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# Outline

Fuzziers

Defuzzier

## Computational Intelligence Lecture 14: Fuzziers and Defuzziers

Farzaneh Abdollahi

## Department of Electrical Engineering Amirkabir University of Technology

Fall 2011

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Computational Intelligence

Lecture 14

1/19

Outline

Fuzziers

Defuzzier

Fuzziers

Defuzzier

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Computational Intelligence

Lecture 14

2/19

Outline

Fuzziers

Defuzzier

Fuzziers
Fuzzy Rule Base

X in U

Fuzzifier

Defuzzifier

y in V

## Fuzzy Inference Engine

Fuzzy Sets in U Fuzzy sets in V

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Computational Intelligence

Lecture 14

3/19

Outline

Fuzziers

Defuzzier

Fuzzication is dened as a mapping from a real-valued point x U R n to a fuzzy set A U . Many crisp deterministic quantities are not deterministic in real world. If the form of uncertainty happens to due to imprecision, ambiguity, or vagueness, then the variable is probably fuzzy and can be represented by a membership function. In fuzzy control, the inputs generally originate from a piece of hardware, or a sensor
The measured input could be fuzzied in the rule-based system which describes the fuzzy controller.

If the system to be controlled is not hardware based, e.g., an economic system or an ecosystem subjected to a toxic chemical, then the inputs could be scalar quantities of statistical sampling,
These scalar quantities could be translated into a membership function

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Computational Intelligence

Lecture 14

4/19

Outline

Fuzziers

Defuzzier

## The criteria in designing the fuzzier

1. For crisp point x should have large membership value in fuzzy set A 2. If the input of fuzzy system is corrupted by noise, then the fuzzier should help to suppress the noise. 3. The fuzzier should help to simplify the computations involved in the fuzzy inference engine.

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Computational Intelligence

Lecture 14

5/19

Outline

Fuzziers

Defuzzier

## Three Popular Fuzziers

1 if x = x 0 otherwise
(
x1 x1 )2 xn xn 2

Singleton fuzzier: A (x ) =

a1 . . . e ( an ) where ai is Gaussian fuzzier: A (x ) = e pos. const. and t-norm is usually algebraic product or min

Triangular fuzzier: A (x ) =
xn | . . . (1 |xn b ) if |xi xi | bi , i = 1, . . . , n n 0 otherwise where bi is pos. const. and t-norm is usually algebraic product or min

(1

| |x1 x1 b1 )

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Computational Intelligence

Lecture 14

6/19

Outline

Fuzziers

Defuzzier

## Consider the product inf. eng., where Al = e i i = 1, ..., n, l = 1, ..., M

x l x l l

xi x il 2 ) l i

,x il , il conts.,

## Use Gaussian fuzzier with algebric prod. as t-norm:

i 2 ( iP l i )2 ( xiP x ) n ai i e B l (y )] B (y ) = maxM [ e i =1 l =1 ai2 x il +(il )2 xi l where xiP = a2 +(l )2 i i Assume xi is corrupted by noise: xi = xi + ni , (ni

: noise)

l xiP =

ni

## (il )2 n ai2 +(il )2 i

Exercise: Show that the triaggular fuzzier has the same capability.

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Computational Intelligence

Lecture 14

7/19

Outline

Fuzziers

Defuzzier xi x il 2 ) l i

Consider the min inf. eng., where Al = e i i = 1, ..., n, l = 1, ..., M Use Gaussian fuzzier withl min as t-norm: l B (y ) = maxM l =1 [min(e 2 l + l x a l = ix i i i where xiM ai2 +il As a conclusion
(
xiM x i l i

,x il , il conts.,

)2

,...,e

l x xnM n )2 l n

B l (y )]

The singleton fuzzier simplies the computation involved in the fuzzy inference engine for any type of membership functions The Gaussian / triangular fuzziers also simplify the computation in the fuzzy inference engine, if the membership functions in the IF-THEN rules are Gaussian/triangular. The Gaussian and triangular fuzziers can suppress noise in the input, but the singleton fuzzier cannot.

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Computational Intelligence

Lecture 14

8/19

Outline

Fuzziers

Defuzzier

Defuzziers
Fuzzy Rule Base

X in U

Fuzzifier

Defuzzifier

y in V

## Fuzzy Inference Engine

Fuzzy Sets in U Fuzzy sets in V

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Computational Intelligence

Lecture 14

9/19

Outline

Fuzziers

Defuzzier

Defuzzication a mapping from fuzzy set B V R (the output of the fuzzy inference engine) to crisp point y V . It is specifying a point in V as best representative of the fuzzy set B. For example, in classication and pattern recognition a fuzzy partition or pattern should be transformed to a crisp partition or pattern In control a single-valued input should be given to a semiconductor device instead of a fuzzy input command.

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Computational Intelligence

Lecture 14

10/19

Outline

Fuzziers

Defuzzier

## The criteria in designing the defuzzier

1. Plausibility: The point y should represent B from an intuitive point of view; e.g., it may lie approximately in the middle or hight of the support of B 2. Computational simplicity: It is important for real-time systems such as fuzzy control. 3. Continuity: A small change in B should not result in a large change in y .

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Computational Intelligence

Lecture 14

11/19

Outline

Fuzziers

Defuzzier

## Some Popular Defuzziers

1. Centriod method or Center of Gravity: , : y =

y B (y )dy V B (y )dy

where

## is the conventional integral.

Assuming B (y ) as the probability density function of a random variable, centriod defuzzier gives the mean value of the random variable Some times, it is desired to eliminate too small membership fcn. of B dene -cut set V = {y V |B (y ) } y =
V V

y B (y )dy B (y )dy

## Advantages: It is intuitively plausible Disadvantages: It is computationally intensive. specically when B is irregular.

Farzaneh Abdollahi Computational Intelligence Lecture 14

12/19

Outline

Fuzziers

Defuzzier

## Some Popular Defuzziers

2. Center Average Defuzzier or Weighted average method Considering B is the union or intersection of M fuzzy sets y =
M l ( yl) l =1 y M yl) l =1 (

## where y l is center of l th fuzzy set

It is the most popular diuzier in fuzzy systems and control Advantages: It is intuitively plausible and computationally simple; small changes in y l and ( y l ) result in small changes in y Disadvantages: It is usually acceptable for symmetric output membership functions
Farzaneh Abdollahi Computational Intelligence Lecture 14

13/19

Outline

3. Maximum Defuzzier: Choose the point in V corresponding to the height of B (y ) : hgt (B ) = {y V |B (y ) = supy V B (y )} hgt (B ): can be a set of points with max memb. fcn.
If hgt (B ) is a single point y = hgt (B ) Otherwise one of the following denitions can be used:
smallest of maxima defuzzier: y = inf {y hgt (B )} largest of maxima defuzzier: y = sup{y hgt (B )} mean of maxima defuzzier: y =
hgt (B ) hgt (B )

Fuzziers

Defuzzier

ydy dy

hgt

is usual integration if

## hgt (B ) is continuous, it is summation if hgt (B ) is discrete)

Advantages: intuitively plausible, computationally simple Disadvantages: small changes in B may result in large changes in y (if the memb. fcn B is nonconvex)

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Computational Intelligence

Lecture 14

14/19

Outline

Fuzziers

Defuzzier

Example
A railroad company intends to lay a new rail line in a particular part of a county. The area new line is passing must be purchased for right-of-way considerations. There are three surveys in right-of-way widths, in meters But the info are not precise since
some of the land along the proposed railway route is already public domain and will not need to be purchased. The original surveys are so old that some ambiguity exists on boundaries and public right-of-way for old utility lines and old roads.

The three fuzzy sets B1 , B2 , B3 represent the uncertainty in each survey as to the membership of right-of-way width, in meters, in privately owned land. We need to nd the single most nearly representative right-of-way width (z) to purchase
Farzaneh Abdollahi Computational Intelligence Lecture 14

15/19

Outline

Fuzziers

Defuzzier

B1

B2

B3

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Computational Intelligence

Lecture 14

16/19

Outline

Fuzziers

Defuzzier

## Example Contd: Centriod method:

3.6 y = [ 0 (0.3y )ydy + 1 0.3ydy + 3.6 ( y 2 )ydy + 4 0.5ydy + 6 7 8 7y 1 3.6 5.5 (y 5.5)ydy + 6 ydy + 7 ( 2 )ydy ] [ 0 (0.3y )dy + 1 0.3dy + 4 y 3.6 5.5 6 7 8 7y 3.6 ( 2 )dy + 4 0.5dy + 5.5 (y 5.5)dy + 6 dy + 7 ( 2 )dy ] = 4.9m 1 3 .6 4 5.5

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Computational Intelligence

Lecture 14

17/19

Outline

Fuzziers

Defuzzier

## Weighted Average method: y =

(0.32.5)+(0.55)+(16.5) 0.3+0.5+1

= 5.41m

## Mean max method: y =

6+7 2

= 6.5m

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Computational Intelligence

Lecture 14

18/19

Outline

Fuzziers

Defuzzier

Comparison of Defuzziers

## maximum yes yes no

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Computational Intelligence

Lecture 14

19/19

Outline

Fuzziers

Defuzzier

C. Lee, Fuzzy logic in control systems: fuzzy logic controller, parts i and ii, Fuzzy logic in control systems: fuzzy logic controller, Parts I and II, vol. 20 , pp. 404435, 1990. M. Sugeno, An introductory survey of fuzzy control, Inf. Sci vol. 36 , pp. 5983, 1985.

Farzaneh Abdollahi

Computational Intelligence

Lecture 14

19/19