat surface with circles requires much overlapping of the circles. This overlapping is not possible on a search mission because of the aircraft's motion. Also, the surface area covered by the eyes' fixation area is less near the airplane and increases with distance from the airplane. The net result is relatively large gaps in coverag€ near the airplane and some overlap as distance from the airplane increases. Figure 9 gives a good idea of how these gaps and overlaps occur. Notice how the surface area covered begins as a relatively small circle near the airplane and takes an increasingly larger and more elliptical shape farther out. A caution about figure 9: It is not to scale and it assumes the airplane to be stationary.

it introduces the effect of aircraft motion on surface pattem is distorted toward the direction of aircraft travel. coverate. Observe how the
Figure 10, like figure 9, is not to scale but

Now we introduce another factor which influences effective coverage, angular displacement, By angular displacement we mean the angle formed from a point almost beneath the airplane (# degrees) outward to the scanning range, or beyond. With this scheme, the horizon would be at 90 degrees displacement.
Although the fixation area may be a constant lO-degrees diameter circle, the effectiveness of sighting the objective decreases with an increase in this angular displacement. Said another way, your aatupl

ability to see detail (resolution of detail) will be excellent at a point near the aircraft. This ability decreases as the angular displacement increases. At the scanning range, which may be as much as 45 degrees, the resolution of detail area probably will have shrunk to a 4-degree diameter circle.
When the effect of angular displacement is considered, the fixation area coverage does not produce as much overlap as we indicated earlier. This fact supports our first statem€nt about complete visual coverage being an impossibility on a single overflight of an area.

FiSure 10. General effect of aircraft motion on fixation area.

Exercises (fi)E.):

l. 2. 3.

How does an increase in angular displacement affect the fixation area pattern on the surface? At an angular displacement of 45 degrees, we expect the usual lO-degree diameter fixation area (for r€solution of detail) to have shrunk to about degrees. What is the effect of aircraft motion on the surface coyerage pattern?

fl)9. Distinguish between scsnning

rrnge and search yisibility range; and, giyen a yariable, tell how


the variable rffects scanning range.
Scanning Range. We are using the term scanning range to describe the distance from an aircraft to an imaginary line parallel to the aircraft's ground track (track over the ground.) This line is the maximum range at which a scanner is considered to have a good chance at sighting the search objective. Scanning rang€ sometimes may be confused with search visibility range- There is a difference: Search visibility range is drat distance at which an object the size of an automobile can be seen and reagnized. Debris, or


bits and pieces, of an aircraft crash may not be as large as an automobile and they may not be immediately recognizable from the air as parts of an airplane. Therefore, scanning range can be the same as or shorter than search visibility range. Ifyour pilot states that the search altitude will be 500 feet above gound level (AGL), you can expect your scanning range to be t/t to t/z mtle. If the search altitude is 1,000 feet AGL, you can expect a scanning range of between t/z and I mile. Even so, there are many variables which affect both the effective scanning range and your probability of detecting the search objective. We will discuss some of
these variables.


Atmospheric conditions.

does this atnospheric condition exist. Most

All aircrews hope for perfect visibility during a SAR mission. Seldom of the time the atmosphere (especially the lower

atmosphere) contains significant amounts of water vapor, dust, pollen, and other panicles. These items block vision according to their density. Of course, the farther we try to see the more particles there are and the more difficult it is to sight the objertive. The urgency of finding a downed aircraft may require flight under marginal conditions of visibility. example here is flight through very light rain or drizzle. Another example is flight during the summertime when the air is not moving appreciably: it may become vinually saturated with pollutants.


r Position of the sun. Flying "into the sun," soon after it rises in the morning or before it sets in th€ aftemoon, poses visibiliry problems. No doubt you have had this experience while driving or riding as a passenger in an automobile. Recall how difficult it is to distinguish colors and to detect smaller objects.
Research in search and rescue techniques has determined that the best time to fly search sorties is between mid-morning and mid-afternoon. This is when the sun is about 30o or more above the horizon.

When the sun is below



it intensifies visibility


As the sun climbs higher in the sky it helps to relieve visibility problems caused by the presence of particles in the atmosphere. The sun's rays heat the ground and the atmoshpere. This heat causes the lower atmosphere to expand. As the atmosphere expands the particles it contains are spred farther apart, decreasing their density within a given volume. Therefore, there are fewer particles between the surface and the scanner's eyes and the effective scanning range is increased slightly.
Clouds and shadows. Shadows produced by clouds can reduce the effective scanning range. This is due to the high contast between sunlit area and shadow-our eyes have difficult adjusting to such contrasts. The same effect occurs in mountainous area where bright sunlight causes the hills and mountains to cast dark shadows.



job would be easy. Most aircraft crashes do not happen in such is found quickly without an intensive search effort.

Terrain and ground cover. If flat, open, dry areas were the only areas to be searched, the scanner's areas; when one does happen, it usually

The more intensive search efforts occur over terrain tlnt is either mountainous or covered with dense vegetation' or both Mountainous area searches demand frequent variation in the scanning range. This you can visualize fairly easily: at one moment the mountain oi hill places the surface withinlsay i00 feet of the aircraft. Upon flying past the mountain or hilr the surface suddenly may be a half mile

Forested areas can reduce the effective scanning range dramatically. This is especially true during spring, summer, and fall when foliage is most pronounced. The situation doesn't change for the better the winter where trees are of the evergreen types-pine, spruce, etc. the heigit of the trees plus -because their.foliage masks the search objective very erectiveiy. Frequently the only wa! for a scanner to acoally spot an objective under such circumstances is to be looiing down almtst virtically. There ari other signs to look for in such areas, but w€ will discuss them latei_



o Surface conditions. Here we are thinking to snow, primarily. Even a thin covering of new snow will change the contour, or shape, of a search objective. Also, the light.reflective quality of snow affects visual effectiveness. The net result is a need to bring the scanning range nearer to the aircraft.
Cleanliness of window. This might seem to be a very minor factor to some readers. On the other hand, it is estimated that the scanner's visibility can be reduced up to 50 percent if the aircraft window isn't clean. If you discover this to be the case in your aircraft, clean the window yourself. However, aircraft windows are made of plastic and they are easily scratched. Ask the pilot what cleaning materials and methods are acceptable before cleaning the window.



r Condition of the scanner. Your general physical welfare will influence how well you do yourjob. For example, if you have a cold or sinus trouble, you may feel so bad you cannot concenttate on scanning. In effect, this reduces your personal effective scanning range to "zero." Only you can determine your fitness to fly and do the job expe€ted of you. If you do not believe that you feel up to the job at the moment, ask for a non-flying assignment. You will be more highly regarded if you know your
own limits.

Our discussion of variables could be extended considerably because most anything which happens during a sortie could affect the scanning operation. However, the variables of major importance have
been discussed.

Exercises ((X)9.):

l. Visibility

range is the distance at which Scanning range is the maximum distance at which a scanner is considered to have a good chance


Very briefly, how do the following variables affect scanning range? a. Position of sun. b. Heat of sun's rays.

c. Materials suspended in atmosphere. d. Shadows.
Mountains and hills. f. Dense vegetation. c. Snow on ground.

h. Condition of aircraft window. i. Scanner's physical condition. Scanning Patterns. As a brief review, a person is able to focus clearly within a relatively small area. This area is described as a l0-degree diameter circle around the point of focus. It is the area of cenlral vision; all else urhich constitutes the total field of ision is peripheral vision.

For central vision to be effective, the eye must b€ forced properly. This focusing process takes place each time the eyes, or head and eyes, are moved. Let's introduce a reason for scanners to move their heads while scanning. Good central vision requires that the eyes be directed straight to the front. Side looking, in other words, can reduce the effectiveness of central vision. Why? Very simply, the nose gets in the way. Take a moment and focus on an object well to your right, but keep your head straight. Then close your right eye. Notice that your central vision was reduced by one-half all long, but you did not
realize it.

010. Describe the techniq[es

a person should use when frrst learning to scan a

line in a professional

You can get a very good idea of the extent of central vision by making a fist and holding it at arm's length, at eye level, and straight ahead. Pick out a focus point which is 25 or more feet away. Move the z0

Figure I


The fist held at arm's lenSth approximates the area of central vision.

fist to cover this focus point. Changing your focus from the distant point back to the fist approximates the central vision area at the plane of the distant point. (See figure I l.)


Fixation points and line ofscan. When you wish to scan a large area, your eyes must move from one point to another, stopping at each point long enough to focus clearly. Each of these points is a frxation point. When the fixation points are close enough, the central vision areas will touch or overlap slightly. Consciously moving the fixation poinls along an imaginary straight line produces a band of effective
"seeing." Using figure 12 as a guide, try this: Extend your arm at eye level and picture that you are looking

Figure 12. Using the fist to establish fixation points along a line of scan. 21




Figure 13. The diagonal scanning pattern from riSht-rear window.

through the back of your fist. Look "through" your fist and focus your eyes on the center of the area which would be covered if you were looking at instead of through your fist. Now move your fist to the right to a position next to and touching the previous area. Again, look "through" your fist and focus on the center of the fist-sized area on the other side of your fist. If you continue to move your fist along a line, stopping and focusing your eyes on the center of each adjacent fist-siz€d area, you will have seen effectively all of the objects along and near that line. You will have "scanned" the line.
Repeat this process, but this time establish starting and stopping points for the line of scan. Pick out an object on the left as the staning point and an object on the riSht as the stopping Point. Start with the

object on the left. Extend your arm and look through your fist at that object. As practiced before, continue moving your fist to the next position along an imaginary line between the objects. Remember to stop briefly and focus your eyes. When your eyes reach the object on the right, you will have scanned the distance between the objecs.

Follow the same procedure but

your head and eyes to each fixation point

scan between th€ two objecF v,ithoul usingyour fist as a guide. Move as before. Pause just long enough to focus clearly (about I /3

second). When you reach the object on the right you will have sunnel the line or area b€tween the two objecs and you will have scanned the line in a professional manner.

Figure 14. Appro)dmate surface coverage of a diagonal scanning pattern.

You should practice this scanning techniques whenwer possible. This is the exact and most effective basic method of visual search that you will use when you are looking out the window of an airplane, attempting to locate the search objective. Remember, the line of scan (or scan line) is a straight line between the staning and stopping poins. Exercises (010.):

l. 2. 3. 4.

How can you approximate the area of central vision? What is a fixation p,oint? What is the usual duration of a fixation for SAR purposes? How is a line scanned in a professional manner?

trield ofscan and scanning patterns. The area which you will search with your eyes in lines of scan is called the field of scan. The upper limit of this field is the line which forms the scanning range. The lower limit is the lower edge ofthe aircraft window, while the aft Oack) limit is usually established by the venical edge of the aircraft window. The forward (front) limit for a field of scan will vary. It might be e,stablished by a part of the airplane (such as a wing strut). Or, when two scanners are working from the same side of the airplane, it might be limited by an agreed-to point dividing the field of scan.

011. Given the scat position for a four or six.place aircraft, describe and defend the scrnning pattern which should be used.
To cover the field of scan adequately requires that a set pattern of scan lines be used. Research into scanning techniques has sho\trn that there are two basic patterns which provide the best coverage. These are called the diagonal pattern and, the vertical pttern.


Figure l3 illustrates the way the diagonal pattern is used when sitting in the right rear seat of a small airplane. This line is followed from left to right as in reading. The first fixation point is slightly forward of the aircraft's position. Subsequent fixation points generally follow the line as indicated in figure 13,


---i1tt D|RECTION,,_ -"\ oF ll \ FLIGHT,A t*'nPc-^'
RANGE SCANNING '\'-..':.-'''''





............"...:"..;" :":





5. The diagonal

scanning pattern from left'rear window

The next scan line should be paratlel to the first, and so on. Each succeeding scan line is started as quickly as possible after completing the previous one. Remember, the duration of each fixation Point along a scan line is about 18 second. How long it takes to complete one scan line depends on the
distance at which the scanning range has been established. Also, the time required to begin a new scan line has a significant influence on how well the area nearest the airplane is scanned. In other words, more time between starting scan lines means more space between hxation points near the airplane. Figure 14 gives you an idea of the surface coverage obtained with a diagonal scanning pattern.

In figure 15 the diagonal scanning pattern for the lefi rear window is shown. Here, the direction of scan lines still is from left to right, but each line starts at the scanning range and proceeds toward the front of the airplane. Each scan line on this side terminates at the window's lower edge.
The second and somewhat less effective scanning pattern is illustrated in figure 16. This pattern is vertical and is basically the same as the example which was shown in figure 9. You should use this venical pattern only from a rear-seat position, and the first fixation point should be as near to underneath the airplane as you can see. Subsequent fixation points for this first scan line should progres outward to the scanning range and back. Figure l7 reveals the saMooth shape this vertical pattern makes on the surface. Observe how much surface area near the airplane is not covered.



7. 8.






tl 10.

+t ni i'


Figure 16. The vertical scanning pa(ern.


If there are two scanners on the same side ofthe airplanes, it is good practice to combine the diagonal and vertical patterns. As agreed between scanners, one would use the diagonal pattern and the other the vertical pattern, However, the scanner using the vertical paftem would not scan to the scanning range. Some distance short ofthe scanning range would be selected as the vertical-pattern limit. This technique provides good coverage of the surface area near the search aircraft.
When flying in the right front seat of an airplane you will use the diagonal pattern. This is true because it is the only pattern which has a natural flow to it from this particular position. Because of the




Figure 17. Approximate surface coverage of a verlical scanning pa!!ern.


aircraft's structure, you probably will want to begin your scan line near the line of flight over the surface. This will be somewhat ahead of the airplane (not much). The angle of the scan line and its lengh will be determined by whatever structural part obstructs your vision. For example, you could use the window post on some aircraft as either a starting point or stopping point, depending on your judgment. If you are in the right front seat of a low-wing model, the wing will be the stopping point.
Scanners, especially those with considerable experience, may use a system or pattem that is different from the diagonal and vertical patterns discussed above. Many sedrch objectives were found and many lives were save.d long before there was an effort to anallze the scanning process and develop recommendations for its improvement. On the other hand, it is possible that Civil Air Patrol's outstanding search and rescue record would have been better had the scanners of times past used a set pattern and used it consistently.


Exercises (011.):

l. 2. 3.

when scanning from the right-rear seat of a four-place airplane, you (a) should or (b) should not use a vertical pattern. Why? In a four-place airplane and from the rear seats, what is the difference between the left side and right side diagonal scanning patterns? When there.are two scanners on the same side of a six-place airplane and both are behind the pilot and copilot seats, what is (a) the recommended arrangement of visual search patterns and (b) why?

have not had much experience at "looking down" while flying, there are some surprises in you. Objects appear quite different when they are seen from above and at a greater distance store for if you are very familiar with the territory as seen from the surface, scaning it from the Euen than usuai. features and objects you had no idea were there. will reveal air

If you


Experience is th€ best teacher, and you will soon be able to evahute whal you see from the air. To help with your development of this ability, we will present some visual clues, what you might expect in airiraft wieckage pattems, signals which survivors might be expected to use, and some false clues which are common to selected areas.

012. List and discrss the ten typical visual clues to search objectives'
Typical Visual Clues. Anything which appears to be out of the ordinary should be considered a clue are specific clues to thejocation of the search objective. In addition to this piece of advice, the following

for which scanners should be looking:
puint sJh".es. Some airirafi have polished aluminum surfaces.. These paint colors and aluminum features. Also, surfaces aid the scanner greatly bec;use they provide contrast with the usual surface bright sunlight will "flash" from aluminum surfaces. Aircraft windshields and windows, like aluminum, have a reflective quality about them. If the angle vision. of the sun isjust right, you will pick up a momentary flash with either your central or peripheral A flash from any angle deserves further investigation
right, the burning fire. Sometimes aircraft catch fire when they crash. If conditions are warm dremselves or to a fire to airplane may cause forest or grass fires. Survivon of a crash may build



Smoke and


signal search aircraft. Campers, hunters, fisherman, and "moonshiners" build fires for their purposes, too; but no matter what the origin or purpose of smoke and fire, each case should be investigated.

3. Blackened Areas Fire causes blackened areas, of course. You may have to check many such areas, but finding the search objective will make the effort worthwhile. 4. Broken tree branches- If an airplane goes down in a heavily wooded area, it will break tree branches and perhaps trees. The extend of this breakage will depend on the angle at which the trees were struck. The primary clue for the scanner, however, will be oolor. As you no doubt realize, the interior of a tree trunk or branch and the undersides of many types of leaves are light in color. This contrast betwe€n the light color and the darker foliage serves as a good clue.
5. L,ltcal discoloration of foliage. Here we are talking about dead or dying leaves and needles of evergreen trees. A crash that is several days old may have discolored a small area in the forest canopy. This discoloration could be the result of either a small fire or broken tree branches. 6. Fresh bare earth An aircraft striking the ground at an angle will disturb or "plow" the earth to An overflight within a day or so of the event should provide a clue for scanners. Because of

some degree.

its moisture content, fresh bare earth has earth.

different color and texture than the surrounding, undisturbed

7. Break in cultivakd rteld wtterns. Crop farmlands always display a pattem of some type, especially during the growing season. Any disruption of such a pattern should be investigated. A crop such as corn could mask the presence of small aircraft wreckage. Yet the pattern made by the crashing airplane will stand out as a break in uniformity.

8. Water qnd snow. Water and snow are not visual clues, but they often contain such clues. For example, when an aircraft goes down in water its fuel and probably some oil will rise to the water's surface making an "oil slick" discoloration. Other material in the aircraft may also discolor the water or float as debris. If the aircraft hasn't been under the water very long, air bubles will disturb the surface.
Snow readily shows clues. Any discoloration caused by fire, fuel or debris will be very evident. On the other hand, do not expect easy-to-see clues ifsnow has fallen since the aircraft was reported missing.

9. Tracks and signak. Any line of apparent human tracks through snow, grass, or sand should be regarded as possibly those of survivors. Such tracks may belong to hunters, but it pays to follow them until the individual is found or you are satisfied with their termination-at a road, for example. If you do find the originator of such tracks and the person is a survivor, no doubt he will try to signal. More than likely this signal will be a frantic waving of the arms.
IO. Bitds and animals. Scavenger birds (such as vultures and crows), wolves, and bears may gather at

or near a crash site. Vultures (or buzzards) sense the critical condition of an injured person and gather nearby to await the person's death. If you see these birds or animals in a group, search the area

I f,


Fatse Clues. In addition to the false clues of camp fires and other purposely set fires, there are oth€rs ofwhich you should be aware: Oil slicks may have been caused by spillage from shipa. All aircraft parts may not have been removed from other crash sites. Some of the aircraft parts may have been marked (with a yellow "X"), but you may not b6 able to see the mark until near the site because the paint has faded or worn off with age.

In certain parts of the country, you will encounter many false clues where you would not ordinarily expect to see them. These false clues are discarded refrigerators, stoves, vehicl€s and pieces of other metal, such as tin roofing. What makes thes€ false clues unique is that they are in areas far from other

signs of civilization. Remember, however, that all clues must be investigated thoroughly. Do not get into the habit of deciding too early ihat a clue is false.

Exercises (012.):

7. 8.

List ten visual clues presented in the text (not necessarily in the order of presentation):






013, Given the description of an aircraft wreckage pattern, plovide th€ name of the pattern.

Aircraft Wreckage Patterns, Missing aircraft usually have crashed. Occasionally, however, a pilot manages to land or crash-land the airplane and it is intact or almost intact. In these rare instanc€s, you will see an airplane that looks like an airplane.
Most crashes end up looking like hastily discarded trash. Some fragments may be recognized as phrts of an airplane, but they will be scattered in a pattem according to the angle and force of impact. Civil Air Patrol has assigned descriptive titles to these various patterns:

l. Hole-in-the-ground. As the title implies the airplane has gone into the ground nose.first and (usually) at high speed. The result is a deep hole with dirt and debris scattered around the hole in a fairly small, circular area. A modified hole-in-the-ground type impact also occurs when an airplane flies into the side of a mountain. Here, however, most of the din and debris falls or slides down the mountainside. The steepness of the mountain affects the amount of pattern distonion.
If this type entry occurs is wooded terrain, the wreckage will be difficult to little disturbance of foliage takes place.
see. This is becaus€ very


2. Corkscrew, or Aager. This pattern occurs when the airplane is in an uncontrollable spin. It impacts the surface while following a flight path that would look like a corkscrew if it were traced.
At the site of impact there is extensive wreckage, but it remains in a small area. Also, it may still look like an airplane if the impact is in open gound. There .l ill be considerable damage to branches and trees in a forest, but the area of such damage will be small.

3. Creaning or Srnear. This pattern is formed when an airplane strikes the ground at high speed, but in a more or less landing attitude. In fact, a high-speed, attempted landing may result in this type

Aircraft wreckage distribution is long and narrow, with the heaviest pars farthest from the point of first impact. Near the point of impact will be found the battered but recognizable tail and possibly the
wings. Speed and the flatness of open terrain may cause this crash pattem to be modihed by skippingsomewhat like a flat stone that is thrown across water. In wooded areas, damage to the trees is considerable. Confirming the wreckage may be diflicult because it will be scattered among the trees.

4. The Four Mnds. Midair collision, midair explosion, and flight into tornadic winds cause this pattem. Aircraft parts are scattered over a wide area. But the parts are small and interior (reflective) surfaces are exposed. These numerous and reflective small parts actually make the scannem'job easier. Small parts over a large area are easier to see, generally speaking.
5. Hedge-Triruning. This describ€s the ricochet effect of an aircraft striking the crest of a hill or ridge


and continuing on to impact at some distance beyond. If trees are present, their tops will be trimmed. no trees are present, the ground at the crest of the hill will be slightly scarred.


It is at this first impact point where aircraft components may be seen. These componens may be the craft's landing gear, external fuel tanks, control surfaces, or other items easily dislodged by light impact.
Exercises (013,):
The following are descriptions of aircraft wreckage patterns. Supply the name of the pattern described. Extensive wreckage in small area. If it is in open terrain, the wreckage may still look like an airplane. Wreckage distribution is long and narrow. Heaviest parts are farthest from first point of impact. Relatively small pieces scattered over very wide area. Din and aircraft debris located within small circle.


2. 3. 4.

Survivors and Signals. If there are survivors and if they are capable of doing so, they will attempt to signal you. The type signal the survivors use will depend on how much they know about th€ process and what q?e signaling devices are available to them.

014, ldentify al least three signaling t€chniques which survivors might use; and discuss the
msterials and m€thods survivors could use to construct messages.
The following are signaling techniques which survivors might use:

l. A fire. Most paple carry some means of starting a fire. And a fire probably will be the survivor's first attempt at signaling. The smoke and/or flame of a fire are easy to see from the air, as we pointed out earlier.
2. A group on
three fires. Three fires

forming a triangle is an international distress signal.

3. Red snoke, white snoke, or orange *noke. Colored smoke is discharged by some types of signaling devices, such as flares. Other flares are rocket types; some send up a small parachute to which a megnesium flare is attached. 4. Signal mirron. If the sun is shining, this type signal may be used. This special signal mirror includes instructions to the survivor on how to aim the signal at the search aircraft. 5. Panek on the grcund. This type signal can be formed with white panels or with colored panels especially designed for the purpose. Of course, survivors may be able to arrange aircraft parts as a signal.


6. Messoges. There are a number of methods and materials which survivors can use to construct messages. In snow, sand, and gassy areas, survivors may use their feet to stamp out simple messages,

or SOS. More than likely such m€ssages will be formed with rocks, tree branches, driftwood, or any other similar materials. Such materials may also be used to construct standard ground-to-air signals. These signals are familiar to military and professional civilian pilots, including CAP pilots. Ground-to-air signals are illustrated in CAP Manual 5O-15, Energency Servicet and you are encouraged to learn to identi$ those signals which survivors might use.
such as HELP

7. Niglxtime signak. For various reasons, nighttime searches are very infrequent. If you are requested to scan for, a nightime sortie, your job will be easy. Flight will be at 3,000 feet AGL, or higher, and will not need to use the scannings patterns discussed earlier.

Light signals of some type will be the only clue to the search objective's location. A fire or perhaps


flashlight will be the survivor's means of signaling. On the other hand, a light signal ne€d not be very brighq one survivor used the flint spark of his cigarette lighter as a signal. His signal was seen and he was


Exercises (014.):

l. 3. 4. t.

What is the means and method of preparing an international distres signal-a signal which is
easily seen day or night?

2. If the sun is shining, survivors might use a special signaling device. What is the name of this
Without using materials, how could survivors construct messages in sand or snow? What typ€s of materials could survivors use to construct messages?


Befor€ a search mission gets airborne, each aircrew has a good idea of how much effon will be required to locate the search objective if it is in the assigned search area. This effort, expressed as a percentage, is theprobability ofdetection, or POD, As a scanner, you may be required to establish a POD for your aircrew's next sortie. This section prepares you to establish a POD. Establishing a POD is a relatively simple task, but you be better prepared to do thejob if you first understand some terms and conditions which affect the POD.


015. Defrne the terms plesented,
Terms Defined. The following terms are associated with determining the probability of detection.

a, Meteorological visibility. This is the maximum range at which large objects, such as a mountain, can be seen. b. Smrchv$bility. Search visibility is the distance at which an object the size of an automobile on the ground can be seen and recognized from an aircraft in flight. Search visibility always is less than meteorological visibility. c. Scanning range. This is the lateral distance from a scanner's search aircraft to an imaginary line on the ground parallel to the search aircraft's ground track. Within the area formed by the ground track and
scanning range, the scanner is expected to have a good chance at spotting the search objective.


d. Ground trqck. This an imaginary line on the ground which the gound.

is made by an aircraft's flight path over

Search track. The search track is an imaginary swath across dre surface, or ground. Its dimensions

are formed by rhe scanning range and the lenglh of the aircraft's fround track. Track spacing. This is the distance between adjacent ground tracks. The ideal here is for each search track to either touch or slightly overlap the previous one. It is the pilot's task to navigate so that the aircraft's ground track develops proper track spacing.


g. Possibility area. This area is drawn on a map with its focus at the last known position (LKP) of the missing aircraft. Many factors are considered before establishing a possibility area, but it is the largest geographic area in which the aircraft might be found.

h. Probobility arca. This is the geographic


within which a missing aircraft is most likely to be






300 Ft.


300 Ft.


300 Ft.



Track Spacing 35% 50ry. 7096
75% .5 mi.

Track Spacing
2@d 30q6 45%

2mi 10% 15% 25%

1.5 2.O

20 30 45 15 20 30 10 15 25

50 35 30

1.5 2.0

10 15 25 15 510 510i5

20 15



510 5510 2555




l- uo*r--l l- *"r' I [_-5dF,-l l-----i---------------l I mi I 10i6 205 3@! 30t Lu -' | ,o .uru u* u* l F----i--------------I mi I 35% 75% I I r 10 1s r.

L, '"

1,. 2s 3s ,o I'o . |

lro 35 50 *l



l': :::;l .o * *l ,l l;': l. 'o,u | |



L. '"


Lu., I oo u* ro .* I .., lr*.u*u*u*l I Iro 20 30 .ul I ro l"o 3s so .. Lo L. ]ru 25 40 nol ::l | | ,o ]'0,o * *l


.o l. ' 'o 'ol r,ofi-l
u-' ,*ro*..*l

5 s to ,oI

l- 'oo. Ft-l Lu .' I o* ** .or, ,u* I .., | ,o ooo, uu* *, I u., 1,.****l I 'o lr, 1,o ss *l Lo 1,, 20 30 Lo I r ro 15 "ol L. Iru 30 ro *l I r. l,o 15 20 ". ,.

I ,.0 ;: l: :;;: ;;: ;; lu . 'o | l':



| ,; 1,.,.." *l |

.o lu 'o 'u


I ;:: l:': ;: ;l

Figure 18. Single-s€arch probability of detection

found. It is a refindment of the possibility area and it is determin€d from clues-distress signals, repons from individuals, ELTs, radar pilots, etc. Exerciscs (015.):


l. 2. 3.

What is the difference between search iibility Md meteorclagical isibility? The imaginary line on the ground "made" by an aircraft's flight path over the ground is called the


Which is larger, the probcbility aru or the pssibility area?

detection (POD) is accomplished through the use of two specially des@ed charts. One of thes€ charts is for a single search of an assigned area, while the other chart is for multiple searches of the same area.

Using P|OD Cha s. The actual task


determining the probability


016. Given spproprist€ data and using ligures lE and 19, establish single-scarch and cumulative
PtODs. To rse the chart shown in figure 18 you must have certain information, or data. You must know what type terrain is in the search area, whether it is flat or hilly, and whether it is open or tr€e-covered. Then you must know the search visibility, the planned sezrch altitude, and the fack spacing. We emphasize "planned" because search altitude and track spacing may be changed once you are in the search area.


Previous or Cumulative
5-1096 15

20 30 40
50 25



45 55 65
70 80 85

50 60 65

60 65 70 80
85 90 70

51-60% 61-70% 71-ae/o

60 70

80 85

80 85

80 90

90 90

90 95

95 95
95+ 80+



5-10q6 11-2@/o 21-3@/o 31-40q6 41-50% 51-60% 61-70p/o 71-806

Figure 19. Cumulative probability of detection chart.

As an example POD problem, let's suppose that you have been assigned to a search area which has moderate tree cover and low hills. It is summertime, the trees are in full foliage. Mission supervison have determined that the search altitude should be 700 feet above ground level (AGL). They also have determined that the track spacing should be one-half mile and that the search visibility is three miles. The center column in figure I 8 is the one to use because the uppermost block sals "moderate tree cover and/or hilly." Going down the column you find the search altitude block of "700 ft." Directly undemeath it is ".5 mi" for fack spacing. Now, back at the top of the column you see a large "Search Visibility" block which contains miles designations. Follow straight down the "3 mi" designation until you are directly across from the 700 ft., .5 mi. point located earlier. At this intersection you see that the probability of detecting the airplane is 507o on an initial search of the area.


Your aircrew completes the first search of the area but you do not find the missing airplane. Mission supewisors decide that a second search is justified. What is the POD for this next flight?

visibility hasn't changed; search altitude and track spacing will be the same as before. Therefore, the POD for this second search will be identical to that of the first search. A second search
Search over the same area improves the chances of spotting the objective, but the dznulative POD chaft mr,slbe used to find out how much improvement will be realized.

Figure l9 shows the cumulative POD chart. To use it, locate your previous POD within the left-hand *41-5Q7o" range. Next, find "Previous or Cumulative POD" column. In this instance, it would be the the POD for this search within the row at the boftom of the chan. This POD also is in the ^41-50%" range. Reading across from the column and up from the bottom row, find the POD for this search. It is




Let's try a third flight over the same area and see what our cumulative POD will be. The search situation hasn't changed so our POD for this search still will be 50% . The previous cumulative POD was 7Q% (locate 61-7O% in the left column) and this search will have a 50% POD (locate the 4l -50% in the bottom row). Our cumulative POD for this third flight is 80% (at the intersection of 6l-70% and 4l -50% ). Notice that each search of the area adds less and less to the cumulative POD; our third search of the area added only l0% to the cumulative POD.
scanner or observer will use the single search POD chan for each sonie. The POD is the mission coordinator's concern, and it will be accomplished by the mission cumulative

In practice the




Figure 20. The clock po6itions.

coordinator or his designee. (Ihe mission coordinator has to know the cumulative POD so that a iudgment can be made as to the need for additional sorties into an area.) However, familiarity with the cumulative POD chart is recommended for the aircrew so that they will undentand why an area is searched again and again. For example, the ground cover and terrain in an area may be such that one search produces only a 15% POD. In this type terrain it would take nine searches of the same area to obtain an 85% cumutative POD!
Exercises (016.):



The search area is open, flat terrain. Search visibility is more than four mil€s. Search altitude will be 1,000 feet with one mile track spacing. what is the POD for tlis first search of the assigned area? (Use figure 18.) The POD for the last search of an area was 65%. The POD for this search, over the same area, is 457a. What is the cumulative POD? (Use figure 19.)

Let's imagine that you are in the air over the assigned search area. You are performing your job efficiently. Suddenly, your peripheral vision detects a flash of light. It came from the right, toward the rear of the airplane.-You direct your head and eyes to the general area. There it is again; it miSht be coming from a survivor's signal mirror. How do you tell the pilot? First, you luse the clock Psition to establish the clue's direction with regard to the airplane's direction of flight. Then, while keeping your eyes glued to the area of the possible search objective, you call out small directional chang€s. These directional changes are needed to get close to the clue without turning past it.

017, Using the standard clock position, state th€ location of objects in relation to the aircraft.
The Clock Positions. Figure 20 shows the standard clock positions. This system is used to described

the relative positions of everything outside the airplane. The system considers the clock positions to be on a horizontal plane which is centered within the cockpit. Any object above or below this plane is either "high" or "low." Imagine younelf in the right rear seat of the airplane shown in figure 20. Straight ahead is the twelve o'clock position; straight to the rear is six o'clock. In a real-life situation you probably would be able to see as far ahead as the one o'clock position and as far to the right rear as five o'clock. (One caution: never divide the clock positions into minutes. There is no such thing as a four-fifteen position, for example.)


If you occupy the left-rear seat of the airplane, your clock positions probably will be seven o'clock through eleven o'clock. In either the right-rear or left-rear seat, the further designation "low" is not used for objects on the ground. They are low, but this is understood.
The clock positions are especially helpful in designating the location of other aircraft within your pilot needs to see all other airplanes in the area so that he can keep clear of them. If you do see another airplane notify the pilot immediately. This time the high and low designations are appropriate, if the other airplane is considerably high or low than your altitude. For example, an airplane that is directly ahead but above your altitude should be called out as, "aircraft
area of the airspace. Your

twelve o'clock high."

Directing the Pllor, Going back to the imaginary situation decribed in the introduction to this section, let's say that the flash of light came from the right rear, somewhere near the four o'clock position. You call out "possible at four o'clock." The pilot starts an immediate, medium-bank turn to the right. The pilot knows the four o'clock position but his concept and your concept of this position may not be exactly the same. It looks as if the pilot might swing past luar four o'clock. Now what? Don't let it happen! Say something like "straight and level," or "stop turn," or "wings level." The pilot will get
the idea.

Getting close to the area of your clue will require small adjustments to direction. Again, tell the pilot what to do. Pilots are accustomed to turning according to numbers of degrees, as shown by the aircraft compass, so you might want to say "five degrees right," or "ten degrees right." The pilot will turn the number of degrees you speci$, level off and hold the heading.

If you see what seems to be the search objective, again give the clock position plus other helpful information, such as "near clump of trees." The pilot will bank the airplane and descend to a lower altitude. At this lower altitude identification may be possible. If the clue turns out to be the search objective, mission headquaners will be notihed by radio. Your search aircrew will try to remain in the area to direct ground teams to the site. If the clue is not the search objective, your pilot will retum to the
search track.

When your aircrew team locates a search objective, your scanning duties change. You no longer scan the ground, but you are expected to keep a sharp lookout for other aircraft. The pilot and observer will

be very busy flying the airplane at low level and communication with other mission units. The peroccupation of the pilot and observer, plus the tendency of other aircraft to congregate at a crash site, leaves to scanners a responsibility for keeping clear of other aircraft.

The scanner's job of looking and seeking is not over until the airplane is back at mission headquarters. This is tru€ whether or not the mission objective is located.
Exercise (017.):



While in the left-rear seat of an airplane, any object to your direct left is at the position. Directly to the front of an airplane is the o'clock position.






o'clock position. Directly to the rear of a airplane is the While in the right-rear seat of an airplane, any object lo your direct right is at the o'clock position.

Providing information to the debriefer at the conslusion of each sortie is the scanner's last offical

First, what is debriefing and what role does it play in the tolal SAR mision? During the mission briefing everything known about the search situation is passed on to the air search teams and the ground search teams. In the debriefing, the reverse is true. Each search team (air to ground) tells how it did its job and what it saw. This g,pe of information is given in detail and is according to sp€cific questions asked by the debriefer.

018. Discuss the scanner's contributions to debri€Iings.
Form llX. The CAP Form 104 Mission Flight Plan/Briefing, is not the scanner's responsibility. The pilot or the observer makes entries on this form, and the reverse side of the form is very imPortant to the
debriefer. The debriefer uses what is shown on the reverse side of the Form 104 as a starting Point for the debriehng. For example, more information on search area weather conditions may be needed, and you should be ready to volunteer your observations. Perhaps you noticed an increase in cloud shadows. Perhaps visibility seemed to deteriorate because of haze which developed after your team arrived in the search area. Any number of weather factors could have changed while your flight was on its sortie. To make the best contribution to the debriefing requires that you remember these changes and be prepared to tell the debriefer about them. However, remembering weather conditions is only one item among many that you will need to remember. Specific Questions, We cannot predict exactly what your debriefer will ask because each debriefer or her own method of doing the job. We do know that debriefers are expected to gather information about specific events and conditions encountered during the sortie. We will phrase questions of this nature as the debriefing officer might ask them:
has his

Did you notice anything which might be hazardous? The debriefer wants you to think back to everything that happened during the sortie. For example, see if you can remember anyhing on the flight line which seemed to be an unsafe practice. If you saw flocks of birds anywhere during the flight, say so and try to remember where they were. Birds pose a special haz ard to aircraft and the larger the bird the more trouble it can make. This is particularly true of geese, ducks, and egrets.
Although you may not have discovered anlthing which seemed hazardous, do not hesitate to volunteer other information. No one is going to laugh at what you may think is "silly" because all information is important. Every small bit of information becomes a part of the large search picture, and your observations, ideas, and opinions help toward completing the picture. So, to any question that the debriefer might ask, answer with specifics but volunteer other information that comes to mind.


Did you make any changes to the planned search procedure? The debriefer's primary interest in search procedure changes is search coverage. If, for example, your crew diverted frequently to examine clues, there is a good possibility that search coverage was not adequate and another sortie is jusdfied. If you became excessively tired and rested your eyes frequently, tell the debriefer. Everyone understands
the degree of fatigue a scanner can experience. But let's face it, when eye-rest periods have been frequent good scanning coverage has not be€n accomplished. This could be a justification for another sortie.



What B?es of clues did you investigate? The debriefer may believe that you investigated each clue,


but he needs to know whether this is true. Perhapc a ctue seemed o insignificant your aircrew dccided not to waste time. Describe the clues which were investigated.and founO to Ue fatse. Pinpoint these on the debriefer's map, ifyou can. This information beromJ part of the bri€fing for other aircrervs because it can ke€p thern from wasting time at investigating the same false clues.
When the debriefer is satisfied that all pertinent information has been noted, you will be disrnissed. Now what should you do? Obviousty, you will need rest. If you are scheduled for another sonic, ftnd someplace to rest. Close your eyes, Try to sle€p, if there is time to do so. The mission will be closed when the search objective is located. At this time mision personnel retum

^\\ t /tr

to their homes. If the search objective has not bcen found but the mission coordinato; detennin€s rhat further searches would be unwarranted, the mission will be suspended, When a mission is suspended it means that it may be reopened if additional clues are received. Even so, all mission personneiretum to their homes and wait for the next mission alert.

As a qualified cAP scanner you may be called to mission duty at any time. This may not be convenient to your personal plans, but it has its reward. Your chance to help another human being stay alive is the greatest reward anyone can experience.
Exerciscs (018.): How can a scanner help the debriefer l. evaluate wather conditions in the search area? 2. identify locations of false clues? 3. determine whether or not search coverage $as adequare? 4. toward improving flight safety?


Answers lor Exerclgeo

Reference: 001 -1. A systematic method of looking for 005-2. downed aircraft, or other objecs. 005 . 3. 001 - 2. To maintain constant eye contact with the ground. 005 - 4. 001 -3., To provide full-time scanning service for the s€arch aircrew; to sight the search 005 -5. objective. 005 - 6. 002- 1. a. The "corporation" team. b. The region team. c. The wing team. 006 - l. d. The squadron team. e. The flight team. 006 - 2. f. The SAR mission team. 006 - 3. g. Thegroundteam. h. Th€ aircrew team. 006 - 4. OO2-2. The pilot. 006 - 5. 003 - l. a. Cessna 172, Skyhawk; 007 - l. b. Cesna 152; 007 -2. c. Helio Courier; 007 - 3. d. deHavilland Beaver; 007 - 4. e. deHavilland Otter; f. Piper PA- 18, Super Cub; 008 - 1. g. Champion 7EC-A; 008 - 2. h. Cessna 305, Bird Dog. 008 - 3. 003 - 2. a. Piper PA 28- 180, Cherokee; 009 - I . b. Beech T-34, Mentor. 033 - 3. a. Helio Courier. 009 - 2. b. deHavilland Beaver. 009-3. c. deHavilland Otter. 003 . 4. There is room for only one scanner. 004 - t . a. The wings-provide lift. b. The fuselage-provides space for the aircrew. c. The empennage-provides the means of directional control. d. The landing gear-supports the airplanes while it is on the ground. 005-1. a. Do notsmoke.

b. Do not touch. c. Keep clear.
When told to do so bythe pilot.

Black, non-skid material and/or a clearly identifiable step.

a. b. a. b.

Do not touch. Fasten or buckle the seat belt. Try to extinguish the fire Get away. a. Help other aircrew members. b. Getout and away from the airplane.

To provide all available information to mision personnel.
The pilot. To avoid an unnecessary "search within a
Safety. Srand clear.

Ten degre€s.
180. 160.

Central; peripheral. It becomes larger and more elliptical. Four.

It distorts the pattern.

An object the size of an automobile can
be seen and recognized. Sighting the search objective.


F$ing "into" the sun reduces the ability to distinguish colors and see
small objects. atmosphere and thereby decreases the density of particles for a given volume of air.

b. Heat from the sun expands the lower

c. Particles in the atmosphere block vision-according to the density of the

d. Our

eyes have difficulty in adjusting to light/dark contrasts. e. Mountains and hills vary the scanning


range as the search aircraft flies past them.

Dense vegetation masks the search

g. Snow changes the contour of objects, and its reflective qualities reduce
visual effectiveness.

6. 7. 8. 9.
013 - 1.


Fresh bare earth; Breaks in cultivated field patterns; Discolorations in water and snow; Tracks and signals; c"trr.ii"gr ofiirds and





A dirty

aircraft window may reduce

visual effectiveness as much as 50
p€rcent. Physical problems reduce the ability to concentrate on scannlng

0t3 - 2. 0t3 - 3.
013 - 4. 014 -

Corkscrew, or Auger. Creaming, or Smear. The Four Winds.

010 - r.



Three separate fires arranged as
Signaling miror. Stamp out the messages with their feet. Tree branches, driftwood, rocks, etc.


By making a fist and holding

it at arm's

0t4 - 2.
014 - 3.
014 - 4. 015 -

010 - 2.

An imaginary point along an imaginary line where movement of the eyes is stopped in order to focus the eyes on a
distant object.


010 - 3. 0r0 - 4.

About 1,8 second.
Each fixation point is spaced along the line of scan so that adjacent fixation areas touch or overlap slightly. Should not use the vertical pattern. The vertical pattern results in poor coverage of area near the aircraft's ground track. Right-side scan lines start near the aircraft and extend to the scanning range. Left-side scan lines stan at the scanning range and extend toward the aircraft. a. One scanner uses a compressed vertical pattern near the search aircraft while the other scanner uses the
015 - 2.

Search visibility is the distance at which an object the size of an automobile can be recognized. Meteorological visibility is

the distance at which an object such as a mountain or hill can be seen.



015 - 3.

Ground track. Possibility area.


- 2.

Qt6 - 2. 017 -

80%. 9




ot7 - 2. or7 - 3. ot7 - 4.
018 1.


b, There 012

normal diagonal pattern. is better coverage of surface area
near the aircraft.



l. 2. 3. 4. 5.

018 - 2. 018 - 3. 018 - 4.

Tell the debriefer about changes in cloud cover, changes to visibility, etc. Assist in pinpointing the locations on a

Light colored/shiny objecs; Smoke and fire;
Blackened areas: Broken tree branches:



deviations from the search

Local discoloration of foliage;

procedure. On a map. point out the general locations of possible obstructions to flight.

lU GtfB.










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